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macaulay essay bacon - Being a close inquiry into the circumstances surrounding his Fall as Lord Chancellor. The evidence now adduced proves conclusively that he was the victim of a plot. A remarkable story is revealed, told with vivid fidelity to the facts of the times, how an innocent man, The Greatest Genius in objective, History, was forced to Desert his Defence under duress, and to enter a plea of and drugs essay, Guilty to art resume, charges of Corruption and only phd online Bribery at the express command of objective, King James. The Secret Shakespeare The Immortal Master, The Marriage of Elizabeth Tudor Shakespeare: Creator of Freemasonry Shake-speares Sonnet-Diary, etc.

LONDON :: NEW YORK :: MELBOURNE :: SYDNEY. 68 Fleet Street, London, E.C.4. Table of Contents. Francis Bacon's Birthday Banquet in 1621. His Birth, Life and dissertation only Labours, 1561-1621. Francis Bacon's Marriage.

The Age of Francis Bacon. King James and his Favourite. The New Parliament of 1621. The Confession of Guilt. The Aftermath, 1621-1626. Notes of Importance. Important Dates Relating to Francis Bacon's Secret and Public Life, and art resume a Detailed Chronology of the disadvantages energy essay Events Surrounding His Impeachment. Appendix I: The Illustrations. Appendix II: James Spedding's Life of Francis Bacon.

Appendix III: The Complete List of the Charges Made Against Francis Bacon and Francis Bacon's Notes on art resume, Each Charge. THE VINDICATION OF. For my NAME and hero essay Memory, I leave it to Men's Charitable Speeches, and to Foreign Nations, AND THE NEXT AGES; And to art resume objective, mine own Countrymen after sometime be past. Francis Bacon's Draft Will. I am the Coward Conquest of a Wretch's Knife Too base to sullenberger, be remembered. He who robs me of objective, my GOOD NAME makes me poor indeed. I am ready to make an OBLATION of myself to the King, in dissertation, whose hands I am as Clay, to be made into a vessel of Honour or Dishonour. . . . Yet with respect to this Charge of art resume, Bribery I AM INNOCENT. I never had Bribe Or Reward. And take thou my OBLATION, Poor but FREE Only ME for THEE. (To King James): I can set down a STORY Of Faults concealed whereof I AM ATTAINTED.

Hence, Thou Suborned Informer! A True Soul When most IMPEACHED stands least in essay about my spring break, thy control. I have clean hands and objective A CLEAN HEART. Whether I live or die, I would be glad to essay about my spring, preserve MY HONOUR. BEN JONSON'S TESTIMONY. I Loved the objective Man and do Honour his Memory (on this side Idolatry) as much as any. Woolf's? In his adversity I ever prayed that God would give him strength for greatness he could not want. Neither could I condole in art resume objective, WORD OR SYLLABLE for him, as knowing no Accident could do Harm to VIRTUE but rather help to make it manifest.

Read not to dissertation only phd online, contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and art resume objective discourse, but to WEIGH and about my spring CONSIDER. This book is written solely for one reason--to provide the reader with evidence which shall prove incontestably the innocence of Francis Bacon of the crime of Bribery and Corruption, charges to which he pleaded guilty, suffering the objective penalties of Impeachment by sentence of the House of essay about women, Lords in the year 1621. It is written in the hope that the facts herein disclosed--some of them for the first time, especially Francis Bacon's personal emotions from art resume objective his recently discovered poetic-Diary ( Shake-speares Sonnet Diary ), or the Personal Poems of Francis Bacon , Ninth edition)will make a universal appeal to all the English speaking peoples the world over; and will ultimately cause a reversal of the opinions regarding his character-opinions largely due to the dissemination of wrong ideas concerning him by unripe, prejudiced scholars. Nor am I without hope that in this generation, or a subsequent one, some scholar of essay, repute will arise who will not only see the truth herein enunciated-the lines of approach-but who will lend the weight of his name, his genius, his influence to vindicate for ever the innocence of the wisest man in Christendom; the purity of the mind through which coursed the art resume objective noblest thoughts ever conceived by the human soul. Such a task may well employ a scholar's noblest powers. It would be the greatest thing he had ever done.

It is not the elucidation of a literary problem, or the interpretation of his philosophy that matters. It is something far more important. It is a moral issue . . . a grievous wrong to be righted. The shoulders of our most wonderful genius, who did so much for England and the world, have been loaded with calurnny and shame, largely as a result of misunderstanding through the misreading of sullenberger, historical facts. We have hid, as it were, our faces from him. It took a Carlyle to show that the vulgar opinions held in his day of Oliver Cromwell-through the art resume writings of biassed historian were viciously untrue; a Zola to prove that Dreyfus was the chesley sullenberger essay hapless victim of a foul plot; and it may well be that a second Hepworth Dixon will have to be born-if he has not been already to write with thoughts that flame and words that burn with the same passionate sincerity as his forebear, which will eternally dissipate the preposterous fictions of the schoolmen regarding Francis Bacon's Life, Character, and art resume Works. My claim is a modest one. I am no more than a simple finger-post pointing the way to disadvantages energy, the uplands where Truth- of that Holy Grail of precious Vintage may be found. This book, then, is not written to prove the greatness of our greatest English man the man whom Hallam declared was the greatest, wisest of mankhind ; of art resume, whom Pope wrote, Lord Bacon was the greatest genius that England, or perhaps any country ever produced, it is not written to prove that he was the Creator and Founder of the secret Elizabethan Fraternities, notably, the Rosicrosse Literary, Society, the Rosicrucian College, and Modern Freemasonry; neither do I write to prove that Francis Bacon was the creator of the character named William Shake speare. The former can be left to the Quatuor Coronati and the various Masonic Research Associations, which often, unfortunately, cannot see the wood for trees when they search for hero the Genesis of their Order.

The latter can be left to professed Baconians like Dr. W. S. Art Resume Objective? Melsome, Howard Bridgewater, R. L. Eagle, and to iconoclasts like the late Sir Geo. Greenwood. These aspects of the Elizabethan Era are purely subsidiary to what I consider is the main issue regarding Francis Bacon. His Royal Birth, his Rosicrucian and Masonic connections, his concealed literary activities, though important, are as nothing compared with his rehabilitation as A MAN OF HONOUR AND INTEGRITY in and drugs essay, the eyes of art resume, his countrymen. Everything I have written about Francis Bacon, or shall write, is simply a means to an end; the main task being the gathering together of facts (hitherto ignored, misinterpreted or suppressed), indicating clearly the source of knowledge, that will prove his moral honesty, his uprightness, his purity of thought and action.

The Lie regarding Francis Bacon has sunk deep into the souls of men. We were taught it as children at the day school; we heard it later in life in poverty essay, the pulpit and lecture hall; we see it repeated today in popular' press articles by poets like John Drinkwater and popular novelists like Sir Max Pemberton. The Lie began with Lord Macaulay's infamous rhetorical Essay in I837, which twisted the facts of the times, distorted the truth, and suppressed vital evidence in art resume, order to blacken Francis Bacon's character. The Essay was based on Pope's lines to disadvantages of nuclear essay, which he attributed a meaning never intended by Pope: Think how Bacon shined! The Wisest, Brightest, Meanest of objective, Mankind! Interpreting Meanest as ignoble in mind, character, or spirit! (when every literary student knows that Pope used the word with the meaning attached to it in that age, and as he had done elsewhere consistently, to denote that Francis Bacon was the HUMBLEST of mankind) Macaulay ravages his character with savage ferocity. He is break, great intellectually and objective mean in my spring break, soul; a supreme genius and art resume a monstrous criminal; a mixture of Machiavelli, St. Francis of poverty essay, Assisi and Judas Iscariot, a super-historic Jekyll-Hyde. The brilliance with which Macaulay manipulated the evidence to support his conclusions made it one of his most popular Reviews. It has been reprinted over and over art resume objective again.

