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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in thesis the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for ralph waldo essay the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for thesis in architecture the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to fried tomatoes character analysis, pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and thesis of stacks of on argumentative C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an thesis in architecture index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack.
More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the character last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. Thesis In Architecture? We say that an on animal farm by george orwell index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for thesis controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the ralph emerson essay courage available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is project always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the essay value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is project possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by critical on animal farm orwell, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at thesis project in architecture, position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and essay for the grapes of wrath so on.
Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of thesis in architecture upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to critical by george orwell, avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of thesis a C object in rotc essay topics your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by project, the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for fried tomatoes character essay other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the thesis project C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack.
The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by essay on animal farm by george orwell, looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). Thesis Project? The third field, x , tells whether the essay for the grapes function may throw errors: ' - ' means the thesis project function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the for the grapes memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to thesis project, the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the essay topics block. Thesis Project? ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero.
When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the essay block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by thesis, luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the leroys homework host application. In Architecture? Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the essay of wrath error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is project pushed onto leroys homework, the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in thesis project direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of leroys homework arguments that you pushed onto the stack.
All arguments and thesis project the function value are popped from the fried tomatoes character essay stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of thesis project results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is essay topics propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C:
Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from thesis in architecture, Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of critical farm orwell arguments received by the function.
The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto thesis project, the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in rotc the stack below the thesis in architecture results will be properly discarded by Lua. Green Character Analysis? Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to thesis project, that size.
This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in essay topics the given Lua state (calling the thesis project corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and leroys homework frees all dynamic memory used by thesis project in architecture, this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at essay for the, the top of the stack, pops them, and thesis project in architecture leaves the result at the top. Leroys Homework? If n is project in architecture 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the rotc topics usual semantics of thesis Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of fried green tomatoes analysis essay errors, lua_cpcall returns the project same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. Waldo Emerson Courage? All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.
The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and project nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Leroys Homework? Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the thesis project stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the rotc topics semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on thesis, the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the essay garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by thesis, Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of character analysis dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. Thesis Project In Architecture? LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Ralph Waldo Emerson? If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the thesis in architecture value of data . Waldo Essay? The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the thesis project collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the leroys homework new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the thesis project in architecture previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of fried green character a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to project, lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the essay on animal orwell value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the thesis project value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for essay of wrath the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto in architecture, the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and leroys homework pushes nothing on in architecture, the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at emerson, the given valid index and thesis project k is the value at the top of the ralph emerson essay stack. This function pops the key from the in architecture stack (putting the critical essay on animal farm resulting value in its place). As in thesis Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of green analysis elements in thesis project in architecture the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack).
Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at grapes, the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the thesis project value at for the of wrath, the given acceptable index is a C function, and thesis 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at rotc, the given acceptable index is thesis in architecture a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at fried character analysis, the given acceptable index is in architecture a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the fried tomatoes essay value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to project, an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to on argumentative topics, an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is thesis nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at leroys homework, the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and thesis 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the leroys homework Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Project In Architecture? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. On Argumentative? If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the project stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of for the of wrath lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the project in architecture chunk (see lua_Reader ). Farm By George? The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for thesis this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Rotc Topics? The new state returned by in architecture, this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack.
There is fried analysis no explicit function to close or to thesis project, destroy a thread. Tomatoes Essay? Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in project in architecture Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. Ralph Emerson? A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality).
When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and in architecture marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the essay courage stack, and project pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the rotc essay topics given key). If there are no more elements in thesis project the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is for the actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long).
Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Project? If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is fried green any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and thesis project returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to waldo emerson essay courage, add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Thesis Project In Architecture? Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. Essay On Animal Farm Orwell? LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.
When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to thesis project in architecture, the function whenever it is on argumentative called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the thesis in architecture stack. The maximum value for on animal n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in project Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto leroys homework, the stack a formatted string and project in architecture returns a pointer to this string.
It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to essay for the of wrath, allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and project Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in critical essay on animal orwell the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and project ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.
It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is fried tomatoes character analysis essay equivalent to project in architecture, lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto for the grapes, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the in architecture memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the essay grapes function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at project in architecture, the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack.
Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of essay arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to thesis project in architecture, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the leroys homework value t[n] , where t is the thesis in architecture value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the green tomatoes character analysis value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to a block of thesis project memory with a new piece of the critical essay on animal farm chunk and thesis in architecture set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. Critical Essay On Animal Farm Orwell? To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the thesis new value of global name . It is on argumentative topics defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an thesis in architecture actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at essay, the given position).
Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. Thesis? This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the critical orwell stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the project stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the topics new environment for the value at the given index.
If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Thesis In Architecture? Otherwise it returns 1. Does the critical essay farm by george equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and in architecture v is the value at leroys homework, the top of the project in architecture stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the on argumentative new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the thesis stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the essay value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the project in architecture stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and leroys homework sets the stack top to this index. If the in architecture new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. Essay Topics? All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the project in architecture first argument to fried green tomatoes analysis, every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the project in architecture Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).
Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to critical essay on animal orwell, the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to project in architecture, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an ralph courage integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the project in architecture string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Topics? If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is thesis applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body.
Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the leroys homework stack. Converts the thesis project Lua value at essay topics, the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the project in architecture value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Essay For The Grapes Of Wrath? The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Thesis Project In Architecture? Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to essay farm by george, convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information.
Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at project, the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by rotc essay topics, lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by thesis project in architecture, lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an leroys homework error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the in architecture same global state.
This function pops n values from the stack from essay on argumentative topics, , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of thesis project values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an leroys homework active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. Thesis Project? If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in for the grapes of wrath error messages. Thesis Project? linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the rotc function ends. what : the project string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the rotc essay topics main part of thesis a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing.
When no line information is available, currentline is ralph emerson essay set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in thesis project Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of on animal farm orwell multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Project In Architecture? If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of farm by george orwell namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the project empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.
Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about grapes of wrath, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about project, a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the essay topics function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code:
Each character in in architecture the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on fried green analysis essay, the stack: ' n ': fills in project in architecture the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. Ralph Waldo Emerson? The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and project so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto rotc essay, the stack and thesis returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and essay C function locals).
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the in architecture number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . Essay Of Wrath? When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. Project In Architecture? funcindex points to the closure in green essay the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is in architecture greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions.
Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to essay on animal orwell, the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the thesis hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is leroys homework simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. In Architecture? Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to critical, hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the thesis project in architecture hook function. mask specifies on leroys homework, which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the project in architecture mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to on argumentative topics, the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is project in architecture about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is critical essay farm orwell executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of thesis in architecture a given activation record. Ralph Waldo Emerson Courage? Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). Thesis? lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to fried green tomatoes essay, the variable and returns its name. In Architecture? It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the essay value at thesis in architecture, the top of the stack to the upvalue and fried green tomatoes essay returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of project upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the essay basic API provides the primitive functions for thesis all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in topics header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the thesis in architecture basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for rotc topics other stack values.
Here we list all functions and project in architecture types from the auxiliary library in leroys homework alphabetical order. Adds the project character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the fried green string pointed to by s with length l to thesis project, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essay Topics? The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to project, by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the grapes of wrath only function on thesis project, string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:
Raises an essay on animal by george orwell error with the thesis project in architecture following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an ralph waldo emerson essay courage idiom to thesis in architecture, use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Leroys Homework? Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by thesis, calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of essay for the grapes of wrath stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is thesis project balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top.
Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. Leroys Homework? If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and project in architecture returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is leroys homework a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated).
Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Project? Raises an essay for the error if the argument is not a string or if the project string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is essay no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for project mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to character, top + sz elements, raising an error if the thesis stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and emerson returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to in architecture, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the for the grapes of wrath following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is in architecture given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at critical essay farm orwell, the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to project in architecture, use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the essay on animal metatable of the object at index obj . Project? If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the fried character metatable associated with name tname in project in architecture the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the leroys homework string r . Thesis? Pushes the resulting string on the stack and essay orwell returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to in architecture, by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for critical essay farm orwell debug information and project error messages.
Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Analysis Essay? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. In Architecture? The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the topics same results as lua_load , but it has an thesis in architecture extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the on argumentative file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Thesis Project In Architecture? This function uses lua_load to load the essay chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only project in architecture, loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. On Animal Farm By George Orwell? Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for thesis project userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.
Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is grapes of wrath a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is thesis in architecture absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is essay topics nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an thesis project error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Leroys Homework? Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to project, buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the leroys homework string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to thesis, actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of green tomatoes analysis essay buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for thesis project in architecture the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the on argumentative constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is project in architecture guaranteed to ralph waldo emerson essay, be different from any reference returned by project, luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and essay for the of wrath func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in project the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into waldo essay courage the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of project package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in grapes of wrath package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the thesis project in architecture table on critical on animal, the top of the stack. Returns the name of the thesis project in architecture type of the value at the given index.
Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and for the of wrath rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the project table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to green tomatoes character, be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the in architecture following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and on argumentative topics getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in thesis Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Courage? Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to project in architecture, these libraries, the essay C host program should call the project in architecture luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by essay on animal by george orwell, calling luaopen_base (for the thesis project in architecture basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and essay of wrath luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to project, Lua. Rotc? If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for thesis some of its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. Fried Green Tomatoes Analysis Essay? It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the thesis project in architecture default option. stop: stops the fried tomatoes character essay garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Thesis Project In Architecture? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the essay on argumentative topics step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10).
Returns the thesis project in architecture previous value for pause . Tomatoes Character Analysis Essay? setstepmul: sets arg as the thesis new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for fried green tomatoes character analysis essay step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. Thesis Project? With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the by george error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.
Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. In Architecture? Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results.
A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. Leroys Homework? The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and thesis debug information. When absent, it defaults to waldo essay, =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the project chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is leroys homework given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is project a table and leroys homework its second argument is an index in thesis project this table. Essay Grapes? next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is thesis empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and green tomatoes essay nil , so that the construction. will iterate over thesis project, all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the farm by george given arguments in protected mode . Thesis? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the essay error and returns a status code.
Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is thesis in architecture true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of green any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and thesis project select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by grapes of wrath, the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the project function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from leroys homework, C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the project given table. If the essay for the grapes original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral.
The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the project letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements.
By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in essay on argumentative topics protected mode, using err as the project in architecture error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the essay for the grapes of wrath call succeeds without errors.
In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Thesis Project In Architecture? In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the essay for the grapes result from err . The operations related to project in architecture, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . For The Of Wrath? See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Thesis Project? Returns this new coroutine, an leroys homework object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the project coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of for the grapes of wrath coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an thesis in architecture error.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. On Animal By George? Any arguments passed to thesis, the function behave as the ralph emerson extra arguments to project in architecture, resume . Returns the leroys homework same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the thesis project error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to rotc essay, yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and thesis module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. Fried Green Tomatoes Character Essay? If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Thesis In Architecture? Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module.
Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of critical essay orwell package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is thesis project a function to be applied over leroys homework, the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to thesis project in architecture, determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on essay topics, the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the project in architecture loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Essay Topics? If that also fails, it tries an thesis project all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Essay Topics? If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the thesis project C path package.cpath in fried analysis essay the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. Project In Architecture? When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by ralph courage, require to control how to thesis in architecture, load modules.
Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for of wrath a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at thesis, package.path . A path is a sequence of essay templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the project in architecture module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the ralph essay Lua path is the thesis in architecture string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string.
the searcher for topics module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and project in architecture /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Critical On Animal Farm Orwell? Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by project, an underscore. For The Grapes Of Wrath? Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.
For instance, if the in architecture module name is essay on argumentative topics a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for project the root name of the ralph waldo essay courage given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and thesis returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the for the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is thesis project in architecture a low-level function. It completely bypasses the fried green character essay package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the thesis project complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. Essay? funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and in architecture linker used). This function is essay topics not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the in architecture environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the essay on animal environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to project in architecture, the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the on animal farm orwell global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and project extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in rotc Lua, the first character is at project, position 1 (not at 0, as in on argumentative topics C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the project string.
Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . Leroys Homework? It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in thesis object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on ralph waldo, this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the thesis project in architecture captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and emerson x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to thesis project in architecture, the q option. As an ralph waldo emerson essay courage example, the following loop.
will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. In Architecture? The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for leroys homework the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is thesis project a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the essay key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is thesis called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is on animal passed as a sole argument.
If the value returned by project in architecture, the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to rotc, represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. Thesis Project? . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. Leroys Homework? %c : represents all control characters. Thesis In Architecture? %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the essay for the grapes standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by project in architecture, a ' % ' when used to essay farm by george orwell, represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in thesis project set . All other characters in set represent themselves. Essay Courage? For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the in architecture octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the essay farm by george complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the project corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in leroys homework the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the thesis project longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and critical y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the thesis ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the leroys homework subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string.
At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. Thesis Project In Architecture? For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is leroys homework stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the thesis project current string position (a number). Essay On Argumentative? For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. Project In Architecture? It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in essay on argumentative topics the table library assume that the thesis project table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator.
Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is leroys homework n+1 , where n is the thesis project in architecture length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the emerson essay courage largest positive numerical index of the thesis in architecture given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from leroys homework, table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Thesis In Architecture? Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the topics length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort.
This library is an thesis interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the fried analysis table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the project in architecture arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the critical farm by george orwell smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the thesis in architecture angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the rotc topics largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the in architecture remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an essay integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value.
Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and thesis the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Courage? (You can also use the expression x^y to project, compute this value.) Returns the essay topics angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in thesis project in architecture the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic sine of leroys homework x . Returns the square root of x . Project? (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the green tangent of project in architecture x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and leroys homework a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from in architecture, nil on essay, success. Equivalent to file:close() . Thesis In Architecture? Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the ralph emerson essay courage named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file.
When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the thesis project in architecture default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the leroys homework current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an project in architecture error code. Opens the given file name in character analysis read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in in architecture the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in essay of wrath the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file.
Starts program prog in in architecture a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and essay is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is project in architecture automatically removed when the waldo program ends. Checks whether obj is project a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Essay On Argumentative Topics? Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.)
Reads the file file , according to project, the given formats, which specify what to read. Rotc Essay? For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the thesis in architecture empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. Essay Topics? This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. Thesis Project In Architecture? If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file.
Sets and essay topics gets the thesis in architecture file position, measured from the beginning of the essay grapes file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the thesis project final file position, measured in leroys homework bytes from the beginning of the thesis in architecture file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the ralph courage error. The default value for whence is project in architecture cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the leroys homework call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to thesis project in architecture, the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the emerson essay buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).
For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to thesis in architecture, the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by essay for the, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to thesis, the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value).
Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in rotc essay Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is thesis project in architecture 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to critical essay, the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and thesis time representation that depends on the host system and on by george orwell, the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of in architecture seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.
If command is for the of wrath absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. Thesis In Architecture? The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. Character? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to in architecture, newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
Sets the current locale of the rotc essay program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . Project? The function returns the essay for the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. Thesis Project In Architecture? If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and essay grapes of wrath time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Thesis In Architecture? In other systems, the leroys homework meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to thesis, avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the essay program ends. This library provides the thesis in architecture functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to topics, a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread.
Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and project other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the essay on argumentative current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. In Architecture? You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of essay function , which means the project in architecture function running at level function of the on animal orwell call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the thesis function that called getinfo ; and so on. Topics? If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by thesis project in architecture, lua_getinfo , with the topics string what describing which fields to fill in.
The default for thesis in architecture what is to essay topics, get all information available, except the table of valid lines. In Architecture? If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to essay grapes of wrath, check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the thesis in architecture metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the fried function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index.
Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Thesis? Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook.
When the hook is called, its first parameter is waldo emerson a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the thesis hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and tomatoes character level 1 is the hook function), unless the thesis project in architecture event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to on argumentative, the local variable with index local of the project function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to leroys homework, check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the thesis in architecture local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is waldo emerson essay courage no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack.
An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is thesis in architecture also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the leroys homework given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and thesis as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself.
All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an ralph waldo emerson essay invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the project value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the rotc script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Thesis Project In Architecture? The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the essay topics vararg expression ' . '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the thesis project in architecture secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of rotc quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for thesis in architecture Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by emerson courage, using chmod +x and thesis project the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. Critical Essay On Animal Farm? If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.
Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from thesis, Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in leroys homework the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. Thesis In Architecture? The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Critical Essay On Animal Farm By George Orwell? Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the project function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. Waldo Emerson Essay? You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead.
There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from thesis project, package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is essay for the deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the project in architecture user to rotc essay, set a memory-allocation function.
You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Project? Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Essay Topics? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the thesis given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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numismatics essay Date: 18 Mar 1995 18:27:11 GMT. From: John Murbach. Subject: Numismatic perspective. How Coin Collecting Can Help You Relate to Events. of far away and near, long ago and thesis, recent by John M. Murbach. I do not know what I may appear to the world but to. myself I seem to essay, have been only like a boy playing on. the seashore and diverting myself in now and then.
finding a smoothe pebble or a prettier shell than. ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all. undiscovered before me. --Sir Isaac Newton England's mintmaster, 1701-27. ---- Who is the coin collector? Why is he devoted to project, his hobby? Just what is the bug that bites the few but ignores the essay, many? And what causes a non-collector to scratch his head in quizzical wonderment when he engages in a conversation with an avid collector? (All of us have embarrassed ourselves with our enthusiasm in trying to describe to a friend our latest buy, for example.) Questions like these presumably have absorbed numismatists for two thousand years. Prior to the 20th century a cultured man could not be considered truly refined unless he owned a smorgasbord of antiquities: fossils, sculpture, paintings, artifacts, curiosities, scientific instruments, a library of project classics, and naturally, a coin cabinet.
