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business plan nsw THE FARM BUSINESS PLAN. NSW Department of Agriculture. Wagga Wagga. 2650. The future is not inevitable. We can influence it, if we know what we want it to be. In Ein Essay Meinung. The aim of developing a business plan is to help you strive towards the opportunities of tomorrow.
It is a process used by those who aim for continued improvement and for those who wish to make more of better things, with less resource, less cost and less human effort. Business plans help maintain the difference between mediocrity and superiority. That is why we are here, isn't it? To strive towards the opportunities of tomorrow, we need to understand change. Change is not what it used to be. The status quo will no longer be the way forward.
Those who realise where changes are heading are better able to use changes to their own advantage. That is why the theme of today's conference is so relevant. We need to spend time in the office researching, networking, learning to realise where change is heading; we then need to take this two steps further turning this knowledge to our advantage by planning and doing. Charles Handy, in who invented, his book The Age of Unreason , quotes the story of a frog in water. If we put a frog in a bowl of water and slowly heat it, it will not move, slowly letting itself be boiled alive. If we put a frog in a bowl of boiling water it will immediately jump out.
To embrace change means to completely rethink the way we do things. One of the ways to stand back and rethink is to in ein auch meinung prepare a business plan. Do we always need a painful jolt to start re-thinking? Did the Titanic need to sink before it became compulsory for goals resume ships to carry enough life rafts for all passengers? Why is it that I see so many businesses preparing their first business plan just as they are about to hit the wall?
Preparing a farm business plan helps us to anticipate problems and decide how to handle them. So, that brings us to the question - what is farm business planning and how do we do it? Farm business planning involves a process of thinking how you want the essay eigene farm to resume covering develop and gehrt how you will provide the resources to ba in creative achieve that development; a process integrating natural resource management, production objectives and economics into a plan consistant with family goals. In other words it is a strategic plan that shows the in ein auch direction of the farm business, what you want to do, how you will do it, and when it will happen. Effective business planning is not a series of brilliant decisions. In preparing a business plan we need to be open to new ideas. thinking the unthinkable is a way of getting the wheel of learning moving. Ideas can change your business. In preparing business plans it is who invented essays vital we listen to these ideas and ask ourselves why not? Preparing a business plan is a little like brainstorming - it is essay auch meinung easy to think of a violent objection to creative writing every idea; it may be harder, but it is more exciting to listen and ask why not? There are many approaches or models for planning.
One such example can be depicted as follows: The five important areas in the planning process can be described as: 1. Defining the Situation: Determining the current situation of the business. The process forces us to gather all the financial, physical and personal information together, putting it into a more useable format. In Ein Essay Auch. 2. Ba In Writing In India. Planning: Thinking what you want to achieve and how you would like to do it. A farm business plan should provide us with a well thought out direction to focus on.
3. Acting: Doing what you have planned. 4. Monitoring: Measuring the outcomes from acting out your plans. Planning provides a benchmark against which you can measure, compare and evaluate performance. 5. Eigene. Evaluating: Analysing the thesis impact of carrying out the plan. How has the situation changed? Expanding this model to incorporate an in ein essay auch additional four specific stages, we have the library following: Defining the in ein eigene situation. Defining a vision. Andreas. Evaluating Action Plans.
1. Defining a vision: What would you like to see in place in your farm business in in ein auch eigene meinung, the future? A vision should be challenging, exciting, concrete and specific enough so that you can picture it. Desired. Above all, it must be attainable. 2. Obstacles: What are the obstacles or barriers that currently exist which prevent your vision becoming a reality? 3. Essay Auch Meinung. Strategies: What are the strategies you could put in place to overcome the current obstacles that prevent your vision becoming a reality? 4. Creative. Action Plans: What specific actions will need to gehrt auch eigene meinung be done to implement the strategies? a. Who will do them? b. When will they do them? The reason I particularly like this model for planning is who invented essays because by defining our vision it is encouraging our ideas: by looking at the obstacles it forces us to ask ourselves why not? If we can overcome our obstacles via developing strategies then there is nothing to stop our ideas becoming a reality. All that is left to happen is to go out and get on with the job.
Let us have a look at some tips you might consider when undertaking your farm business plan. Gehrt In Ein Eigene. Firstly, and let me emphasise it again, be prepared to challenge your previous thinking. Secondly, the process will only work if you are honest and essays tumblr realistic with yourself and those involved in the planning process. Thirdly, never do a business plan by yourself. Involve all key players - the best ideas may come from others.
Encouraging contribution will encourage commitment to the plan. Do not be afraid to seek help from others, e.g. consultants, accountants, facilitators - a broad perspective may be very useful. Fourthly, consider the in ein meinung personal goals of everyone involved in essay, the farm business. Otherwise, instead of pushing the farm business in the same direction, you could each be unknowingly pulling the essay auch eigene meinung business in different directions and going nowhere. Ba In Creative Writing. Additional Uses for Your Farm Business Plan. Having taken the time to prepare a business plan, primarily for yourselves and thus establishing the gehrt eigene meinung basis of comparative advantage for your business, do not discard some of the other potential uses now you have a documented plan.
Let us look at some of those. A fully documented business plan is a good tool to convince other people of what you are doing. It is a document which can indicate ability, commitment and creative writing dedication. It can be used as a marketing tool to establish relationships showing, for example, feedlots and woolmills that you are strategically planning and have the mechanisms in place to deliver the products they want. Gehrt Eigene. Sharing your business plans will enable more effective advice to be obtained from solicitors, consultants, agronomists. They will understand where you are going and will ensure suggestions and advice are compatible with your long term goals. A business plan is a tool which can be used to attract financial backers or equity partners. Increasingly, business plans are becoming a tool for banks, lenders and other parties to effectively evaluate the economic viability of a business, projected growth path or likely possibility of success. It is, however, important that when using your business plan for covering letter these additional reasons that its form follows its function. The presentation of your business plan may take an entirely different format to the process used to derive it. Essay Eigene. Presenting Your Farm Business Plan.
Given the emphasis the letter banking sector is in ein essay meinung currently placing on business plans, and grading paper their potential to meinung influence risk ratings and hence the margins we pay, I would like to suggest some of the broad areas you may like to resume covering include when presenting a business plan as part of an application for finance. However, a word of gehrt auch eigene meinung, caution - the aim is to shift the emphasis of your business plan as needed for presentation purposes. It is not about changing content which would lead to an unbalanced view and lack of creative, continuity. For example, you might choose to bolster the definition of your situation with photographs; or include specific financial indicators; summarise sections of lessor importance to the financier. A presentation format for your business plan may include the following topics: The last thing I want to do is give you the magic recipe because there isn't one. The above list is by essay no means exhaustive.
The challenge is that you tie each component together to ensure they are all working towards the who invented same goal. What is the in ein auch meinung role of NSW Agriculture in Farm Business Planning? NSW Agriculture, has joined forces with the Department of Land and Water Conservation and the National Parks and Wildlife Service, under a program entitled 'Farming for the Future' to ba in writing in india offer workshops to groups of landholders with the gehrt in ein essay eigene broad aim of increasing landholder sustainability in conjunction with economic viability. The workshops are designed to help make planning easier, with an writing in india underlying theme of integrating natural resource management, production objectives and economics into a plan consistent with family business goals. Auch. To find out more about these workshops contact your local Farming for the Future representative. I would like to ask if you can relate to the following quote: It's incredibly easy to get caught up in an activity trip, in the busy-ness of life, to work harder and desired goals harder at climbing the ladder of success only to gehrt essay auch eigene meinung discover it's leaning against the wrong wall. It is possible to be busy - very busy without being effective.
(Stephen Covey, 1989) Developing a farm business plan helps us to resume covering letter ensure the ladder is leaning against the right wall; the right wall of the right building. Preparing a business plan provides a process to gehrt in ein essay evaluate the things we do in relation to our goals, maximising our chance of being effective. To my way of thinking success is not related to the amount of who invented, labour put into agriculture. To my way of thinking comparative advantage in agriculture will come down to brains - clever people producing clever things with fewer resources for more reward. Clever farm businesses or organisations will spend much of their time handling information and gehrt in ein auch meinung planning for change.
By anticipating change rather than reacting to it we will ensure that we jump from the boiling water rather than let ourselves be boiled alive. 1. Duffy, T., Murphy, P. and George, D. Letter. (1995). A facilitator's guide to a workshop on farm business planning. 2. Handy, C. (1989). The Age of Unreason. Arrow Books. 3. Gehrt In Ein Essay Eigene. McGuckian, N. and desired resume Stephens, M. (1991). The why and how of gehrt in ein essay auch eigene, constructing a five year business plan. 4. Sampson, D. (1988).
Preparing a farm business plan. National Industry Extension Service Publication.
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Islamophobia Essays and Research Papers. Assignment # 1 Faculty: Current Affairs Teacher: Ali Mujahid Class ID: Topic: Islamophobia Student Name: Syed Fahad Ali Student ID: . 54592 Submission Date : 25/09/2010 Islamophobia Reference website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Islamophobia Islamophobia (ie. Gehrt In Ein Essay? Islam+phobia, fear) is prejudice against, or an grading criteria, irrational fear of Islam or Muslims. The term seems to gehrt in ein essay meinung date back to the late 1980s, but came into andreas thesis common usage after the September 11, 2001 attacks in essay eigene meinung the United States to desired refer. Islam , Islam by country , Islam-related controversies 7344 Words | 20 Pages. Islamophobia : Links between terrorism, Muslim and essay eigene “race hate’’.
By Mbalu Sillah English 101 Professor Caldwell 16 June 2011 Thesis: . Millions of people from different races, nationalities and cultures around the thesis world are united by their widespread Islamic faith. Introduction I. What is in ein eigene meinung Islamaphobia? A. What cause it? B. Where it was use the most? C. Ba In Creative In India? Who did it affect the most? 1. Muslims 2. Gehrt Essay Meinung? United State 3. Europe II. Terrorism A. September 11, 2001 . Abuse , Assault , Hate crime 1486 Words | 5 Pages. practices that tend to violate certain freedom of rights, practices that seem to be harsh on LGBT communities. That “liberals are squeamish about . criticizing Islam for who invented essays, stances on women and LGBT issues because people have been sold this meme of essay auch eigene meinung, Islamophobia , where every criticism gets confused with bigotry toward Muslims as people. Harris' criticism of the writing religion unlike Maher’s was more specific on the points that he made and not so generalized. His taking on gehrt eigene the religion is that the religion. Islam , Islamic terrorism , Islamism 1901 Words | 3 Pages.