It is this point of view that has stained the very tissues of about break, Englishmen's minds today. The first thought that strikes the average man when Francis Bacon's name is objective, mentioned is the fiction that he sold justice wholesale, netted a hundred thousand pounds by slimy swindling, and disadvantages energy essay shamelessly confessed his wickedness by pleading guilty to bribery and corruption after whining to the Ring to save him. Yet this attitude is a mistaken one and utterly wrong. For this perversion of the mass-mind Macaulay is directly and indirectly responsible. He has poisoned and corrupted our intellectual and spiritual culture for over a hundred years. Art Resume Objective? How long will it be before the Lie is overtaken, I wonder! Few readers will have noted the judgment of and drugs, J. Cotter Morison, one of Macaulay's finest biographers, in art resume objective, the English Men of Letters series.

He writes: We now come, not without reluctance, to look at the deplorable article on Bacon. 'The historical portion has only just received such an exposure at the hands of the late Mr. Spedding, that to dwell upon break, it here is as unnecessary as it would be impertinent. Two Octavo volumes were not found more than sufficient to set forth the full proofs of Macaulay's quite astounding inaccuracies, misrepresentations, and even falsifications of the truth. Art Resume? . What could have been Macaulay's motive for writing with such passion and want of good faith? Nothing that Macaulay has written has been more injurious to the merchant of venice critical, his fame as a serious thinker. Objective? . . . Disadvantages Essay? He deviated into fiction in art resume objective, his libel on Bacon. (Pp.100 105, 159.) Why did he do it? asks Cotter Morison.

Macaulay was a historian who reviewed events and characters through Whig Spectacles. He loathed the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings and that the Crown could do no wrong. About Working? He wrote down Francis Bacon primarily because Francis Bacon believed that these Political principles were the best for his particular day and generation--i.e., a benevolent Monarchy and Parliament. Objective? That is the reason why Macaulay libeled dead greatness. Sullenberger Hero Essay? He visited his political hate on the character of a man who has done more good to the world in one single department of art resume objective, human thought than Macaulay ever did as a writer, a politician, an Indian administrator. He threw vitriol with horrifying effect in the face of one of the most lovable of men, one who wrote in a noble prayer: Thou knows that in a despised Weed, I have sought the Good of ALL MEN. The Sage of Chelsea said that Rhadamanthus would certainly give Macaulay dozen lashes when he went to about, the Shades for his treatment of Marlborough. How many does he deserve for the disfigurement of Francis Bacon? Nor is it generally known that Macaulay knew he had done Francis Bacon the objective gravest injury with his poisonous rhetoric; yet he was not honest nor manly enough to admit publicly that he had twisted the dissertation facts. But, admission or not, every historian knows that Macaulay always manipulated his facts to art resume objective, prove his case against working women, men long dead who could not reply. Art Resume Objective? What is this but Corruption of the worst type?

Late in life Macaulay himself told friends of disadvantages of nuclear energy essay, mine that he regretted only art resume objective one piece he had written---the Essay on Bacon . (H. Crouch Bachelor, Francis Bacon, p.8.) No slander is more audacious than that falsehood to which Macaulay has put the poverty seal of history. (Sir William Hunter, The Thackerays in art resume, India, referring to Macaulay's Essay on dissertation only phd online, Warren Hastings. ) The University of Oxford advised all Macaulay's works to be placed in a special category as not trustworthy for History . From the date of the Essay on Lord Bacon , Macaulay has been followed by art resume objective, a long line of writers who, saturated with his picturesque brilliance and guided by malevolent assertions, have written-from various motives---biographies and about working women sketches, popular and otherwise, of the great criminal judge: severe clerics, with their theologically warped minds, like the Rev. Joseph Sortain, Trinity, College Dublin, Dr. Abbott, Dean Church, who have held him up as a fearful example of genius allied to diabolical wickedness; and literary critics such as Sir Sidney Lee, who, with other stalwarts of the Shakespeare Trust, have attacked Francis Bacon's moral character to prejudice a purely literary issue . . Art Resume Objective? . fearful lest the Immortal William should be discovered to be an academic fraud. The popular opinion that Francis Bacon was simply little more than a prosy philosopher and a corrupt judge, is deep and widespread. The average lover of literature has little time for him.

He is repelled by what he has read about his unlovely character. Essay About Women? Nor can this be wondered at objective, when editors of popular literary encyclopedias commence their critiques of his works with such damning phrases as This aggressive intellectual reformer, the poverty and drugs great English writer, the art resume objective servile statesman, the corrupt Chancellor , etc. Essay? What student or reader can love a writer is said to be servile . . . corrupt? The virtue has gone out of him at a touch. Our interest is poisoned ere we read a line. Objective? The light in his literary labours fades.

Genius is poverty and drugs, worthier when it but serves as a cloak for immorality. The real truth concerning Francis Bacon's character has never been told since Hepworth Dixon and James Spedding wrote their biographies sixty to eighty years ago. Indeed, I do not remember ever reading a single article in the popular press, literary magazines, monthlies or quarterlies in which the writer whole heartedly asserted that Viscount St. Alban was a great and good man. But I have seen numerous articles, where the pen has been dipped into the gall of ignorance, which have disparaged him; articles by men whose business it was to know better.

A work, then, of this kind is long overdue. It will put the art resume English-speaking people on the right lines respecting our Supreme Genius. It is by essay, no means exhaustive, for it is written by a busy man for busy men. Yet it contains sufficient information to objective, point the disadvantages of nuclear energy reader to art resume objective, richer mines of knowledge. Primarily, this book contains detailed evidence which proves that Francis Bacon never committed the crimes for which he was impeached . . . the crime of accepting monies from suitors in his Court to pervert the course of justice, by poverty and drugs, passing judgment in their favour. He was the victim of a plot . It is art resume, true he pleaded guilty; but did he do so of his own volition? After making every preparation, he suddenly deserted his defence, threw up the sponge, and refused to face the dissertation trial of Impeachment. Why did he do so? We now know the facts. We know them even better than Spedding or Dixon; for art resume we have today his personal diary, which they did not possess, by which we can check the truth. We know what was not known at the time to the general public, nor for many years later: That King James in his Office as King commanded him to break off his defence and to essay about, plead guilty.

As the King's Servant, sworn to do his bidding, as a believer in the Divine Right of the objective Kingly Office, and that the King can do no wrong, he had no choice but to obey. Disadvantages Of Nuclear Essay? He yielded to the Will of the King and art resume objective was undone. Two remarkable pieces of evidence have recently come to light confirming the truth that Francis Bacon pleaded guilty against his will and that he sacrificed himself: (1) A series of Cantos in Skakespeare's Sonnets ; (2) The elucidation of only, a personal poem printed with the Sonnets entitled A Lover's Complaint (still in objective, manuscript). They show the emotions of the chief actor in essay, the tragedy-Francis Bacon; how he became the objective conquest of a Coward's Knife, wielded by the merchant of venice critical, Sir Edward Coke, his lifelong enemy, and how the coup de grace was given by art resume, a pusillanimous King who interposed his Chancellor to save himself and essay working women his favourite the art resume Duke of Buckingham. Hitherto, Francis Bacon's guilt has been taken for granted. Biographers have assumed that his own confession of guilt was sufficient to warrant with assurance his condemnation legally and morally. It is only phd online, interesting to see how these various writers follow similar lines of thought . Objective? . . Essay? using almost identical phraseology. They have all the same point of objective, view. Their variations of light and shade vary little more than the track of the boy who trod in the footsteps of essay, good King Wenceslas. One can see that their whole viewpoint is art resume, influenced and coloured by the fact that he deserted his defence, and afterwards pleaded guilty to a series of crimes.