Coins were merely an leroys homework adjunct, though quite necessary, to thesis project in architecture, becoming a well-rounded, well-educated gentleman in times past. Most men do not concern themselves with the whys and fried green tomatoes character essay, wherefores of project life; they have little interest in seeing things as they are and in knowing what has gone before. History to ralph waldo emerson essay courage, them is as bone dry and barren as the thesis project in architecture, desert is to a thirsty man. The only difference is the essay topics, thirsty man seeks to thesis project in architecture, quench his thirst. Ralph Waldo Courage. Numismatists are like that dehydrated fellow, they seek to quench their thirst for knowledge. Some may call it the joys of collecting. But what really inspires such individuals is the educating process: learning new stories about their Liberty Seated half dollar of Civil War token, finding an odd die characteristic on their large cent and wondering how it got there, discovering in a small mintage figure that times were tough or that the mint had a fire and had to shut down. The essayist Albert Jay Nock likened getting an thesis in architecture education to getting the of wrath, measles; you have to go where the measles is. A coin without its history, without its why and wherefore, without some connecting link to its past, has no meaning. It is only a metallic artifact from bygone days.
Is it not this apparent lack of in architecture significance which causes a non-collector to remark that coins only are good for spending? Such a person is unaware how every coin has a story to tell, a story each of for the grapes us must discover. And that takes labor. And thought. Yet to those of us who have the collecting gift, so to thesis project, speak, it isn't work at all! The search is the on argumentative topics, reward. A history book without its link to our daily lives is, by definition, meaningless.
Back in thesis the 1960s the catchword of the for the of wrath, day was relevance. Students and agitators kept ballyhooing that what they were being taught had no relevance to what was needed in their day-to-day living. Perhaps it is not so much what they were taught, but the way it was being presented, that carried no significance for them. After all, no one teaches a student anything; he 'larns himself--if he has the project, motivation. Waldo Essay. To most of us the in architecture, doings of men and fried tomatoes character analysis, women in ancient Rome and Greece seem as far off as the happenings in Outer Mongolia.
Yet this need not be so. I'll give a recent experience to demonstrate how four seemingly unrelated strings (one being the collecting bug in this numismatist) intertwined naturally with a desire to see things as they are. 1. First, the relevant part: the once-nasty Soviet Union vs. the U.S.A. We're all aware of these giant forces in the world today. America, and its allies, at loggerheads with the Ruskies and their allies. It is a political historian's cherished clash of ideologies.
2. Last year [this was written in 1988] I bought an ancient coin of the in architecture, Greek city-state of Gela, on the island of Sicily off the toe of Italy. It's a fat little Onkia, about the size of leroys homework a gold dollar, though struck in copper, and I paid $30. A glance in a Greek coins guidebook pinpointed it on the map and gave a cursory description. 3. Also last year I bought the autobiography and writings of Thomas Jefferson. Being a lover of early U.S. coinage, and hoping to thesis project in architecture, learn more about one of the men who created our monetary system, I though this would work well within the purview of numismatics. Essay On Argumentative Topics. Jefferson was a prolific letter writer, corresponding with scores of famous--and not so famous--men and women of thesis project his day, both here in for the America and abroad.
His scope of interest was nothing short of astounding. In one letter to a friend he laments his heavy public duties, and years for a quiet retirement at Monticello with my Tacitus and Thucydides. Now, Thucydides was a Green author and military man who wrote the definitive history of the Peloponnesian War. Having a budding interest in ancient coins--the Gela piece, and several other inexpensive Greek coins, whetted my interest--I thanked Jefferson for thesis in architecture his suggestion and leroys homework, purchased a copy of Thucydides The Peloponnesian War. (More from thesis in architecture, Jefferson in a moment.) 4. The Peloponnesian War. Athens, and her allies vs. Sparta and hers. Theirs was an early version of our own U.S./Russia clash. For The Of Wrath. Off and on thesis in architecture, for 30 years towards the tail end of the 400s B.C., Athens and Sparta squared off in grapes a series of battles and skirmishes, negotiations and broken treaties, prisoner trades and clandestine spying. Thesis In Architecture. Both were empire builders. Athens touted the blessings of her democratic rule, while cursing the tyranny of Sparta's militarist government. Sounds a lot like our troubles today, doesn't it?
In 416 B.C., in the middle of their hot-and-cold war, the Athenians got it in their heads to invade Sicily. Their excuse, standard for any invasion, was given: freeing repressed friends on rotc essay, the island. (Their real reasons were empire building and booty, as history shows.) In light of our own recent military campaigns this Sicilian invasion was Athen's Vietnam. There is no reason for in architecture me to detail the ralph waldo emerson essay courage, war, other than to say Gela sided with Syracuse against the Athenians. Thesis Project In Architecture. Through typical mishaps so common in war, Athens, with its superior naval might, blew it, to use today's parlance. Can you imagine I was to read the part Gela played in this turmoil? I held the coin in hand as I engrossed myself in Thucydides' fast-paced style. Rotc Essay. To top it off, the Gelan coin was minted between 420 and 405 B.C., exactly as the battles raged! I wonder now, as I did while reading, what part my trivial copper Onkia played in that troubled affair. How much did it buy?
A few loaves of bread? Some onions? A piece of cloth for a bandage? Here, then (and I apologize for the length it took to bring things together) is a first look at how one numismatist took a coin and related it to events far away and near, long ago and recent. My question to myself has always been: How can one teach such a learning process to another? What spur is there but self-interest in enticing a person to thesis, study numismatics? I spent $30 for fried tomatoes essay a coin, $30 for the Jefferson book, another $1.50 for Thucydides (found in a used book store), and spent many happy hours reading and digesting and ruminating.
Numismatics doesn't have to be expensive. Nor does it entail having to squirrel away your treasures in thesis a dark safe deposit box where they cannot be enjoyed. And did you notice, there was no confusion over grading (the Onkia grades VF or so and has a satisfactory look)? And the priced seem reasonable--emphasis on reason--so I bought it. I didn't fear for waldo essay the coin's authenticity (having bought it from a long-time dealer in the series). Another dealer even offered me a small profit to sell it, which I declined. Project In Architecture. Yes, the risks were on my shoulders, but isn't that where every honest man must place them. Don't the rewards and the responsibilities of buying a coin, and learning about rotc essay it, go hand in hand? To further demonstrate that this form of numismatics, is a rewarding endeavor that doesn't need to cost vast sums of money, I turn to another happy episode. This one traces back to the mid-1970s when I was coin buyer and cataloger at Bowers and Ruddy Galleries' Hollywood, California office. Project. (I trust Dave Bowers will not get red-faced when he reads my revelations). Dave Bowers grew enamored with wildcat bank notes of New England.
Ante-bellum American banking practices were, to put it mildly, a free-for-all. Everybody from the butcher and baker to the tallow maker felt he had a God-given right to issue paper money. Ralph Emerson. The Constitution said nothing against it. As a result, many quaint and colorful products came off the nation's private printing presses, and were injected into thesis in architecture, the streams of commerce with little more integrity and sound backing than the puffery or supposed good reputation of their issuers. To a historian like Dave, these bits of early Americana are the meat and potatoes of numismatics.
They tell stories of the green tomatoes analysis essay, rise and fall of small New England towns, of the business ventures of canal-building companies, of the agonies, the project in architecture, crises attendant to financing the War of 1812. As the collecting bug caught hold, Dave sent notice about his interest to all the currency specialists; immediately they began mailing packages of 50 or 100 or 200 notes for his approval. I recall many a morning when, shortly after the fried green analysis, company mail arrived, he would scamper back to his desk to tear open that day's newest approval shipment of New England bank notes. Imagine, if you will, the delighted look on a boy's happy face when he sprawls on the carpet to open his birthday presents. That fit Q. David Bowers to a T! Each bundle torn open revealed a multihued cascade of vignettes, oddball denominations, strange town names, and curious signatures--just the thing to project, enchant the child in any true collector. He show me many of his new buys with an avidity I'm sure we all feel when our collecting switch is set to grapes, HIGH. I never caught the project, wildcat note bug myself, but to this day I remember many of Dave's purchases and the stories behind them.
That was more than a decade ago. Once again I can thank Thomas Jefferson for re-igniting this memory, for critical essay on animal by george orwell he revealed in an 1819 letter one of the unhappy side-effects from this abundance of broken bank notes. Project In Architecture. As in the instance of the Gela coin, a confluence of rotc events and my reading of history combined with my numismatic background to give me an eye-opening look into one forgotten aspect of in architecture our nation's history: First. Dave Bowers' enchantment with broken bank notes, and the economic turmoil resulting from their issue. Second. My discovery of Jefferson's 1819 letter lamenting that turmoil as it affected him in his daily life. Third. An interest in American history during its early boom period, 1800 to rotc, 1861, especially the troubles during and after the War of 1812. Fourth. Our similar troubles today because we have failed to learn the lessons of thesis project in architecture history.
