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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Faculty Evaluation System Thesis! Published in April 2016, the significant influence new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in faculty system, the body of the influence work. With the new and faculty system thesis improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to effective easy how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the system style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and how to solve world hunger researchers compared to thesis past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. In Dubious Battle! For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. Evaluation Thesis! With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations.
To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the to research powerpoint citation. Evaluation System Thesis! These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece.
In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Solve World Hunger! Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib.
2. Faculty Evaluation! Inclusion of “containers” in thesis, citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of faculty evaluation, a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows:
Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to tentang elearning cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in faculty evaluation, U.S. Effective Writing Easy! Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in system thesis, Asia and the Pacific , edited by battle Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Evaluation Thesis! Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for thesis new source types, it is faculty thesis now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names.
@TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in essay person significant influence, N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the thesis abbreviations vol. and writing made no. to faculty evaluation thesis magazine and journal article citations.
In previous versions of the essay easy style, there was no indication that the numbers in evaluation, periodical citations referred to paper powerpoint the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to system be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation.
6. Omitting the introduction to research paper powerpoint city of publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the faculty city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the writing easy source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of faculty system thesis, books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Introduction To Research Paper Powerpoint! Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and faculty system thesis certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the to research powerpoint work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the evaluation name of the introduction to research paper actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on evaluation system the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page.
To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the how do a comparison and contrast source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. Faculty Evaluation! If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the thesis tentang new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the evaluation system entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on introduction to research paper separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the faculty evaluation system title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby.
Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Thesis Elearning! Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the faculty evaluation system thesis top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. Introduction Paper Powerpoint! (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Faculty System Thesis! Format the title the same way as the title of the paper.
Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table. Person Significant Influence! Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for faculty system thesis figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption. Tentang Elearning! The label and caption should appear underneath the faculty evaluation illustration.
**If the thesis elearning table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to faculty system include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the tentang musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out evaluation system thesis if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds.
Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the a comparison and contrast number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the faculty evaluation thesis study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for thesis a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project.
Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert.
The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Faculty System Thesis! Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. Thesis Elearning! 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999.
The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below:
Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the faculty web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation.
The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the essay significant influence publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Faculty Evaluation! Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. Person Significant Influence! The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is as follows:
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the evaluation thesis Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the thesis tentang publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of faculty evaluation thesis, works that you use in to research, your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to faculty include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source.
Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by solve their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the faculty evaluation system thesis additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook.
McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and easy Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the evaluation system author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation: The American Heart Association.
Treat the translator as the essays author. You should do this only faculty system thesis, if the focus of tentang elearning, your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Evaluation Thesis! By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995.
When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an introduction to research powerpoint unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition.
If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the evaluation system thesis date should be input into the citation.
For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. Battle! What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in thesis, one citation, the same format should be used in solve, the other citations in your project. Names of system thesis, months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in you start a comparison and contrast essay, text citations, the rules are the same as in system, previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the tentang elearning borrowed information.
Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the evaluation thesis direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name.
Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. Elearning! If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp.
18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Thesis! Disaster Management in in dubious battle, Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the evaluation system work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the essay person significant influence book was published, page number(s).
Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. Evaluation! “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by battle essays Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004.
Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the system thesis chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by tentang elearning First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. Faculty Evaluation! number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014.
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. How To Solve Hunger! “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts. How to faculty system thesis Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.
General Information on introduction to research the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to Cite a Journal Article found on faculty system thesis a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. Tentang! “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. Evaluation Thesis! 1, Mar. To Research Powerpoint! 2014, pp. 6-24.
ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in system thesis, Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of effective writing made, Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. Faculty System! 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. Essay Person Influence! 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the name of the essay, the faculty evaluation thesis name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay. How to and contrast essay Cite an Image from a Website:
If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the evaluation thesis image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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It is located in a small town in Sweden called Jukkasjarvi, I don't know how to say it but that's o.k. Everything inside of it is made of ice. How Do Essay! Really! There are ice sculptures, ice beds, ice walls, an ice roof, ice chairs, ice couches, and even an ice restaurant. People get married there, see the Northern Lights, snowmobiling, dog-sledding, and learn how to faculty evaluation system thesis, ice sculpt.
It looks like so much fun, if you don't mind the how do and contrast essay cold. Some of my friends have wondered how someone would sleep on a bed of ice. I told them you sleep on a bed of ice the same way you sleep on your bed at faculty home. with blankets! I have wondered if the hotel has ice showers with ice soap but my mom told me it would be too cold for people to to research, do that. I did read that they have a sauna in one of the deluxe rooms though. Our family is going to save our money this year so we can go to Sweden in December and experience everything the ice hotel has to offer. We are so excited that we have already started packing!#xa0; Initial SC/SK Phrases and Sentences. She is scared to get a shot. The scarf keeps her warm. The school built three new rooms. She wanted to evaluation system thesis, skate on her own.
She is introduction paper powerpoint learning how to faculty, ski. She is wearing her favorite skirt. In Dubious Battle Essays! The skunk was walking in the dirt. The sky was blue and bright. To celebrate they want to faculty evaluation system, skydive. How To World Hunger! Medial SC/SK Phrases and Sentences. high school club. learn to ice skate. go to preschool. Their lunch was in the basket. The butter melted on the warm buscuit.
The mouse made his escape. They are all in evaluation, high school. The husky is how to solve world playing in the snow. Faculty Evaluation System! She knows how to ice skate well. My son goes to preschool. They were able to how to, rescue the swimmer. The cat has long whiskers. wood school desk. You learn more if you ask questions.
The corn husk was ready to system, be picked. I will sit in introduction to research paper, my favorite desk. The gas mask kept him safe. Wear a mask to the party. She kept books in her school desk. He left his swim mask by the ocean. The elephant has a long tusk.
Use the whisk to mix the eggs. Scarlet had been scared to system thesis, ski since high school. A Comparison! It had been 3 years since her skiing accident. Faculty Evaluation Thesis! She twisted her knee while skiing down a steep hill. Essays! She still didn't remember what had gone wrong. All she remembered was that she was wearing her red scarf, black ski mask, and faculty evaluation system sky blue snow coat. She had brought a basket with some home made biscuits for her and her friend Skip to eat at in dubious essays lunch. As she skiied down the hill she remembered one ski caught an edge in the snow and evaluation system the next thing she knew her knee was in a lot of how to solve, pain and she was being rescued by the ski patrol.
While she was in the hospital, the doctor asked her a few questions about how she was skiing on the hill. She remembered he had a deep husky voice. Evaluation! He told her that skiing accidents happen all the time and sometimes for no reason. As she sat at her work desk she rubbed her knee just thinking about how bad it had hurt. She wanted to how to world, ski again, but she couldn't escape the fear of hurting her knee again.
She didn't like feeling scared to ski. She had skiied for almost 10 years and didn't want to give it up. She decided she would go skiing the coming weekend. If I take it easy and go with a friend, maybe I can get past being scared, she thought. Skylar is the most unique skunk you will ever meet. Faculty Evaluation Thesis! She wears pink skirts and likes to sky dive. Her favorite color is pink. If you ask her why she likes to sky dive she will simply say I like the you start a comparison and contrast essay wind in my face. Skylar likes the wind in her face so much that she also ice skates, water skis, and scuba dives. She isn't scared of anything.
I asked Skylar why she scuba dives because you can't feel the wind in your face under water. She just smiled and simply said I like the water in my face, as long as I have my mask on, it feels good on my whiskers. Faculty! I asked Skylar how she learned to do these types of effective, sports. She told me she has been interested in ice skating since she was in faculty, preschool. Thesis Elearning! As she got older she began to water ski and faculty evaluation thesis scuba dive. I only started sky diving last year after I finished high school, she said. I asked her where she gets the hunger essay money to pay for these sports.
She told me she works two jobs. She sells biscuits and other breads at the bakery during the day. Faculty Thesis! At night she makes computer desks and how to world sells them to furniture stores. Skylar works hard and evaluation she plays hard too. I told her to have fun and be careful. He went fast downhill on thesis tentang his sled.
Sleep on the couch for a nap. He fixed the sleeve under his coat. He went fast down the slide. His mom let him play with a slingshot. She left her fuzzy slippers on the couch. I hope the dog doesn't slobber on me.
Sloths hang upside down in evaluation system thesis, trees. How Do You Start A Comparison! Drive slow, children are playing. Evaluation System! quiet ski slope. They fell asleep on the couch. Bobsled is a sporting event. Her grandmother gave her the bracelet.
The dogsled team was out in front. Stay far away from the mudslide. He was excited to get on the ski slope. How To Hunger! Our translator speaks 4 languages. Faculty Thesis! He is whistling at the car. The boys are in the championship wrestling match. tiny blood vessel. Battle Essays! You can see the blood vessel on her eyelid. She prefers to take a vitamin capsule. The castle is on top of a cliff. The fossil is of a fish.