This indicated, of course, if not Total Depravity at least more than a double dose of Original Sin. Having begun with this cardinal factor, they seek for criminal tendencies in his earlier years. They find Francis Bacon was obsequious to the Queen, always in financial difficulties (which must have had their roots in some evil cause), ungrateful to his friend Essex, responsible for the torturing of poverty and drugs essay, Peacham, and so on. To sustain these fictions (all of which can be shown to be preposterously false),. all sorts of art resume objective, venal motives are imputed to dissertation, him and gravely censured. If we wish, however, to obtain a just estimate of Francis Bacon's character, we must not begin our investigation in an atmosphere of art resume, prejudice produced by dissertation only phd online, his plea of objective, guilt. It is not unknown for a man to be guilty in law and not guilty in the merchant essay, fact. Let us begin at art resume objective, the beginning. Had he any vicious characteristics as a growing boy? None!

As a youth? No! He left England at the age when a young man's fancy lightly turns to thoughts of love, to about my spring break, go to objective, the French Court of brilliant rakes and superb demi mondaines. He lived there ( at sullenberger, Queen Elizabeth's expense ) in the train of the art resume English Ambassador, for three years, one of the handsomest youths of the day, judging by his portrait, painted, presumably, by command of the Queen . . And Drugs? . by artist Hilyard. What can be said against his character in this three years --impressionable years---of Court Life, beauteous Ladies and art resume Lovely 'Knights? Nothing! He neither wined it nor womened it. He kept himself pure, having been reared in the Puritan home of his foster-mother Lady Anne Bacon. What can be said against him when living as a law student after his return from France?

What amours did he indulge in like Oxford and Southampton? What Maid of and drugs, Honor did he get into trouble (he had access to the Queen's Court) like Pembroke? What gambling debts did he run up like Fulke Greville? NONE! What of his early years at the House of Commons when he was in the public eye?

Was he regarded as a sycophant? No! Was he known as a man who could bought? No! As a time-server? No! As one who crook the pregnant hinges of the the knee to Authority? No! As a worshipper of Mammon who took back handers? No! His public record shows that he was regarded as one of the most upright of not only by the House of Commons but in the country.

Where can you find his contemporaries a Member of Parliament who was elected by double and treble returns , Middlesex no less than Cambridge vying with each other for art resume the honour of his representation. Is it not strange that in all those years of strife one should have suspected that his soul was shrunken with the fires of avarice? He was thirty years in the Commons. What charges were made against him during that time? None! What reflections on and drugs essay, his honour or honesty?

Not one! There was never a whisper to this effect. Such a thought never entered the head of any of his contemporaries. The sordid Cecil might think him politically unsound, too advanced a social reformer, but he never thought that Francis was a rogue, whose primary object was to feather his own nest. The venomous Coke might think him the Queen's bastard, a fool, and discount his jaw, but he never once suggested he was a rascal. It was left for a later date, toward's the end of art resume objective, life, for woolf's about working Coke to invent that monstrous slander. Up to the 1621 Parliament, when Francis Bacon was sixty years of age, never a word had been breathed by anyone, anywhere, at objective, any time, against the moral integrity of and drugs essay, Francis Bacon . . . no one had ever suggested that he had: accepted bribes, that he had perverted justice. When the storm broke in the Commons it 'Was against the Monopoly-Patents imposed by the King and his Favourite Buckingham.

Francis Bacon was outside the Tempest until it was diverted by Sir Edward Coke from James and Buckingham to the Chancellor. Then for the first time do we hear of the accusation of bribery leveled at the Chancellor. Is there not something strange at the suddenness of the charge? Something suspicious in its swift climax? Are we to assume that a man of known honour and virtue sullied his soul by dishonesty even though it was his own hand and deed that wrote the word Guilty to the charges ? Average common sense, with a modicum of the detective instinct, suggests there is much more behind the debacle than meets the eye.

The broad facts of his life give the lie to the idea that he committed criminal acts the moment he took his seat in the Chancery Court, like a common swindler. Art Resume Objective? As a man of the world I refuse to chesley hero essay, judge the whole of the art resume Play by one act. The fact is that certain critical types are constitutionally incapable of seeing anything which does not lie on the surface . . . Poverty? even then their field of vision is not sufficiently large enough to take in everything; and if the Truth is hidden beneath the art resume objective surface, they either assume that there is no Higher Truth than what they know, or that it cannot be found ! The moil and toil of such a search! Is it worth the trouble? What does it matter? Better sing Francis Bacon's Psalm Translations with Mary Stuart, his latest biographer, and chant with her what a poor tool he was in English Prosody; Sneer with her at Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry; and giggle at the thought that Ciphers can enshrine profound truths, and are as useful in essay, business as in war . . Art Resume? than search laboriously to discover what he meant by The Great Instauration, or how he completed his Six Parts in a way utterly inconceivable to of venice critical essay, Mary Stuart, judging by her hackneyed treatment of the great Master. The possibility has never occurred to the pedant type of mind that Francis Bacon may not have been guilty after all: that he may not have fallen because of his vices in a world of objective, good men but because of chesley, his virtues in an era of wicked men: that he actually sealed his virtues by sacrifice to a patriotic and political ideal, just as other great souls have sealed their testimony to the truth, as they saw it, with their blood . Art Resume? . . like Sir Thomas More. Essay? Instead of looking at Francis Bacon from the objective worst point of view suppose we study him from the dissertation only Opposite angle. Even a prisoner is assumed to be innocent until proved guilty; and Francis Bacon has never once been Proved unequivocally guilty in any one of his acts . even 'by the objective malignant Dr.

Abbott, of the merchant of venice, whom Prof. Nichol was obliged to say: Macaulay, Abbott and Dean Church . . are unjust. The broad facts of his life, his public career, his private pursuits, give the lie to the suggestion that he could stoop to willful dishonesty. He was too great a gentleman by breed and objective education to think of such Vulgar, get-rich-quick methods. At the height of the political Tempest, he could say with fine scorn, My mind has ever turned on other wheels than those of profit. . . . My mind is in a calm; for my fortune is not my felicity. I know I have clean hands and a clean heart.

I praise God for it, I never took penny for poverty any benefice or ecclesiastical living; I never took penny for releasing anything; I stopped at the Seal; I never took penny for any commission, or things of that nature; I never shared with any servant for any second or inferior profit. Alone among all the great lawyers of the time, he died poor. Hatton, Egerton, Montague, Coke, Popham, Bennet, Hobart, Fleming . . Art Resume Objective? . all left great estates. They were among the richest men in England. Yet they made their money exclusively out of law. . . out of the poverty essay sweets of objective, office, the gifts, fees and disadvantages essay Presents of suitors. How comes it that Francis Bacon's Corruption kept him poor while Egerton's and Popham's corruption made them rich? Is it not possible that it was his virtues and art resume not his vices that kept him poor?

His honesty, tolerance, magnanimity and not his heartlessness, his servility and dissertation only phd online his corruption that caused his 'Fall?' Honest Ben Jonson loved and honoured him and thought him the living embodiment of Virtue; so did Selden, and art resume objective Rawley, and about break Tobie Matthew, and Meautys, and art resume all his personal friends; indeed a contemporary wrote: ALL WHO WERE GREAT AND GOOD LOVED HIM. Poverty And Drugs? And this is borne out by the thirty-- two writers in objective, the Manes Verulamiani who testified to his virtue, after his passing, even more than to his greatness. Who more likely to know the real truth than these intellectuals of known probity? Would these men have been likely to have loved and honoured a rascal, who, for upwards of five years, had systematically filched monies from suitors?

Are we to overthrow their united testimony for the sour, mean life of a Dean Church? The following pages lay before the reader the truth of the matter. Francis Bacon will be seen in a new light . . . as one of the Great Souls of the Ages, a Servant sent by the Most High to essay my spring break, uplift Humanity as surely as Jesus or Socrates. It is not too much to say that there has been painted, and art resume objective foisted upon the public, a series of false pictures by grossly prejudiced researchers who know nothing o f Francis Bacon's secret life , nor the real aim of his Philosophy, nothing of about my spring, his true personality. If once the reader can detach his mind from the paltry biographies of a Skemp or a Levine and approach this work de novo with an open mind--I am certain he will soon rejoice in the sure knowledge that our greatest genius was also the art resume most virtuous of men.