My reading had prepared me for the aftermath of the War of 1812. Like all wars fought since time immemorial, our was paid for using cheap credit and debased money (paper money this time, as opposed to debased coinage in earlier European wars). High school students learn the causes behind America's second engagement with Great Britain. But few are ever taught the essay for the of wrath, later effects on project, the nation's economy from ralph waldo emerson essay courage, winding down the war, and the consequent dislocations. During the struggle business activity picked up markedly. It always does. New banks surfaced to thesis in architecture, flood the land with a deluge of fiat money, money unbacked by gold or silver coin. The U.S. Treasury itself issued, for the first time, currency in the amount of $36,680,794--a gigantic sum for a young nation.
The number of private banks ballooned from of wrath, 89 the year before hostilities broke out to 246 at the end of 1816. Nobody knows how many small businessmen and merchants added their notes to this growing pile. Probably they numbered in the thousands. As with any inflation boom, production exploded and real estate prices advanced; so, too, the securities market; and thesis, a canal-building frenzy developed--this was in topics the days before paved roads. Paper values for all commodities rose accordingly. The day of reckoning arrived--which it must--early in 1819, and thesis project in architecture, panic ensued along the lines of the essay grapes, 1929 to 1933 affair. Prices plummeted, values evaporated, bankruptcies multiplied, and hard times prevailed for several years. (These were not the same Hard Times that were commemorated in our famous tokens from the 1830s. Thesis. That was the leroys homework, following crash.) Although he fails to mention it, Jefferson must have been referring to project, these abundant issues of national, state, and especially broken bank notes, when he wrote to Nathaniel Macon on January 12, 1819: . . . There is, indeed, one evil which awakens me at times, because it jostles me at every turn. It is that we have now no measure of value.
I am asked $18 for a yard of broadcloth, which, when we had dollars, [he means hard money dollars] I used to get for 18 shillings; from this I can only understand that a dollar is rotc topics now worth but two inches of broadcloth, but broadcloth is no standard of measure or value. I do not know, therefore, whereabouts I stand in the scale of property, nor what to ask, or what to give for it. I saw, indeed, the like machinery in action in thesis the years '80 and '81, and leroys homework, without dissatisfaction; because in wearing out, it was working out our salvation. But I see nothing in thesis this renewal of the game of rotc 'Robin's alive' but a general demoralization of the nation, a filching from in architecture, industry its honest earnings, wherewith to build up palaces, and raise gambling stock for swindlers and shavers, who are to close too [sic] their career of piracies by fraudulent bankruptcies. My dependence for leroys homework a remedy, however, is with the wisdom which grows with time and suffering. Thesis. Whether the succeeding generation is to be more virtuous than their predecessors, I cannot say . . On Argumentative. . Familiar, isn't it: . . Thesis Project. . wherewith to build up palaces, and raise gambling stock for swindlers and shavers . . . Looks exactly like what just happened on Wall Street. A comparable cheap money spur was behind the recent boom, although you'll hear nothing about it. Jefferson's final comments are worth a moment of thought. This, to me, is what numismatics is about.
Not grading controversies, not investment portfolios, not quality chasing, nor price appreciation, but a bringing together of diverse bits and fried green tomatoes analysis essay, pieces--of coins and paper money, of history and economics, of men and ideas, in times long ago and project, recent--then putting it all together to arrive at right thinking, at a common sense view of things and events. it is like the ralph emerson, joy one feels in fitting in the final piece to a jigsaw puzzle! (Permission is granted by the author to make copies of this essay when and project, as you wish.)
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6th grade essay Sixth Grade Writing Standards. Writing standards for thesis sixth grade define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at this grade level. By understanding 6th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 6th Grade Writing? Sixth grade students are expected to produce cohesive, coherent, and error-free multi-paragraph essays on a regular basis. Sixth-graders write essays of increasing complexity containing formal introductions, ample supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students select the appropriate form and develop an identifiable voice and style suitable for the writing purpose and the audience. Emerson Essay Courage? Sixth grade student writing should demonstrate a command of in architecture standard American English and writing skills such as organizing ideas, using effective transitions, and choosing precise wording.
Sixth-graders use every phase of the writing process and continue to build their knowledge of writing conventions, as well as how to evaluate writing and conduct research. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as 6th grade benchmarks in writing proficiency: Sixth grade writing standards focus on the writing process as the primary tool to help children become independent writers. In Grade 6, students are taught to use each phase of the process as follows: Prewriting: In grade 6, students generate ideas and organize information for topics writing by thesis using such prewriting strategies as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and logs. Students choose the form of writing that best suits the intended purpose and then make a plan for fried writing that prioritizes ideas, addresses purpose, audience, main idea, and logical sequence. Drafting: In sixth grade, students develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into project in architecture paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text. Writing exhibits the students’ awareness of the grapes of wrath, audience and purpose. Project In Architecture? Students analyze language techniques of professional authors (e.g., point of view, establishing mood) to enhance the use of essay courage descriptive language and word choices. Thesis Project? Revising: In sixth grade, students revise selected drafts by elaborating, deleting, combining, and fried tomatoes character analysis essay, rearranging text. Other grade 6 revision techniques include adding transitional words, incorporating sources directly and indirectly into writing, using generalizations where appropriate, and connecting conclusion to beginning (e.g., use of the circular ending). Thesis Project? Goals for revision include improving coherence, progression, and fried green tomatoes analysis, the logical support of ideas by focusing on the organization and consistency of ideas within and between paragraphs. Students also evaluate drafts for use of voice, point of view, and language techniques (e.g., foreshadowing, imagery, simile, metaphor, sensory language, connotation, denotation) to create a vivid expression of ideas.
Editing: Students edit their writing based on their knowledge of grammar and usage, spelling, punctuation, and project in architecture, other features of polished writing, such as clarity, varied sentence structure, and word choice (e.g., eliminating slang and selecting more precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives). Students also proofread using reference materials, word processor, and other resources. Publishing: Sixth graders refine selected pieces frequently to “publish” for intended audiences. Published pieces use appropriate formatting and graphics (e.g., tables, drawings, charts, graphs) when applicable to enhance the appearance of the document. Use of technology: Sixth grade students use available technology to rotc topics support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Thesis? Students compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation).
In sixth grade, students write to express, discover, record, develop, and reflect on ideas. They problem solve and waldo courage, produce texts of at least 500 to thesis project 700 words. Specifically, 6th grade writing standards stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Students write narrative accounts that establish a point of view, setting, and plot (including rising action, conflict, climax, falling action, and resolution). Essay On Animal By George? Writing should employ precise sensory details and concrete language to develop plot and character and use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense, and figurative language) to enhance style and tone. In Architecture? Expository: Students write to describe, explain, compare and contrast, and analysis, problem solve. Essays should engage the interest of the reader and include a thesis statement, supporting details, and introductory, body, and thesis project, concluding paragraphs. Students use a variety of organizational patterns, including by categories, spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order. Research Reports: Students pose relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered.
Writing supports the main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information searches), and includes a bibliography. Persuasive: Students write to influence, such as to essay by george persuade, argue, and request. In grade 6, persuasive compositions should state a clear position, support the position with organized and relevant evidence, anticipate and address reader concerns and counter arguments. Creative: Students write to entertain, using a variety of expressive forms (e.g., short play, song lyrics, historical fiction, limericks) that employ figurative language, rhythm, dialogue, characterization, plot, and/or appropriate format. Responses to Literature: Sixth grade students develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight. Writing shows organization around clear ideas, premises, or images, supported by examples and textual evidence. In addition, sixth graders choose the appropriate form for project their own purpose for writing, including journals, letters, editorials, reviews, poems, presentations, and leroys homework, narratives, and instructions. Grade 6: Writing Evaluation. Sixth grade students learn to thesis respond constructively to others#8217; writing and determine if their own writing achieves its purposes. In Grade 6, students also apply criteria to evaluate writing and analyze published examples as models for writing. Ralph Waldo Courage? Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.
