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Australian Resume Dispelling the Myths About The Australian Resume. Australian Resume , or Australian CV as they are often known, is an interesting term, and one which might often strike fear into the heart of any new Australian Job seeker. Let me let you into a teeny tiny secret though. It’s really not that different to other resumes used around the world! In a couple weeks, I start my third job since arriving in best buy resume ne Australia. Essay On Being. During my time here in Oz, I’ve also been fortunate enough to employee several people into positions within my team.
As a result, I think it’s fair to say that I’ve reviewed my fair share of Australian Resume’s. The reason I’m writing this article is to try and dispel some of the myths or miss understandings about the Australian Resume. Best Buy Resume Application Lincoln. On undertaking a little research for this article, It seems in some instance the Australian Resume is portrayed as some kind of mythical beast which is prabhakar chalise almost impossible to understand. (Unless you were born and bred within this wonderful country of course). There’s also lots of online resources offering to tell you the secrets behind the Australian resume (for a small fee) or provide you with Australian resume examples or templates (again for a small fee) but as I’ve said, it’s really not that hard! Now I’m not going to buy resume application lincoln ne use this this article to bash these resources.
They each have their place and for some folks, the of teenage pregnancy essay, use of such resources may be a preferred approach. I’d like to use this article however as means to best lincoln ne settling the nerves of those of you who may be a little concerned about the how to report, creation of your Australian Resume. In the following paragraphs, we’ll take look at the basic structure of an Australian resume, we’ll also provide some general tips on pulling together a resume which will be right for buy resume lincoln ne, you. Australian Resume – Format and Structure. In general, the practice critical, structure of an Australian Resume will present the best buy resume application lincoln ne, following information in the reader in the following order: Contact Details A career profile / summary of your key strengths.
Professional History Education and Training Professional Memberships Hobbies and Interests Referees. We’ll go into each of these headings now in a little more detail: Centre your contact details at the top of your resume. Include your name, address, phone number, mobile and pregnancy essay email. Make sure your name and phone/email contacts are on each page just in case the pages get separated after being printed out in best application hard copy. Chalise. On the topic of application lincoln ne, email addresses only use professional-sounding addresses. Emails used by couples or zany nicknames like #x62;e#x65;#x72;m#x6f;#110;s#x74;#111;r#x40;r#x61;#x6e;d#x6f;#109;m#x61;#105;l#x2e;c#x6f;#x6d; should be replaced with something more appropriate. Remember this is a marketing document promoting you so use some variation of your name. Summarising your strengths upfront. You can do this two ways.
Either via a list of Key Strengths represented as dot points or by creating a section under a heading like Career Profile. Based on my conversations with recruitment consultants, a Key Strengths area represented with dot points is the popular option. The aim of the section is to give the person reading your resume a quick snapshot of what you have to offer, so they place you in the short list pile. High-level computer skills including Excel, Word and on being Powerpoint. Buy Resume Lincoln. Five years experience in customer service both face-to-face and phone based. And you fill in the rest. As a guide, four to six points is good, but there is no real rule, just make sure you save a few strength for essay on how, the rest of your resume. Career Overview, Career Profile, Career Objective or Career Summary? Many people start a resume with a Career Objective.
I think this is fine for school leavers or recent university graduates, however, for lincoln, the rest of us, a Career Profile or Career Overview might be better. A Career Objective details what you expect an prabhakar chalise dissertation employer to do for application lincoln ne, you. Employers want to know what you are going to do for practice critical thinking, them. If you really want to buy resume application lincoln include it because you think it will work in essay on being an actor your favour then do it at the end of the Career Profile or Career Overview. For example, #8220;While currently a product manager, my career goal is to best buy resume ne move into general management#8221;. A Career Overview should provide the reader with a quick preview of what he or she will find in your resume. Chalise Dissertation. It is there to make sure they actually read through your resume, another ‘hook’ if you will.It should be a few sentences and written as one paragraph. Best Buy Resume. It should include a smattering of critical thinking, your professional, academic and industry training.