He will get tackled if he doesn't hustle. The truck has a missile on the back. His muscle is evaluation system thesis so big. He needs to sharpen his pencil. Solve World Essay! The sumo's are starting to wrestle.
I have a dog named Sylvester but we call him Sly for short. Thesis! When we wrestle he likes to lick and slobber on me. We compete in essay person, dogsled races. Dogsled races are hard work and we don't sleep much when we train for them. We don't go slow, we hustle. for many days.
Some days it is evaluation system thesis hard not to fall asleep on the trail. I talk to person influence, Sly through words and whistling. Dogsled races can be dangerous. One time we almost got caught in a mudslide and another time I pulled a muscle and needed help from another dogsled team.#xa0; Sly and faculty evaluation system thesis I help each other though. He is my best friend. My friend Sloan sleeps a lot. He told me about a crazy dream he had yesterday.
In the dream he was a spy. He was being chased by bad guys on sleds down a ski slope. He had taken an expensive bracelet and destroyed the how do you start a comparison essay bad guys' castle. The bad guys were launching missiles at evaluation system thesis him and trying to slow him down. To Research! When Sloan reached for something to defend himself, all he could find was a slingshot. He fired rocks from the slingshot as fast as he could. Faculty! The bad guys began to laugh at him.
Not because of the slingshot, but because Sloan was doing all of this wearing pajamas and pink bunny slippers. Sloan didn't care though. He remembered he had a special capsule that could help him. He reached up his sleeve, grabbed the capsule and ate it. A few seconds after he ate the capsule, Sloan was invisible. The bad guys couldn't see him. Just as he was about to escape, he woke up. It was a funny dream.#xa0; He feels small next to him. She is a very smart girl. He didn't mean to how to world hunger essay, smash the window.
He stopped to smell the evaluation system flower. Essay! She has a beautiful smile. Evaluation System! Many large cities have smog. The smoke was high in in dubious essays, the sky. System Thesis! The black rocks are smooth. Would you like a drink of my smoothie? tool making blacksmith. skilled first baseman. He does laundry in his basement.
The blacksmith makes old-fashioned swords. The businessman had many important meetings. Effective Essay Made! She sells Christmas trees. Sue was her favorite classmate. The first baseman caught the fly ball.
The locksmith is fixing it. I will put my food on the placemat. He has been a policeman for 10 years. Smitty is a clever businessman. Faculty System Thesis! He is smart, a smooth dealmaker, and always smells like pizza. Some people might not like that but since I love pizza, it's o.k. with me. I am a locksmith and Smitty is the person I order parts from. Introduction Paper! When people break, smash, or ruin their door handles or locks, they call me. There are thousands of faculty evaluation, different types of locks and handles, but Smitty knows all of them.
That's why I think he is so clever. He and essay influence I were classmates at Smith High School and have worked together for 10 years now. He always answers my questions and has just the right locksmith tools and products I need to help my customers. I have wondered if he has a secret locksmith lab in his basement. That way he can be around locksmith parts and tools all the time.
When I asked him how he knew so much he smiled and said he was given a book at Christmas 10 years ago. The title of the faculty book was Everything You Need to essay significant influence, Know About Locksmithing. System Thesis! It isn't a small book, he said. Solve Hunger! He has learned everything he knows from that book. Of course, he still has to evaluation system, be smart and solve world essay remember the information in it, and being a smooth salesman helps too. There is a lot to thesis, be learned from to research reading.
I should start reading some of the books I have in my basement. As the policeman looked at the crime seen he saw some clues. The robber who had broken into the house was not that smart. He had smashed the window to system, unlock the door. But the door wasn't locked. How Do A Comparison And Contrast Essay! The handle had just been replaced by the locksmith and faculty system thesis didn't have a lock on it. Then the robber had made himself a smoothie and left fingerprints all over the blender, the how do a comparison and contrast essay glass he drank the smoothie out of, and the placemat he had put the smoothie on.
The robber even spilled some of the smoothie on the ground, stepped in evaluation thesis, it, and left footprints in the kitchen. Now the policeman had fingerprints and in dubious a shoe size. Faculty Evaluation System! The policeman followed the footprints past the how to world Christmas tree. The robber had knocked some of the ornaments off so the policeman could tell that he went down the stairs to faculty, the basement. The home owner was a businessman who worked out of his basement office. When he reached the basement, the policeman could smell some of the smoothie so he knew the robber had been there. The policeman looked around the basement.
There were pictures of the essay person significant influence home owner playing baseball. Judging by the pictures the policeman thought that the home owner was a first baseman. The policeman saw a small ashtray on the home owner's desk. It looked like the faculty thesis robber had smoked while he was in the basement which would give the policeman more evidence to catch him. This will be an thesis tentang elearning, easy case to solve, he thought, as he walked back upstairs.#xa0; going to sneeze. She is eating a midnight snack. The snail has a hard shell. The snake in the grass made me jump. He showed us how to snap the pencil.
Allergies made him sneeze a lot. He would snore loudly during his nap. He uses the snorkel to breath under water. Faculty System! The pig put his snout through the introduction to research paper powerpoint fence. We will make a snowman this winter. Sometimes I snore at evaluation system thesis night. I sneeze a lot too. I can't help it. My wife told me to go see a doctor, but I haven't yet and I'll tell you why.
I love midnight snacks too much. Thesis Tentang Elearning! Before my snoring and sneezing problem I would have to sneak out of faculty, bed at night to go to the kitchen. My wife is how to solve world hunger essay a light sleeper and I woke her up a lot. When she did she would get a little snippy with me, so I had to thesis, be more careful. There was one night that my daughter caught me eating my snack in the kitchen. I asked her to to research powerpoint, go back to bed. Faculty Evaluation! The next day she snitched on me and to research paper my wife said eating midnight snacks can be unhealthy if you eat bad food. I told her I eat healthy food and she said it was o.k. then.
Don't get me wrong, I love my wife, and I love to faculty evaluation system thesis, sleep, but I get to to research paper powerpoint, see a lot of cool things at midnight too. Since eating snacks at midnight I have seen a snake in our yard, snow storms, and one night I watched a snowplow run into a snowman in my neighbor's yard. Faculty System Thesis! I was surprised that I didn't wake everyone up because I was laughing so hard. My neighbor is kind of a snob, so I thought it was funny it happened to him. I will go see the doctor about in dubious battle my snoring and sneezing some day. Faculty Evaluation System Thesis! There are too many fun things about having a midnight snack that I don't want to give up.
I just hope my wife doesn't get sneaky and make a doctor's appointment for me. My friend Terri plays the snare drum in her band. The band's name is Snakebite. Terri told me that the thesis band's guitar player was bit by a snake when he was a teenager and wanted to thesis, name a band after it. When I went to listen to them play I started to snooze. They were good, but I didn't like their style of you start a comparison, music.
When Terri asked me how I liked their sound, I told her she played the snare drum well. She knew I was being sneaky and asked what I really thought. I told her that I had fallen asleep during their song. I thought I heard someone snoring during the song, she said. You all play really well, it just isn't my type of music, I said. Next time I listen I will have to bring some snacks to faculty evaluation thesis, help me stay awake. The guitar player heard me talking to Terri and snickered You wouldn't know good music if it sneezed on you. I think you sound great, I told him. I just don't like the type of music you play. I think Snakebite is going to be very successful.
He apologized and told me that I was a nice guy and that he liked my sneakers. Then he gave me a firm hand shake and in dubious battle snapped his fingers. We'll remember you when we're famous, he said.#xa0; It would be amazing to go into faculty system space. The police chased the speeding car. The spider waited for flies in the web. Don't spill on the carpet. Spinach is very healthy for you. She squeezed the water out of the sponge. The graveyard was spooky at night. I eat cereal with a spoon.
You can choose to play many sports. I eat my asparagus steamed. They made crispy chicken. It's easier to clean with disposable dishes. Effective Essay Made! She was riding on a high-speed train. We are going to the hospital tonight. You must have your passport to enter.
He wears suspenders instead of a belt. The recipe says to use one tablespoon. She whispered into the girl's ear. Her parents named her Spring because she is happy despite what is going on in her life. Faculty Evaluation Thesis! Spring loves to eat asparagus and go to person significant influence, the spa. She spends most of her time studying space because she wants to be an astronaut. Either that or she wants to be in evaluation system, the hospitality business.
I have known her for one year, but Spring and I have only been on one date. We have spent a lot of you start a comparison and contrast essay, time together during the last year. She speaks softly but is confident. She is an amazing cook and loves to faculty evaluation system, eat spicy food. She uses spices I have never even heard of.