The time has arrived when this great Englishman should be cleansed for ever the foul stains with which his reputation was besmirched by a Macaulay and Campbell. We have inherited his thoughts and emotions in a thousand different ways. He is part of us in spite of Lilliputian critics who would make him a moral outcast. The Ethics he conceived in allegory and symbol are taught the world over essay my spring when the sun is at its meridian, a Province that knows no bounds. His phraseology and the philosophy of objective, his poetry will be universally current until the great Globe itself shall dissolve and leave not a rack behind. Not only does he touch us as the dissertation only phd online Supreme Ethical Teacher, the Prince of Poets, the most Illustrious of Philosophers,but he also sits in the Chair of objective, Apollo as the Father of disadvantages energy, Modern Science, for he was the man who acted as bell-ringer, and called the Sciences together to labour for the good of humanity. The watchwords blazoned on art resume objective, his banner were Light; Education and Reform; Utility and Progress. Whether we like it or not this Immortal Genius is our earthly English god.

His influence touches us in our daily lives everywhere in interpenetrating worlds of thought. If he were a rogue and a cheat, then it is also most true that we have taken a rogue and disadvantages of nuclear essay a cheat to be our god. His statue alone stood before those ancient Inns of Court . Art Resume Objective? . . Grays Inn. His portrait alone adorns the Cabinet room in Downing Street. In a different guise Francis Bacon's head smiles at the Dull and only Speechless Tribes who visit the Shake-speare Monument in the Valhalla of the British Empire. Thus is he honoured in secret by art resume, the few. We cannot hide his light, We cannot cast him out. For good, if it be good; for evil If it must be evil, his brain has passed into our brain, his soul into our souls. We are part of him; he is part of us; inseparable as the and drugs essay salt and the sea. Art Resume? The life he lived has become our law. This book will open a new door into literature and life.

It will provide you with sufficient evidence to show that the Father of English Prose, no less than the Father of Science, was an altruist of the first water; one of the kindest and and drugs essay most virtuous of men. It tears away the false mask he has worn so long. Art Resume Objective? You will gradually get to know him as he really is: to know that the Wisest, Brightest, Humblest of Mankind was also one of the most Christlike. Every true Britisher will rejoice that at last this important Truth can be proved. With Ben Jonson I can say: 'Tis a brave cause of Joy, let it be known, For 'twere a narrow gladness kept my own. Give me a deep crown'd bowl, that I may sing, In Raising him, the Wisdom of disadvantages energy essay, MY KING. I am greatly indebted to the Works of objective, Hepworth Dixon, Barrister-at-Law, for his researches into the details of the charges brought against Francis Bacon.

Re pointed the way I should go; and all Lovers of Truth, of Francis Bacon, and of honest Literature (unstained by opinionative asides Pontifically expressed as facts) owe Hepworth Dixon a real debt of gratitude. Had it not been for his careful sifting of the evidence respecting the Fall, I could never have spoken so Positively of Francis Bacon's exemplary character, his mental powers and of the manner in which he was framed. My thanks are particularly due to disadvantages of nuclear energy, my good friend Edward D. Johnson, Esq., Birmingham, for his careful reading of the manuscript, and for his many suggestions and helpful advice.

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Structural System employed at the Pantheon in Rome Essay Sample. The Pantheon stands today in the heart of Rome, exhibiting the art resume objective, grandeur of civilizations, the majesty of the emperors who established and the genius of the architects who evolved it, even after two hundred centuries it stands revered and magnificent of its beauty. The opulence of the material used, its exact proportions, the exercise of geometry and arithmetic in its construction, and the vastness of its space all combine together to form a spectacular of building ever built in the Roman world. It served both political, as well as the religious need across borders, and its design reflected both tradition and innovation. Rome is a city, which magnificently and with great grandeur blends historical masterpieces along with the modern world brought by the globalization and the structural change faced most immensely by dissertation only phd online the architecture of the world. Art Resume! However, the Rome boasts over its mega structures and its pieces of arts, which it carries from the ancient times, through the medieval ages, Renaissance, to the present modern times. The vibrant cities offers the view of many historical buildings enthralling a pilgrimage of tourists from around the world year round, with greatest visitors seen at The Colosseum, Roman Forum, Pantheon, Piazza del Campidoglio an the Museums , Piazza Navona, Trevi Fountain, Piazza di Spagna, Vatican City, and hero Castle Sant’Angelo (Stamper, pp.

184). The Greek word Pantheon means, “Every God,” or “to honor all gods,” whose history can be divided into art resume four distinct parts of ancient, medieval, renaissance, and modern, ranking to the reconstruction and reframing of the ancient tomb. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor, first built it as a rectangular temple in phd online 27 BC. The front porch of the temple was destroyed by a conflagration in 80 AD, and thus, had to art resume objective be restructured, with its designing reshaping a little under the sullenberger essay, commission of art resume objective, Emperor Hadrian during 118 to 125 AD. The inscription on the bricks of the woolf's essay about working women, structure still adhere it to the Agrippa’s origin, marked with the following words: “Marcus Agrippa, son of objective, Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this” (Kleiner, pp.

287), but the building was repaired again in 202 AD, by Septimius Severus and woolf's essay about working women Caracalla. However, most of the architects and researchers of today attribute this mighty structure to the brilliance of Hadrian, with the objective, Pantheon as his “triumph of concrete technology.” He is believed to be the most skilful Roman emperor, a man of many talents such as an amateur architect, painter, poet, administrator, and soldier. The Pantheon represented the culture and woolf's women sophistication adapted by the kingdom under his rule, which was so majestic that it still stands boldfacing the world (Kleiner, pp. 287). While it is impossible to identify the original builder and date of the Pantheon, it is believed that Agrippa created the portico, while the objective, rotunda and the connection between the essay, two were made during Hadrian’s time.

With the coming of the Medieval Era, the temple in 609 AD was given to art resume Pope Boniface IV, by the Byzantine emperor Phocas, in essay order to convert it into a place of worship, as he was told to arid it from the demons of the world. However, many of the critics believe that its conversion into art resume objective a church is one of the main reasons that it stands strong today, as it did not have to go through he destruction and spoliation faced by most of the poverty essay, buildings during this period (MacDonald, pp. 14). The works of yellow marble inside the recesses of the tomb and much of its statues were removed during this time with the first two of the original three columns of the structure were swallowed by the growing population and the need of space. After Renaissance and until today, Pantheon is objective being served as a tomb, accommodating unique and artistic individuals, which includes painters such as Raphael, Annibale Carracci, and architect, Baldassare Peruzzi. During this time, the structure was decorated with numerous paintings, such as the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forli. The greatest damage was however, placed by chesley hero Pope Barberini when he ordered for the melting of the bronze ceiling of portico, which is estimated to weigh about 450,251 pounds in order to make weapons and objective forts in 1625; but in reality it was mostly smuggled up to make the altar of St Peter’s Basilica (Lanciani., pp 463). The modern times have also seen it as a burial for many of the essay, rich monarchs of Italy however; it is art resume objective being safeguarded as the heritage of the world. The Pantheon, which is now also known as Santa Maria or the Martyres, is now being used as a Catholic Church, also left open for visitors from poverty essay around the world. The Pantheon of Rome was structured to celebrate the dedication towards the Greek gods, its seven niches statue Apollo, Diana, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn while the inner dome was made in art resume order to represent the heavens above, with its simplicity and symbolism inspiring every viewer. However, what inspires the engineers and architects today is as to how the structure, has been standing with its immense grandeur even after two millennium, while Michelangelo Buonarotti explains that it is woolf's essay standing due to art resume objective “the angelic and woolf's about women not human design.” ( Langmead, pp 237)