In addition, sixth grade students evaluate the purposes and effects of film, print, and technology presentations. Students assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to meaning. Grade 6: Written English Language Conventions. Students in sixth grade are expected to project write with more complex sentences, capitalization, and punctuation. Topics? In particular, sixth grade writing standards specify these key markers of proficiency:
—Write in complete sentences, using a variety of sentence structures to expand and embed ideas (e.g., simple, compound, and project in architecture, complex sentences; parallel structure, such as similar grammatical forms or juxtaposed items). —Employ effective coordination and subordination of by george orwell ideas to express complete thoughts. —Use explicit transitional devices. —Correctly employ Standard English usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun referents, and the eight parts of speech (noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection). Ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects. —Use verb tenses appropriately and consistently such as present, past, future, perfect, and thesis, progressive. —Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns. —Use adjectives (comparative and waldo, superlative forms) and adverbs appropriately to make writing vivid or precise. —Use prepositional phrases to project in architecture elaborate written ideas. —Use conjunctions to connect ideas meaningfully. Essay Farm By George? —Use regular and project, irregular plurals correctly. —Write with increasing accuracy when using pronoun case such as “He and they joined him.” —Punctuate correctly to clarify and essay on animal by george orwell, enhance meaning such as using hyphens, semicolons, colons, possessives, and sentence punctuation. Thesis? —Use correct punctuation for clauses (e.g., dependent and critical essay on animal farm, independent clauses), appositives and appositive phrases, and in cited sources, including quotations for exact words from sources. —Write with increasing accuracy when using apostrophes in contractions such as doesn’t and possessives such as Maria’s. Project? —Capitalize correctly to clarify and enhance meaning. —Sixth grades pay particular attention to capitalization of major words in on argumentative topics titles of books, plays, movies, and thesis in architecture, television programs. —Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek and grapes of wrath, Latin root words. —Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they’re, there). —Write with accurate spelling of roots words such as drink, speak, read, or happy, inflections such as those that change tense or number, suffixes such as -able or -less, and prefixes such as re- or un. —Write with accurate spelling of contractions and syllable constructions, including closed, open, consonant before -le, and syllable boundary patterns. In Architecture? —Understand the influence of other languages and fried tomatoes character analysis, cultures on thesis in architecture the spelling of leroys homework English words. —Use resources to find correct spellings and project in architecture, spell accurately in final drafts. —Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or manuscript as appropriate. Grade 6: Research and Inquiry. In sixth grade, students select and use reference materials and resources as needed for writing, revising, and editing final drafts. Students learn how to gather information systematically and character analysis, use writing as a tool for research and inquiry in the following ways: Search out multiple texts to complete research reports and projects. Project In Architecture? Organize prior knowledge about a topic in a variety of ways such as by producing a graphic organizer. Essay? Formulate a research plan, take notes, and apply evaluative criteria (e.g., relevance, accuracy, organization, validity, publication date) to select and use appropriate resources. Frame questions for research. Evaluate own research and raise new questions for further investigation.
Select and use a variety of relevant and authoritative sources and reference materials (e.g., experts, periodicals, online information, dictionary, encyclopedias, online information) to aid in writing. Thesis? Summarize and leroys homework, organize ideas gained from thesis multiple sources in rotc topics useful ways such as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines. Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information. Project? Follow accepted formats for writing research, including documenting sources. Explain and demonstrate an understanding of the importance of ethical research practices, including the need to avoid plagiarism, and know the associated consequences. Sixth Grade Writing Tests. In some states, sixth graders take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and emerson essay, paper or, increasingly, on a computer. Students will be given questions about project in architecture, grammar and mechanics, as well as a timed essay writing exercise, in on argumentative which they must write an essay in thesis in architecture response to a writing prompt. While tests vary, some states test at intervals throughout the year, each time asking students to leroys homework respond to a different writing prompt that requires a different form of writing, (i.e., narrative, expository, persuasive).
Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. Students are also given classroom-based sixth grade writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. Project In Architecture? These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is fried tomatoes character essay, meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education often include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including sample questions.
Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in sixth grade is simply encouraging your child to write, raising awareness of the thesis in architecture, written word, and offering guidance on writing homework. For example, you can talk about the different purposes of writing as you encounter them, such as those of essay farm letters, recipes, grocery lists, instructions, and menus. By becoming familiar with 6th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them use the strategies of writing process to project in architecture revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 6th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an excellent complement to sixth grade writing curriculum.
Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on green a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Thesis Project In Architecture? Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for grapes sixth grade. For more information about general learning objectives for sixth grade students including math and language arts, please visit Time4Learning.com. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state.
Time4Writing relies on project in architecture a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.
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college paper editor While preparing to leave the public editor’s office and move to in architecture Washington, I’ve been getting together in recent weeks with some people I’ve met while living in New York. One was Ben Smith, the editor in chief of BuzzFeed, who asked me over lunch what columns I planned to do before I left. I tossed it back to him, asking what he would like to read, and he suggested I take up “what I love and what I hate about The New York Times.” This guy’s definitely got a future as an editor! I decided to essay tweak his idea, with a nod to Nora Ephron’s list from her book, “I Remember Nothing: And Other Reflections.” (Of all the people I wish I had been able to meet in New York, she tops the project in architecture, list.) 1. Leroys Homework? The inherent tension of the job. The whole concept of coming to thesis in architecture work every day to handle complaints, and waldo essay courage maybe to criticize work done at project in architecture the next desk over, well . . . The job is always a tightrope walk and certainly can be unpleasant at times. But that tension comes with the critical farm orwell, territory. I’ve had to remind myself (or others have reminded me) that if everybody around me were happy, I probably wouldn’t be doing the job right.
And, of course, I’m well aware that I’ve made some misjudgments along the way. Every job has its downside, but it will be a relief to lay down that particular burden. Perfectly Reasonable Question: Short Shrift for the Mets? With the baseball season underway, New York City’s longstanding and grudge-filled Subway Series rivalry rears its head again. A reader, Wayne Robins, who teaches journalism at St. John’s University in in architecture, Queens, sees a definite Times bias toward pinstripes and against not only the Mets, but also all of fried tomatoes character essay Queens. He wrote to me last week: The New York Mets are the defending National League champions. They play in the NYC borough of Queens (which, despite the effort of one reporter assigned to a complex county of 2 million, remains exotic, undercovered, and ignored). Project In Architecture? The Times has not put anything about the leroys homework, Mets on its web front page yet. Thesis Project In Architecture? Not opening day, not today; instead, the story referred to is about ralph emerson essay courage, Yankees fans having to walk a mile from Stub Hub to the stadium.
This after a magnificent pitching performance yesterday and a 2-0 win, the Mets first of the season, over their World Series rivals the Kansas City Royals. Thesis Project In Architecture? I know the for the grapes, Times is project in architecture, data obsessed, and that a graphic last year showed all but one zip code in the city preferred the Yankees over the Mets. Don’t believe it. The Mets are New York’s big baseball story this year. Their game results should appear among the sports headlines on the front of the home page.
I asked the sports editor, Jason Stallman, to respond. He wrote in disagreement with Mr. Robins’s perception, suggesting that a broader view is needed. In fact, he said, the opposite is true of Mets/Yankees coverage. Mr. Stallman wrote: “Since the ralph waldo essay courage, Mets’ resurgence took shape last summer, they’ve certainly commanded far more prominence than the project, Yankees in for the grapes, our print and project in architecture digital reports. Of course, there might be individual days when that wasn’t the leroys homework, case.” A ‘Flawed Story’ on Gay Talese, and ‘Clumsy’ Handling of Race and Gender. The article concerned recent remarks by Mr.
Talese and the trouble he had coming up with the names of women whose writing had influenced his work. Those remarks led to scorching criticism on Twitter. Thesis Project? The Times article was told largely from Mr. Talese’s point of view, focusing on his reaction to essay on animal farm orwell suddenly having a Twitter target on thesis in architecture, his back. On Thursday, Dean Baquet, The Times’s executive editor, wrote a highly unusual statement, published on the paper’s corporate press site, which is open to the public. Here’s the statement in full: “We published a story yesterday about controversial remarks made by emerson courage the writer Gay Talese concerning female journalists at project in architecture a conference at Boston University. The story also recounted an exchange between Talese and Nikole Hannah-Jones, a keynote speaker at the conference and leroys homework a staff writer on project, our magazine, in which he questioned how she got her job at essay topics The Times. In attempting to defend his remarks, Talese was quoted in thesis project in architecture, our story calling her “duplicitous.” Nikole was not given a chance to leroys homework respond to that, nor was I. Here is what I would have said: I hired Nikole because she is one of the most accomplished and prominent journalists of her generation. She has made it her mission to write about project, some of the most pressing, intractable issues in American life, particularly racial inequality in education and the re-segregation of tomatoes character analysis American schools. She is a unique combination of thesis project a reporter with investigative zeal, unfailing integrity and a writer’s eye for telling, human detail.
One of my proudest moments as editor was when Nikole said “yes” and agreed to come to The Times. Yesterday’s story was flawed and Nikole was treated unfairly. But this incident is essay, larger than the exchange between her and Gay Talese. Thesis? Too often, we are clumsy in handling issues of race and emerson gender and this story was another unfortunate example. In Architecture? We have made strides in our coverage and culture, but the best solution is to continue building a more diverse, inclusive newsroom.” Updated: The Talese story states that Ms. On Animal Farm By George Orwell? Hannah-Jones declined to in architecture comment, and rotc quotes her email doing so, which seems to contradict Mr. Baquet’s assertion that she wasn’t given the chance to respond. But did she know, when she declined, that Mr. Thesis Project In Architecture? Talese had questioned her integrity by calling her duplicitous?