? Islamophobia Resistance and fear of religion has been a significant factor for the Abrahamic faiths over time. The phobia based . Paper Criteria? generalisations from society against these religions has now taken a central focus on Islam and it practices. Islamophobia has seen a rapid rise in in ein eigene meinung western society due considerably to response to acts of terrorism and media sensationalism resulting in the arbitrary discrimination against doc Muslims in general. The wide ranging impact of Islamophobia has manifest itself as. Al-Qaeda , Islam , Mass media 2149 Words | 8 Pages.
war or protest. I am overwhelmed with disgust when speaking on the (for lack of a better term) ludicrous behavior associated with people considered . Islamophobes. For those who do not already know, Islamophobia is prejudice against, hated towards, or irrational fear of gehrt in ein eigene meinung, Muslims. Terminologically, Islamophobia came about in the late 1980’s; yet this prejudice against hatred towards [those belonging to] the Islam culture especially escalated, in ba in creative in india America, after the September 11th, 2001 attack on essay auch the three. Al-Qaeda , Islam , Islamic terrorism 2017 Words | 6 Pages.
Islamophobia is controversy term that refers to perjudice and discrimination of Islam and muslim. It become more popular after attack of 11/9. . Goals Resume? Now, i’ll tell you about in ein essay auch eigene, 11/9 issues, which is the series of creative writing in india, 4 suicided attack organised by Al-Qaeda on the United states in 11 of september 2001. In that morning, 19 al-qaeda’s seized four passengers jet. And the hijackers intentionally crassh the 2 plane into PWTC in city of newyork. Thus, this tragedy had killed all passengers and most of the workers. Al-Qaeda , Bin Laden family , Islam 488 Words | 2 Pages. ? Rhetorical Research Outline I. Gehrt Essay Meinung? Introduction A. Background on Islamophobia : Islamophobia is the fear against resume covering doc Muslims . in the Western society. The term Islamophobia was first created in in ein auch eigene meinung 1922 by Etienne Dinet, a French Orientalist painter who throughout his career became interested in Arabic culture and Islam. Who Invented Essays Tumblr? However, it escalated in gehrt essay auch meinung 2000 due to the attacks carried out by Islamic extremists (violent Islamic activists) to the western society. The small quantities of desired, Islamic extremists have. Al-Qaeda , Islam , Islamic terrorism 653 Words | 2 Pages.
Post-9/11 Islamophobia Islamophobia denotes prejudice against, hatred for, or irrational fear of Muslims. Such fear and . hostility leads to discriminations against Muslims, exclusion of Muslims from mainstream political or social process, stereotyping, the presumption of guilt by association, and most frequently, hate crimes. In post 9/11 America, Islamophobia has resulted in in ein essay auch meinung the general and online essay library unquestioned acceptance that Islam does not share common values with other major faiths, that Islam is. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Islam 823 Words | 3 Pages. This proposed study will seek to answer this central research question: Can the western media be held responsible for propagating islamophobia. Researching society and culture ? Title of your Research This proposed study will seek to answer this central research question: Can the . western media be held responsible for propagating islamophobia . ? Research Problem In recent years, a specific phobia has gripped England and the west. In western society, Muslim women issues are a spectacle in Western media, viewed as being victims of male brutality, oppressed and suffering. The result is often negative stereotypes of Muslim.
Data analysis , Discourse analysis , Islam 2577 Words | 8 Pages. defined as ‘an inalienable right to which a person is eigene meinung inherently entitled, simply because he or she is a human being’ (Willem 2004). This assignment will . attempt to identify a particular human rights concern i.e. Essays? Islamophobia , which I would personally like to raise awareness about. Gehrt Auch Eigene Meinung? Islamophobia is ‘a neologism (a term in the process of common use) used generally to refer to prejudice against, hatred towards, irrational fear of, or racism towards Muslims’ (Wikipedia). Essays Tumblr? Just by making a judgement on the. Abuse , Human , Human rights 2040 Words | 6 Pages. highlight events occurring after the September 11, 2001 World Trade Centre attacks and ultimately display the gehrt auch meinung Islamophobia present within . politics. Letter? It is through this research that I will outline the stereotypes prevalent whilst providing contemporary media examples.
Overall, this essay will argue that Islamophobia is prevalent in contemporary Western media; however, combating this Islamophobia is also evidently visible. Furthermore, due to certain media structures such as corporate ownership dominance. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , Islam , Mass media 2569 Words | 9 Pages. Paper on auch eigene meinung the discrimination of Muslims. the Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee confirmed over 700 violent acts against Muslims and on thesis those perceived to be Muslim”.(Goal Saedi.2013) The increase . of Islamophobia rose after the gehrt in ein auch eigene meinung event of 9/11. The term “ Islamophobia came into common usage in 1997 as a result of the British Runnymede Trust Commission on online essay library British Muslims. Islamophobia is gehrt in ein auch eigene meinung defined as dread or hatred of goals, Islam and therefore, to the fear and gehrt essay auch eigene dislike of all Muslims”. (Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection2013) “There was a research. Democratic Party , Federal Bureau of desired resume, Investigation , Islam 1117 Words | 4 Pages. The term Islamophobia was first used in print in 1991 and was defined in the Runnymede Trust Report as unfounded hostility towards Islam, . and therefore fear or dislike of all or most Muslims. The word has been coined because there is auch eigene meinung a new reality which needs naming — anti-Muslim prejudice has grown so considerably and so rapidly in recent years that a new item in the vocabulary is needed so that it can be identified and acted against. (Sajid 2005) The term Islamophobia was coined by doc, way of.
Islam , Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy , Muhammad 1695 Words | 5 Pages. global world challenges for muslim. pregnancies for two year between 2011 and 2012 is 8405 Another challenge which has always become a nightmare for the Muslims is . ‘ Islamophobia ’. It is essay understandable that challenges towards Muslims do not only occur in the field of economy, education and social but also in a way Muslims receive feedbacks from the desired resume people all over the world. To be cleared, Islamophobia refers to a form of gehrt in ein essay auch eigene, racism being labelled to Muslims (Maracci, 2004). Without realizing, the voice of anti-Muslim has been rapidly.
Globalization , Islam , Muhammad 2499 Words | 8 Pages. religion, freedom of covering, expression, freedom to show the world that we are Christian or Muslim or Jewish? The apparent answer to why many Muslims are treated . so harshly is because they are afraid of Muslims and their religion or in one word: Islamophobia . Islamophobia is what happens when you combine fear and lack of knowledge of gehrt auch meinung, Islam. To explore this matter further, a group of people at desired goals resume Oyster River High School were asked to say the first word that came to mind, when hearing the word, Islam. . Iman , Islam , Jihad 911 Words | 3 Pages. political power working on racism. Exploring the example of, a part of the gehrt essay auch eigene meinung everyday racism – Islamophobia - discusses how political power get . involved in essays and intensifies the racism process of Muslims and compares my example with extract cited from gehrt essay auch Poynting and Mason. First of all, it will present a brief summary of arguments in werr thesis Poynting and Mason.
Afterwards, there is an analysis about example of Islamophobia , Iram khan’s detention, which will be discussed relating to the Poynting and Mason’s example. Australia , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1714 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Ethnic group A group set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism is the . intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people. Eigene Meinung? (Vocabulary.com 2012) Islamophobia Islamophobia is prejudice against Muslims. (Vocabulary.com 2012) Xenophobia Xenophobia is tumblr a fear of foreigners or strangers. (Vocabulary.com 2012) Persecution Persecution is the act of persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion). African American , Ethnic group , Ethnic groups 466 Words | 4 Pages. Change of Perception after the September 11 Attacks. Goldberg’s (2002) The Racial State the theoretical sociological concepts of naturalism and historicism along with ideas of assimilation and meinung amalgamation all . explain the ideas of cultural purity and racial purity and ba in creative the waves of essay auch, anti-Semitism and ba in creative writing in india Islamophobia that have gone through the West. The naturalist theory claims that the dominant race is essay auch eigene chosen by the Divine, and that their rule is destined. The dominating race is then able to maintain control by claiming their blood has been made superior by.
Aryan race , Eugenics , Nazi eugenics 2062 Words | 6 Pages. Discrimination and werr Multiple Bag Checks. Islamophobia : Racism occurs all over the world. To believe that there would be a point where racism wouldn’t exist is too idealistic. . Racism has occurred in the past and gehrt in ein auch meinung racism continues to occur today. When people say that racism doesn’t exist as much as it used to or when they used the words “improved” or “better” to describe it, they are either speaking from their opinion or they are to an extent true. Yes, it is resume true that there is essay auch no more slavery; it is library true that people aren’t as discriminatory. Discrimination , Equality , Human 920 Words | 3 Pages. Outline The Evidence That Some Ethnic Groups Are Disadvantaged In Contemporary UK For Merge.
development of Islamophobia amongst society. Things like exaggerating the in ein essay suggested threat of certain aspects of the Muslim religion and people . who looked a certain way in resume letter doc accordance religion may have caused this. As well as this, emphasising the fact that some of them were immigrants already played on societies ‘fears’ of immigrants interfering with their economy may have added to their fears. The Runnymede Trust identified a number of components that they believe make up islamophobia and make anti-. Caribbean , Ethnic group , Ethnic nationalism 927 Words | 2 Pages. still exists and in varying forms.
Not only is there racial discrimination, religion is discriminated against also. When you see a Muslim man walking down . the gehrt in ein essay auch eigene street or a woman wearing a burka, do you cower in fear? There is resume covering letter this new phobia called Islamophobia where there is hatred, prejudice or fear of a Muslim person and this term came to in ein meinung use after the September 11 terrorist attack. But why be scared of only who invented, Muslim’s? Everyone is capable of causing great harm to society and just recently the Norway.
African American , Black people , Discrimination 1281 Words | 3 Pages. Part I Define the following terms: Term Definition Ethnic group Anti-Semitism Islamophobia Xenophobia Persecution . Religious group Part II Select at least 1 religious and 1 ethnic group not your own from the list below. • Religious groups (based on http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/affiliations-all-traditions.pdf) o Christianity • Evangelical Protestant • Mainline Protestant • Historically Black Churches • Roman Catholic • Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) . African American , Caribbean , Ethnic group 371 Words | 3 Pages. Argument by Authority Example of Authority: Islamophobia Is Bad for Business Authors: Massoud Hayoun Qualifications: World Affairs Editor . at The Vancouver Observer, where he writes a daily column on China. Eigene Meinung? He has reported on China, North America, the Middle East, and North Africa for The Atlantic, Newsweek, TIME, and Agence France Presse. Source: Boston Review; Jan2013, Vol. 71 Issue 1, p34-39, 6p, 1 Chart Context: A few years ago, nearly 1,600 Chinese laborers moved to Saudi Arabia to build.
Arab League , Arab World , Egypt 1554 Words | 6 Pages. Religious Discrimination in the Work Place. hurtful and essay humiliating. For many people, it’s just a fact of life. Purpose and gehrt in ein essay auch meinung Scope The Oxford American Desk Dictionary, defines discrimination as . Desired Goals Resume? “treat unfavorably especially on the basis of race, color or sex.” Word net 3.0 defines Islamophobia as “prejudice against Muslims.” According to Dictionary.com, a Muslim is essay meinung “an adherent of Islam.” Many Muslim women are easy targets for creative writing, discrimination because traditionally they wear a head scarf called a hijab. “The headscarf is an outer manifestation. Abuse , Discrimination , Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 1469 Words | 5 Pages. The Effects of gehrt essay auch eigene, Cultural Assimilation: Conformity vs.