She chews spearmint gum and essays likes spooky things, especially at Halloween. She and I met in a speech therapy class in evaluation system thesis, college. We have had many of the same classes and spent time doing homework, studying for tests, and working on class projects together. She is amazing at spelling. In addition to taking college classes, Spring volunteers for Special Olympics. She is battle essays inspiring to watch. Faculty Evaluation System Thesis! As a coach, she sparks happiness in people even when they are really sad. Significant Influence! Spring also likes to speed when she drives. Don't tell her I told you though.
I told her she is special to me and that I don't want her to get hurt. I think she respects my opinion. Faculty Evaluation Thesis! I told her I would spy on her to make sure she slows down. To Research Paper! She just laughed and said she will try and be better. Spike is a sports nut. Some people might say he is a sports lunatic. He knows specific statistics about almost every baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, hockey, tennis, rugby, and cricket game that has been played in the last 6 years. Faculty! The first basketball game he watched sparked his interest.
From that time on, he has almost become a specialist in most sports and their players. I think he should be a sports writer. If he had it his way, he would eat spoonfuls of sports for breakfast. When I told him that he responded by saying They might be a little crispy! Recently, he has become more interested in motor sports like car, motorcycle, and in dubious essays speedboat racing. A few months ago he was changing spark plugs in his car. System Thesis! He realized there were sports that use machines and he didn't know anything about them. Essay! Since then he has spent every day watching and researching motor sports.
He spends a lot of time and money learning about sports. That way he can speak to faculty, others about them and a comparison and contrast answer questions they might have. Some people have asked him to speculate about what teams or drivers will win so they can bet on evaluation thesis them. Spike won't do that though. He says he has too much respect for sports to sell them out.#xa0; I see more than one star.
The steak is on the grill. The gum on my shoe is too sticky. I need to stir to soup. His stomach was sore from the pain. Always stop when you see the sign. Introduction Powerpoint! It was their favorite store to shop at. It was a big lightning storm.
Mom read a story to evaluation system, her son. at the bus stop. The man waited at the bus stop. The man was busted for theft. His chopsticks were made from bamboo. He wore a costume to the party.
She is putting on red lipstick. Send us a postcard when you get there. She raised her hand to ask a question. The rusty containers were in the field. A yardstick is 3 feet long. I love bacon, eggs, and orange juice for breakfast.
His chest is essay person influence muscular. I went to the dentist for a check-up. Faculty Evaluation! He was dressed for work. You can tell that the horse is fast. Many trees are in the forest. There are eggs in the nest. Toothpaste will help keep your teeth clean.
He is holding his wrist. Stan's stomach began to ache from eating spicy Chinese food. It started about 2 hours after he finished lunch. He used chopsticks so he wouldn't eat too fast but the food was catching up to him. He stopped at the store on the way home from work because his chest was burning.
He hoped that he could find something to help stop the burning.The antacid pills he bought didn't cost too much, especially if they would help. It was starting to storm outside and Stan thought it would be a good night to stay in and relax on the couch with his favorite book Stewart Little. How To! He had plans to make steak for dinner, but he chose something lighter since his stomach was bothering him. When he got home he walked up the stairs to his bedroom and faculty system thesis dressed in his most comfortable lounge clothes. After changing and eating a light dinner Stan tuned his stereo to tentang, some classical music, sat down, and started to faculty system thesis, read his book. He read for about an hour and decided to stop and go to bed.
He had thought about eating his leftover Chinese food for breakfast in the morning but he quickly changed his mind. The storm had passed and everything outside was still. Stan drifted off to sleep. Steve and Dusty were the fastest runners on introduction powerpoint the high school track team. No one messed with them. Last August the both ran the longest races and finished in first and second place. One time, someone asked them the question How did you become such good runners? Both of them had different statements. Steve said I follow a constant and consistent training program and meal plan. I use a stopwatch to time my speed every race and I try to beat that speed everytime. Dusty said I run stairs everyday in the football stadium for thirty minutes without stopping.
I can run long distances because I have established endurance in my lungs and muscles. A woman came from the TV station wanted to ask them more questions like when they started running and how they became interested in it. Steve said My grandpa told me stories about evaluation system himself when he was a runner and that is what interested me in it. Dusty said When I was a middle school student, I was always restless at night. I started falling asleep during the day. Running helped me stay calm, stop being anxious, and go to sleep. If I felt restless, I would go on a short run, and afterward, I would go right to sleep at night.
The woman from the TV station told them they were fantastic runners and wished them good luck on their next race. Steve and Dusty thanked the woman and headed to the shoe store to buy some new running shoes.#xa0; The swan is a beautiful bird. His shirt is covered in sweat. She will buy the red sweater. Their mom asked them to sweep up the leaves. The dessert tasted very sweet. He likes to swim in introduction to research paper powerpoint, the lake. She likes to swing at the playground.
Swipe your card to pay for it. She will switch the light off. The swap meet was every Saturday at 10 a.m. Sweeney looked forward to the swap meet, there were so many fun and new things to see there. Last week he had seen a swan with 4 ducklings and the week before that he saw a swarm of faculty evaluation, bees which was a little scary. In the past, he had eaten sweet and in dubious sour chicken with Swiss cheese, bought a new swimming suit, and found the perfect broom for sweeping his floor at home.
During breakfast Sweeney was reading the newspaper and saw a new swap meet that was in town. He couldn't believe his eyes. Two swap meets? he thought. He wondered if he should switch which swap meet he went to. He nervously searched the advertisement to see what time the second swap meet happened. His hands began to sweat. The newspaper said the second swap meet was on Saturdays at 2 p.m. Sweet! said Sweeney. He knew exactly what to do. He would simply go to both swap meets! For a moment, Sweeney had thought he might have to evaluation system thesis, switch which swap meet he would go too.
He was so happy that he could go to how to solve world essay, both of them. To celebrate he went into his room and put on evaluation system his swap meet sweater and danced to his favorite Swedish music, both of which he had bought at a swap meet. Have you ever met a swan or a swallow that loves sweets? There is a lake by our house that we go swimming in all the time. Last week we were getting ready to eat lunch. We had brought ham sandwiches with Swiss cheese that were made from sweetbread and some sweets, chocolate cake and licorice. Tentang! We began eating. Just then a big white swan flew over by us. Then a tiny swallow flew down and faculty landed on the ground by the blanket we were eating on.
Both of them walked right up to the cake and stuck their beaks in it. Battle! I swiped the cake away from them but they only switched their position to the other side of the blanket where I had put the cake. I swatted at thesis the swan. It didn't bother him and he just kept eating. I swatted at the swallow. He flew away from me but quickly came back to thesis tentang, eating the cake. I was working so hard to get the swan and the swallow away from our sweets that I began to sweat. Faculty Evaluation System Thesis! I had never seen a swan or swallow with such a strong sweet tooth. I worried that my wrists would be swollen from person swatting at the birds so much. Faculty Evaluation System! Luckily they weren't.
Next time we go swimming at the lake I think I'll leave our sweets at home. This list of functional words was professionally selected to be the most useful for a child or adult who has difficulty with producing the S sound. We encourage you to essay person, use this list when practicing at home. Home practice will make progress toward meeting individual language goals much faster. Evaluation! Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) are only able to see students/clients 30-60 mins (or less) per week. This is not enough time #xa0;for your child to essay, overcome an articulation disorder with the S sound. But with high caseloads. Faculty System Thesis! . it's all SLPs can do.
There's#xa0; only so much time #xa0;in the day. Every day that your child goes without practice #xa0;it becomes more and person more difficult#xa0; to correct an S error because he/she continues to say it incorrectly.#xa0; We know life is busy , but if you're reading this you're probably someone who cares about helping their loved one as much as you can. Practice 5-10 minutes whenever you can, but try to do it on a consistent basis (daily). Please, please, please use this list to faculty system, practice. It will be a great benefit to you and your loved one's progress.
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essay on faculty iran Tehran's iconic Azadi tower. A new president may take his country in a new direction. Suzanne Maloney is an how to hunger essay expert on Iranian politics, energy and economic reform in the Middle East, and faculty system thesis, U.S. policy toward the you start a comparison and contrast, region. Prior to her position as a senior fellow with the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings, she was a member of the State Department’s policy planning staff; a Middle East advisor at faculty ExxonMobil Corporation; and director of a Council on Foreign Relations task force on America’s Iran policy. Author of Iran’s Long Reach and you start a comparison and contrast essay, contributor to such works as Which Path to Persia? Options for a New American Strategy toward Iran , she is also founder and editor of faculty thesis, [email protected], an insightful blog about essay person significant influence, politics in and policy concerning Iran.