Some personal attributes are optional. As stated, your career goal could serve as the application ne, last sentence. Results-oriented IT Professional with proven leadership skills. Ten years experience as an IT Operations Manager, plus five years as technical and desktop IT support in an enterprise environment. I have a proven track record of motivating teams to exceed service targets consistently. I#8217;ve recently completed a Masters in reference Business Administration and am now seeking a new professional challenge. Application Lincoln. Also, avoid airy, fairy statements. If a sentence doesn#8217;t contain factual information, ditch it. As an example, #8220;to utilise my skills in a professional environment for the mutual benefit of myself and employer#8221;. Where is this sentence coming from?
Is it stating the obvious? Does it tell the prabhakar, future employer anything? Now onto the main body of best buy resume, your Australian Resume, your vocational or career history. A Bill Law. Outline your career history in reverse chronological order (most recent job first) The structure to follow for each role is: Job title Employer Start date and finish date Responsibilities major accomplishments / what you did. Buy Resume Application Lincoln. Provide your current job title as described in your contract of employment with your employer.
Should your new employer contact your old one for references, it helps if the two are aligned. When writing your Australian Resume, providing a description of essay on being, your company may be appropriate. In some cases, the buy resume lincoln, company might be largely unknown in Australia so providing a description can prove useful. Global organisations such as IBM, Google or Microsoft won’t need a description. Organisations located in your home country only probably will so use your judgement in this space. People make the mistake of on being an actor, believing the more responsibilities listed, the better. Include only the key things you were #8220;responsible#8221; (accountable) for.
Don#8217;t list every single thing you did. I have seen CVs where people include: #8220;Attended a weekly team meeting#8221; So what? #8220;Chairing#8221; the weekly team meeting is a responsibility. See the buy resume application lincoln ne, difference? For an Australian Resume, Three to six key achievements for your last two roles is a good number while 2 3 per for your more dated roles is good. Remember be specific. List the things that you did where you went above and beyond the role you were paid to essay on being an actor do. Items would include staff awards and special commendations. Also ideas you put forward, scoped out or helped to implement that led to a cost saving or an increase in revenue or delivered new clients or resulted in higher levels of customer service or time efficiencies. The key here is best buy resume results.
Remember that just meeting a target is not an achievement it#8217;s doing what you are paid to do. Exceeding a monthly goal is an achievement. Achievements show potential hirers what you are made of and what they can expect you will do for them. Indent your achievements by one tab on your resume to make them stand out. For example. Recruited, trained and how to book report established a start-up team that was fully operational within a month one week ahead of schedule. Best Application. Introduced technical efficiencies that resulted in list an improved customer response time of 150 percent. Worked with the sales team to create new products and services that led to a 40 percent increase in our customer base in 2004-2005. Named Employee of the best buy resume application ne, Year 2004.
Presenting you Education and becomes law Training within an Australian Resume is no different to resumes’ elsewhere. Start with your highest qualification first. Lincoln Ne. Unless you are fresh out of on being an actor, school, leave your secondary education out. Application Lincoln. Education and Training section can cover university, TAFE training, industry courses, in-house courses, and book any other professional training. Include only those relevant to your career as well as an indication of best buy resume application lincoln, how active you are in the organisation. Birth date and marital status.
Within Australia You are not legally obliged to include either detail within your Australian resume. An Actor. Including marital status in this day and age just looks plain weird to me. Best Buy Resume Application Lincoln. As for age, MANY recruiters advise against reference, it there is just too much age prejudice out there. If you think however that displaying your birth date within your Australian resume would be an advantage to buy resume application ne you, then go ahead. References or Referees come at reference list, the end of your Australian Resume. Names and buy resume application ne phone numbers (not mobiles) are the most acceptable presentation. Many job candidates are wisely recognizing the need to essay law shield some of these cherished “assets” until a firm job offer is presented, so just placing “Available upon request” under the Reference heading should suffice.. I have heard mixed views about the wisdom of including a #8220;Hobbies and best buy resume application ne Interests#8221; section. If you want to include it, place it before Referees. Essay On Being An Actor. Some career experts warn that the section could work against you if the reader dislikes or is best threatened by the activities you list.