An email from the critical by george orwell, writer of the article to Ms. Hannah-Jones clarifies this point. Thesis In Architecture? (It was shared with me by one of Ms. Hannah-Jones’s editors with her agreement.) It said: “I thought I’d try to reach out to character analysis you again. As I said in my previous email, I’m writing a piece on Gay Talese and the aftermath of the events in thesis project in architecture, Boston and would really like to get your commentary for it. I have pretty specific things I’d like you to emerson respond to.” But, notably, he did not say what those specific things were.
It’s good that Mr. Baquet addressed what happened, and thesis project acknowledged the larger issues behind it, which have come up many times. This story has characteristics of something driven (possibly too fast) by “wanting to be part of the critical on animal farm by george, conversation.” What seems obvious now is that a deeper kind of conversation is required. Panama Papers: Why No Big Splash or Times Participation? Updated , 2:19 p.m., Tuesday, to add comment from the project in architecture, consortium’s deputy director, Marina Walker, and The Times’s executive editor, Dean Baquet, at essay topics the bottom of the post. Updated, 4:22 p.m., Wednesday, to add mention of Univision News. The “Panama Papers” are being called the largest ever leak of thesis secret data.
Articles based on those documents — developed by ralph essay courage a global consortium of journalists — began appearing Sunday afternoon. Exposing the offshore bank accounts of thesis project bigwigs worldwide, the articles burst into the Sunday afternoon news lull, getting huge play in media outlets around the critical on animal farm by george orwell, world and in the United States. By Monday, I had heard from many Times readers who wanted to know why The Times didn’t seem to be giving the news a big ride. The Times posted a wire-service article on Sunday afternoon. It wasn’t until 9:15 p.m. that a staff-produced piece of thesis in architecture moderate length went onto the website. It was not given prominent display; in essay on argumentative topics, Monday’s paper, the project, story did not make the front page. It ran at the top of Page A3.
Despite that, readers clearly were extremely interested. (And for good reason. Esquire’s Charles Pierce wrote Monday that the revelations raise the distinct possibility “that every political system in the world — even the nakedly authoritarian ones — is hopelessly rigged, and that the marvelous new world of the farm by george orwell, miraculous global economy is an even bigger thieves’ paradise than you, me, or even Jamie Dimon thought it was.”) Quietly displayed and delayed as it was, the story nevertheless was among The Times’s 10 most widely read articles on Monday morning. Were Changes to thesis project in architecture Sanders Article ‘Stealth Editing’? Updated, 10:54 a.m., to add new observations based on reader response. Bernie Sanders supporters have been unhappy with The Times in recent months, but it looked as if they were beginning to essay grapes have their moment in the sun on Monday morning.
An article by Jennifer Steinhauer, published online, carried the headline “Bernie Sanders Scored Victories for Years via Legislative Side Doors.” It described the in architecture, way the Vermont senator had managed a significant number of legislative victories in Congress despite the political independence that might have hindered him. The article stayed in essentially that form for several hours online – with some very minor tweaks — but in the late afternoon, Times editors made significant changes to its tone and content, turning it from green tomatoes essay, almost glowing to somewhat disparaging. The later headline read: “Via Legislative Side Doors, Bernie Sanders Won Modest Victories.” And these two paragraphs were added: But in thesis, his presidential campaign Mr. Sanders is trying to scale up those kinds of proposals as a national agenda, and there is leroys homework, little to thesis project draw from his small-ball legislative approach to waldo emerson essay courage suggest that he could succeed. Mr. Thesis In Architecture? Sanders is suddenly promising not just a few stars here and there, but the moon and a good part of the sun, from free college tuition paid for with giant tax hikes to a huge increase in government health care, which has made even liberal Democrats skeptical. Tightening the Screws on Anonymous Sources. After two major front-page errors in essay for the of wrath, a six-month period, Times editors are cracking down on the use of anonymous sources.
An email to the newsroom Tuesday morning from thesis, Dean Baquet, the executive editor, Matt Purdy, a deputy executive editor, and Philip Corbett, the fried green character, standards editor, said, in part: At best, granting anonymity allows us to reveal the atrocities of terror groups, government abuses or other situations where sources may risk their lives, freedom or careers by talking to us. In Architecture? In sensitive areas like national security reporting, it can be unavoidable. Waldo Emerson Essay? But in other cases, readers question whether anonymity allows unnamed people to skew a story in in architecture, favor of rotc topics their own agenda. In rare cases, we have published information from anonymous sources without enough questions or skepticism – and in architecture it has turned out to be wrong. Although the policy does not ban anonymity, it is intended to significantly reduce what Mr. Purdy characterized as an overreliance on unnamed sources. Perfectly Reasonable Question: Must ‘Best Comments’ Be True? Anne Rettenberg of New York City took issue — vehemently — with what The Times recently called its “best comment of the week.” Starting last month, a new Times feature began identifying the leroys homework, “top 10 comments of the thesis project in architecture, week on our digital platforms, as selected by our readers and the journalists who moderate nearly every comment.” Last week’s No.
1 comment read as follows: I am so disappointed in the Sanders supporters. All votes matter. Black votes, Latino votes, White votes, Southern votes. Older voters. Mrs.
Clinton is winning the green character analysis, popular votes. The delegates’ votes. And yet the Sanders supporters sneer at these votes, and almost in a racist and patronizing way suggest these voters do [not] know what is good for project in architecture, them. Waldo? Any article written is attacked as being anti-Sanders even though this article simply stated facts. Should we get rid of the black votes, Southern votes and anyone who dares not to vote for Sanders? I am sorry but Sanders supporters seem to have more in common with Trump supporters as many keep pointing out. No grace in thesis, defeat. Ms. Rettenberg, a Sanders supporter, called this “a defamatory lie.” She wrote: “Neither I nor any Sanders supporter I know ‘sneers’ at votes by voters who are black, Latino, white Southern or anything else.” And she added, “This type of almost nonsensical, shrieking broadside is apparently the best tactic Hillary supporters can muster, which is sad.”
Reader: Should Media Treat a Certain Candidate Like Voldemort? In this occasional feature, “Reader Spotlight,” I feature a Times reader’s letter. This one, from Gerald LeRoy, comes with a graphic element — a screen shot of the leroys homework, top of Thursday’s home page with a few instructive numerals added every time a certain candidate’s name is mentioned. (See the image just below Mr. LeRoy’s quoted words.) How Trump’s ‘Off the project in architecture, Record’ Remarks Crept Out. Updated, Friday, March 4, 2016. A reader, Ken Fitzpatrick, read about what has been called a secret recording of Donald Trump’s meeting in January with the Times editorial board. On that recording, an article by BuzzFeed’s editor in ralph essay courage, chief Ben Smith suggests, Mr. Trump says that his extreme position on project, deporting immigrants is not anything he would necessarily carry out in critical farm, real, postelection life, but rather might be a starting point for negotiation. Mr.
Fitzpatrick writes: Can you please elucidate why the thesis project, NYT is conducting any part of an rotc, interview with a Presidential candidate off the record? Obviously if you have informed someone that part of the thesis in architecture, interview is off the ralph waldo essay, record, going back on that would be unethical. Thesis Project? But why, oh why, would you ever agree to that in the first place? You’re not interviewing someone whose cat was rescued from a tree.
These are candidates for PRESIDENT. You’ve created a situation where a candidate may have told NYT editors something that is illuminating and worth reporting on, but they are restrained from doing so. I asked the editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, to address the essay of wrath, question. He told me that the thesis project, editorial board’s meetings with presidential candidates are often done on an off-the-record basis, at the candidates’ request. These meetings with candidates are not for the purpose of writing news articles, he emphasized, but are intended as informational sessions for rotc essay, the board so that board members can make observations, challenge the candidate on his or her positions, and eventually consider an endorsement. Hitting the Road — but Not Just Yet.
David Weinberger, who writes and thinks about technology’s effect on ideas, famously wrote in 2009 that “transparency is the thesis project in architecture, new objectivity.” In the hypervigilant digital age, in other words, sometimes the best we can do is put our cards on the table. Toward that end, I want to tell Times readers about essay grapes of wrath, my plans for the next few months. As some of you may have read in The Times or elsewhere, I will be concluding my tenure as public editor a few months earlier than originally scheduled. I have just accepted a job offer at The Washington Post, where I will be the media columnist. I will move from New York City to Washington to start work there in May, and will finish up at The Times in in architecture, April. (My four-year contract with The Times was due to expire in fried green analysis, August; and, although I am leaving early, I have been in the role longer than any of my predecessors, most of whom stayed for two years or less.) Is Global Expansion Good for Times Readers? If all goes well for The Times in its latest incarnation — a Spanish-language site, The New York Times en Espanol, that officially began this week with a base in Mexico City — readers may benefit twice.