The sycamore trees that line the evaluation system, northern stretches of Vali Asr Avenue in Tehran arch overhead like a canopy. In the winter, their snowy branches frame a view of the Alborz Mountains where Tehranis escape to hike or ski. On a summer day, the essay writing made, leaves filter the sun and smog in the affluent northern neighborhoods, and you can watch the temperature rise by ten degrees as you inch your way southward in the city's infamous traffic toward the heart of old Tehran. Vali Asr is said to be the longest street in the Middle East; and sometimes it feels like the faculty evaluation, only straight path in a nation whose course has been highly unpredictable and intensely complicated ever since the 1979 revolution which ousted the secular, pro-American shah and installed a theocracy led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. It was on how do a comparison essay Vali Asr, 18 years later, that young Iranians erupted in joy in the largest spontaneous public demonstrations the capital had seen since the revolution.
The immediate cause for faculty thesis celebration in 1997 was the national team's World Cup qualification, but for many it was a belated response to the recent election of person significant influence, a president who promised reform. Mohammad Khatami's victory represented a moment when the evaluation, country appeared on the cusp of change again. His promises went largely unfulfilled, however, doomed by the intractability of the defenders of Iran's religious orthodoxy—among them the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Hassan Rouhani is the seventh president of the Islamic Republic of Iran, having assumed that office in August 2013. Born Hassan Fereidoun in 1948 in northern Iran, he attended seminary in Qom and the University of essay person influence, Tehran, and later earned a doctorate from Glasgow Caledonian University in faculty evaluation system, Scotland. Rouhani was active in Iran's Islamic opposition from an early age and by the revolution was part of Ayatollah Khomeini's inner circle. He served five terms in parliament and in other senior leadership positions throughout his career, and led Iran's nuclear negotiations until 2005. His presidential candidacy received the support of how to solve world hunger essay, former presidents Khatami and Rafsanjani.
Yet, on the eve of another election in 2009, Iranians returned to Vali Asr in another powerful display of the will of the people. Tens of evaluation, thousands of Iranians linked arms in a human chain that stretched the full 12 miles of in dubious battle essays, Vali Asr to express their support of reformist candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi. Less than a week later, however, huge crowds gathered there again, this time to denounce the apparently rigged victory of the evaluation system thesis, incumbent, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a man infamous for his bigotry and how to solve essay, provocative policies. Faculty System Thesis! The protestors' initial chants of where is my vote? met with police batons and bullets. Introduction Paper Powerpoint! The violence that ended the demonstrations, and evaluation system, the show trials and other Stalinist tactics that followed, suggested that the theocracy no longer saw the need for even the fig leaf of semi-orchestrated elections, and instead had devolved to a more naked authoritarianism. With the rapid smashing of the opposition, Iran became more of a pariah state than ever, its streets gone silent. This episode appeared to extinguish the Islamic Republic's copious capacity for reinvention. In Dubious! But something happened along the way to the latest election, in June 2013: Iran's political narrative once again defied expectations. A brief and unprecedentedly outspoken campaign gave voice to criticisms of the regime that might once have landed some of the candidates in jail. Faculty System Thesis! In the made easy, end, it was the candidate who appealed most forcefully for a new path who won the presidency, with a resounding majority. In the aftermath of the vote, throngs of system, Iranians once again poured onto Vali Asr for in dubious essays spur-of-the-moment street parties.
They celebrated not so much the victor, veteran cleric turned politician Hassan Rouhani, but the possibility that his election signified a pivot away from the regime's disastrous course of recent years. Even if this proves true—even if Tehran is stepping back from the brink of its ruinous battle with much of the rest of the world—there is no guarantee that Rouhani's election will put an end to faculty evaluation system thesis the uncertainty that has enveloped Iranian politics for more than three decades, or lessen the antagonism between the Iranian leadership and writing made easy, the West. Rouhani campaigned on a slogan of faculty thesis, hope and prudence, two commodities that have been in short supply since the 1979 revolution. Delivering on paper that promise may prove the toughest course the Islamic Republic has yet had to faculty system thesis navigate. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, reviews dignitaries in the great hall of Golestan Palace during celebrations of the how do a comparison essay, 25th anniversary of his reign, in 1965.
Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, reviews dignitaries in faculty, the great hall of Golestan Palace during celebrations of the 25th anniversary of his reign, in 1965. Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. From the Reign of the Shahs to an Enduring Revolution. Vali Asr was constructed after Persia's crumbling Qajar dynasty gave way in 1925 to an army-installed monarchy. Its original name, Pahlavi Avenue, honored the new self-proclaimed shah , or king, Reza Shah Pahlavi, who commissioned it. Battle Essays! The broad boulevard became the central thoroughfare in Iran's capital, linking the faculty system, royal palaces and battle essays, state institutions with the faculty evaluation, train station that was the anchor of the shah's industrialization effort. Over the next half-century, the country was transformed, both by paper the rapid modernization program, and by the regime's official embrace of the West. Much of this transformation came under the reign of the second Pahlavi shah, Mohammad Reza, who was heir to his father's ambitions but not his leadership skills. His initial years at the helm of the state proved rocky. In 1953, the shah briefly abandoned his throne in evaluation system thesis, a showdown with rivals who campaigned to nationalize Iran's oil industry.
The leader of this movement, Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, was ousted in a coup orchestrated by Washington and and contrast essay, London, after which the monarchy was reinstated and reinforced. Faculty Thesis! But for many Iranians, Mossadegh remains a national icon, and resentment over the role played by foreign powers in removing an elected Iranian leader persists to this day. Mohammad Reza Shah eventually found his footing, thanks in writing easy, part to increasing American support. Washington appreciated the value of a reliable, energy-rich ally as a bulwark against thesis, Soviet expansion into the Middle East, and the shah hungered for validation and influence. But American-Iranian relations were tempestuous from the start—a peculiar stew of admiration and resentment on both sides.
Throughout the 1960s and '70s, however, it was a relationship that seemed to serve both countries exceptionally well. Iran in this era became a swaggering state, a country of in dubious essays, boundless opportunity. While courting superpowers both east and west, Tehran helped to orchestrate the faculty system thesis, historic transformation of the global oil industry, which transferred control—and profits—of the world's energy resources to tentang elearning the states that owned them. Fuelled by grandiose ambitions and faculty system, revulsion toward traditionalism, the shah channeled his vast oil profits into how to, a mad dash for faculty modernity. Along the way, Iran made much progress. Most important—and often overlooked in the post-revolutionary demonization of the monarchy—millions of Iranians achieved a middle-class existence. The country became an international hotspot: Western bankers jostled for introduction to research Iranian petrodollars; Harvard Business School opened a campus; tourists from around the world flocked to see the ruins of ancient Persia; diplomats clamored for a Tehran posting. But amid this rapid development, something was lost. Iranian society was in evaluation system, flux: its economy was simultaneously expanding and imploding, its religion and customs were under siege, its traditional channels of influence eroding under the pressure of a state determined to assert its dominance. Intellectuals wrote dark parables about person, a nation so intoxicated with the West that it had lost its identity.
Even as the shah was pouring money into his notion of an ideal society, pockets of evaluation, opposition were developing. Eventually, Pahlavi Avenue and Tehran's city center became the effective writing made easy, locus of another mode of change, this time driven from the faculty evaluation system, streets of Iran rather than from its palaces. Over the course of 1978, protestors gathered here in ever-expanding numbers to vent their frustrations with a political system in introduction powerpoint, which power was concentrated in the hands of a single man. The upheaval on the streets culminated the following year in the shah’s ouster at the hands of an faculty evaluation thesis inchoate coalition of leftists, liberals and thesis tentang elearning, Shi’a Muslim clerics. Among the protestors there was little consensus on what ought to replace the monarchy, but they coalesced around Ruhollah Khomeini, a revered ayatollah who had been exiled in 1964 for thesis protesting the shah’s reforms.
The shah was dumbfounded that his subjects would spurn his magnificent achievements. “The nation I had led to the threshold of progress, power, and self-confidence lay torn and bleeding,” he wrote in his memoirs, while he himself had been supplanted by a “worn, fanatic old man [who] was repeatedly telling the how do you start and contrast essay, Iranian people how mean, miserable, and poverty-stricken they were”—a man who represented the very forces of traditionalism he had sought to eliminate. The shah's disbelief was echoed by much of the rest of the world. Religious radicalism is painfully familiar today; in evaluation system, 1979, however, Iran's upheaval scuttled the long-held assumption that economic development led inexorably to secularization and liberalization. The fall of Iran's monarchy proved to be the how do a comparison and contrast essay, first of what would be numerous salvos in a worldwide, multi-generational struggle over evaluation thesis the rightful role of Islam in political life. Immediately after the revolution, Iran's new leaders began re-casting the country to suit their aspirations. Even the street names were not safe. The capital of an Islamic Republic could not host a Roosevelt Avenue or other streets with names lionizing Western allies. And certainly its main drag could not pay tribute to the reviled monarch who had just been overthrown.
Pahlavi Avenue was renamed multiple times, consistent with the shifting fortunes in the skirmish for in dubious battle essays post-revolutionary authority. Faculty Evaluation System Thesis! The revolutionaries finally settled on Vali Asr, a tribute to made easy the 12th Imam, who disappeared in system, the ninth century and how do a comparison essay, whose return is faculty, awaited as a signal of world salvation. For Shi'a Muslims, the phrase Vali Asr symbolizes hope in a just future; for Iranians, the revolution has brought anything but. The revolutionary state jettisoned many other vestiges of how to solve hunger essay, monarchical Iran. Gone were the faculty system, bars and introduction powerpoint, the discos, the Western tourists and system thesis, businessmen, the short skirts and bikinis, and thesis tentang elearning, any other hints of secularism. Hijab , or modest Islamic dress, quickly went from fashion statement to system fiercely-enforced legal requirement. Anti-American protests, which culminated in the November 1979 seizure of the U.S. Embassy and the 14-month hostage crisis, eviscerated all traces of the pre-revolutionary romance with the West. Dramatic as these changes were, perhaps the most amazing aspect of Iran's post-revolutionary order has been its sheer endurance.
The Islamic Republic has survived every calamity short of the plague: an invasion and a brutish war; internal insurgencies; the death of its charismatic founder; catastrophes both natural and man-made; and recently an almost wholesale amputation from the international financial system thanks to economic sanctions. Yet somehow the thesis elearning, Islamic Republic is faculty evaluation system, still standing. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in a January 1979 demonstration against the shah. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in a January 1979 demonstration against the shah. A Ceremonial Presidency Evolves in the Islamic Republic. Out of the revolutionary chaos, a new system of government evolved. A hastily-organized referendum endorsed the vague notion of an Islamic Republic. In the contentious debate over how do a comparison and contrast essay a new constitution, Ayatollah Khomeini and his partisans pressed to accord ultimate power to an unelected supreme leader, a post assumed—naturally—by Khomeini himself. Endowing the head of government with a divine mandate upended centuries of Shi'a theology and unnerved many of Iran's senior clerics. But the faculty system, imam's thundering insistence overrode every objection. Presidents of the Islamic Republic of essays, Iran.
These transformations might suggest that the revolution changed everything about Iran, but it left much intact as well, including Iran's century-old parliament, an assortment of other elective offices, and a constitution that bears some resemblance to one developed during a proto-democratic uprising 60 years earlier. Many of the monarchy's policies and organizations were simply repurposed with an Islamic bent. The tensions and contradictions that characterize the Islamic Republic today reflect the uneasy bargain negotiated among the disparate interests that joined forces to oust the shah. It seems fitting that the presidency provoked real debate among the framers of the new system from the start. Faculty Evaluation! During the years that followed, as the essay writing easy, regime's partisans jostled for power, this office would serve, variously, as the center of gravity for Iran's democratic aspirations, as a tangible symbol of the revolution's republican intentions and, for the revolutionary elites, as an advantageous perch for influence peddling.
However, during the first decade after the revolution, the faculty system, presidency remained largely ceremonial. Policy was shaped primarily by Khomeini, along with the introduction to research paper, parliament and faculty system, the prime minister. Iran's dominant political and religious authority is the supreme leader, a position designed by the revolution's driving force, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Following Khomeini's 1989 death, mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei was selected to succeed him after serving two terms as president. Like other Iranian leaders, Khamenei was trained in how to hunger, seminaries and evaluation system, actively opposed the shah. He was wounded in a 1981 terrorist attack that cost the use of his right arm. As supreme leader, he has steadily expanded the authority of the office. He endorsed Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's disputed re-election of 2009, describing the opposition as seditionists and influenced by battle essays Western conspiracies. Early occupants of the presidency proved unlucky: Iran's first post-revolutionary president broke with the regime and evaluation system, had to flee for his life; his replacement was killed in a terrorist attack. On the third try, in a comparison and contrast essay, August 1981, Iranians elected mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei as president.
The position would serve him far better than his predecessors, eventually launching him into the exalted status of evaluation thesis, supreme leader, successor to Khomeini. Khamenei's two terms as president coincided with a desperate time for the fledgling theocracy, when the how to solve, country was consumed by the sacred defense it was forced to mount to fend off the system thesis, September 1980 invasion by how do a comparison essay Saddam Hussein's Iraq. The war presented Tehran with an faculty evaluation thesis existential crisis, exacerbated by the country's isolation and by elearning the turmoil and purges that had devastated the military establishment. For all its hazards, however, the conflict had an upside for Khomeini. Faculty Evaluation Thesis! An economy disrupted by revolution experienced a short-term boost thanks to the demands of wartime production, and Iranians rallied around a regime that for many bore little resemblance to their revolutionary aspirations.
Amid the sufferings of war, the new state's authority was strengthened, the thesis, achievements of the revolution consolidated. And when Iraq's invasion was successfully repulsed, the ayatollahs went on the offensive. Spurning a 1982 ceasefire proposal that promised billions in reparations from the faculty evaluation system thesis, Gulf states, Khomeini continued the conflict for essay person six more years in an increasingly futile effort to evaluation system topple Saddam. Millions of Iranians were killed, wounded or displaced; key ports were destroyed; vital oil export routes and facilities were disrupted; and the economy and the war effort were severely constrained by sanctions. Jean-Claude Delmas/AFP/Getty Images. Brookings Senior Fellow Bruce Riedel calls the Iran-Iraq War devastating. Khomeini finally conceded the how to world hunger essay, war's failure in 1988. The decision to accept a cease-fire with Saddam, which he famously compared to faculty system drinking from a poisoned chalice, contravened his frequent invocations of victory at any cost, and came over the objections of his own commanders as well as many of the regime's radicals. But Iran had little alternative: challenges from the opposition and on the streets were mounting; its economy was near collapse; and Tehran lacked the money or materials necessary to essays achieve a decisive military victory. For many, however, the wounds of the conflict remain raw, and bitterness over international indifference toward Tehran's suffering and complicity in Saddam's crimes still rankles.
The politician tapped to bring the war to a satisfactory conclusion was Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, then-speaker of the evaluation system, parliament and a cleric who was especially close to Khomeini. Rafsanjani was made acting commander-in-chief in mid-1988, and he ended the war expeditiously and without remorse. Then, when Khomeini died in 1989, Rafsanjani played a central role in boosting his revolutionary comrade Khamenei into the post of supreme leader, while he himself moved seamlessly into significant influence, the newly expanded presidency. Ayatollah Rafsanjani has been one of the key figures in evaluation system thesis, Iran for effective writing the past half century. He studied theology in Qom where he became a follower of Ayatollah Khomeini and was a member of Iran's Revolutionary Council. He has served as speaker of the Majlis, Iran's parliament; commander-in-chief of the armed forces during the final months of the Iraq war; president for two terms; and faculty system, chairman of the Expediency Council, a powerful state institution.
During and after his presidential terms, he was considered a centrist with pragmatic tendencies. Although disqualified from a comparison essay running in the 2013 presidential election, he backed the eventual winner, Hassan Rouhani. BBC News has called him the faculty evaluation system, richest man in Iran. Rafsanjani's presidency proved decisive for Iran. He came into office determined to enact an ambitious reconstruction program, and his efforts to undertake an person influence economic and diplomatic rehabilitation of his country were hard-fought, if not wholly successful. Evaluation System! But his policies sparked waves of resistance—first, from a liberalizing reform movement and then, in counter-reaction, from a new generation of hardliners. Both movements imploded of their own volition, leaving in their wake a country ripe for Rafsanjani-style moderation and pragmatism—which in turn would later lead to a strange kind of comeback for the Islamic Republic's most storied politician. Supporters of nuclear negotiator and powerpoint, presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for faculty evaluation a campaign rally.
Supporters of nuclear negotiator and presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to you start a comparison essay a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for a campaign rally. The 2013 Presidential Election: 686 Applicants, Only Eight Contenders. In 2013, nearly a quarter century after Rafsanjani's first election to the presidency—literally a lifetime in a country where two-thirds of the population is below the age of 30—the possibility of his return to the office loomed large as the latest ballot approached. He had already served two terms, from 1989 to evaluation system thesis 1997, and had sought a third in 2005, in a tight race against essay influence, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, then mayor of Tehran. He lost that contest in a run-off, a defeat that stung the faculty system, establishment and catapulted the little-known Ahmadinejad into the limelight. Ahmadinejad's presidency reversed the trajectory of Iran's post-war path of moderation, and put the how to essay, revolution back on a collision course with the international community. This time around, after months of public vacillation, Rafsanjani arrived to register his candidacy at the last possible moment, creating a perfectly orchestrated election surprise. His dramatic bid captivated an Iranian political establishment that had been in system, a state of battle, suspended animation for four years, ever since the massive street protests that erupted after Ahmadinejad's dubious 2009 reelection. Not that Rafsanjani's candidacy was universally welcomed. Over the years, the evaluation system, disappointments of his tenure and his reputation for opportunism and corruption had eroded public support, perhaps accounting for the failure of his last two campaigns (a 2000 bid for the parliament as well as the 2005 presidential race).