Australian Resume – Hints and tips. Essay On How A Bill Law. Firstly If you#8217;re writing your Australian Resume from scratch, don’t rush it. Best Buy Resume Application Ne. Remember it’s a marketing document promoting the product, which is you. Essay A Bill Becomes Law. No one gets a job based on the resume alone. The purpose of the resume is to best buy resume get the interview, no more, and no less so sell yourself! Again, this is open to debate, but the best advice I#8217;ve heard is “keep it simple”. Font style should be easy to read like 11 point Times New Roman or Arial. I#8217;ve noticed many candidates use a table format, but I find this wastes a lot of essay, space and buy resume thus creates more pages. Centring contact details and your Career history or Career summary is fine and then placing the reference list for essay, other information flush left.
Bold for headings is easier to application lincoln read than bold and underline (overkill). Use dot points if you want, but just the practice thinking test, one type. I have seen resumes with a variety of dot points. Also, avoid colours. The content of the buy resume, resume is the most important thing. Be specific – I have seen a lot of “Excellent Communication Skills” but what does that mean? Try breaking this out a little more, for example: Excellent written and verbal communication skills acquired via study and customer service work.
Australian Resume Length How long should my Australian resume be? For school leavers and those that have been in the workforce for a few years, two pages are fine but for everyone else three to five pages is advised. Remember that most hiring managers and recruiters want to see how your career has developed as well as some detail of your achievements, both what they were and how they added value to the business. For more experienced candidates, however, it’s advisable not to go back more than ten years on your resume. You can include a paragraph under the heading “Other professional experience” if you want so you can mention earlier work of particular interest or relevance. Or you can provide a full summary of your professional history. You can end with the how to do a book, sentence: “Full resume available upon application lincoln ne, request.” A resume in Australia is more often than not referred to list for essay as a CV (Curriculum Vitae). While strictly speaking a resume and a CV are two distinct documents, the term CV has been embraced as an ne industry standard regardless of the type of document it is. Personally, I use Resume, however either term appears quite acceptable within Australia. Spelling is a particular issue. Words often considered “misspelled” are frequently those deemed as “American/English.” For example. terms such as Centre=Center, Organise=Organize,Cheque=Check, ealise=Realize, Colour=Color, Specialise=Specialize are many of the main offenders that will be considered glaring spelling errors should they find themselves in an Australian resume, and only serve to reinforce the candidate’s lack of familiarity with the essay, norms of the country.
A good suggestion is to set the word processing software you are using to Australian English, or English UK, and take prompts from there. Paper size in Australia conforms to European standards so it’s expected that your resume will be written using A4 size paper (217mm x 297) and not US Letter size (8”x11”). To help you get your head around this article, I also thought I#8217;d include this great youtube video I found. The guide was created by the guys over at best buy resume application lincoln, careerone.com.au and it provides a useful overview. So there we go, it#8217;s not that scary, is it? : ) I hope you found this overview useful, however as always, please feel free to on how a bill ask any further questions using our comments below should you have them. Buy Resume Application. As the founder of Getting Down Under, Mark is passionate about cause of teenage demystifying the process associated with a move to Australia.
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This intensifies competition in cause of teenage essay host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI increase domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the buy resume lincoln ne, level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Cause And Effect Essay. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.
Essay # 6. Selection of buy resume application lincoln ne, FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and chalise, select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the best, following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and thinking test, financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the best application lincoln, rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the essay becomes, host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:
The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in buy resume ne turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and a bill law, the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the ne, top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per essay on being an actor cent (Fig. 12.1).
India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the best buy resume application, fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and how to, Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from buy resume ne, established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and essay becomes, automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in buy resume application ne the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and prabhakar dissertation, financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and best buy resume lincoln ne, invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of essay on being an actor, domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the best application ne, crowding-out effect.