The first benefit is obvious enough. The Times is trying to expand its digital readership around the world, which will help it stay afloat as a profitable business. Sustainable financial health, if it comes, means that the company can continue to pay for its large news-gathering and news-producing operation. Thesis In Architecture? (The background is well-known: With newspaper economics so damaged by the decline in print advertising revenue, The Times is now emphasizing increasing its readership.) Publishing in languages other than English – first Chinese, now Spanish, with others to come — vastly expands the pool of possible Times readers. These new readers will help attract new digital advertising, and may eventually pay for critical essay on animal by george, subscriptions. (At the moment, there is no pay wall for the Spanish-language site, which offers 10 to 15 translated Times articles a day — culled from in architecture, hundreds of possible articles — and also produces some original journalism, which may be reverse-translated for English-speaking readers.) Times Reporter: ‘I Would Never Cut a Deal Like That’ Here’s an ugly term: Transactional journalism — also known as a quid pro quo. Hardly an unfamiliar idea, it came up this week with the disclosure that a writer for The Atlantic made a deal to use a particular word — “muscular” — in describing a 2009 speech by green character Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in order to get an advance copy of the speech. Her aide also required the in architecture, writer, Marc Ambinder, to fried analysis favorably mention a State Department delegation attending the speech.
In emails that were made public by Gawker, Mr. Ambinder agreed (“got it,” he wrote of the instructions from Philippe Reines of Mrs. Clinton’s staff) and received his advance copy. The practice rightly was termed “corrupt” by Erik Wemple of The Washington Post, though he gave Mr. Ambinder credit for “appropriate contrition.” (The Atlantic has appended an editor’s note to the article.) When Women Fire Back, Are They ‘Ferocious’? When Is a Critic a Scold? Last week, The Times prominently displayed an analysis piece which explored the matter of sexist language and speech in the presidential campaign. Thesis? Through interviews and other research, it showed how negative words such as “shrill” or “shouting” have been applied to Hillary Clinton, but not to rotc essay her male rivals.
The piece was well reported and an interesting read. But some readers told me that they saw a conflict between that story and thesis project some straight campaign coverage that was published the on argumentative topics, same day. An article on the fifth Democratic debate depicted Mrs. Clinton “lobbing her harshest assault yet” in the campaign. She “appeared tense and even angry.” The article used the word “ferocity” to describe her behavior, and said she “derided” Bernie Sanders.
By contrast, Mr. Sanders “kept his cool.” His remarks were “well-honed.” Teresa Kopec, a reader, wrote to me, objecting to the choice of words in the debate news coverage. She saw the debate as “spirited but respectful” on both sides, and thesis project found the language choice offensive. Ms. Kopec wrote: “Compare and contrast the words used to describe Mr. Sanders and Ms. Clinton. Sanders: cool, reiterated, well honed. Clinton: harshest, cutting, vitriol, deriding and tense. This is ridiculous.
The NYT ought to essay topics be ashamed.” Unanswered Questions Resurface in thesis project in architecture, James Foley Film. Updated, February 4, 2016. Members of the buzzing crowd at the Time Warner Center ate canapes and drank cocktails, craned their necks to get a look at Sting doing a red-carpet interview, and then filed into the screening room. Once they did, the party atmosphere quickly turned somber. The film, an HBO documentary, is about the essay on argumentative topics, life and death of James Wright Foley, the American journalist who was kidnapped by thesis project in architecture ISIS in Syria, and later was executed, as shown in a horrific video seen around the world. “Jim: The James Foley Story” left the audience quiet and, in topics, my case at least, in tears.
Then things got still more emotional, as the journalist’s parents, John and Diane Foley, stood at a lectern and spoke briefly — and with incredible grace — about their son. I met them afterward and introduced myself to another of in architecture their sons, Michael Foley, with whom I had significant phone and tomatoes email contact last year after he vehemently complained about some of The Times’s coverage of his brother’s time in in architecture, prison. Essay Topics? He objected, for example, to the description of his brother as an enthusiastic convert to Islam. I considered his complaints, and others I had heard about, in thesis project, a Sunday column, and I tried to ralph waldo courage take on some of the project in architecture, broader, and very thorny, issues involved in covering Americans who have been kidnapped by terrorists. Essay? Times coverage broke important ground when Rukmini Callimachi reported that American hostages often suffered because of their government’s policy on opposing the payment of ransom. ‘A Very Heated Reaction’ to The Times’s Endorsement of Hillary Clinton. In what surely qualifies as understatement, The Times’s top opinion editor calls The Times’s recent endorsement of Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary the source of project in architecture “plenty of essay on animal farm by george reaction.” “There’s been a lot of readership, a lot of reader comments,” the editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, told me on Monday. That’s for sure. Over 5,600 comments have been posted on the editorial, which was published online Saturday and in Sunday’s paper. A vast majority of thesis project those comments came from Bernie Sanders supporters, who vehemently disagreed with the editorial board’s conclusion. (The Times also expressed a preference, within the Republican field of candidates, for John Kasich, the Ohio governor.
That, however, is not an endorsement; the essay, Clinton editorial is one.) A typical comment, and one gathering one of the thesis project, highest number of “recommends,” or reader agreement, came from Daniel Ricketti of New Jersey, who wrote: “Disappointed in this pick. NYT never even gave Bernie a shot. Straight from the essay for the of wrath, beginning basically no attention.” Many readers have complained to project in architecture me that Mr.
Sanders’s campaign and viability has been underplayed in the pages of The Times — and I’ve written about fried green tomatoes character essay, this numerous times. I should remind readers here that the editorial page and The Times’s news pages are operated separately. There is no involvement by the news editors or reporters in any editorial or endorsement, nor does the thesis project, editorial board influence the news coverage. A Potent Endorsement Could Use More Transparency. An Op-Ed piece endorsing Hillary Clinton by Michael J. Morell, a former top C.I.A. Topics? official, does not disclose that Morell works at a Washington consulting firm with connections to Clinton.
Readmore… The Clinton Story You Didn’t Read Here. Hillary Clinton ignited criticism with claims she made about her email use in project in architecture, an interview with Fox News, but don’t look for it in The Times.Readmore… A Convention Speech, Not a Bodice Ripper. A Times story claiming that Bill Clinton’s convention speech sexualized Hillary Clinton has readers scratching their heads.Readmore… Feuds! Favors! Name-Calling!
But What About Those Russians? The salacious details of cyberattacks draw the biggest headlines, but are they the biggest part of the story?Readmore… Ms. Fried Character Analysis Essay? or Mrs.? It’s Up to project You. Essay Grapes? As for Me, Just Call Me Spayd. If Melania Trump is a Ms. Project? while Michelle Obama is a Mrs., does that mean The Times is up to something? Not really.Readmore… Liz Spayd is the sixth public editor appointed by The New York Times.
The public editor works outside of the reporting and editing structure of the newspaper and receives and answers questions or comments from readers and the public, principally about news and other coverage in The Times. Rotc Essay Topics? Her opinions and thesis project in architecture conclusions are her own. Read more » In New Policy, The Times Forbids After-the-Fact ‘Quote Approval’ The Times is one of the essay topics, first major news organizations to take a firm stand against a growing and disliked practice. For Times Environmental Reporting, Intentions May Be Good but the Signs Are Not.
The Times has dismantled its environmental pod and discontinued the Green blog. Problems With Precision and in architecture Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test. The public editor looks into a test drive of an electric car that caused a storm. Under Attack, Nate Silver Picks the Wrong Defense. The statistical wizard's offer to wager on the outcome of the critical essay, presidential race is a bad choice. Questions and Answers on project, How The Times Handles Online Comments From Readers. How does The Times decide which comments to post on NYTimes.com? The public editor gets answers from The Times's online commenting managers. Was Photo of Dead Ambassador Acceptable? Readers complained to the public editor over critical orwell, The Times's decision to display a photograph of the unconscious ambassador in Libya.
Government Secrecy and Bradley Manning. The Danger of Suppressing the in architecture, Leaks. Those who reveal classified material are being punished like never before. When the government asks newspapers to keep quiet, the bar should be very high for saying yes. The Times Was Right to Report — at critical essay farm orwell Last — on a Secret Drone Base. Editors were asked by the C.I.A. to withhold information and did so for months before publishing it online Tuesday night. Was a Reporter’s Role in a Government Prosecution a Reason to Recuse Him? Scott Shane, a Times national security reporter, was referred to in the government’s prosecution of a former C.I.A. official. Bradley Manning and WikiLeaks are a major story for thesis project, The Times, so why was the paper so late to cover the soldier’s pretrial hearing? The Times Should Have a Reporter at the Bradley Manning Hearing.
The testimony is riveting and the surrounding issues are newsworthy. Questions on essay topics, Drones, Unanswered Still. Just who is it that the United States is killing with strikes by unmanned aircraft in Yemen and Pakistan? Readers Have a Stake in Obama’s Free-Speech Disconnect. The First Amendment matters for many reasons, some of them not on the world stage. False Balance and Objectivity in project, Reporting. How Social Media Affects Journalistic Objectivity. The public editor travels to Harvard’s Shorenstein Center. With audio.
The Raging Debate Over Objectivity and Transparency. Is the concept outdated or even more important in the new media era? The journalistic ideal of impartiality is coming under attack. My column for fried green tomatoes character analysis, this week. In Real Time, and Beforehand, Checking Facts on thesis, the Presidential Debate. The public editor speaks with Times editors about how they plan to fact-check the first presidential debate.
When the View Is From Somewhere, Readers Ought to Know Where That Is. When opinion appears in news pages, it needs to be labeled and displayed as just that. Facts, Truth … and May the Best Man Win. Whatever the conclusions, whatever the effectiveness, of challenging facts, the idea that we have to debate the necessity of the media doing so strikes me as absurd. The Times, Too, Is Reconsidering the Term ‘Illegal Immigrant’ The Times is reconsidering the use of the on animal, term illegal immigrant. Does The Times Have Its Act Together on Vulgar Language? An article coyly wrote around a business name that used an unprintable word according to The Times's standards.
What’s an ‘Islamist’? An ‘Extremist’? Trying Not to project Blur Language Lines. A crisis in North Africa and a reader’s query bring up crucial distinctions in usage. Adam Lanza, Asperger’s and on argumentative a Misleading Connection With Violence. Families are rightfully upset by some of the early reporting done on the Newtown, Conn., shootings.
An Election Day Look at How Language Changes in The Times, and in the Culture. The research and development team’s Chronicle tool may distract you while you’re waiting for project, the returns to come in. Contradictions and Confusion on an Agreement With Iran. Unidentified sources make it difficult for leroys homework, readers to know what to believe regarding negotiations between the project in architecture, United States and Iran. Readers Won’t Benefit if Times Bans the Term ‘Illegal Immigrant’
The public editor's judgment is not about of wrath, immigration reform; it's about clarity and accuracy. Is ‘Illegal Immigrant’ the Right Description? An activist wants The Times to stop using the term illegal immigrant in its reporting. Gender Questions Arise in thesis project, Obituary of ralph emerson essay courage Rocket Scientist and Her Beef Stroganoff. After criticism on Twitter and elsewhere, the first sentence of an project, obituary for Yvonne Brill was changed. An Officer’s Secretly Recorded Words About ‘Stop and Frisk’ Cause a Firestorm. A front-page article involving the New York Police Department's internal communication could have provided greater context. Is There Really Room to Debate Whether Women Can Lead? A headline ignites a discussion about on argumentative, its undermining question. Anna Quindlen and Andrew Solomon Join Discussion About Media and in architecture Transgender Children.
News organizations should evaluate the motivations of fried tomatoes character analysis essay parents who want to take their child’s story public. The Tale of project a Transgender 6-Year-Old Child Raises Reader Concerns. Parental approval and the child’s own willingness should rule the day. T Magazine’s New Editor Pledges to green tomatoes character essay Make Future Issues More Diverse. Readers complained about the project, absence of on animal by george orwell people of color in T: The Times Style Magazine. A Twitter Outburst and Another Chance for project in architecture, Andrew Goldman. The Times Magazine interviewer offended some high-profile female writers with his questions. Women, Women, Everywhere — but Not Much About Their Paychecks. Where, after what seemed like women's night on Tuesday at tomatoes character essay the Democratic National Convention, was the coverage of pay equity, along with gender-economic issues in general? In the Spirit of Ada Louise Huxtable, a Times Critic Reinvents His Role. Michael Kimmelman views architecture in terms of thesis in architecture public policy as well as aesthetics.
Reviews by essay farm orwell Times Critics With 'All Guns Blazing' The criticism of a new restaurant in Times Square was delicious, even if the food was not. On the Question of a (Brilliantly) Negative Restaurant Review. The critic Pete Wells gave his first “poor” restaurant rating in The Times -- and he did it memorably. Barred by thesis project in architecture Saint Laurent, Attacked by Gaga, a Fashion Critic Carries On.
Cathy Horyn's work can't please everyone -- but this is ridiculous.
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How to write a 3,000 word essay in a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to give you the motivation (and fear) you need to in architecture, get writing – don't stress though, we're here to on animal, help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is thesis project, totally doable! Not only this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and essay topics other deadlines to juggle, the time can easily creep up on thesis project you. However, the essay topics, worst thing you can do in in architecture this situation is panic, so keep calm, mop up the critical essay farm orwell, cold sweats and read on to find out how to nail that essay in unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to leave it all to the last minute, but if you do happen to thesis project, find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and essay topics we're the guys for the job.
Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for porridge? Check out our list of the best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . You need to thesis in architecture, be confident that you'll be comfortable and leroys homework able to focus for in architecture, as long as possible.
Be organised and critical farm come equipped with two pens (no nipping to the shop because you ran out of ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and thesis project some snacks to use as mini-rewards. This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the for the grapes of wrath, screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for thesis project in architecture, concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is tomatoes analysis essay, every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at thesis in architecture least switch notifications off) and refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to get a friend to change your Facebook password for ralph waldo emerson essay courage, you for 24 hours and make them promise not to in architecture, tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline.
We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . This is a great method of for the, working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and your essay is due in thesis in architecture first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and leroys homework grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on quotes etc. that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by this point, don't worry – completing in time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to project in architecture, last you until the early hours of the morning. Also remember to schedule in a few breaks – you need to spend the whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for rotc, a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the screen and in architecture get outside to stretch. We recommend a ten minute break at least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay topics, essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the project, most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!). 24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the ralph waldo emerson, most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to tackle.
Next, decide your approach. How are you going to tackle the in architecture, question? When time is limited, it is important to leroys homework, choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to the question and project in architecture construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in essay on argumentative any direction you choose. Use this to in architecture, your advantage! You may need to for the grapes, Google around the topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out thesis, 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for critical farm, each point. In Architecture? Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to leroys homework, – the key to a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of filling in between the lines of each bullet point. This method is perfect for writing against the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr.
Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the in architecture, most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in waldo essay courage response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on when you're at the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to argue. Don't use the introduction as a space to thesis project in architecture, throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to fried tomatoes essay, gather outside information and quotes to project, support your arguments.
It's important to limit the time you spend on topics this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and thesis project paste key ideas and quotes into critical a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the project, library, skip to chapters that look relevant and on argumentative remember to use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the thesis project in architecture, essay your own voice and make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's.
Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for emerson courage, your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to thesis, find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. Green Tomatoes Character Analysis? There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end. Take quotes by other authors included in the book you're reading. If you look up the project in architecture, references you will find the original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references.
This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Critical Farm Orwell? Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Simply enter the thesis in architecture, details of rotc essay topics, sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of extra work typing out your references and project bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the critical essay on animal farm by george orwell, word limit!
Get all your content down and don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in project in architecture handy if you need to make up the grapes, word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to thesis project in architecture, support the key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the ralph waldo emerson courage, word limit, don't panic.
Pick out project in architecture, a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. There must be an leroys homework additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab… time for thesis project in architecture, a dinner break? Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in grapes of wrath order to hit your word limit.
You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there! A lot of students overlook the thesis project, importance of critical essay on animal by george orwell, spelling and thesis grammar. Green Tomatoes Analysis Essay? It differs from uni to uni, subject to subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and thesis project in architecture grammar can account for farm orwell, up to 10-20% of project in architecture, your grade. Make sure you edit properly!
If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from recommended and unlikely to fried green character essay, get you the thesis in architecture, best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at on argumentative topics least prevent tears in thesis in architecture the library (been there) and essay on argumentative topics the need for any extensions. Remember, this is thesis project in architecture, a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck! Exams coming up?
Check out leroys homework, our guide on how to revise in one day too. If you're starting to feel the thesis in architecture, pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to rotc topics, hear them – use the comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza.
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05 October 2017. 05 October 2017. 05 October 2017. Essential Student Guide to Finance. Student loan calculator. Disclaimer: All content on this website is based on individual experience and leroys homework journalistic research. It does not constitute financial advice. Save the Student and thesis project in architecture its authors are not liable for rotc essay topics, how tips are used, nor for content and services on external websites. Common sense should never be neglected! We sometimes use affiliated links which may result in a payment following a visitor taking action (such as a purchase or registration) on thesis project an external website. This helps keep Save the Student free.