But he remains a heavyweight. And after the havoc wrought by Ahmadinejad, the in dubious battle essays, prospective candidacy of a politician still considered a man of action and substance buoyed hopes for a better future. Iranian elections adhere to an idiosyncratic set of faculty evaluation system thesis, procedures. While anyone can toss a hat into the ring, a clerical oversight body—the Council of Guardians—determines who is permitted to run. The eligibility criteria are vague enough to enable the regime to cull all but a few hand-picked insiders. In a bizarre turn of events, the Guardians rejected Rafsanjani's bid for another go at the office he had held for eight years. However absurd the Islamic Republic's vetting process has been in the past—and more than two dozen elections over the course of 34 years have provided abundant fodder for in dubious ridicule—the ruling that one of the regime's founders was unfit to run for the presidency carried the farce to a new level.
Rafsanjani's failed bid remains one of the more curious factors in an astonishing election. Perhaps it was simply textbook political theater from the regime's most skilled showman, his snubbing meant to reinforce the need for faculty evaluation a return to realism, thus improving the prospects for person significant influence the candidate closest to his own views and experience—Hassan Rouhani. The sixth president of faculty system, Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad earned a reputation as an introduction paper unpredictable hardliner who reversed the liberalization promoted by his predecessor, reformist Mohammed Khatami. Prior to his 2005 election, Ahmadinejad served as mayor of Tehran and a provincial governor. His comments denying the faculty evaluation thesis, Holocaust and raising doubts about al Qaeda's role in the 9/11 attacks, plus his contested 2009 re-election victory, created fierce opposition at home and abroad.
After his presidency, Ayatollah Khamenei appointed him to the Expediency Council, where he now serves alongside such notables as Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hassan Rouhani, Ali Akbar Velayati and Mohammed Reza Aref. As Rafsanjani's understudy, Rouhani is a quintessential creation of Iran's post-revolutionary order. Effective Writing! He trained in the seminary and, like many young Iranian clerics in faculty, the 1960s, became active in the opposition to the shah, which led to repeated arrests. Having become part of Khomeini's inner circle during the ayatollah's final months in exile, he has held influential positions throughout the post-revolutionary period. But it was his role as a nuclear negotiator, an extension of significant influence, his 16-year tenure as the secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council, that hurtled Rouhani into the eye of the hurricane, and brought him to the attention of the world, which had hitherto taken little notice of him.
Representing Iran in talks with Europe from 2003 to 2005—an effort by evaluation the Iranian regime to stave off reprisals over its just-disclosed nuclear program—Rouhani helped hammer out an agreement that suspended Iran's most worrisome nuclear activities. To date it remains Iran's most significant concession on the nuclear issue, and it earned Rouhani the nickname the sheikh of diplomacy for his role in defusing a mounting clash with the tentang elearning, West. Yet as the sense of threat receded, and few of the incentives promised by European negotiators for Iranian cooperation materialized, Tehran quickly soured on the deal. Having only warily endorsed the 2003 suspension, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei quashed it less than two years later, resuming the nuclear program and championing defiance in tune with Iran's new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Rouhani resigned his responsibility for the nuclear portfolio, and emerged as the whipping boy for Iran's ascendant hardliners. In their eyes, Rouhani's diplomacy represented a surrender to faculty thesis the rapacious West, exchanging diamonds for peanuts, conceding Iran's resources and in dubious, its influence as irresponsibly as the monarchy had. While Rouhani remained a senior functionary in the Iranian system during the Ahmadinejad presidency, he was mostly sidelined to a government think tank. From there, he inveighed in surprisingly frank tones against Ahmadinejad's ideologically-driven excesses. Sometimes he even appeared to be serving as an informal spokesman for Iran's embattled realists, most of whom had been shunted aside in the wake of Ahmadinejad's giddy arrival on faculty evaluation system the scene. During this period he also wrote one of the only truly interesting memoirs of recent Iranian political history, divulging new details about the elearning, nuclear program, sharing insider gossip and thesis, dispensing the blunt truths that are his hallmark. Rouhani held a strange sinecure on the fringes of official respectability and how do you start and contrast, relevance in these years, publicly excoriated by thesis Khamenei for the nuclear negotiations he had led, yet somehow retaining his close bond with the supreme leader.
So it was perhaps not surprising that out of 686 applicants, Rouhani was one of the eight candidates —all of them men of the system, and most of an essay influence unabashedly conservative bent— to faculty evaluation receive the essay, nod from the Council of Guardians. The slate elicited little excitement and, after the evaluation, short-lived commotion over Rafsanjani, many observers anticipated an anodyne campaign, a display of mindless deference to in dubious the regime's ideological strictures. Expectations reverted to what had become the conventional wisdom ever since Ahmadinejad's contested reelection: that Khamenei preferred, indeed required, an unquestioning acolyte in the presidency. This would explain his elevation and assiduous defense of Ahmadinejad, his endorsement of the 2009 electoral fraud, and the earlier backlash against the reformist Khatami. Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty Images. Like so many widely held perceptions of Iran, however, the assumption that Ahmadinejad had ever been merely a pliant errand boy for Iran's hardliners misses the mark. That may have been the intention, but Ahmadinejad eclipsed these expectations and the presidency's limited powers, overturning the faculty, revolutionary state's protocols and alarming the world hunger, establishment. Late in his second term, after he had overstepped one time too often by system attempting to tentang elearning fire the intelligence minister over the supreme leader's objections, Khamenei reined him in—which only faculty evaluation thesis, reinforced presumptions that the supreme leader would not make the same mistake again. This time he would anoint a trusted subordinate who would pose no challenge to his own primacy. Khamenei's public protestations that he had no favored candidate elicited practically audible derision. Everything he had said in the run-up to the race spoke volumes to the contrary.
The supreme leader framed the parameters governing the election in unambiguous fashion: the ballot must be a pro-regime epic; candidates must avoid any hint of concessions to in dubious [Iran's] enemies; and any repeat of the mass unrest that erupted four years earlier would not be tolerated. Given these criteria, Iran's incumbent nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili seemed spot-on for system consecration. His piety was well-established, he had spent several years working in Khamenei's office, and since 2007 he had led Iran's nuclear negotiations, where he had transformed obfuscation into an art form, stonewalling his adversaries as he defended Tehran's determination to retain its nuclear prerogatives. His service in the war against Iraq, in which he had lost his right leg, only underscored the depth of his commitment to the Islamic Republic. Jalili's main competition looked to come from another next-generation conservative, Tehran mayor Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf. A precocious hero in effective essay writing, the Iran-Iraq war, Qalibaf had two main assets in the race.
First, he had impeccable credentials on Khamenei's highest priority: regime stability. System! In 1999, Qalibaf signed an unprecedented letter by senior military commanders publicly rebuking then-President Khatami over his handling of student protests; Qalibaf even boasted of his own role in cracking skulls during the quashing of those demonstrations. Second, his position as mayor of Tehran bestowed upon him a built-in popular base and a reputation for results on essay writing quality-of-life issues. The other candidates represented an array of interest groups and political tendencies. That their number included a representative of Iran's beleaguered reformist front, respected technocrat Mohammad Reza Aref, seemed a small but hopeful sign. The inclusion of a credible reformist candidate signaled the rehabilitation of the faction, as well as an acknowledgment that the wholesale domination of Iran's conservatives and thesis, hardliners has been neither successful nor sustainable. Ahmadinejad played an outsized if unintentional role in advancing this realization.
Outside Iran, the former president is effective, best known for faculty evaluation system thesis his Holocaust denial and anti-Israeli invective, his unsettling messianism and his wild-eyed ruminations. Within Iran's establishment, such rhetoric was not necessarily unwelcome. But his proclivity for essays chaos and crisis was, and it alienated even the hardliners who had backed him. Thanks to skyrocketing oil prices, Ahmadinejad had assumed office during a period of unprecedented prosperity in Iran. Yet the economy cratered under his volatile stewardship, and many of the modest improvements in the social and political atmosphere effected during the Khatami presidency were also undone. The fallout from evaluation thesis his reckless rhetoric and policies, particularly as it affected people's pocketbooks, cost him much of essay person influence, his initial public support and evaluation system thesis, made him persona non grata within the introduction paper powerpoint, establishment. Faculty! For that reason, the campaign to succeed Ahmadinejad was characterized by an almost palpable determination to how do a comparison repudiate him. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for a group picture after a live debate in Tehran on state television, one week prior to the election. (L to faculty system R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for a group picture after a live debate in Tehran on state television, one week prior to the election. (L to R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images.
An Inconceivable Twist in the Presidential Campaign. A funny thing happened on the way to the conservative cakewalk in Iran: a supposed sleeper of a presidential campaign got interesting. Rouhani himself had much to do with sending the solve, anticipated narrative off the thesis, rails. This was a surprise. By virtue of his long-standing association with the regime, he was expected to toe the official line. Effective Easy! Yet Rouhani's every move along Iran's short campaign trail seemed calculated to faculty evaluation shake things up. Atta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images.
It is how to essay, difficult to pinpoint precisely when it became clear that Rouhani did not intend to run a cautious campaign. Was it his appeal for the release of political prisoners, including detained reformist leaders Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, which he made even before his candidacy was approved? Was it his adoption of the faculty, symbol of essay person significant influence, a big key that would unlock big problems for Iran? Or was it his decision to thesis color-code his campaign with purple, a tactic that seemed perilously reminiscent of the green wave of support for Mousavi that the regime had rolled back with such force in the previous election? It might have been an appearance on state television when Rouhani upbraided an interviewer for misrepresenting his record on influence the nuclear issue and instructed him to faculty system thesis re-read his memoir to to research powerpoint get his facts right. Evaluation! He sparred just as aggressively with the Jalili campaign, whose staff included several members of the incumbent negotiating team. For Rouhani to have broached this discussion, knowing how obsessed the leadership is essay influence, with retaining its nuclear infrastructure and presenting a united front to the world, was a particularly daring move. And dispensing with protocol and the state broadcasters, Rouhani released his campaign video straight to YouTube, where its emphasis on his close ties with Iran's leadership and his own achievements alternated with poetic appeals for evaluation system a new spring after a long, cold winter. One of the biggest surprises came 10 days before the ballot, when Rouhani travelled to Iran's historic capital of Isfahan to stump for votes. While there, he joined the mourning procession for a dissident cleric who had penned a public letter a decade earlier that condemned the regime for deviation, abuse and lawlessness and described its leadership as henchmen of how do you start a comparison and contrast, tyranny. It did not seem to bother Rouhani that the chants of support for system his campaign were interspersed with denunciations of Khamenei and the theocratic system.
Amazingly, no formal recriminations against the candidate were issued afterward. In the how do and contrast, end, however, while Rouhani's boundary-bashing may have set the stage, it was a televised debate among all the candidates that really broke the presidential race wide open. The fact that the debates were held at all raised eyebrows. Faculty Thesis! Ahmadinejad's deft and thesis tentang elearning, dangerous exploitation of the faculty system thesis, 2009 debates—when he wielded intelligence files on television as a prop to accuse his rivals of corruption and nepotism—had sparked an hunger uproar. Many expected that the regime would simply dispense with debates. Instead, state television organized three lengthy debates, culminating in a four-and-a-half hour foreign policy fisticuffs that laid bare Iran's deep strategic divide over nuclear diplomacy and the regime's approach to the world. Rouhani, who had mounted a pugnacious defense of faculty evaluation system thesis, his own nuclear record while on the campaign trail, stayed true to form during the debate, disparaging Jalili as an unsophisticated puritan whose only negotiating skill was verbosity. And his zinger—that Iran needs working factories as much as it needs spinning centrifuges—was considered catchy enough that his campaign tweeted a variation on effective writing made easy it within moments of his having uttered it. However, the most powerful deviations from the official narrative were voiced not by Rouhani but by other conservatives.
Several questioned why Jalili, the faculty evaluation system thesis, presumptive front-runner, had not secured a deal in introduction powerpoint, talks with the West, and challenged the sense of resistance on the nuclear issue if it came at the cost of keeping Iran's population hungry. Ali Akbar Velayati, the long-time foreign minister who owes his entire career in politics to his close relationship to faculty thesis Khamenei, delivered the to research paper, most devastating blows. He lectured Jalili on the difference between diplomacy and philosophy: diplomacy, he noted archly, is intended to obtain results and system thesis, lessen sanctions. We can't expect everything and give nothing, Velayati scolded his younger nemesis, adding that Jalili's handling of the latest round of talks definitely shows that you do not really want to essay significant influence make any progress on the issue. The more conservative candidates fought back, with Qalibaf scorning Velayati for sipping coffee with the French president even as Baghdad strafed Iranian troops via fighter jets provided by Paris. For the hardliners, diplomacy is of dubious value in safeguarding Iran's revolution from international antagonism. Jalili took pains to underscore that he was merely implementing Khamenei's mandate at the negotiating table, a defense eerily reminiscent of that previously offered by Rouhani himself.
In the thesis, context of the election, however, Jalili's insistence that he was following orders only made the effective easy, attacks on him seem that much more of a mutiny against the unpopular establishment. The debate was far more significant than simply another sharp-elbowed display by an elite known for its quarrelsomeness. The suddenly candid discourse on such a sensitive subject betrays the Iranian establishment’s awareness of the regime's increasing vulnerability. Faculty Evaluation! Nothing like this had ever happened before, and certainly not on live state television, with approximately two-thirds of the country watching. Introduction To Research! In Tehran’s public rhetoric, the evaluation, nuclear program represents the thesis, nation’s glory as well as its capacity to withstand the “bullying” of the faculty system thesis, West.
Any deviation from the official line is considered disloyal as well as dangerous, and unlike almost every other issue, where repression has failed to staunch freewheeling debate, the nuclear program had remained sacrosanct. So the introduction, airing of a frank, in-depth discussion of the nuclear issue one week before the vote seemed an inconceivable twist in faculty evaluation thesis, the campaign. The nuclear debate served as the writing on the wall. It was an intervention, initiated by some of the regime's most stalwart supporters, intended to rescue the system by conceding its precariousness and appealing for pragmatism to rescue it. And it was an acknowledgement that the sanctions-induced miseries of the Iranian public could no longer be assuaged with the nuclear pageantry of the Ahmadinejad era, or even the formerly reliable appeals to the system's unique blend of religion and nationalism. As the campaign entered its final week, the conventional wisdom about the inevitability of a conservative victory was obliterated, almost as if a spell had been broken. Two final developments sealed the in dubious essays, election's outcome.
Working on the sidelines, Rafsanjani hammered out a painstaking truce with the reform faction, headed by former president Khatami, which eased the departure of the only real reformist in the race, Mohammad Reza Aref. This bargain represented a dramatic shift in Iran's internal power struggles. Faculty! After more than a decade of effective made, rivalry and, at times, bare-fisted animosity, the regime's liberalizing reformers aligned with its more conservative realists. The compact proved key to consolidating a wide swath of Iranian public opinion behind Rouhani. Meanwhile, despite similar machinations, the conservatives failed to coalesce around a single candidate. Ill-suited to the new environment of truth-telling on the nuclear issue, the campaigns of both Jalili and Qalibaf appeared to falter as the faculty, race drew to introduction paper a close. To generate a conservative victory at this stage would have required blatant manipulation of the vote, a risk that the faculty system thesis, regime may not have been willing to take, particularly with many of its neighbors in an unprecedented state of introduction to research paper, upheaval. In the final days of the campaign, Vali Asr Avenue and other Iranian streets were plastered with flashy campaign paraphernalia, not just for the presidential contenders but also for the 300,000 candidates running for local positions.
A country whose democratic aspirations had been beaten back only system, four years before risked hoping again, and returned to to research powerpoint the polls in blockbuster numbers. And this time Iranians opted to turn the big key. Evaluation! Rouhani took the presidency in the first ballot with an introduction unexpectedly strong plurality. Tehranis, their expectations tempered by bitter experience, waited for the formal declaration, after a protracted and suspenseful night of faculty evaluation system, vote-counting, before erupting into how to solve world, mass celebrations—once again on Vali Asr. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in 2005 just outside the city of Isfahan in central Iran. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in 2005 just outside the city of Isfahan in central Iran. A Lack of Trust on the Nuclear Issue. Like so much about Iran, the faculty evaluation, election provokes divergent interpretations.
Did an made easy ossifying regime accede to overwhelming public demand for more responsible leadership, or did the revolution's hard-nosed stalwarts orchestrate a shift in its center of faculty thesis, gravity away from its bellicose extremes? The truth likely lies somewhere in the middle; in other words, the election was another untidy improvisation by writing a regime that is acutely aware of its own vulnerabilities and has made an art form of survival under the most inauspicious circumstances. How close is Iran to having nuclear weapons and what can America do about it? For a usual suspect, Iran's new president is an unusual character. Beyond his seminary studies, he also received a degree from evaluation system thesis Tehran University and pursued a doctorate in constitutional law at Glasgow Caledonian University, even as he climbed the ranks of the bureaucracy in a theocracy that had little use for European credentials. When much of the Iranian elite did little more than grumble about Ahmadinejad's provocative policies, Rouhani boldly denounced his recklessness and highlighted the costs to the economy. Like his mentor Rafsanjani a quarter-century ago, Rouhani appears to have been tapped to thesis elearning effect a turnaround—to staunch a crisis and salvage the revolution from its own failings.
But his past political affiliations lie closer to Iran's traditional conservatives than to the leftists who spearheaded the reform movement 15 years ago. Evaluation Thesis! In seeking to writing easy transcend the trap of partisanship, however, he argues that he represents the faculty system, reasonable faction, which he describes as being made up of all those Iranian politicians who are interested first and foremost in problem-solving. This is a moment of tremendous opportunity for Washington, although it offers no easy answers. In fact, Rouhani's very moderation may make things harder by paper eroding international support for sanctions and in turn stiffening the faculty, spines of Iran's hardliners. Khamenei still holds all the cards in effective essay easy, Iran, and the nuclear issue is not a presidential prerogative. For some in Washington, where distrust of self-proclaimed Iranian moderates runs deep, the new president's appeal for the middle ground is a dangerous deception. And turmoil elsewhere in the region, particularly in Syria where Washington and Tehran are backing opposing sides, may put a nuclear deal even further out of reach. Moreover, the presumption that Rouhani will drive an easier bargain may be overly optimistic. The Europeans who sat across the faculty system thesis, table from him during his time as Iran's nuclear negotiator remember him as a tough customer. And his recent track record underscores the difficulty of thesis tentang elearning, expecting too much from faculty system thesis Rouhani on the nuclear issue.
The only recent progress on this issue came in 2009, with a tentative agreement to export much of Iran's enriched uranium in exchange for Western-supplied fuel rods for its medical research reactor. Ironically, the primary Iranian proponent of this arrangement was Ahmadinejad, whereas Rouhani played a vocal role in scuttling the deal, which he described as illegal, a mistake, and a Western attempt to deprive Iran of its uranium stockpile. These criticisms helped persuade Khamenei to back away from an initial acceptance of the agreement, sending Iran further down a path of international isolation and pressure. On the merits, the nuclear crisis need not be intractable. Essay Person Significant! Washington could tolerate some low-level enrichment in Iran, so long as its scope is capped and an inspection regime to ensure absolute transparency is implemented. Rouhani's repeated references to transparency signal that Tehran may be willing to accept additional oversight. With regard to Iran's repeated insistence that the West acknowledge its self-described legitimate rights to faculty thesis the full fuel cycle under the and contrast, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), some diplomatic sophistry and rhetorical creativity should be able to facilitate a mutually acceptable formulation. Still, the substantive disagreements that have thus far stymied any breakthroughs will not disappear with a more pragmatic Iranian negotiating team.
It will be an faculty evaluation uphill battle to hunger essay persuade Tehran to put strong enough limits on faculty evaluation thesis the size and effective easy, scope of its nuclear program in sufficient fashion to reassure the international community. Iranians argue that negotiations should execute a reciprocal—and equivalent—exchange. However, Washington and its European partners see grounds for no such equivalence. For them, Iran is the faculty evaluation system, transgressor, having concealed its nuclear activities for 18 years and having failed for more than a decade since their revelation to fully adhere to NPT safeguards obligations or satisfy U.N. How To Solve Hunger Essay! Security Council demands. Evaluation! Washington and its partners expect any deal will begin with tangible Iranian concessions. The efficacy of the sanctions program has only in dubious battle essays, exacerbated this disconnect. With Iran having paid such a high price for its nuclear ambitions, Iranian officials may now demand a commensurately large reward in exchange for constraining the program.
Could this be the year for evaluation system thesis an engagement with Iran that 'is honest and grounded in mutual respect'? The fundamental obstacle to tentang real progress is the lack of faculty evaluation thesis, trust between the solve hunger essay, two sides—validated by their respective historical narratives and thesis, exacerbated by their contentious domestic politics. Can the international community trust Tehran to adhere to any commitments it may make? And can Iran's isolated, ideological leadership trust the world sufficiently to dare to compromise? Both Iran and America now have presidents who campaigned on solve essay the idea of hope, but as Iran's nuclear program continues to advance, it will take more than hope to build confidence in faculty system thesis, each other. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the outside world and essays, improving the sanctions-battered economy. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the outside world and improving the sanctions-battered economy.
Rouhani, The West and the Road Ahead. Three decades of rule by faculty evaluation system a revolutionary Islamic regime has generated a political reality that in many ways fails to conform to the ideological imperatives of its founders—or, for that matter, to the one-dimensional depiction that has become entrenched in the Western imagination. Iran remains a place of how do you start a comparison and contrast essay, jarring contradictions. Faculty! It is at once an autocratic system, governed by the whims of a ruler who claims a divine mandate, and at the same time a fractious country shaped by factional competition and the institutions of representative rule. Oddly enough, the secret to the Iranian regime's survival may lie in this very volatility. The dual and dueling institutions of the Islamic Republic are in its DNA, inciting the power struggles that ultimately determine Tehran's decisions.
These struggles have proved an effective mechanism for channeling competition, and, through carefully controlled but not always pre-ordained elections, generating some sense of buy-in among Iran's citizens. The Islamic Republic's unpredictability belies an unsteady but persistent stability. When the devastating sanctions that were the byproduct of the how to solve hunger, nuclear crisis threatened this equilibrium, the system stepped in to faculty system thesis right itself again, and there is now reason to hope that the essay person influence, crisis can be managed to the satisfaction of both Iran and the West. But, there is evaluation system thesis, also reason to introduction powerpoint worry that this self-correction will not happen. We expect revolutions to diminish in fervor, to modulate fiery tenor and rationalize unconventional policies, once the chaos and violence that accompanies any sudden change has subsided. The Iranian Revolution has not followed this model. Despite substantive changes during its 34-year history, the Islamic Republic has yet to fully embrace the moderation that should herald the twilight of the revolution. It is still too soon to say if Rouhani's election will be the evaluation thesis, harbinger of a durable Thermidor for Iran's theocracy. Fars News Agency. The new president's initial steps have given reason for tempered optimism. Though his cabinet nods have largely bypassed Iran's best-known reformists, he has appointed Mohammad Javad Zarif, a much-admired diplomat with an unusually rich Washington rolodex, as foreign minister and apparently tasked him with responsibility for the nuclear talks.
And he has put in place what amounts to an Islamic Republic dream team on the economy—a slate of ministers with considerable technocratic credentials, substantial experience, and person significant influence, real commitment to market-based reforms and foreign investment. Perhaps most important, even in his earliest official moves, President Rouhani has reinforced the faculty evaluation thesis, perception that his election is intended to serve as a conduit for resolving the nuclear standoff. He invited former European Union foreign policy chief Javier Solana—who negotiated with Tehran for introduction years on the nuclear issue—to attend his inauguration, and he has continued to faculty evaluation advocate negotiations with Washington on the basis that diplomacy can produce a worthwhile resolution to the crisis. Anticipating how Iran's story will unfold from here is impossible. Its peaceful, popular revolution begat a vicious theocracy; since then, each triumph for one of the regime's rival factions has only foreshadowed a subsequent reversal.
The half-life of predictions about effective essay made easy, Iranian politics is the blink of an eye. Perhaps that accounts for America's fascination with Iran's fate. Iran is the country whose break with the West ended our innocence about the world's affections, and whose government has kept our own leaders up at night for more than a generation. We watched its revolution play out on national television, and faculty evaluation, lived through the hostage crisis courtesy of Ted Koppel's nightly updates. We have followed the powerpoint, roller-coaster ride of faculty evaluation, its political turmoil, worn green in solidarity with its short-lived opposition movement, and jeered the loathsome Ahmadinejad in late-night parodies. August 2009, Kenneth Pollack, Daniel Byman, Martin Indyk, Suzanne Maloney, Michael O’Hanlon, Bruce Riedel More Brookings research on Iran. Though no one can say for certain what the Rouhani era will bring, now that an election that was expected to consolidate authority in how to world hunger essay, the hands of defiant theocrats has unexpectedly opened a tentative door to conciliation, we are hoping that the faculty evaluation system, tide has turned at last. Clearly many in solve essay, Iran harbor that same wish.
A few days after the election celebrations, Iranians once again jammed the faculty evaluation system thesis, streets of tentang elearning, its cities in joyful demonstrations. The national team had qualified for the World Cup and, just as in 1997, the confluence of the two successes—on the evaluation system, playing field and in to research powerpoint, the political arena—seemed almost too good to be true. Iranians have been hardened by disappointments and reversals; they know that the path of evaluation system, political change will be long and effective writing made easy, circuitous. Still, they take their victories where they can and, in the cool of a summer evening, hope stretches all along Vali Asr, from one end of Tehran to evaluation thesis the other. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is how do, intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues.
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