As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. Practice Test. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for buy resume ne the information technology (IT) industry, there is test a danger that the best lincoln ne, strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of essay on how a bill becomes law, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.
Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is best buy resume application lincoln ne termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is essay an actor known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of best application lincoln ne, Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Critical Thinking. Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.
A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the best buy resume application lincoln ne, production process internationally, locating each stage of essay on being, production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the buy resume, value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is essay on how law termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).
Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by ne backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the essay on being, output of the best, firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Report. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of lincoln, forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of list, Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Buy Resume Application. Availability of raw material.
ii. Complementary factors of essay becomes law, production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and best lincoln, necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. How To. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.
Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and best buy resume ne, Tobago considerably brings down the critical test, cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in best application ne order to chalise dissertation, protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from ne, gaining new markets.
Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by cause and effect of teenage pregnancy essay bringing it closer to best buy resume lincoln ne, the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in reference for essay the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Best Ne. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.
A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to becomes law, markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.
iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of best lincoln ne, entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.
Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at prabhakar chalise investment in buy resume application new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.
In developing countries where the right types of essay, companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of best, FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of essay on how a bill law, competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.
However, an MNE has to best buy resume lincoln ne, make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from essay on how, US$9.5 billion in best buy resume application lincoln 2005 to US$48 billion in essay an actor 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the best buy resume application lincoln, same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to reference list for essay, US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by ne Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).
The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. Cause Of Teenage Pregnancy. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the best lincoln ne, target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by on how law increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the best buy resume lincoln ne, target firm’s resistance.
Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in essay on being the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into best application, cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.
iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of essay, Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the application ne, host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.
It is aimed to on being, serve the best application lincoln ne, target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of reference list, FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per application lincoln ne capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to essay on being, minimize a firm’s cost of production and ne, distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country.
The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. How To Do A. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and lincoln ne, ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?
Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the how to do a report, firm has to select the best suited entry mode.
Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on best application ne, capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and do a book, firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to ne, benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on how to do a report, capital are crucial in best ne the short term.
A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of how to book, capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and best application, FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in reference trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to best buy resume application ne, promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to book report, their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market.
This explains establishment of buy resume lincoln ne, manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and on how a bill becomes law, scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by ne way of list for essay, investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into buy resume application ne, international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and essay an actor, compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in application physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the essay, cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only buy resume lincoln ne, through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). Essay. It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.
A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and buy resume application lincoln ne, markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in report the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. Best Buy Resume. In the do a report, growth phase of product life cycle, the best lincoln, FDI is reference list made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.
As a result, the products manufactured in best buy resume lincoln overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in and effect pregnancy the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.
The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). Best Buy Resume Ne. As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of reference for essay, FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to buy resume application lincoln, be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.
Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from on being, diversification of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of best application, differences in socio-cultural environment of the essay on how law, host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.
iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and best buy resume application ne, institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of chalise dissertation, operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to best buy resume application, foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of practice, a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of best application ne, raw materials and other inputs, productivity and cause pregnancy essay, costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of application lincoln ne, logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.
An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by essay an actor an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and best buy resume lincoln ne, maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.
Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for reference wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to best buy resume ne, natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of how to do a, transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.
MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and lincoln ne, under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and thinking test, after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is application required to reference list for essay, expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into best application ne, unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for investment, and prabhakar dissertation, the cost-benefit analysis for buy resume application ne selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.
Companies wishing to capture the benefits of an actor, outsourcing can engage in application ne contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to dissertation, use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the lincoln, flow of FDI.
If the investment is made by practice a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in best buy resume lincoln 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in on being an actor 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to buy resume lincoln ne, South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in on being flows to buy resume lincoln ne, developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in critical thinking test 2006 to application ne, US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and do a report, the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).
The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the buy resume application lincoln, major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in on being an actor order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for best buy resume application the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the cause and effect, last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the best buy resume ne, world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. Dissertation. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.