The structure was thought to be divided into three main parts by art resume the architects of Hadrian when they first started designing its elaborate structure; the portico or the entrance, the phd online, interior rotunda or the art resume objective, vault , and a connection between the two; blending the exterior with the interior. This kind of approach to a building was first of its kind, providing a proper entrance to woolf's essay working it, as the previous Roman structures were either freestanding or had peristyles around them. The original structure stood in the front as a rectangular courtyard, whose roof that was supported by art resume objective three rows of 14 meters high pillars, which across it had held bronze sculptures of battles between the gods and the Titans. The front row of eight pillars or Corinthian columns, and essay the second row holding four pillars, was made out of Egyptian gray granite; while the last row out of art resume, Egyptian red granite. These columns represented the traditional design of structures, while the rest of the building was completely revolutionary and a unique masterpiece ever witnessed. The massive front doors of the temple are 6.3 meters high, with their fanlights were at that time gold platted. The portico, or the and drugs essay, entrance of the Pantheon, originally had a flight of steps, and stood at a narrow end of an enclosure, by which one advanced into the building under the objective, portico, but with the changing surroundings and the way the surface has alleviated from around the steps are no longer present. The Corinthian columns, no matter traditional, but were the most difficult to be structured as they were about 60 tones in weight each, they had to be transported along a large distance. First quarried out of the mine in Egypt, floated across the River Nile, through the Mediterranean, to the Roman Port of about break, Ostia; and objective then transported to the location of Pantheon about 100 kilometers inland. The interior of the Pantheon, the rotunda, which is formulated in a single volume, cylindrical in shape to the height of 43.3 meters, holds a semi spherical dome at energy essay, the top.

The inner walls, which are around 4.2 meters deep, form arched recesses, which were then decorated with yellow marble. The magnificent dome, which remained as the largest ever built in the world, later up to thirteen centuries, after its initial structure, remains an overwhelming piece even today. The dome is 142 feet in diameter and is even 142 meter above its base point, with it thus being designed in such a way as to form an objective, intersection between two circles, (horizontally and vertically), so that the essay my spring break, interior is regarded as an orb of the earth and the dome as the vault of the heavens (Kleiner, pp. 268). “When the art resume objective, first wonderful creation of this species came into existence, the essay about, designer of art resume, this glorious dome appears to have himself shrunk back from it, and to have felt that it was not adapted to be the every-day residence of men, but to essay my spring be a habitation for the gods…No one previously unacquainted with the edifice could form an idea, from the aspect of the portico, of that wonderful structure behind, which must ever be considered as one of the noblest triumphs of the human mind over matter in connection with the law of gravity.” (Lanciani., pp 475)

The dome rises to a height of 22 meters, and has a diameter of 43 meters; however, the most inquisitive fact of the objective, tomb, which still prevails in the world, is how the sullenberger essay, mighty structure stands upon its own without any support. Objective! The two factors, which commence towards its strength, are the bets quality of mortar used, as well as the vigilant selection of material such as making use of my spring break, heavy basalt in the foundations and the base of the structure’s walls, and entrusting in volcanic ash. Moreover, the drums of the walls, which are 6 feet thick, each, help strength the brick arches forming an art resume, architecturally designed support, adding to essay my spring break its grandeur. The ceiling has rectangular coffers or indentations cut through it, which follow a regular pattern throughout it, which are decorated with rosettes and moldings. The dome is made from rings of voussoirs, while eight vaults, standing behind the eight niches, carry its downward pressure, while its thickness ranges from about 6.4 meters at the base of the doom and 1.2 meters as it goes to the oculus.

The floor of the Pantheon, conventional in style is art resume lit by a single opening at the centre of the dome, which is known as the “eye” or the of nuclear energy essay, “oculus.” The grace which it endeavors to the structure makes it first of the buildings of the antiquity which favored the objective, sophistication of the interior of the building rather than concentrating only towards the outside. In addition, the white exterior is chesley hero contrasted by the usage of colored marbles to the inside of the tomb, elongated with seven recesses. Moreover, the oculus forms the only source of light for the interior of the objective, Pantheon, which during the daytime acts as a sundial; which is wrapped around with 28 coffers, which in early times had been lit by woolf's rosettes, and bronze stars. The Pantheon seems to be revolving with themes of art resume, circles and squares, whereby the floor of the tomb check board, while its ceiling is decorated with square coffers placed in a circular manner. Soon after Hadrian was made the emperor work began on the tomb, he is believed to be called the “Greekling,” more due to his sophistication and the extent of elaborate work that he placed in his designs. Therefore, the building today resembles the immense potential of perfection, due to its building material as well as its architectural shape. For the construction of the Pantheon, a circular trench 8 meter wide and 4,5 meters deep was dug out, which were lined with timber forms and pozzolana cement (made through grinding together lime and volcanic ash), making it hard enough to form its foundation. The cylindrical drum of the rotunda was built level by level through using different compositions of my spring break, concrete. The foundations were structured using extremely hard form of basalt, and the ingredients of the art resume objective, concrete were altered as they moved towards the the merchant essay, top using lightweight pumice, which slowly replaced the stone, to keep its weight less at the top. The dome was built by pouring in objective an uninterrupted sequence of concrete rings against a hemispherical dome made out of wood.

The concrete was poured in a way that would thicken and woolf's essay about working women strengthen the dome by shifting in thickness, making this the support system for the dome, its thickness reducing as it nears the art resume, oculus. The coffers also helped reduce the woolf's, weight of the dome, without weakening its structure. Art Resume Objective! Empty clay patterns were embedded in the top of the and drugs, structure to further give it a lighter feel. Objective! A temporary wooden structure may have been used, on which the designers laid down the chesley sullenberger hero essay, concrete and the concentric rings, to maintain its round structure, while some believe that the dome was supported by a hanging, while a tall tower in the middle is also thought of by a few. Emperor Constants The Second , in objective 603 Ad, removed the tiles which had covered the exterior of the Pantheon, and covered it with lead sheets, of different widths, placed in neat rows, and are still in woolf's about women place today. The dome’s bricks are however concealed with pozzolana cement, which also formulates a layer over the eight concrete vaults, which surround the dome. These rings were initially designed to add load to the side of the vault, while functioning as its supports; given it the required stability through the objective, role of compression. Sullenberger Essay! The oculus also acts as the last concentric ring, as a means of the compression strand, which was built by creating two pieces of bipedale handmade bricks, 60 cm thick and 4 cm thick, which were laid edge wise in art resume three courses, being shaped vertically. These rings, which form the dome, are responsible for the shallow bowl like appearance of the exterior of the dome. There are two basic answers given to the usage of poverty and drugs, these rings in the dome.

Firstly, these rings were used to structurally increase the load on the haunch in art resume order to reduce the horizontal thrust of the vault by countering it with additional vertical force. Secondly, they were used as devices to help in the construction by allowing the workers to build in vertical increments than to have to shape the lower portions of the dome. The first being the purpose of these rings while the the merchant of venice critical, second only being an advantage to the construction. As the dome was free, standing these step rings helped spreading the counterweight evenly around the circumference of the art resume, drum so that the woolf's essay about working, load was distributed efficiently round the structure. The coffers or indentations forms the predominant feature of its interior, as they are designed in five horizontal rows, each carrying 28 coffers, with the entire number adding up to 140. The first four horizontal rows consist of art resume objective, four recesses of consecutively diminishing size. Their maximum chords diminish gradually from 3.90 meters in the lowest row to chesley essay 2.30 meters in the highest. The five concentric rings of the coffers represent the five planets orbiting around the sun, while their 28 number represents the number of art resume objective, days in the lunar month. The square panels of these coffers were surrounded by the merchant essay moldings of stucco, which were then painted and glided in. (McGregor, pp. 94).

Underneath the dome, the veneer marble across the walls, the niches, and the floor still holds fast; but it is not the art resume, majesty of the walls, that enthralls a visitor, but it is actually the magic of the space, which surrounds one; enclosing them rather than imprisoning them. The vast rotunda is an open area left uninterrupted by any solid structure in between, with the oculus not only creating light but also creating an underscored aura for the interior symbolism. The entire hemisphere rests upon, two storey walls, about 21 meters high; the first segment holds the eight niches, (including the entrance) while the second segment holds the panels and blind windows. The walls of the Pantheon act as a series of piers for the mighty structure being made thick in composition, separated by eight large niches, all equally spaced around the rotunda, compromising of many cavities and chambers throughout. In order to locate these niches, one needs to begin from 0 degrees, (reference on the circular plan and locate one every 45 degrees, clockwise, taking the dissertation, first niche at 0), the next niche at the 45 degrees rotating clockwise, the next at art resume, 90, followed by 135 and so one until the eighth niche is found at sullenberger hero, 360. This magnificent use of geometry throughout the objective, structure, and impeding it in woolf's essay about women a mighty structure such as that of the Pantheon, makes it a unique establishment not only for architects but also for mathematicians. The niches form huge arches, with seven of them being semi-circular in shape, and the one, which covers the entrance door, is rectangular, while all the objective, burials are placed within these niches.

The niches, which are each 6.2 meters deep, are subdued into the thick walls, which exhibit their thickness and depth. Each niche is essay furthermore, elaborated with two columns of colored marble and objective alternates with a temple front, standing in front of the wall plane, crowned by segmented and triangular pediment. The main problem of the weight of the dome on the lowest drum as well as that of the large niches was solved by adding vaults and arches, which distribute the weight upon eight piers. This idea was thought to be worked like that in a bridge, whereby each vault provided a counteracting force to the thrust of the adjacent vaults. The surface of the dissertation only, brick wall was then covered with a layer of plaster or stucco. Defining the vault and the combination of structure from around the world, Righini states, “Pantheon was the physical repository of universal tribute from subject lands: the granites and porphyries came from Egypt, the colored marbles from Africa and the white marble from Aegean. What held it together and gave it authority of objective, a single minded conception was the Roman vaulted style, made possible by its medium concrete.” (Righini, pp. 65)

The eye or the sullenberger essay, oculus, in the midst of the dome, covers an area of 62.80 square meters, almost 4% of the base’s surface area. The oculus has a vertical ring wall that originally carried a bronze cornice is know made with brick laid both vertically and in radial direction, which acts as a compression ring. It acts as a resistance against art resume, gravity and balance the forces created by the weight and dissertation position of the art resume objective, vault, which are directed towards the voids below. For Hadrian, the oculus had great significance, it was the point from about my spring break where he could not only see his empire revolve, but for him also the heavens and objective the universe above. The greatest problem, which was faced by the architects, was in assembling the vaulted building in a centralized structure. The Pantheon’s internal cylindrical hall had massive width (30 feet diameter), and the heavy weight of the dome (4,535 metric tons ), made construction in the ancient times even more tedious, as to hero comparison, the only such works available were that of Albano or Baia, which was childish in its analogy.

No matter the world today exhibits many such buildings from the past, showing the impudence and grandeur of those civilizations, but what makes The Pantheon of Rome special in today’s time is its sustainability and endurance to the harsh atmospheres of the world, which keeps it invincible to the growing cruelty of the environment today. Thus as the Pantheon stands today as model of rave and amazement for the historians around the globe, it also serves as a source of inspiration for the architects who look up to it for objective, establishment of a sustainable and amiable living towards the life of constructions. John Bickley, a consulting engineer, and a partner architect of the disadvantages of nuclear energy, CN Tower, in his article “Green Concrete,” states, “ A secret to art resume low-carbon, sustainable construction lies in the more than 2,000-year-old roof of Rome’s Pantheon.” He defines that an architect is awe-inspiring when it is sustainable as well as makes use of green concrete, which helps it stay alive against the emissions of of nuclear, carbon dioxide. He states that the secret ingredient used in its establishment is volcanic ash, which replaces the art resume, concrete and increases the cohesive properties required for a construction. This increases the essay, structures durability and helps architects and engineers to objective theorize better materials and substances, which are more environmental friendly, as it was even theorized by designers with limited resources and and drugs knowledge thousands of objective, years ago. (Bickley, 2009.) Many architects believing in the theories of the Neopythagorean origin believe that the only, Pantheon’s design is actually an arithmetically resolved solution to the theories and studies of the cosmos, created by the Greeks, which were made of amalgamation, geometry, and astronomy. Thus, this design tends to fuse together all these concepts of varying subjects into harmony, giving it a visual picture in the form of a structure for the worlds to appreciate and gain inspiration. Objective! Whereas many intellectuals and woolf's historians also relate it to Pythagorean cosmos, which means a living organism, which has a mathematically established soul and non-altering internal design with specified ratios. It was built in order to resemble the grace and impudence of the heavens and pay reverie to the gods, but for the present world, it is art resume a symbol of mathematics and architecture splendor.

No matter the Great Pantheon was built almost two centuries ago, but it still stands grand and powerful, showing the dissertation phd online, amount of industrious work placed into its construction and the generic ideas put through that even today, after the technological swarm in architecture, it still stands as one of the most awe-inspiring structures ever created. The Pantheon is one the greatest masterpieces on earth and I am grateful to have the art resume, opportunity of learning about this wonderful space. Essay! The Pantheon being original, bold, many layered and the imminent structure of universality is a unique structure, which has left a stamp on the architecture of the world more than any other building ever erected. The force and the magical magnetism received by every visitor who enters in objective the rotunda, is far more magical than what had been initially planned by Hadrian and his architects. Bickley, John A. Green Concrete , 2009. Retrieved on July 13, 2009 from Burn, Robert M.A.

Ancient Rome and its Neighborhood . Chesley Sullenberger Hero! George Bell and Sons Press, 1966. Kleiner, F. Gardner’s Art through Ages . Cengage Learning, 2005. Lancaster, Lynne C. Concrete vaulted construction in Imperial Rome. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Lanciani, R. Pantheon. The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome . Retrieved on July 13, 2009 from Langmead, Donald. Encyclopedia of art resume, architectural and engineering feats . ABC-CLIO, 2001.

MacDonald, William L. The Architecture of the Roman Empire . Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1965. MacDonald, William L., Pinto. J. T he Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny . Harvard University Press, 2002. Marder, Tod A. “Alexander VII, Bernini, and the Urban Setting of the critical, Pantheon in objective the Seventeenth Century.” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Vol. 50, No. 3, 1991. McGregor, James H.S. Rome from the ground up . The Belknap Press, 2005.

Righini, Paul. Thinking Architecturally. Juta and Company Limited, 2000. Stamper, J.W. The Architecture of Roman Temples. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Structural System employed at the Pantheon in Rome. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. The beauty of PDF business plan templates, however, is art resume objective, that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in about my spring break front of them. Art Resume Objective! Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of starting from scratch. Dissertation! Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. Art Resume! Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from;s 8(a) Business Development Program. This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of dissertation a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the art resume questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S. The Merchant Of Venice! Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for starting a business. In addition to offering a business plan template and objective, financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and tips on the do#39;s and women, don#39;ts of writing a business plan.

Used as the official business plan for the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by Rhonda Abrams. Each of the 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of art resume objective information to enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the template includes a SWOT analysis and optional technology plan. Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan. Instead of an entire business plan with typical sections written out such as executive summary, market analysis and financial projections the elevator pitch business plan template combines all these areas into essay about break, one succinct paragraph. Find examples at the BEC#39;s downloadable PDF elevator pitch small business plan template. 5. The One Page Business Plan Company#39;s business plan template.

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essay art nouveau Art Nouveau, as a style, is customarily thought of as having been consigned to one of history’s tightly locked boxes. In the case of Art Nouveau, it will undoubtedly be a beautiful, finely crafted, gilded box—but a box nevertheless. Art Nouveau architecture is not short of objective admirers, and people trek from far and wide to see its masterpieces. But they stare at the works, feeling them to be detached in time and history.

We expect never to essay my spring break, see their like fashioned again. Art Resume. However, the assessment of Art Nouveau, like that of poverty any movement, is never static. We may have finally moved on from Nikolaus Pevsner’s judgment in 1936 that it was “a short but very significant fashion in decoration,” 1 but still the feeling lingers that the demise of Art Nouveau was attributable to objective, some fundamental internal flaw. Art Nouveau was an international style. It had regional variations but contained a unity of purpose that is chesley sullenberger hero, unmistakable from country to art resume objective, country. In architecture, it blossomed first in Brussels and then Paris, and its achievements in those cities probably established its most definitive form. From there, it appeared in Spain, Scotland, Italy, Hungary and other countries in the heart of the merchant of venice Europe; it also reached the periphery: Finland, Latvia, Russia. Art Nouveau eventually came to art resume, the United States in the decorative work of Louis Comfort Tiffany and the architecture of essay Louis Sullivan. To truly understand any architectural style (and I am going to confine this essay to objective, architecture), you have to see it in its context and, if you do this thoroughly with Art Nouveau, it shakes off the accusation of lack of robustness. It was born into the febrile atmosphere of the late nineteenth century, when the new confidence in science and rationalism fought with doubt and pessimism about the direction of civilization.

Interjected into disadvantages essay, that was a powerful movement in much painting, poetry, literature and philosophy toward anti-rationalism of objective one sort or another. At the same time, a particularly dangerous jingoism was on energy essay the rise, with accompanying demands for art resume objective austerity and conformity. Chesley. A radical new style—especially a flamboyant one with a clearly subversive stance—had to have solid underpinnings to emerge at all. Within its contemporary milieu, Art Nouveau sided with the anti-rationalists and did so to the extent that Pevsner, in a fuller assessment in 1973, titled a book he edited on the subject The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists . 2 Identification with anti-rationalism left Art Nouveau open to attack from both the supporters of the new, determinist scientific outlook and the prophets of degenerate doom. Objective. The great intellectual event of the last half of the nineteenth century was undoubtedly the arrival of Charles Darwin’s theory of woolf's essay working women evolution. This taught that life was propelled by accidental “mutations” that are then sifted for survival through competition. This big idea resulted in, for one thing, a division between those who embraced the mechanistic view of life it proposed and others who saw in it an insecurity of direction whereby things could go badly as easily as they could go well.

On the one side, T.H. Huxley said confidently in art resume 1867 that “zoological physiology … regards animal bodies as machines impelled by … forces …which can be expressed in essay about terms of the ordinary [i.e., analyzable] forces of nature.” 3 On the other, the art resume objective, prevalent fears of degeneracy were vividly expressed in poverty and drugs essay Max Nordau’s book Degeneration (1892). Art Resume Objective. Unsettled by Darwin’s view of undirected evolution, he recognized “a morbid deviation from original type.” 4 Among such deviants he singled out the essay about break, “fin de siecle art movements” and notes that “the diagnosis ‘degeneration’ is applicable to the originators of the new aesthetic tendencies.” He sees that a “mental stigma of [such] degenerates” is their emotionalism. “They feel the bliss of the Beautiful possessing them to the tips of their fingers. …” 5 Nordau’s views were widely read and no doubt contributed to the popularity of the strident nationalism, found almost everywhere in Europe then, that promised certainty of direction. Against these currents, a number of artistic movements and theories in objective the 1880s developed in a more optimistic direction, all of which consciously sought the creation of a modern world. All these movements fed into the emergence of phd online Art Nouveau in the 1890s and formed most of its formal sources, helping to generate the style or the “look” of Art Nouveau. Against these I will put what can be termed the intellectual or theoretical sources. The appreciation of both formal and intellectual sources is crucial to the understanding of the real meaning of Art Nouveau. Practically all the literature on Art Nouveau concentrates on what I term the formal sources. 6 The effect of this limitation is to encourage the art resume objective, view of Art Nouveau as purely a style or even, to use Pevsner’s word, a “fashion.” It thereby becomes a mere collection of motifs, but it never was to its progenitors. By dwelling only on its superficial form, we ensure that Art Nouveau remains trapped in its historical box.

As a consequence, we deny it the possibility of having any bearing on architecture and design today. However, by releasing the profound ideas that lay behind Art Nouveau, we can return it to today’s debate about how we might build. I will briefly describe the woolf's essay about working women, formal sources of Art Nouveau—the Aesthetic Movement, the Arts and Crafts Movement, Symbolist art, the art resume, structural theories of Eugene Viollet-le-Duc and contemporary neo-Baroque architecture—before considering the intellectual sources. Although England never developed an Art Nouveau movement, it was universally recognized by the early exponents of Art Nouveau on the continent as a primary place of influence. Woolf's Essay About. The Aesthetic Movement was primarily responsible. That movement can be located roughly in objective the decade preceding that of Art Nouveau, that is, the 1880s. Aestheticism was above all a consciously modern movement in three ways. First, it built upon the ideas of disadvantages essay John Ruskin and William Morris on objective how to create a style that was free from the numerous historical styles encompassed by contemporary eclecticism. Of Nuclear. Second, it favored a simplicity of design, and in that took much from Japanese prints.

It was the latter’s asymmetry, striking pattern-making and balance between detailed figuration and blank areas that impressed the makers of the art resume, Aesthetic Movement. Third, Aestheticism rejected the critical, standard messages, such as patriotism, glory or piety, that conventional art and architecture were expected to art resume, convey. Its slogan of of nuclear energy essay arts for art’s sake proclaimed a dismissal of such values and said that the art resume objective, work of art contained its own message. Only beauty itself mattered. Art for art’s sake immediately got the movement into trouble, for if beauty were the only thing that mattered, where were God and morality? Oscar Wilde was one of its foremost advocates on either side of the Atlantic. He may not have served the movement well, as his bald statements failed to account in advance for the inevitable reaction. In one of his lectures he said “… nor in its primary aspect has painting any more spiritual message for us than a blue tile. … It is a beautifully colored surface, nothing more, and affects us by no suggestion stolen from philosophy, no pathos pilfered from literature, no feeling filched from a poet, but by break, its own incommunicable artistic essence.” 7 Art Nouveau inherited the fresh, radical vision of the Aesthetic Movement, but with that came its sense of objective amorality and decadence. One of the movement’s best architects, E.W. Godwin, built a series of houses in Chelsea, London, that were very close to being Art Nouveau.

The second formal influence on Art Nouveau was the Arts and the merchant essay Crafts movement, which again sprang from England. Art Nouveau took from it the ideas of truth to materials and the abandonment of historically-based designs. Arts and Crafts was, of course, related to the Aesthetic Movement but substituted the latter’s somewhat foppish style for a seriousness of purpose associated with a genuine desire for art resume social improvement and reform along the lines that Ruskin laid down. Morris was the immediate inspiration for Arts and poverty and drugs Crafts, and art resume objective certain visual elements had a direct influence on Art Nouveau. In particular, his wallpaper and fabric patterns fed into chesley sullenberger essay, its way of art resume representing nature, as his designs suggested a freedom from stylization together with the strong feeling of the and drugs, live, growing organisms that Art Nouveau would seek. We have to cross the objective, Channel for the remaining formal influences on Art Nouveau. Symbolism, like Art Nouveau after it, started in the Paris/Brussels axis. It stands out as a direct reaction to energy essay, Huxley’s kind of art resume objective philosophy of mechanism, for it seeks to investigate a reality behind that of appearance and scientific analysis.

In this, it is surely otherworldly, but it rarely aligned with any of the woolf's about working, many religious and objective mystical cults generating adherents then. It preferred to express this reality wholly within the artistic realm. Michelle Facos writes: “For a work to be considered Symbolist, its purpose must be to suggest something other than what is actually represented. Essay About. … A Symbolist work of art may not … include conventional illustration or allegory.” 8 As with Aestheticism, the art resume objective, Symbolists exposed themselves to accusations of sullenberger essay amorality, sickness and art resume objective decadence, prompting a contemporary writer to observe that “… their vision has always been somewhat feverish, with the diseased sharpness of over-excited nerves. Of Venice. …” 9. Formally, Symbolism contributed to Art Nouveau its swirling motifs, eroticism and lack of conventional representation, as we see in Jan Toorop’s O Grave, Where is Thy Victory? (1892). Objective. Perhaps more important, the intellectual concepts of Symbolism laid the foundation for an anti-mechanistic approach that let architects imagine buildings as more than utilitarian vessels for human activity or embodiments of received morality. Chesley Essay. Architecture could become charged with anti-rationalism and moral freedom, and hold up a broader conception of human values than the prevailing materialism could offer. Fourth, the influence of the ideas of Viollet-le-Duc should not be underestimated, for it is their integration into the realization of Art Nouveau buildings that allowed the style to objective, move beyond mere artifice and decoration. Viollet-le-Duc advanced the highly original idea that nature could provide a model for manmade structures. In this sense, he claimed to be a functionalist. His published designs show how plant forms can lend themselves to buildings.

10 Crucial to this narrative was the use of iron, because it could achieve the woolf's about, tensile strength and rigidity of fibrous plant tissue. Victor Horta, a pioneer of Art Nouveau architecture, demonstrated that structural iron could be fashioned into art resume, plant forms with no sense of essay forcing the argument, and in the process created a fluidity and harmony between vegetative forms and buildings. The last formal source of Art Nouveau was the style in art resume objective which its architects were primarily trained and that was practiced extensively in the new boulevards of the major cities of Europe, the neo-Baroque. The style had come a long way since its invention by Bernini in Rome in the 1620s. I would define Baroque architecture as the exaggeration and the merchant of venice manipulation of the art resume objective, elements of of nuclear energy classical architecture for the sake of total theatrical effect. The original purpose may have been religious, but the art resume, style was readily adaptable for any building requiring ostentation. It is relevant to Art Nouveau because it achieved its drama by merging classical forms with natural and essay human forms. For instance, voluptuous human figures were placed in putative structural roles as atlantes, terms and masks, while rampant foliage and flowers invaded the details.

This compromising of form with organic elements became an essential component of Art Nouveau. These formal sources were all in art resume place before the first Art Nouveau building, Victor Horta’s Tassel House, in Brussels (1893). Others followed so quickly and spontaneously over such a large geographical area that there must have been a like-minded artistic and intellectual environment already in place. To appreciate how and why this happened, we need to add to poverty, the formal sources the intellectual sources of the time. The anti-rationalism of the late nineteenth century was partly a reaction against the austere positivist philosophy, exemplified by Huxley, who regarded “animal bodies [and plants] as machines.” So the means by which, for art resume objective instance, an acorn becomes an oak tree, would someday no longer be an unfathomable miracle of nature but a series of mechanical, analyzable processes. One aspect of this reaction was artistic, poetic expression, such as in Symbolism, but philosophers and scientists also confronted mechanism on its own terms. And Drugs. Notable among these was Hans Driesch, a genetic biologist, who, having made important discoveries in cell research, turned to art resume objective, philosophy, where he became a strong anti-mechanist.

The creation of new cells by of venice critical essay, division was already known, and Driesch asked: “How could a machine be divided innumerable times and art resume objective yet remain what it was?” Refuting Huxley, he objected that “ … because a few things were really understood on account of the woolf's about working, delicate structures having been recognized, it was thought that everything must be comprehensible on the same grounds.” 11. Driesch accepted that he had nothing definitive with which to replace mechanism but could only identify a lacuna in our comprehension—but not in objective our observation—of nature. We can see that organisms grow from within, and so we may put a name to of venice critical essay, the cause driving this process: “vital force,” hence, the doctrine of “vitalism.” Driesch explained that “by vitalism we mean the possibility, merely negative at objective, first, that there may be processes in the organism which are not of the machine-like or ‘mechanistic’ type.” 12. Let us put the sources of Art Nouveau, formal and intellectual, to essay about my spring, one side and try to define what we mean by Art Nouveau as a style. Let us do this on art resume the basis of observation, looking at an Art Nouveau building and and drugs essay attempting to say what marks it as different from a building in any other style. What strikes us about the Casa Battlo, in objective Barcelona, by Antonio Gaudi y Cosset is that the whole building seems to be taken over and subsumed by dissertation phd online, plant forms, suggesting a transformation of art resume inert into organic material. What is depicted is metaphormosis—of building elements becoming plant-like, of human-made geometric form becoming natural form. We see the vital impulse in nature taking command. I would define the resulting style this way: Art Nouveau invents a new modern architectural style, the elements of which suggest a metaphormosis of inert, architectural form into living, growing plant form. This definition is a statement of what Art Nouveau does, but not why or how it achieves its deeper meaning. Until that time, building styles had invariably exploited the relationship between the manmade and the natural to achieve rhetorical power.

For instance, many have pointed out that the poverty, array of columns and vaulting in a Gothic cathedral suggests a stylized forest. But the art resume, forest is one thing, the building another. Chesley Sullenberger Essay. We read the forest into the building as metaphor, and so the relation between the two exists only via the mental bridge that the metaphor creates. With metaphormosis, the building becomes nature before our eyes. We look to the details before us; we do not need to access our own imaginations. Art Nouveau’s originality was to shift the art resume, relationship between the natural and the human from metaphor to metaphormosis. An essential characteristic of any metaphormosis is that the chesley sullenberger, force that impels it comes from within.

Things do not metaphormose because of external forces. Growth is objective, one type of metaphormosis, and so metaphormosis is allied with the vitalist principle. Art Nouveau famously employs the “whiplash” curve, which graphically conveys growth and life. To preserve the purity and force of this idea, Art Nouveau plants are never species-specific. Essay About My Spring Break. They are never so literal. Metaphormosis implies a surrender to nature, an abandonment of cultural norms, which is why it could seem so dangerous. Not only that, but its vitalism could easily slide into other contemporary ideas like paganism and eroticism. Art Nouveau allowed humans to bathe in their sense of beauty, and it still does this.

For all the art resume, style’s sidelining, Art Nouveau buildings are surely some of the most beautiful ever designed. Not necessarily the best, but the most beautiful. Architecture and art are currently dominated by a mechanistic ethos, and a denial of human sensitivities to beauty is often part of that. Contemporary philosopher Roger Scruton refers to of nuclear essay, this as an act of “desecration,” and points out that “… our contemporary culture … is … in flight from beauty. There is a desire to art resume, spoil beauty. …” 13 It is an essay working irony that Nordau’s prognosis of degeneration may have been proved right after all. Appreciating the underlying meaning of Art Nouveau, we can create an alternative source of architectural rhetoric by appealing to the vitalist principle, with its innate recognition of the genius in art resume nature. The appearance of the resulting buildings will no doubt be different from the original Art Nouveau, but then we are drawing on the deeper meaning of the style, not its superficial “look.” Art Nouveau will at only phd online, last be taken out of objective its gilded box and allowed to again inform our imaginations. 1. Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of Modern Design: From William Morris to poverty and drugs, Walter Gropius (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin), 1966, p. 96. 2. Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 3. T.H. Huxley, Science Gossip (London, 1867), p. 74.

4. Max Nordau (1895), in Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 15. 6. See Paul Greenhalgh, ed., Art Nouveau: 1890–1914 (London: V A Publications, 2000); Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, Sources of Art Nouveau (Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press Inc., 1956); Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 7. Elizabeth Aslin, The Aesthetic Movement (London: Ferndale, 1969), p. 111. 8. Michelle Facos, Symbolist Art in Context (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), p. Art Resume. 4. 9. Arthur Symons (1893), in poverty and drugs essay Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 107. 10. E.E. Viollet le Duc, Entretiens sur l’Architecture , Vol. II (Paris, 1872), p. 130.

11. Art Resume Objective. Hans Driesch, The History and Theory of Vitalism (London: MacMillan, 1913, reprinted by Forgotten Books), p. 210. 12. Hans Driesch, The Problem of sullenberger Individuality (London: MacMillan, 1914, reprinted by Bibliolife), p. 5. 13.

Roger Scruton, Beauty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 172. Copyright 2006-2017 Newington-Cropsey Cultural Studies Center.