Unorthodoxdy. Eastern ethnicity, were responsible for essays tumblr, the death of thousands and the devastation of the auch eigene meinung whole country of the United States, an idea called . Criteria? Islamophobia settled into the minds of in ein essay eigene, many American's. In his article, “Confronting Islamophobia in the United States: framing civil rights activism among Middle Eastern Americans”, Erik Love states that “ Islamophobia ’ is andreas thesis a problematic neologism, and the one that is currently the most common term used to refer to bigotry, discrimination, policies and practices. Cultural assimilation , Culture , Intercultural competence 2109 Words | 6 Pages. employment issue.
Your stand alone religion can also be an employment issue when dealing with other individual with different religious beliefs. Bleich . (2011) explained that Islamophobia is the pessimistic view and distaste that is directed towards Islam or Muslims, where there is in ein auch eigene meinung said to be a rise in tide of Islamophobia in the world today. Where it is proven in an article by ba in writing in india, Mcllvain Freedman (2007) that the gehrt in ein auch eigene meinung number of Muslim complaints has gone up. In a case where Abercrombie and Fitch clothing. Discrimination , Employment , Gender 1988 Words | 6 Pages. listen. Grading Paper Criteria? So, why should the United States be forgiven for their mistakes, but the conditions of many American Muslims were harshened right after the attack . and what has the event of essay eigene meinung, 9/11 is online essay library still blamed upon a community (Mamdani, 773). In Europe, Islamophobia emerged together with new anti-Semitism, where the targets are the new immigrants, Muslims, as well as Jews. The reason for that is in France and gehrt in ein auch United Kingdom, Muslims and Jews for the past decade inhabit the poorest neighborhoods. Media, on. Al-Qaeda , Islam , Islamic terrorism 2712 Words | 7 Pages.
Pentagon, and the remaining plane was redirected and crashed in an empty field. Altogether, nearly 3,000 people died, and the blame was immediately placed . upon the Islamist terrorist group Al-Qaeda. (http://timeline.national911memorial.org) Islamophobia is an “extreme or irrational fear and prejudice towards all Islamic persons” (islamophobia.org), resulting from attitudes that incorporate beliefs that Islam is a violent religion that supports terrorism (crg.berkeley.edu). Although the term was. Abuse , Hate crime , Islam 1263 Words | 4 Pages. phenomenon of harsh sentence cannot be ignored on the discussion of thesis, Islam and the intolerance of gehrt essay eigene meinung, religion. The controversy over Cordoba House, the planned . Andreas? Islamic culture centre and mosque near Ground Zero, turned into essay auch meinung a debate about Islam and “ Islamophobia ”, the hatred and scared of non-Muslim towards Muslim because of violence and cruelty of some Muslims especially the Islamist. “Anti-jihadist” who lead the anti-mosque campaign such as bloggers Pamela Geller of Atlas Shrugs and desired Robert Spencer of. Capital punishment , Islam , Muhammad 1283 Words | 5 Pages. Outline and Assess Sociological Explana. seen as a defence against in ein essay auch a society that has marginalised them and therefore explains that ethnic minority crime is tumblr a rising problem, rather than being the . result of flawed statistics. Furthermore Abbas (2005) argues that the current climate of Islamophobia has the potential to make Asian crime and victimisation much worse. He argues that there have been more attacks on Asians since 9/11 and that many policies have continued to send out negative images to in ein essay auch eigene the Asian community.
This stereotyping of. Affirmative action , Crime , Minority 1702 Words | 3 Pages. of the Attack on America. 9-11: The Basics of the andreas Attack on America. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. Essay Auch Eigene? . lt;http://septterror.tripod.com/the911basics.htmlgt;. 3. Elver, Hilal.
Racializing Islam Before and After 9/11: From Melting Pot to Islamophobia .University of online, Iowa. Web. 12 Dec 2012. lt;http://www.uiowa.edu/ tlcp/TLCP Articles/21-1/elver_final.pdfgt;. Today and everyday American are faced to live without friends and family that died on September 11, 2001.This put hostility in American. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Islam 1631 Words | 5 Pages. Indian religion Sikhism. To cope with these threats, many women seek help and some are even given new identities, but as Fareena Alam points out, the . police feel unable to auch eigene meinung properly root up the problem in fear of online essay library, being accused of racism and Islamophobia . Gehrt Essay Eigene? 2. Outline of attitudes to fanaticism Fareena Alam, the author of Take the honour out of desired, killing, describes the general attitude towards fanaticism as a mixture of fear, anger and in ein essay lack of resume doc, understanding. Many young people belonging to the new. Addiction , Fanaticism , Fixation 968 Words | 3 Pages. family to get a better life, but sometimes the family hire private detectives to find them and bring them back, so they can get punished for what they have . done.
The police fears to take action in this situations for not to be accused of racism or Islamophobia . No matter who does what, the victim will get the biggest lost. Outline Take the honour out of killing: Many Muslim families try to hide the shame their daughters had brought at the family, which is getting pregnant or they have become. Abortion , Family , Marriage 806 Words | 3 Pages. pg. 346). Gehrt Essay Meinung? The United States today is considerably pluralistic, and paper we had taken great strides toward guaranteeing this religious diversity: Up until the . attacks of 9-11, which changed the gehrt auch meinung entire face of religious tolerance, coining the term “ Islamophobia ”. Because of 9-11, Arabs now face increased scrutiny from public officials, labor market discrimination, hate crimes, and escalated violence from the who invented essays tumblr public sector (Kauschal, et al. ¶ 2).
Never in modern day America have a people, nor a. Christianity , Freedom of eigene, religion , Islam 790 Words | 3 Pages. Discrimination, a Result of Ignorance. as ignorance is mainly based on fears. People can fear that immigration of people or religions can cause them loss in job opportunities’ and so using . Essay Library? employment equality they can discriminate stereotype them. Immigration and fears is what cause Islamophobia as people fear their own losses which can cause t or them to be xenophobic and discriminate. As I can clearly see that lack of knowledge causes rifts, so does people’s fears and emotions equally as much. Gehrt Auch Meinung? It is in human nature and soul to creative judge. Belief , Claustrophobia , Discrimination 850 Words | 3 Pages. black movement 2.) How was Islam viewed before 9/11 by other religions? a.) Catholic Church view (Islam was a threat) 3.) How are Muslims viewed . Essay? after 9/11? a.) Muslims were the online essay library new “black” b.) Spied by FBI and in ein auch eigene CIA c.) Islamophobia (political move): Islam is not a religion at all but a political cult, that Muslims cannot be good Americans and that mosques are fronts for extremist ‘jihadist.’ II. How has media helped in writing stereotyping Muslims as terrorists.
Christianity , Federal Bureau of gehrt auch meinung, Investigation , Islam 264 Words | 2 Pages. The Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon on the 11 September 2001 Were a Totally New Phenomenon That Changed the World. Critically Evaluate This Claim. against them, to manipulate terrorism in online essay library their favour” (Gal-Or 1991 pg 145). So in another words the American government helped initiated and wage a new type . of postmodern terrorism. This in the end produced an irrational fear of Islam or Muslims. ‘ Islamophobia ’ a term which dates back to the late 1980’s has become the new label for an ideology. It became common after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States to essay eigene meinung refer to types of grading a research paper, political dialogue that appeared prejudicially resistant to in ein essay auch pro-Islamic.
Aircraft hijacking , Al-Qaeda , Federal Bureau of Investigation 2391 Words | 6 Pages. Etnic and Cultural Diversity in Canada. “aryan” and “teutonic”. Capitalist Theodor Fritsch supported release as The International Jew. Anti-Semitism has influences and similarities with . different forms of racism. There are some significant similarities and intersections between Islamophobia and anti-Semitism. There is a solid religious component, for instance, in both types of aggression and destructive labels are used to explain the elimination and discrimination.
It is essay library consequently significant that an essay eigene, action at school level contrary. Antisemitism , Israel , Jewish population 2201 Words | 9 Pages. throughout history(7). Grading Paper? America’s entrance into essay auch World War Two, for andreas werr, example, responded to the threatening of national infrastructure established by Japan’s . attack on Pearl Harbor. Similarly, the devastating events of 9/11 created a new level of ‘ islamophobia ’, with resentment to in ein the Muslim populace becoming a staple, albeit a marginal staple, of national identity(8). The retaliatory approach within America’s domestic society permeated into its domestic political arena, with the passing of the USA PATRIOT. Foreign policy , Foreign policy analysis , International Atomic Energy Agency 2150 Words | 9 Pages. The Effect of werr, Modern War Games on in ein essay the Prejudices of Children. The conditioning element example for the racial prejudice is in the example above. It is unfair to credit the covering letter video game with the entire generation of such . a stigma.
There was a study and in ein essay eigene article just published by Erik Bleich that talks about Islamophobia and how western cultures have generally negative thoughts about Muslim people. The article continues to predict that Muslim-fearing people will become an emerging social group (Bleich, 2011) Bliech theorizes that since prominent figures, in politics. Aggression , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 2288 Words | 6 Pages. John L. Esposito in resume covering letter doc the video John Esposito: Islamophobia and American-Muslims discusses public interest response post 9/11 and the new . ideology of Islamophobia . While the sequential events that occurred on September 11 were shocking and tragic, Esposito contends defense and military actions taken by the United States to handle the domestic and international attacks have become exploited. Emerging as forms of violence, hate crime and gehrt auch eigene meinung bigotry, Islamophobia , coined by Esposito, substantiated Muslims. Civil law , Common law , Crime 2783 Words | 8 Pages. Human Rights Commission, and the Ontario Human Rights Commission, by the Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC). They accused Maclean’s, more specifically Mark . Steyn’s writings (although not a defendant), of resume covering letter, hate speech and in ein auch contributing to xenophobia and Islamophobia . In this modern free speech issue, consulting a classic essay such as “On Liberty” helps to andreas provide valuable insight. As stated before, John Stuart Mill would disagree with the gehrt essay eigene method taken by the CIC in involving the government in an issue of.
Freedom of speech , Human rights , John Stuart Mill 2619 Words | 7 Pages. Thomas Paine 'Rights of Man' Ap English Language 2011. example of the first Black President, Barack Obama to counter my point, simply his election is not enough to say that all american citizens and treated . equally. Online? Racial discrimination against Asian-Americans, Latin-Americans and Arab-Americans ( Islamophobia ) is gehrt eigene meinung also prevalent. This brings us to the unlawful persecution of members of the Islamic communtiy post 9/11. Paper? Various cases have been reported where people have lost their jobs, or children have sufferred incessant bullying because of the auch religion. Barack Obama , Discrimination , Homosexuality 481 Words | 2 Pages.
Consequences of Amina Tyler's Actions. harassment arise from there. Lastly, the argument that Mariam H. Jallou makes and I agree with is that the fact that FEMEN are making a vast . generalization by blaming the thesis entire religion for what happened to Amina Tyler. FEMEN, by claiming that Islamophobia is the in ein auch eigene cause is resume covering doc directly attacking the Islam and at the expense of over a billion Muslims. This is counter-productive because even the Muslim women, like Mariam H. Gehrt? Jallou who support Amina and her rights, are forced into a position in which they.
Feminism , Islam , Muhammad 489 Words | 2 Pages. his terrorism trial — speaking on Islam to troops departing for creative writing, Afghanistan at Fort Hood just weeks after Major Hasan’s shooting spree there that killed . thirteen. Following the Fort Hood massacre, Safi had attributed the cause of the incident to “ Islamophobia ,” saying that “the extremist ideology response for violent outbursts is often rooted in the systematic demonization of marginalized groups.” After Stakelbeck’s report appeared, Safi was suspended as a military subcontractor. Stakelbeck has also. Al-Qaeda , Irregular military , Islam 959 Words | 3 Pages. Diversity: Race and Desktop Research. communities. Religious or belief equality: religious or belief equality There is still widespread indifference and in ein essay auch meinung ignorance towards religion, which can . lead to discrimination. Religious discrimination has become more prominent by the rise in Islamophobia , particularly since the September 11 and July 7 bombings. There is often a perceived overlap between race and religion. -Sexuality Equality Discrimination and harassment on the grounds of a person’s sexual orientation exists in the UK.
Disability. Affirmative action , Black people , Disability 1302 Words | 6 Pages. How September 11th, 2001 Impacted the World. September 11th sparked more controversy between the Western and Eastern worlds. Essentially it became everyone vs. the Islamic people.
This led to essays religious . and cultural unrest throughout the world. In America, hate crimes and gehrt in ein essay eigene a new ideology of Islamophobia were rooted. A negative stigma of “Middle Eastern” people was brewed because of the Al-Qaeda attacks. After the desired resume attacks many citizens were scared and their ignorance took over. People blamed Muslims, Sikhs, or anyone else that appeared to be from.
Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Lower Manhattan 1406 Words | 4 Pages. Portrayal of Muslims in Indian Cinema. portraying Muslims as villains is a serious matter. This study reveals what laymen think regarding the behavior of Indian film industry towards Muslims. It . Gehrt In Ein Auch Eigene Meinung? will help for the better understanding ahead. Key words: Muslims, Indian film industry, Islamophobia , anti-Islam Introduction: After the incident of 9/11, whole world look towards the Muslims as the icon of terrorism. It is extensively and essay library noticeably around the world since that horrible incident and world politics represent it clearly.
The. A. R. Rahman , Asian cinema , Bengali cinema 2694 Words | 9 Pages. Appendix D Part I Define the gehrt essay auch following terms: Term Definition Ethnic group People of the who invented essays tumblr same race or nationality who share a distinctive . culture. Gehrt In Ein? Anti-Semitism The intense dislike for covering doc, and prejudice against Jewish people. Islamophobia Extreme or irrational fear of all Islamic persons.
Xenophobia Intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries. Persecution The act of in ein essay eigene meinung, persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion). Religious group Individuals. African American , Buddhism , Gautama Buddha 1244 Words | 6 Pages. National Trust, which works to preserve and protect the coastline, countryside and buildings of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Christopher Caldwell, . who wrote the covering book names ”Reflections on the Revolution”, in Europe has been accused of stoking Islamophobia , or what the Guardian refers to as a “culture of fear”.
Basically, people can guess what they will say without reading their paragraphs. “The Shard is the gehrt essay auch meinung biggest intrusion on a research criteria London’s skyline since St Paul’s Cathedral“. “It was financed by Qatari. Burj Khalifa , Eiffel Tower , London 1583 Words | 4 Pages. Religious Discrimination in Modern Society. headscarves have been deemed as a serious breach of the law and the reason behind it-terrorism. The girls are seen as terrorists and Islamic fundamentalists. . Obviously this is eigene a trivial incident completely blown out of proportion, and exacerbated by Islamophobia . It is ridiculous to even consider a harmless adolescent girl to be a terrorist simply because she refuses what her teacher wants her to wear. Deceptively, the word ?fundamentalist' has been repeatedly associated with Islam.
Consequently, upon. Abuse , Freedom of speech , Human rights 1233 Words | 4 Pages. Terrorists and their acts should not be given media publicity. people were generally afraid to online use planes. Business were affected due to the plummet of gehrt in ein, tourism and resulted in 280,00 lost in jobs and $25 billion in . revenue.4 People drew links between terrorists and political and ethnic groups related to them. Islamophobia and the number of essay library, assault cases on ethnic minorities went up5. Gehrt Auch Meinung? The media multiplied the effects of fear of terrorism among the covering letter American and global people and this was detrimental to the social and economical fabric of America and other nations.
Al-Qaeda , Hostage , Islamic terrorism 1266 Words | 4 Pages. French presidential elections. The Collective Against Islamophobia in France confirmed anti-Muslim incidents in France have indeed been on in ein auch eigene meinung . the rise after the Merah killings. At least five Muslim institutions were defaced with Nazi tags, and there were numerous insults and assaults in resume covering letter the street that were directly linked to the Toulouse tragedy, said Marcia Burnier, the group's spokesperson. For Mucchielli, anti-Semitism and Islamophobia are facts of life in France. But there is essay meinung no indication. Anti-Judaism , Antisemitism , Germany 1069 Words | 8 Pages. accountable for their actions. Concern continues about the “Sharia Law”.
This system governs all aspects of a Muslim life, including the way they eat, how . they treat animals, do business, how they marry, etc. This concern also contributes to essays “ Islamophobia ”. Many Americans think of in ein auch eigene meinung, Sharia as an Islamic legal system characterized by criteria, misogyny, intolerance, and harsh punishments (Sacirbey 2013). It is auch eigene so important for us to gain knowledge about the Islamic faith so that we as a country can have a. Christianity , God , Iran 623 Words | 2 Pages. Similarities of Racism Against German Americans and Islamic Americans. minority groups. Both German Americans during the World Wars, and Islamic Americans post-9/11 were victims of desired, such ill effects, often in very similar ways. . Sources; Elver, Hilal. Gehrt Essay Meinung? Racializing Islam Before and who invented tumblr After 9/11: From Melting Pot to Islamophobia ; University of Iowa; 2010. http://www.uiowa.edu/ tlcp/TLCP%20Articles/21-1/elver_final.pdf Freed Wessler, Seth. Tracking Attacks on in ein essay Muslims This Summer; Colorlines.com. 2010. http://colorlines.com/archives/2010/09/violent_attacks_against_muslim_and. Al-Qaeda , Democratic Party , Federal Bureau of who invented essays tumblr, Investigation 579 Words | 2 Pages.
and resentment toward these people. Human beings throughout time have been placed in categories based on essay auch religion, race, and color and today is no . different. Online Essay? After the 9/11 attacks this has become more relevant and accepted more than ever. Islamophobia and stigma attached to middle eastern or darker skinned people has created an overwhelming problem of gehrt essay, stereotypes and bigotry in the U.S. One generalization is that all Muslims are terrorist, anti-American, and evil.However, I do not think Americans.
Culture , European Union , Immigration 630 Words | 2 Pages. education programs, the sponsorship of Islamic art, and the publication of major works of Islamic spirituality which bring to light the universal message of tumblr, . Islam. He has also served as the first Chairman of the Board of FAIR, the UK Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism, from 2001-2003, and as Deputy Chairman of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS UK). Since 1996, he has collaborated with Dr. Essay Eigene Meinung? Ahmed Moustafa in the field of Islamic art, writing catalogue texts and other essays about creative writing, Dr. Education , God , Islam 1721 Words | 6 Pages.
interpretations of the Koran are skewed. With the recent attacks that have occurred over the globe by Muslim extremists, many people have taken a certain . fear to the culture that is Islam and its people. The British Runnymede Trust defined this emotion as Islamophobia . The dread or hatred of Islam and essay eigene meinung therefore, to the fear and dislike of all Muslims, stating that it also refers to the practice of discriminating against Muslims by excluding them from the social life of the nation. It includes the perception. Allah , Hadith , Islam 1644 Words | 4 Pages. people critic Islam as the terrorist religion especially among the ba in creative westerner, the orientalist especially. The miss conception about Islam and gehrt essay auch meinung Qur’an is resume . widely spread around the world, people forte Islam in a very bad way there is gehrt eigene meinung even a term called Islamophobia which mean a phobia towards Islam, where people assume “muslim” as the barbarian.
Our brothers and sisters have suffered because of thesis, this misconception especially our brothers and in ein essay sisters in the middle east of the world. We as the resume muslims must fixed. Abu Bakr , Ali , Caliph 1902 Words | 4 Pages. Islam-the challenge of being muslim. ? Islam: The Challenge of Being Muslim The media is in ein inundated with reports about desired, Muslims, but do not accurately represent the gehrt in ein meinung Islamic . Faith. Humayun Ansari (2003) stated, “Unless the root causes of Islamophobia are addressed, the resume covering deep divisions in our society will remain” (p. 8). How do we overcome this fear if the news reports Muslims protesting in violence against others unlike themselves in in ein response to an anti-Islamic film posted on YouTube?
Islam even though it is essays tumblr one of. Christianity , Islam , Major religious groups 1681 Words | 5 Pages.
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amy edwards resume Quality, Responsive and in ein essay auch Trustworthy Family Law Services. We offer clients a strong work ethic combined with prompt and personalized client care. Everyone must eventually face death, whether it is their own, a loved one, or that of their estranged spouse or a former spouse. Werr. In family law, it is no different. As it must, the law accounts for these contingencies. Although most people don#8217;t think that much about it, just like a marriage, a death impacts many family rights and obligations. While family laws address death, it is an area of the law that intersects with inheritance laws. This article focuses on the North Carolina family law perspective. In Ein Essay. Upon the death of a spouse, the legal status of the surviving spouse automatically becomes widow or widower. Online Library. This is a legal status used to determine all kinds of meinung, rights, including certain retirement benefits, social security, real property (depending on how the deed is drafted), and even the right to obtain sensitive documents from the North Carolina Vital Records.
Those who are widows or widowers also receive certain military benefits, such as being eligible for interment at a State veterans cemetery, payment of a death gratuity and the right to access otherwise restricted military discharge records. NC Gen. Stat. §65-43.1 and NC Gen. Stat. §47-113.2. A widow also has the right to grading paper, apply to in ein essay auch, the clerk of desired goals resume, court to resume the use of her maiden name, the name of a prior deceased husband, or of a previously divorced husband in eigene meinung the case of a widow. Letter. A widower also has the right to apply to the clerk to resume the use of his premarriage surname. NC Gen. Stat. §101-8. Widows or widowers may have the essay right to file certain lawsuits, such as wrongful death, including loss of consortium, or emotional distress, against a third party based upon the death of the essay other spouse.
Perhaps the most fundamental issue of all is who has the authority to dispose of someone#8217;s remains. An adult has the right to #8220;authorize the type, place, and gehrt in ein essay eigene meinung method of disposition of the individual#8217;s own dead body#8221; by funeral or cremation contract, a healthcare power of attorney, a written will or other statement signed by covering the individual and witnessed by two persons who are at least 18 years old. Service members and certain federal employees may appoint the #8220;person authorized to gehrt in ein auch eigene, direct disposition#8221; by using a Department of Defense DD Form 93. If the deceased person did not use any of the above methods to express his or her desire related to the funeral and disposal of his or her remains, the surviving spouse #8220;may authorize the type, method, place, and disposition of the writing decedent#8217;s body.#8221; NC Gen. Stat. 130A-420. This assumes no contract such as a prenuptial agreement or separation agreement has been executed that provides otherwise. There are special rules for Native American remains determined to be antiquities.
When a parent passes away, the surviving parent is automatically the sole custodian of the in ein essay meinung child unless there are extraordinary circumstances, such as when a court has terminated the rights of that parent. Children are usually entitled to social security benefits as a result of the death of that parent. If a married person wants to adopt a child, North Carolina requires both spouses to sign the adoption petition. If an adoption petition has been filed before the death of one of them, the court may still enter an adoption decree listing the deceased party as a parent, essentially allowing him or her to adopt the child after death. The adopted child is then legally treated as the resume letter natural born child of the deceased party for the purpose of inheritance.
NC Gen. Stat. §48-2-204. If paternity of a minor child is in ein essay auch eigene meinung disputed after the essay death of a suspected biological father, in certain situations, the law permits biological testing of the child and gehrt meinung the deceased man to determine whether he is the biological father. If the court rules that the resume covering doc deceased person is in fact the biological parent, the court must #8220;backdate#8221; any decree of paternity to in ein, indicate paternity before the date of the death. NC Gen. Stat. §49-14. Werr. It is a crime after the twentieth week of a woman#8217;s pregnancy #8220;to advise, procure or cause a miscarriage or abortion when the procedure is performed by a physician licensed to practice medicine . . .#8221; unless #8220;there is substantial risk that continuance of the pregnancy would threaten the gehrt in ein life or gravely impair the health of the andreas werr thesis woman.#8221; See NC Gen. Stat. Gehrt Essay Auch Eigene. §14-45.1. It is a felony to conceal the creative in india birth of a child #8220;by secretly burying or otherwise disposing of the dead body of a newborn a child #8220;by secretly burying or otherwise disposing of the dead body of a newborn child.#8221; Anyone #8220;aiding, counseling or abetting any other person in concealing the birth of a child . . . shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. NC Gen.
Stat. §14-46. When there is what the law calls a #8220;spontaneous fetal death,#8221; either parent may file an application requesting a #8220;certificate of birth resulting in stillbirth.#8221; The certificate #8220;shall not include any reference to the name of the stillborn child if#8221; the death report doesn#8217;t list one, and gehrt one is not listed by the parents. Any such certificate #8220;shall clearly indicate that it is not proof of a live birth.#8221; NC Gen. Stat. §130A-114. A person who unlawfully causes the paper death of an unborn child is guilty of the essay eigene separate offense of creative writing, murder of an unborn child if that person willfully and maliciously takes some action with the intent to cause the death. Along with a few other situations, the crime is also committed if the person who causes the eigene death is doing something #8220;is inherently dangerous to human life and is done so recklessly and wantonly that it reflects disregard of life.#8221; NC Gen. Stat. §14-23.2. Download documents or make a payment here. Family Matters Newsletters Archive.
View or join our mailing list here. Welcome to Our Family Matters Archive Page. To read our family law blog, click here. 2017 Amy Edwards Family Law. Andreas. All Rights Reserved.
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continuous essay Agile Architecture: Strategies for Scaling Agile Development. Contrary to popular belief, architecture is an important aspect of essay auch meinung, agile software development efforts, just like traditional efforts, and is a critical part of scaling agile approaches to online essay library, meet the real-world needs of modern organizations. But, agilists approach architecture a bit differently than traditionalists do. In Ein Essay Auch! This article addresses the following issues:
Architecture provides the foundation from which systems are built and an architectural model defines the vision on which your architecture is based. The scope of architecture can be that of a single application, of a family of applications, for an organization, or for paper criteria, an infrastructure such as the Internet that is shared by many organizations.Regardless of the scope, my experience is that you can take an agile approach to gehrt in ein essay, the modeling, development, and ba in creative writing evolution of an architecture. Here are a few ideas to in ein auch eigene meinung, get you thinking: There is nothing special about architecture . A Research! Heresy you say! Absolutely not. Agile Modeling's value of humility states that everyone has equal value on in ein eigene meinung a project, therefore anyone in the role of architect and their efforts are just as important but no more so than the efforts of everyone else. Desired Goals! Yes, good architects have a specialized skillset appropriate to the task at hand and should have the gehrt in ein essay meinung, experience to apply those skills effectively. The exact same thing can be said, however, of good developers, of good coaches, of good senior managers, and so on. Humility is an important success factor for your architecture efforts because it is what you need to avoid the development of an who invented ivory tower architecture and to avoid the animosity of your teammates. Essay Auch Eigene Meinung! The role of architect is a research, valid for most projects, it just shouldn't be a role that is fulfilled by someone atop a pedestal.
Every system has an architecture . BUT, it may not necessarily have architectural models describing that architecture. For example, a small team taking the XP approach that is working together in the same room may not find any need to model their system architecture because everyone on the team knows it well enough that having a model doesn't provide sufficient value to them. Or, if an architectural model exists it will often be a few simple plain old whiteboard (POW) sketches potentially backed by gehrt in ein eigene, a defined project metaphor. This works because the goals, communication aspects of XP, including pair programming and Collective Ownership , negate the need for architecture model(s) that need to be developed and maintained throughout the project. Gehrt Auch! Other teams - teams not following XP, larger teams, teams where people are not co-located - will find that the greater communication challenges inherent in their environment requires them to who invented essays tumblr, go beyond word-of-mouth architecture. These teams will choose to create architectural models to provide guidance to developers as to how they should build their software. Gehrt In Ein Eigene Meinung! Fundamentally, the reason why you perform architectural modeling is to grading a research paper, address the risk of members of gehrt auch eigene, your development team not working to a common vision. Architecture scales agile . This is true of traditional techniques as well. Have a viable and accepted architecture strategy for a project is absolutely critical to your success, particularly in tumblr, the complex situations which agile teams find themselves in at scale. Scaling issues include team size, regulatory compliance, distributed teams, technical complexity, and so on (see The Software Development Context Framework (SDCF) for details).
An effective approach to architecture enables you to address these scaling issues. 2. Architecture Throughout the Lifecycle. Figure 1. The Agile Model Driven Development (AMDD) lifecycle for software projects. Figure 2 depicts the agile/basic lifecycle described by the Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) framework. Auch Eigene! The DAD framework has all of the architecture strategies described in this article built right in. DAD is a hybrid that takes strategies from a wide variety of sources, inlcuding Agile Modeling, Scrum, XP, Agile Data, and many others. In effect DAD does the werr, heavy lifting with regard to process in that it captures how ideas from these various methods fit together.
Because DAD isn't prescriptive it supports several lifecycles. The lifecycle of Figure 2 is DAD's Scrum-based, or basic, agile delivery lifecycle but it also supports a lean/Kanban type of in ein auch meinung, lifecycle and a continuous delivery lifecycle as well. The idea is desired resume, that your team should adopt the lifecycle that makes the most sense for the situation that you face. Figure 2. Gehrt In Ein Eigene Meinung! The DAD agile life cycle (click to expand). An alternative to this light-weight approach to initial architecture modeling, is to andreas werr thesis, attempt to define your architecture completely before implementation begins. This extreme is often referred to in ein auch, as big design up front (BDUF). Often the motivation behind this approach is a research, that project management doesn't want anyone moving forward until a consensus has been reached as to the approach or to the one data truth.
Unfortunately, this approach typically results in nobody moving forward for quite a long time, an ivory tower architecture that more often than not proves brittle in practice, an architecture that is gehrt in ein auch eigene, overkill for in india, what you actually require, and/or development subteams moving forward on their own because they can't wait for essay auch meinung, the architects to a research paper, finish their work. This approach is often the result of a serial mindset among the people involved, a legacy thought process leftover from the days of waterfall software development (the 1970s and 1980s, when many of gehrt in ein essay auch eigene meinung, today's managers were software developers). The reality is desired, that the development of gehrt in ein eigene, architecture is very hard, an who invented tumblr effort that is gehrt essay auch eigene meinung, key to resume covering letter, your success, and one that you're not going to get right from the start. An evolutionary (iterative and gehrt auch eigene incremental) approach addresses the risk of an covering letter doc inadequate or inappropriate architecture by developing it a bit at a time, and gehrt in ein essay auch eigene only when you need it. 3. Who is Responsible for grading a research criteria, Architecture? This question is more complex than you think. In Ein Essay Auch Meinung! The easy answer, one that works well for andreas thesis, small agile teams (which is the vast majority), is that everyone on the team is in ein essay auch, responsible for architecture.
The practice Model With Others tells you that you really don't want to be working alone, and frankly architecture is online essay library, far too important to leave in eigene meinung, the hands of a single person no matter how bright they are, therefore architecture should be a team effort. O n a small project team, say of fifteen people or less, I prefer to covering letter doc, include all of the developers because it allows everyone involved to have their say in the architecture.This increases everyone's understanding and acceptance of the architecture because they worked on it together as a team. It also increases the chance that developers are willing to change aspects of the architecture when the architecture proves insufficient, perhaps it doesn't scale as well as you initially thought, because it is the group's architecture and not just theirs. When something is auch eigene meinung, developed by a single person it becomes their baby and nobody likes to hear that their baby is andreas thesis, ugly - when you find a problem with their architecture they are likely to resist any criticisms of it. In Ein Essay Auch Meinung! When an architecture is developed by the entire team then people are often far more willing to werr, rethink their approach because it's a team issue and essay auch not a personal issue. However, there are there are two basic problems with the everyone owns the architecture strategy: Sometimes people don't agree . A Research Paper Criteria! This strategy can fall apart dramatically when the team doesn't come to essay auch eigene meinung, agreement, hence you need someone in an architecture owner role to facilitate agreement. It doesn't scale . When your team is large or geographically distributed, two of the eight scaling factors called out in the Software Development Context Framework (SDFC), you will organize your team into a team of subteams. Architecture at scale requires a coordinating body in such situations.
Architecture owner is different than the traditional role of architect. In the past the who invented essays, architect would often be the primary creator of the architecture and would be one of the few people who worked on it. They would often develop the architecture and gehrt in ein auch meinung then present it to, or more accurately force it upon, the development team. An architecture owner collaboratively works with the team to develop and who invented essays evolve the architecture. Although they are the person with the final decision-making authority when it comes to the architecture, those decisions should be made in a collaborative manner with the auch, team.
Effective architecture owners are developers experienced in the technologies that you organization is working with and have the ability to work on architecture spikes to explore new strategies. They should also have a good understanding of the a research paper criteria, business domain and have the necessary skills to communicate the architecture to gehrt in ein essay eigene, developers and to other project stakeholders. On large agile teams, geographically distributed agile teams, or for doc, enterprise-wide architectural efforts, you will require an Architecture Owner team or Enterprise Architecture team (in Agile Modeling I originally called this a core architecture team, a term I never really liked). Large agile teams are often organized into smaller subteams, as you can see in gehrt in ein essay auch eigene meinung, Figure 3. Paper! The architecture owner on essay auch eigene each sub-team is a member of architecture owner team, which helps to increase the goals resume, chance that each subteam understands and essay auch eigene meinung follows the overall architecture as well as increases the chance that the ba in creative writing, overall architecture strategy will address the full needs of the overall solution. There will be an an overall Chief Architecture Owner, this could be a rotating role, who is responsible for gehrt in ein auch, facilitating the who invented essays tumblr, group. Figure 3. Agile teams at scale are organized into collections of gehrt in ein essay eigene meinung, subteams. There are four basic strategies for organizing agile teams at scale:
Architecture-driven approach . Werr Thesis! With this strategy you organize your subteams around the in ein auch meinung, subsystems/components called out in who invented tumblr, your architecture. This strategy works well when your architecture is of high quality (it's loosely coupled and highly cohesive) and the interfaces to the subsystems have been identified before the subteams really get going (the interfaces will evolve over time, but you want to essay, get a good start at them initially). The challenge with this strategy is that it requires your requirements to be captured in a way which reflects the architecture. For example, if your architecture is based on large-scale business domain components then a requirement should strive to focus on a single business domain if possible. If your architecture is creative writing in india, based on technical tiers -- such as a 3-tier architecture with user interface (UI), business, and data tiers -- then requirements should focus on gehrt essay meinung a single tier if possible. Ba In In India! Feature-driven approach . With this strategy each subteam implements a feature at a time, a feature being a meaningful chunk of functionality to your stakeholders. I would apply this strategy in situation where the architecture exhibits a lot of coupling AND where you have sophisticated development practices in place. The challenge with this approach is that the subteams often need to access a wide range of the source code to implement the feature and thereby run the risk of collisions with other subteams. Auch Eigene! As a result these teams sophisticated change management, continuous integration, and thesis potentially even parallel independent testing strategies in gehrt in ein essay eigene, place (to name a few). Open source approach . With this strategy one or more subsystems/components are developed in an open source manner, even if it is for a single organization (this is called internal open source). This strategy is typically used for subsystems/components which are extensively reused by many teams, for example a security framework, and which must evolve quickly to meet the changing needs of the other systems accessing/using them.
This strategy requires you to adopt tools and processes which support open source approaches. Writing! Combinations thereof . Most agile teams at gehrt in ein essay auch eigene, scale will combine the previous three strategies as appropriate. Figure 4 depicts the process for architecture activities on an agile project at scale. You typically see take this sort of approach on large projects (often referred to as programmes), geographically distributed projects, complex (either domain or technical) projects, or at the enterprise level (typically to support agile enterprise architecture). There are four important aspects to this approach:
Envision the grading, initial architecture . In Ein Essay! Minimally the architecture owner team is responsible for who invented, initial architecture envisioning and gehrt in ein then bringing it to the sub teams for who invented, feedback and subsequent evolution. In the case of a large project/programme there are often other agile team members involved with this initial modeling effort, including the product owner and even key project stakeholders. The architecture envisioning efforts can go on for several days and in gehrt in ein auch meinung, the case of desired, very large or complex project several weeks. Eigene Meinung! For enterprise architecture efforts the enterprise architecture team will often include project-level application/solution architects in their initial modeling efforts and often executive stakeholders. Working with the development teams . On large projects/programmes, as you saw in Figure 3, the resume, members of the architecture owner team will take active roles on the various subteams on the project, communicating the in ein, architecture to the subteams and working with them to prove portions of the architecture via concrete experiments . For enterprise architecture efforts, t he enterprise architects will minimally act as consultants whose expertise is the thesis, corporate architecture, but better yet they will be active members of the critical project teams taking on the role of architecture owner on those teams. Due to the collaborative nature of gehrt essay eigene meinung, agile development it isn't sufficient for architecture owners to simply do initial architecture envisioning, and online perhaps support project teams by reviewing their work occasionally, but instead they must roll up their sleeves and become active members of the project teams. This will help them to avoid creating ivory tower architectures which sound good on essay auch eigene meinung paper yet prove impractical in the real world. It also helps to increase the chance that the project team(s) will actually leverage the architecture. Communicating the architecture to architectural stakeholders . Essays Tumblr! For project teams the architectural stakeholders include the product owner(s) working with the agile delivery team(s), key project stakeholders, and in ein essay of course the rest of the development team. These people need to understand the goals, architecture vision, the trade-offs that have been made, and the current status of where you are implementing the architecture. Gehrt In Ein Eigene Meinung! Updating architectural work products . Resume Doc! The architecture owner team will find that they need to get together occasionally to evolve the architecture as the project progresses, negotiating changes to in ein auch eigene, the architecture and desired goals resume updating their architectural model(s), if any, as appropriate.
These meetings will be frequent at the beginning of a project and will be needed less and less as the gehrt in ein auch eigene, architecture solidifies. It will be common for who invented essays, members of the development subteams, who may not be members of the gehrt auch eigene meinung, core architecture team, to attend some meetings to present information, perhaps they were involved with some technical prototyping and have findings to share with the library, architects. The best meetings are short, often no more than an hour in length, and are often held standing up around a whiteboard - everyone should come prepared to the meetings, willing to present and discuss their issues as well as to work together as a team to quickly come to essay meinung, resolutions. 6. Requirements-Driven Architecture. Your architecture must be based on werr thesis requirements otherwise you are hacking, it's as simple as that. The practice Active Stakeholder Participation is in ein essay eigene, critical to your success when it comes to identifying architectural requirements - remember, requirements come from project stakeholders, not developers.
Good sources for technical architecture requirements will include your users and their direct management as they will often have some insight into technical requirements and constraints. Operations staff will definitely have requirements for andreas, you pertaining to your deployment architecture. The best sources for business-oriented requirements are exactly who you would expect - your users, their managers. Senior management within your organization will have insights that may lead to potential change cases for your system. As you would expect the auch, practices Apply The Right Artifact(s) and Create Several Models in Parallel apply to your architectural requirements effort.
When you are working on the technical aspects of a research paper criteria, your architecture you will want to base it on technical requirements, constraints, and in ein possibly change cases. Similarly, when you are working on ba in creative writing in india business aspects of your architecture, potentially identifying software subsystems or business components, you will likely need to focus on essential use cases or user stories that describe critical usage requirements and potentially the key business rules applicable to your system. A common mistake that architecture teams (or for smaller projects the architecture owner) will make is to gehrt essay auch eigene, ignore existing and pertinent artifacts, such as network or deployment diagrams that describe your organizations existing technical infrastructure, enterprise-level business models (use case models, process diagrams, workflow diagrams, corporate business rules, and so on), or corporate deployment standards (for workstations, branch offices, etc.) that your system is expected to essay library, conform to. Yes, the existing artifacts may be out of in ein eigene meinung, date or simply not apply to your effort, but you should at least make an effort to examine them and take advantage of the existing work wherever possible. A little bit of reading or discussion with the covering letter doc, right people is likely to essay eigene, save you significant effort later on. In other words, don't forget to r euse existing artifacts whenever possible . An important concept to understand about andreas thesis, architectural modeling is that although it typically occurs early in your project it never occurs first.
Fundamentally, you will always invest time identifying some requirements first. Anything else is hacking, and hacking certainly isn't agile. The primary goal of architectural modeling should be to come to a common vision or understanding with respect to how you intend to build your system(s). In other words, you will model to understand. My experience is that 99.999% of all software project teams need to auch eigene meinung, invest some time modeling the architecture of desired goals, their system, and that this is true even of Scrum/XP teams that rely on a metaphor to gehrt in ein essay eigene meinung, guide their development efforts. While your XP team is identifying your system's metaphor, something that you and thesis your teammates may think about for weeks as you are developing your initial releases, that you will often draw sketches of how you think your system will work. Gehrt In Ein Auch! You may not keep these sketches, following AM's practice Discard Temporary Models , often because they were ideas that didn't work out or simply because you were modeling to understand an issue and resume once you did so the gehrt essay, diagram no longer had value to you. Letter! Having said that, there is in ein, nothing wrong for an XP team to develop architecture models. The models may be something as simple as a sketch that you keep around on a publicly visible white board, because although metaphors can be very effective things an a research paper criteria architectural model often provides the greater detail that your team requires.
As you would expect Unified Process teams will also do some architectural modeling, as would teams taking a Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) approach. A common mistake that organizations will make is to base their architectural efforts on in ein essay auch eigene their organization structure. For example, an organization with a strong data group will likely want to have a data model as the primary artifact for their architecture regardless of the who invented essays, actual nature of the system. When you have hammer specialists every problem looks like a nail to in ein essay auch eigene meinung, them. Tumblr! This problem is quite common when you are working with new technologies or attempting to develop a new class of system that your organization has little experience with - organization structures that worked well for gehrt in ein essay meinung, you in grading criteria, the past may no longer work for gehrt essay meinung, you in your new environment. For more about the grading a research paper, implication of architecture and organization structure please refer to the organizational pattern Conway's Law . To create a navigation diagram the primary driver of your modeling efforts should be to a ssume simplicity . The practice Create Simple Content indicates that you should strive to in ein eigene, identify the simplest architectural approach(es) possible - The more complicated your architecture the greater the a research paper criteria, chance that it won't be understood by individual developers and gehrt auch eigene the greater the desired goals, opportunity for error and breakdown. Furthermore, your architectural models should contain the right level of information, showing how various aspects of your system work together but not the details (this is what design is all about) following the gehrt in ein auch, practice Depict Models Simply . You should also Use the Simplest Tools to who invented, do the job, many times a whiteboard sketch is all that you need to model the critical aspects of your architecture. Don't use a CASE tool when a drawing tool will do. Don't use a drawing tool when a plain old whiteboard (POW) will do. Don't use a POW when paper and Post-It notes will do. An important point to be made is that navigation diagrams are typically sufficient to describe your architecture when all of gehrt eigene meinung, your communication is face-to-face.
When this isn't the case, when your architecture owners are not able to work closely with the developers (perhaps some developers are at a distant location) then you will need to supplement your diagrams with documentation. When you are architectural modeling you should consider taking advantage of the a research paper, wealth of architectural patterns available to you but you should do so in an effective manner. The book A System of Patterns: Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture is an excellent place to start learning about common architectural patterns such as Layers , Pipes and gehrt essay Filters , Broker , Model-View-Controller , and Blackboard .As with analysis and design patterns, you should follow the practice Apply Patterns Gently - introduce them into your architecture only when they are clearly required. Until then if you suspect that an architectural pattern may be appropriate, perhaps you believe that you will have several sources of critical services that will need to be brokered, then model your architecture so that you can apply this pattern when this actually becomes the case. Andreas Thesis! Remember that you are developing your system incrementally, following the practice Model in Small Increments , and in ein essay that you don't need to get your architecture right on the very first day (nor could you achieve this goal even if you wanted to). You should recognize that your architectural models will reveal your system's dependencies on other systems or their dependencies on ba in writing yours. For example, your system may interact with a credit-card processing service via the Internet, access data from in ein essay auch, a legacy relational database, or produce an XML data structure for another internal application. Network diagrams and UML deployment diagrams are very useful for identifying these dependencies, as are process-oriented models such as workflow diagrams, UML activity diagrams, and data-flow diagrams. The implication is that these dependencies indicate the potential need to follow the practice Formalize Contract Models between your team and the owner(s) of the systems that yours share dependencies with. Ideally many of these models will already be in place, the online essay, credit card processor likely has a strictly defined protocol that you must follow and the legacy database likely has a physical data model defined for it, although new functionality such as the XML data structure will require adequate definition.
Sometimes you will need to perform an analysis of the existing interface to gehrt, a legacy system if accurate documentation is not in who invented essays tumblr, place and other times you will need to design a new interface. In both cases a corresponding contract model will need to be developed, either by your team, the other team(s), or co-jointly as appropriate. How should you organize your architectural modeling efforts? At the beginning of a project I will typical gather the architecture team together in a single room for an initial envisioning session. Ideally this session will last for no more than several hours but on some larger projects it may last for a few days or even a few weeks (I would seriously question any effort more than two weeks). Gehrt In Ein Auch Eigene Meinung! As always, the longer the modeling session the greater the chance of going off course due to lack of feedback. The goal of who invented essays tumblr, this modeling session will be to come to an initial agreement as to the landscape of the system that we are building, perhaps not consensus but sufficient agreement so we can start moving forward as a team. As lean software development tells us, we shouldn't commit early to in ein essay auch eigene meinung, an architectural strategy but instead should consider several alternatives and to keep those alternatives open to us as long as they remain viable. The implication is desired goals, that when you are envisioning the architecture early in the project you should really be envisioning several possible architectures. Auch! To be fair this strategy isn't new and in fact is one that has been promoted, although not always followed, within the IT architecture community for resume letter doc, decades.
So let's work through an in ein eigene example. Andreas Werr Thesis! You've joined a project team which has been asked to build a customer-facing web portal which supports Web 2.0 functionality for a new line of business that your organization is in ein essay auch, entering. The first week of the project your team, along with several key stakeholders, spends the mornings in an agile modeling workroom led by your product owner to envision the requirements for this portal. In the afternoon your team, including the paper, product owner, and any stakeholder interested in in ein auch, doing so, are lead by covering letter, the architecture owner to envision the architecture of the essay, solution. On the first day you identify several viable architectural strategies: Building a hard-coded, HTML-based solution with embedded DOJO widgets; Building a dynamic solution via JavaServer pages (JSP); Building a dynamic solution using Ruby on Rails; Building a dynamic solution via WebSphere Portal; Building a dynamic solution via the desired resume, OSS DotNetNuke content management system. All of these solutions sound viable to the team and are sketched out on separate sections of the whiteboards (your organization is smart enough to in ein essay meinung, put floor-to-ceiling whiteboards in your team workrooms). As the ba in creative in india, week progresses, and more importantly as the team's understanding of the requirements evolve due to the requirements envisioning efforts in gehrt essay, the morning, they evolve their architectural visions. Ba In Writing In India! There are some commonalities between them, for example they must all work within the existing security infrastructure. Strategies around persisting information, via XML data stores, XML files, as tables in meinung, a relational database, or combinations thereof are fiercely debated on a separate whiteboard area as they are mostly orthogonal to the four architectural strategies. About mid-week DotNetNuke is dropped as an ba in creative writing in india option because your operations department wasn't comfortable with the idea of adding another technology into their already long list of technologies which they're supporting in production and because your organization was already successful with the other technical strategies under consideration. On Thursday the static HTML-based solution is auch, abandoned as being overly simplistic and unable to easily support the personalization requirements which the business stakeholders believe to be critical success factors for online library, this system.
That same day the JSP alternative is deprioritized -- although it's a viable solution the essay meinung, team feels that they will be more productive with either Ruby on desired Rails or WebSphere Portal. After fierce debate the in ein essay auch meinung, team wasn't able to decide which strategy to follow first, both had their strengths and weaknesses, so the architecture owner broke the deadlock and decided that the team would work with Ruby on Rails at first, spending the first few iterations proving the a research criteria, architecture with working code (or disproving it as the case may be). 9. Remember Enterprise Constraints. The point is gehrt in ein essay auch, that these enterprise-level considerations provide both challenges and opportunities to development teams. Although it would be wonderful to start with a clean architectural slate every time you build a new system, the reality is that strategy would be very inappropriate in the vast majority of situations. Andreas Thesis! I've seen several agile project teams over the years that have been abysmal failures because they chose to start fresh, claiming that their architecture emerged over gehrt in ein essay meinung, time, that they had the courage to worry about a research paper, tomorrow's problem tomorrow, that they produced potentially shippable software on a regular basis, and basically parroting any other agile rhetoric which they believed justified their fooling around.
Disciplined teams build systems whose architecture emerges within the organizational environment in gehrt, which they're working. They have the goals, humility to recognize that they're not in a position to essay, make all of the technical decisions which they would like to, but instead are constrained by the existing infrastructure and vision for it. Furthermore, they produce potentially consumable solutions which work within their organizations ecosystem. Luckily there are also many opportunities presented by having an enterprise focus. By leveraging the existing infrastructure teams can deliver faster because they have less to build. By using existing technologies, or at least by using new technologies (well, new to your organization) called out in the enterprise vision, they reduce the desired goals, total cost of ownership (TCO) of their system by gehrt eigene meinung, helping to minimize operational costs. By following corporate development guidelines they help to increase the who invented essays, consistency and quality of their work, increasing the maintainability of it for auch meinung, people tasked to evolve and maintain it in the future.
As an aside, the resume, enterprise discipline scaling factor of the Software Development Context Framework (SDFC) is the only scaling factor of the eight which has the benefit of things getting potentially easier for development teams as the factor moves away from a project-level focus (the easy situation) to an enterprise-level focus (the hard situation). So how do you do this? Minimally, the enterprise groups such as your enterprise architects, operations groups, and so on are important stakeholders who should be represented by your product owner(s). In the case of your enterprise architecture group, one or more of them may become active members of your development team in gehrt auch eigene meinung, the role of architecture owner(s). For other groups the product owner may choose to online essay library, get them involved with your team as domain or technical experts on an as-needed and as-appropriate impromptu basis. One goal of your architectural efforts should be to auch eigene, t ravel light , to covering letter doc, be as agile as possible. Don't create a fifty-page document when a five-page one will do.
Don't create a five-page document when a diagram will do. Don't create a diagram when a metaphor will do. R emember the They Ain't Gonna Read It (TAGRI) principle. When will you want to write architectural documentation? There are two instances where it makes agile sense in my opinion. In Ein! First, when you have a distributed development team and you cannot find a more effective manner of communication, such as face-to-face conversation, then documentation is an ba in writing in india option. Second, at the end of a project when you want to gehrt in ein eigene, leave behind sufficient documentation so that someone else can understand your approach later on. The reality is that for werr, reasonably complex systems it's incredibly difficult, if not impossible and certainly not desirable, to document everything in your code.Sometimes the essay auch, best place to describe your architecture is in online essay, a brief overview document.
This document should focus on explaining the critical aspects of your architecture, likely captured by gehrt, your navigation diagrams, it might include a summary of key architectural requirements, and an explanation of the critical decisions behind questionable aspects of what you did. As always, if you're going to create an architecture document then it should add positive value and should ideally do so in the most effective way possible. A lot of people get worried when they discover that an desired goals architecture isn't well documented, whatever that means. I'm not so worried about this issue, but what I do worry about is whether the architecture is realistic and whether the developers understand and accept it if it is. If you were to prioritize having your architecture documentation, having a workable architecture, having the architecture understood by your developers, and having it worked to by all the auch eigene, developers I suspect that documentation would come in online essay, dead last on that list. Think about it. The practice Prove it With Code points out that a model is merely an abstraction, one that may appear to be very good may not actually be so in practice, that the only way you can know for sure is to validate your model through implementation. In Ein Essay Auch Meinung! The implication is online essay library, that you should prove that your architecture works, something that XP calls spikes and RUP calls architectural prototypes. When your architecture calls out for something that is essay auch eigene, new to you, perhaps you are using two or more products together for covering letter, the first time, you should invest the time to explore whether or not this approach will work as well as how it works in gehrt in ein eigene meinung, accordance to the principle Rapid Feedback . Remember to obtain permission from your project stakeholders to perform this effort because it is ba in creative, their money you are spending. Sometimes you will discover through your efforts that your original approach doesn't work, something that I would prefer to find out sooner rather than later, and sometimes you discover how your approach actually works (instead of how you thought it would work).
The development of an in ein essay auch eigene architectural spike/prototype helps to reduce risk to your project because you quickly discover whether your approach is feasible, that you haven't simply produced an ivory tower architecture. Figure 5 overviews a disciplined approach to the prioritized requirements best practice. With a risk-value approach to the delivery lifecycle, an extension to Scrum's value-driven lifecycle, you will identify the handful of requirements which address the resume covering letter doc, primary technical risks of your project. For example if you have a requirement which states that your system must be able to process 4,000 transactions a second over a period of 10 hours then that would be a requirement which clearly encapsulates some technical risk. This is the sort of requirement that you want to implement early in the project to ensure that your architecture actually works. My general rule is that it's better to find out that your architecture strategy needs to be rethought when you're only 18 days into a 12-month project instead of concluding that at the 18-month point of in ein essay auch, your 12 month project. The implication is that if the technically risky requirements aren't at the top of the work item stack then you need to work closely with your product owner to convince them to reprioritize the few requirements which aren't at the top. However, if you can't convince your product owner to do so (I've never run into tumblr this problem in practice, but recognize that it could happen) then you need to respect their decision and in ein essay eigene accept the risk of proving your architecture later in goals resume, the lifecycle.
There are two primary audiences for in ein essay auch eigene, which communication of doc, your architecture is important: your development team and auch meinung your project stakeholders. A Research Criteria! To promote communication within your development team I am a firm believer that you should follow the practice Display Models Publicly for all of essay auch meinung, your architectural diagrams because an architecture that is a closely guarded secret isn't an essays tumblr architecture, it's merely an egotistical exercise in in ein essay eigene meinung, futility. Grading A Research Criteria! I've worked on several projects where we have successfully maintained a whiteboard that was reserved specifically for architectural diagrams, making them visible publicly to every developer on the project as well as to anyone else who happened to walk by. We would also allow anyone who wanted to gehrt essay auch eigene meinung, add comments or suggestions to creative writing, the diagrams, along the lines of the principle Open and essay Honest Communication and the practice Collective Ownership , because we wanted their feedback on our work. Ba In Creative In India! We had nothing to hide and trusted that others would be willing to help us out (and they did). Be prepared to communicate your architecture in a presentation, and there is no reason why you cannot keep the presentation agile. 13. Think About The Future But Don't Overbuild (Defer Commitment) I suspect that the most controversial concept about agile architectural modeling is that you should consider future changes but not act on them until you actually need to.
In other words, don't overbuild your system but at the same time be smart about it. The XP community is fairly blunt about the concept of overbuilding software with their belief that You Ain't Gonna Need It Anyway (YAGNI). The basic idea is gehrt essay auch meinung, that you cannot accurately predict the future  and therefore shouldn't attempt to creative in india, build for future possibilities. Instead you should focus today on building what you need to in ein essay, today and goals resume building it cleanly so that your software is easy to change when you need to. Eigene! Tomorrow, when you discover that you need to change your software to fulfill new requirements then change it then. When you overbuild your software to ba in writing, be more general, to fulfill future potential requirements, you are actually making very serious trade-offs: It's hard to estimate the actual value that you're producing . You are not focusing on meeting today's needs, resulting in you not producing something of immediate value to your users.
I've been on in ein meinung several projects where the first several months, and in ba in writing, a few cases first several quarters, of effort focused on the development of in ein auch, common infrastructure (persistence frameworks, messaging frameworks, and so on). Technically interesting things, we definitely had a lot of fun building them, but of no value to our users. You're guessing . Essay Library! You don't really know if you will even need whatever it is gehrt auch, that you're building - you may be building a Porche when a Volkswagon would have been sufficient. You're increasing your maintenance burden . Anything that you overbuild today will need to online, be tested and maintained throughout the in ein eigene meinung, life of your project, violating the principle Travel Light . It isn't clear to what extent it needs to be tested . When you overbuild something the only way you can accurately validate it is via imaginary feedback - nobody asked for whatever you've overbuilt so you have no one to go to that can validate your work. Furthermore, most development teams test to the risk, but if you're guessing at grading a research criteria, the requirements then you're also guessing at the level of risk. . So how can you be smart about all of gehrt auch, this? Although you don't want to essays, overbuild your system based on future/mythical requirements there isn't anything wrong with thinking about the future.
It is a two phase strategy: Initial modeling . Do some initial architecture envisioning to think things through, to explore critical concepts and gehrt in ein essay auch thereby get you going in the right direction. This doesn't mean that you need to create mounds of architectural documentation, although it is likely that you will do some modeling and yes, egads!, even create sufficient architectural documentation to meet your needs. Defer design decisions . One of the principles of lean software development is to defer commitment to the last possible moment that you need to make the decision, thereby increasing your flexibility and raising your chances of success. An interesting strategy is change case modeling. Change cases are used to describe new POTENTIAL requirements for a system or modifications to existing requirements. Change cases are requirements you may, or may not, need to support in the future but you definitely do not need to support today. Change cases are often the result of brainstorming with your project stakeholders, where questions such as How can the business change? What legislation can change?
What is your competition doing? and Who else might use the desired, system and how? are explored.On the technical side developers will often ask fundamental questions such as What technology can change? and What systems will we need to gehrt in ein essay auch meinung, interact with? that will lead to the identification of change cases. Change cases should be realistic, for example We enter the insurance business for a bank or We need to who invented essays, support the gehrt in ein meinung, [INSERT FLASHY NEW TECHNOLOGY] in our system are reasonable change cases but Our sales staff is abducted by UFOs isn't. Furthermore, change cases typically describe requirements that are reasonably divergent from werr thesis, what you are currently working on, requirements that would potentially cause major rework to fulfill. By identifying change cases you are now in a position to intelligently choose between what would otherwise appear to be equal architectural or design decisions. In Ein Essay Meinung! You should only bring relevant change cases into the decision making process when your current requirements are not sufficient to help you to letter doc, choose between alternatives. Another advantage is you can now explain to your project stakeholders why you chose one approach over another, as I like to say you have a story to in ein auch eigene meinung, tell. However, I cannot stress enough that change cases should not be used as excuses to gold plate your system. Desired! Stay agile and don't overbuild your system. So what do you do when you think you have a change case that you truly believe needs to be implemented now? Simple - discuss it with your project stakeholders.
Ask them if the change case is an immediate requirement, and if so act accordingly. If it isn't an gehrt auch eigene immediate requirement then accept the fact and move on. Never forget that it is the project stakeholder's responsibility to prioritize requirements, not yours. Would there be harm in andreas thesis, modeling for in ein, the future? This is a slippery slope because I suspect that if you model it then you are much more likely to build it. Covering Doc! It would require great discipline not to overbuild, I believe, because once you've got it captured as a collection of bubbles and lines it will be far too easy to convince yourself that there's no harm in overbuilding just this once. Having said that there's nothing wrong with drawing a few throw-away sketches as you're discussing a change case, just don't over model any models you intend to keep.
Figure 6. In Ein Eigene! Architectural views and concerns. A view/viewpoint is captured as a combination of diagrams and writing in india text descriptions (such as use cases, technical specifications, or prose) . The potential issues, which may be views in and of themselves, which your views that your architecture should address include: To borrow the language of aspect oriented programming (AOP), there are also cross-cutting concerns which your architecture may also need to gehrt essay auch eigene meinung, take into grading a research criteria account. These concerns/perspectives should also be addressed by your architectural views and in essay eigene meinung, some cases may be specific views in an of themselves. These concerns are: The implication is that anyone in the role of architect needs to goals resume, have a wide range of skills to be effective, that they need to move away from the traditional philosophy of over essay auch eigene meinung, specialization and be more of who invented, a generalizing specialist.
Minimally they should move away from being simply a data architect, or security architect, or network architect towards being an architect. Being just an architect is arguably too specialized as well, but that will vary depending on the situation. True professionals strive to have a wide range of skills as well as one or more specialties. The architectural approach that I've described is markedly different that what a lot of organizations are currently doing today. Table 1 compares and contrasts the architectural practices that are commonly found in many organizations with their agile counterparts. Clearly, there's a big difference.
The agile approach works because of its focus on people working together effectively as a team. Agile Modeling recognizes that people are fallible, that they aren't likely to get the gehrt in ein auch eigene meinung, architecture right to library, begin with and therefore need the opportunity for essay eigene meinung, acting on feedback from implementation efforts. When agile architects are productive members of the development team, and when the development team has been involved with the desired, architectural efforts to begin with, then comprehensive documentation isn't needed by them, the navigation diagrams are sufficient (granted, when this is not the case documentation, hopefully minimal, may be required). Architecture reviews aren't needed because the gehrt in ein essay auch eigene, architecture is being proved through the concrete feedback of architectural prototyping/spikes and because people can see the architecture evolve because your models are displayed publicly for everyone to see. Agile architects have the thesis, courage to focus on gehrt essay auch eigene solving today's problem today and trusting that they can solve tomorrow's problem tomorrow (Beck, 2000), and ba in the humility to recognize that they cannot accurately predict the future and therefore choose not to gehrt essay eigene, overbuild their architectures. Table 1. Comparing Common and Agile Architectural Practices. Architects are held in high esteem and are often placed, or even worse place themselves, on essays pedestals. Agile architects have the humility to admit that they don't walk on water.
Architects are too busy to get their hands dirty with development. Agile architects are active members of development teams, developing software where appropriate and acting as architectural consultants to the team. Architecture models are robust to enable them to in ein essay auch eigene meinung, fulfill future requirements. Agile architects have the humility to admit that they can't predict the resume letter doc, future and instead have the courage to trust they can solve tomorrow's problem tomorrow. The goal is to develop a comprehensive architecture early in a project. You evolve your architecture incrementally and iteratively, allowing it to emerge over time.
Well-documented architecture model(s) are required. Travel light and focus on navigation diagrams that overview your architecture, documenting just enough to gehrt essay meinung, communicate to your intended audience. Architecture model(s) are communicated only when they are suitable for public consumption Architecture model(s) are displayed publicly, even when they are a work in progress, to promote feedback from others. Architecture reviews are held to validate your model(s) before being put into use. Architectures are proved through concrete experiments.
Contrary to some of the agile rhetoric, it appears that the vast majority of agile teams perform architecture modeling on their projects. Who Invented! Some evidence includes: The 2009 Agile Project Initiation survey found that 86% of essay auch, respondents indicated that on ba in their most recent agile project they either did some sort of up-front architecture/design modeling -OR- had initial architecture/design models given to them (sigh) -OR- used reference models. Auch Eigene! The 2008 Agile Practices and Principles survey found that the majority of respondents reported that they were getting positive value from initial architecture envisioning efforts and from allowing the details of the design to emerge over time throughout the project. The Modeling and Documentation Practices on IT Projects survey in July 2008 found that the andreas, most popular approach to architecture modeling was to create high-level diagrams. That survey also found that agile teams were more likely to model than traditional teams. 17.
Addressing the Myths Around Agile and Architecture. I wanted to end this article by in ein essay auch eigene meinung, addressing some of the common myths which I'm still running into when working with organizations around the world. Agilists don't do architecture . My hope is resume letter doc, that this article will put that myth firmly to rest. You need to do detailed up front architecture modeling . You should do some up front architecture modeling to identify your general technical strategy, to identify potential technical challenges which you may run into, and to in ein essay auch, help build a consensus within your team around the technical direction. The point is that you don't need a lot of detail to achieve these goals. Desired Resume! It's a choice to take a big modeling up front (BMUF) approach, a choice which can sound great in theory, particularly if you're a professional modeler, but which usually proves to be a rather poor one in in ein eigene meinung, practice. Werr Thesis! BMUF strategies lead to poor decisions and solutions which are less likely to meet the actual needs of stakeholders, reduce your ability to support evolving requirements, and auch eigene lead to a research paper criteria, lower morale. Architects are responsible for architecture . Essay Auch Eigene Meinung! Although many organizations choose to support specialized architects who are primarily responsible for architectural activities, this proves to be a rather poor choice in practice because the developers are likely to perceive the architects as ivory tower and will often choose to ignore them. Effective architecture strategies, as you've seen in this article, are collaborative in nature, not dictatorial. I'd like to thank Birol Aygun, Jesper Rugard Jensen, Ashely McNeile, and Paul Oldfield for online essay, their observations which went into updating this article.
We actively work with clients around the world to improve their information technology (IT) practices, typically in the role of mentor/coach, team lead, or trainer. In Ein Meinung! A full description of what we do, and how to contact us, can be found at Scott Ambler + Associates.