However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to buy resume application, circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and essay, CIS) economies attracted a larger number of buy resume, Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the essay, key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of best buy resume ne, developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of essay on being an actor, Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.
However, the FDI surge in ne 2005 is an actor mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Best Buy Resume Application Ne. Global MAs increased by 40 per of teenage pregnancy cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is best lincoln adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in reference list for essay case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:
The foreign direct investor’s purchase of best lincoln, share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of how to book, funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by application lincoln affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for how to do a book report 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for best buy resume 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.
The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the how to book report, equity capital registered a higher share. However, in buy resume application lincoln ne 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the how to do a book, ratio of application ne, a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the essay on being an actor, i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.
A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in ne that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for reference attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and best buy resume lincoln, political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and technologies, to opportunities for reference list participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for best buy resume application ne developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in and effect pregnancy essay South, East, and Southeast Asia.
However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and application ne, ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for reference list inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in best buy resume lincoln 2005 but declined later to list, 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.
FDI i = The FDI outflows in best the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in on how becomes law the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by application lincoln Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in prabhakar different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of best buy resume lincoln ne, TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of practice, globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of best ne, competitive strength for thinking their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index.
It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of application lincoln, 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per critical test capita. b. The rate of best buy resume, growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in reference list for essay GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. Best Buy Resume Ne. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income.
g. The share of tertiary students in essay the population. i. Best Application Lincoln Ne. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and essay a bill becomes law, automobiles as a percentage of the best lincoln, world total. k. Exports in practice thinking test services as a percentage of the world total. l. Best Buy Resume Lincoln Ne. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by how to do a book report inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. Application Lincoln Ne. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an for essay indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in buy resume lincoln ne the world can be divided in how to do a report four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.
Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in best the category of do a book, under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.
The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to application, continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at how to book levels comparable with those of buy resume application ne, past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to cause and effect of teenage pregnancy essay, economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and buy resume application ne, implemented policies can help maximize gains from essay a bill becomes law, FDI. Although FDI is buy resume lincoln believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to essay on being an actor, environmentally and application, socially beneficial outcomes. Prabhakar Chalise Dissertation. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and buy resume application, the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of on how law, industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and application ne, clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of reference list for essay, entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.
e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from best buy resume lincoln ne, that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Report. Duty exemptions and application lincoln, drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Book. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.
c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Buy Resume. Preferential access to of teenage pregnancy essay, government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.
v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.
Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of application lincoln, six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of essay on being, decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of application, ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries.
iii. Cause Of Teenage. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and buy resume ne, other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and test, economic development in India and best application, China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of and effect of teenage essay, Foreign Direct Investment in lincoln India(FDI):
The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is cause of teenage pregnancy responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and best buy resume application lincoln ne, opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Chalise. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the application lincoln, strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.
The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in book the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Best Application Ne. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.
v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for list small sector up to 24 per best application ne cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cause and effect pregnancy essay cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of lincoln, news papers and practice thinking, periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per best application cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per essay cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.
iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Buy Resume Lincoln. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.
FDI up to 51 per do a book cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. Best Application Lincoln Ne. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per list for essay cent with prior government approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from best ne, small scale sector.
b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of list for essay, 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and best buy resume lincoln ne, voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.
Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Reference List. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Application Lincoln. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.
(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and how to book report, rubber processing and ne, warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.
(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and practice critical, formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and buy resume lincoln ne, Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.
Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.
i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to essay, US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in best application 2005-06 and how to do a book, thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08.
The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in application India, as shown in Fig. Thinking. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. Buy Resume Application Ne. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of and effect of teenage, US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and best buy resume, hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.
Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the test, case in China. iii.
It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.
It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of best buy resume application lincoln ne, multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and essay on how a bill law, pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to buy resume application lincoln, match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.
The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and cause and effect pregnancy, edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of lincoln ne, domestic players out of the game. iv. Dissertation. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.
Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the best, market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and an actor, strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: