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Occupational Research Paper Worksheet - mjc edu
auto resume soulseek Uma vez selecionado um arquivo ou uma pasta que ira baixar, va para tela de transferencias (Transfers). Occupational? Toda vez que queira monitorar seus downloads e uploads va para a tela transfers. Research - Analytical Purpose? Abaixo as legendas das colunas : A. Occupational Paper? Name: Nome do arquivo. - Analytical? B. Paper? Status: Posicao do arquivo. Introduction+essay? Ha varias posicoes. Occupational? Awaiting user: Esperando pelo usuario. Significa que ele nao esta conectado no momento. Doherty Amplifier? Remotely queued: O usuario esta conectado, mas vc esta na fila. Paper? Tenha paciencia e espere sua vez chegar. Brown Fema Resume? Para saber sua posicao exata na fila, olhe para a coluna H (Place in paper line). Resume? Clique com o botao direito sobre o arquivo enfileirado e escolha Get Place in research Line.
Locally queued: O arquivo esta na lista de espera devido a configuracao de seu numero maximo de downloads. Research Papers - Analytical? Failed: Ma noticia. A transferencia falhou. Paper? Tente novamente clicando com o botao direito e escolhendo Retry. E reze para que o usuario nao use firewall. Papers? Finished: Arquivo baixado com exito. Research Paper? yeahhhh !! Remotely Banned: Vc foi banido pelo usuario. Power Amplifier? Certifique-se de que esta compartilhando arquivos ou de que nao colocou um excessivo numero de arquivos para download de um mesmo usuario.
Estas sao as razoes mais frequentes de banimentos. Paper? D. Listing Essay? Time elapsed: Tempo transcorrido desde o inicio do download.. Paper? E. K/sec: Velocidade de Download / Upload. F. User: Nome do santo que esta lhe fornecendo o arquivo. Introduction+essay? G. Occupational? Size: Tamanho do arquivo. Brown Fema Resume? H. Occupational Research? Place in line: Sua posicao na fila. Power Amplifier? Ver acima. Research? I. Introduction+essay? Folder: Pasta de origem. Occupational Research Paper? Auto-clear finished: Se estiver marcada, o arquivo baixado e retirado da lista de download. Brown Fema? Mas nao se preocupe pois ele ainda estara em sua pasta. Occupational Research Paper? Esta opcao apenas limpa a tela.
Eu particularmente, deixo desmarcada esta opcao. The NISPM? Max D/L KBPS: Velocidade maxima de transferencia permitida (0 = ilimitada). Por exemplo, vc decidiu que em Max U/L 2 usuarios podem baixar seu arquivos. Paper? Se colocar 1 em Extra list user U/L, possibilita que um usuario, que esta em sua user list, possa baixar seu arquivo, independente da configuracao de Max U/L. Brown Fema? (no meu exemplo, baixariam de vc 3 arquivos: os 2 de usuarios normais + 1 que esta em sua lista) Retry: Reinicia a transferencia em caso de falha ou abortagem. Research? Clear: Limpa a tela de transferencia: finished (terminadas); aborted (abortadas); ou ambas.
Search for listing essay, same file: Busca um arquivo com o mesmo nome. Search for research, same file (in same folder): Buscar um mesmo arquivo em um mesmo diretorio (comando tosco) Remove from list: Remove o usuario de sua lista de amigos. Se aparece esta opcao e porque ele ja esta la. Ignore user: Ignora o usuario (Vc nao recebe mensagens dele) Ban user: Proibe o usuario a baixar arquivos de vc. Send message: Envia mensagem ao usuario. Research Purpose? Browse user's files: Entra na pasta do usuario, para vasculhar seus arquivos.(os dele) Get user info: Abre uma caixa onde mostra o perfil do usuario, bem como suas regras e gostos musicais. Research Paper? O Soulseek permite interacao com usuarios alem de simplesmente trocar arquivos.
Criar uma lista de usuarios. Criar una lista de usuarios (User List) Aperte o botao add user e abrira uma caixa onde devera ser iserido o nome do usuario. The NISPM? O botao Remove User da pra ter uma ideia do que seja. Research Paper? ne? User Notes: Insere um comentario sobre um determinado usuario de sua lista de amigos. Para colocar o comentario, clique com o bt direito sobre o nick de seu amigo e escolha User Notes. Insira seu texto na caixa que se abrira e de OK. Para visualizar os comentarios adicionados, apenas posicione o ponteiro do mouse sobre o nick desejado.
Give Privileges: Esta funcao esta disponivel apenas para os bem afortunados que depositam 5 dolares mensais na conta do Sr. Brown Fema Resume? Nir. Research Paper? Se esse for seu caso, agora voce pode compartilhar seus 30 dias de privilegios com algum amigo pobre. The NISPM? Clique direito sobre o nick do pobretao e escolha Give Privileges. Occupational Research? Clique com o bt direito sobre o nick de algum usuario de sua user list e escolha a opcao Send Files. B - Upload File: Para enviar apenas um arquivo.
PARA COLOCAR UM USUARIO EM SUA LISTA DE UPLOADS clique com o bt direito sobre o nome do usuario que vc deseja adicionar na lista e escolha ADD USER TO UPLOAD PERMITTED LIST. Introduction+essay? Geral: Botao direito do mouse Send message. Research? Atraves de um 'Chat Room' (B): Entra no Chat Room(clique direito na sala desejada e Join Room) e duplo clique no nick do usuario. The NISPM? Use Just This Once: Para usar a frase apenas naquela ocasiao. Occupational Research Paper? Always Use In This Room: Para usar a frase apenas em determinada sala. Use In All Rooms By Default: Para usar a frase em todas as salas. Introduction+essay? Se vc e o usuario estiverem usando firewall, talvez vc nao consiga ver o perfil dele, bem como a lista de arquivos que ele possui. Paper? A falha da visualizacao do perfil ou do browser, pode ocorrer tambem por falhas na conexao. Listing Essay? Veja mais sobre Firewall e problemas na visualizacao de arquivos no F.A.Q.
Note que acima, um botao novo surgiu : Para isto basta ultilizar a opcao clique direito em cima do arquivo Download folder. Occupational Research? Com este comando todo o conteudo da pasta sera baixado, incluindo a propria pasta. Research - Analytical? Mas tenha cuidado: Certifique-se de que na pasta nao ha um excesso de arquivos e que possa desreipeitar as regras do usuario em questao. Occupational Paper? A regra normalmente e de 1 ou 2 albuns por vez. Consulte sempre o usuario, pelo perfil ou pelo browser, para saber suas regras para download. Excluir (banir) / ignorar um usuario. Research - Analytical Purpose? Ou entao pode se encontrar o nome do usuario em chats ou mesmo em sua lista e clicar com o botao direito do mouse e escolher Unban / unignore. Entao deixe a preguica de lado e clique no botao 'File Search'.
Abrira entao uma janela semelhante a esta abaixo. Occupational Paper? Digite o nome: do artista, da musica, do programa ou algo que faca referencia ao que vc esta procurando. Introduction+essay? Se o servidor estiver redondinho e funcionando bem, com um pouco de sorte vc obtera uma lista com os resultados da busca. Occupational Research Paper? Para busca de video, coloque a extensao AVI, MPG ou WMV apos a palavra-chave utilizada para a busca. Ex: (Amado Batista AVI) ou (Tiririca MPG) Pode se procurar por imagens utilizando as extensoes JPG ou GIF. Introduction+essay? Bom para busca de Capas de Cds. Occupational Research Paper? Ex: (Brianna Banks jpg) ou (Sylvia Saint gif) Abaixo as legendas.
Para adicionar uma palavra, escreva somente o termo e clique no botao Add Term. The NISPM? A: Filename: Nome do arquivo. B: Folder: Pasta onde se localiza o arquivo. Occupational? Isto e interessante. Introduction+essay? Se na pasta onde esta o arquivo, contiver um o nome de um cd que lhe interesse, pode ser que a pasta tenha todas as musicas do cd. Research? Vc pode entao usar o comando Download Folder, que permite baixar a pasta com todos os arquivos do cd. C: User: Nome do usuario (nick) que contem o arquivo. Doherty Power Amplifier Thesis? D: Size: Tamanho do arquivo. E :D/L Speed (avg): Velocidade de media de download . Paper? Nao e muito confiavel a indicacao da velocidade de conexao que tem um usuario. Power? Ja peguei taxas bem altas de usuarios que indicavam 2.0. Paper? Em tese quanto maior, melhor.
F: In queue: Indica o tamanho da fila que vc tera de encarar. Review Literature On Simulation Education? Se a fila estiver acima de 30 fuja! A nao ser que seja aquele CD do Amado batista cantando ao vivo na casa da mae dele. Research? As vezes pode ocorrer de o arquivo estar em cinza e comecar a baixar imediatamente. Em contrapartida pode acontecer de o arquivo estar em preto e voce amargar uma fila monstruosa. The NISPM? Portanto va se acostumando aos bugs do Slsk e sempre de uma conferida antes de fechar sua janela de busca. Occupational Research? Ao contrario das buscas padrao, que varrem toda a rede e nunca alcancam todos usuarios, uma busca no chat e garantida, pois sera feita apenas em cada usuario da sala. Listing Essay? Sua Busca sera feita apenas nas pastas dos usuarios de sua lista.
A seguir, no campo B temos o botao Add Shared Folder. Occupational? Clique no botao Add Shared Folder para escolher a pasta que sera compartilhada. The NISPM? Clique com o bt direito do mouse sobre a pasta recem adicionada e escolha a permissao de acesso a ela (Set Folder Acess). Research Paper? Essa permissao pode ser: Por ultimo, no campo C, estabelecemos de quem aceitaremos uploads (Accept uploads from), ou seja, vc escolhera quem podera lhe enviar arquivos. Fema Resume? As opcoes sao: No One: De ninguem. Research Paper? Users in The NISPM my Upload permitted list: Usuarios de sua lista de permissao. People in occupational research paper my userlist: Todos usuarios de sua lista de amigos.
Everyone: De todo mundo (nao recomendado). Thesis? Deixe sempre alguma pasta marcada com a opcao Everyone, pois o slsk e um programa de troca de arquivos. Occupational Research? Muitos usuarios costumam monitorar upload. Brown Resume? Por isso se vc for occupational paper, banido (Remotely Banned) a causa provavel sera o nao compartilhamento. Fema? Tela Opcoes Gerais Listening port: O numero da porta que queremos usar para estabelecer as conexoes. Use UPnP manager (automatic port-forwarding): Para deixar que o SLSK administre automaticamente o redirecionamento das portas. Occupational Research Paper? Use sound notifications: Usar sons para notificacoes de eventos (resultados encontrados, mensagens recebidas, etc). Let users in introduction+essay list download first: Da prioridade de download aos usuarios de sua lista de amigos (Userlist). Connect on startup: Conecta o slsk ao inicia-lo. Paper? Auto-set away when minimized: Ao minimizar o programa, este nos coloca no estado 'away' ou ausente.
Periodically refresh tray icon: Atualiza periodicamente o icone que aparece junto ao relogio do Windows. Listing Essay? Hide ticker when entering a room: Oculta automaticamente o 'ticker' (rotulo que mostra as mensagens postadas por usuarios) quando vc entra em salas ou chats. Occupational Research Paper? Timestamp private messages: Mostra o horario nas conversas privativas. - Analytical Purpose? Reopen unclosed private chats from research paper, previous sessions: Re-abre conversas privadas nao concluidas de sessoes anteriores. Await server's send of papers, my own chat: Espera o envio do servidor de suas mensagens no chat.
Use encspot to occupational, read mp3 attributes (experimental): Uma funcao experimental que permite ler atributos adicionais de arquivos mp3. Introduction+essay? Disallowed Extensions: Esse campo proibe o slsk de baixar arquivos com extensao a sua escolha. Adicione ou remova as extensoes nos botoes ADD e Remove. Research? Allowed Extensions: Campo de extensoes permitidas para download. E o inverso do campo Disallowed. Purpose? Escreva o que quiser no campo para descricao do perfil. Research? Muitos usuarios se utilizam desse campo para introduzir suas regras para download. Brown Resume? Quando vc entra no programa, ele demora um pouco para conectar, pois procura em seus diretorios compartilhados os arquivos que serao indexados..
Ha casos de o slsk nao conectar. Isso porque periodicamente fazem manutencao nos servidores e pode acontecer de ele estar inativo. Occupational? Dividimos esta janela em 5 partes: Se o soulseek nao conectar imediatamente, pode ser que o servidor esteja em manutencao. Brown? Portanto, seja paciente.
Para se mostrar ausente ou Away, apenas pressione o botao Toggle Away. Occupational Paper? A versao atual e oficial do Soulseek e a 156c. Feito isso o programa ira lhe pedir um nome de usuario e uma senha, que sera inventado por vc. Research Papers - Analytical? Lembre sempre de guardar esta senha, pois se algum problema posterior ocorrer, esta senha lhe garantira usar o mesmo nick e suas configuracoes atuais. O nome de usuario e a senha escolhidos por vc nao se trata de um sistema de protecao como um numero de serie.
Ele sera usado apenas para fins de identificacao de usuario no servidor. Occupational Research? Se por algum motivo vc desejar TROCAR SEU NOME DE USUARIO , primeiro va ao menu Connection Disconnect. Introduction+essay? Apos desconecta-lo va ao menu Connection Login as e escolha um novo nome de usuario e uma nova senha. Occupational? Pode-se reinstalar o Soulseek sem a necessidade de desinstalacao. Brown Fema Resume? Apenas instale a versao nova por cima da anterior.
Mas lembre-se de nao estar executando o programa no momento da reinstalacao. Occupational Research Paper? Faca sempre backup de seus arquivos de configuracao(.CFG). Brown Fema Resume? As vezes, por razoes desconhecidas, o programa ao se iniciar nao consegue ler seus arquivos de configuracao e o programa recomeca do zero, inclusive pedindo seu nome de usuario e senha. Occupational Research Paper? E interessante mantermos nossa configuracao anterior para nao perdemos nossa lista de amigos, lista de downloads, a configuracao de diretorios compartilhados e perfil de usuario.
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Occupational Research Paper | …
roanoke essay by Elizabeth Wambold. (1) Written with the occupational research, intention of persuading Elizabeth I to provide financial support for colonization in the New World, Richard Hakluyt the Younger’s A Particuler Discourse Concerninge The Greate Necessitie And Manifolde Commodyties That Are Like To Growe To This Realme Of Englande By The Westerne Discoueries Lately Attempted, Written In The Yere 1584 (known most commonly as Discourse of Western Planting ) is one of the most extensive and important pieces of propagandistic literature to emerge from The NISPM, late 16th century England – a virtual “tour de force of colonial promotion” (Horning 372). Touching upon a wide range of topics, Hakluyt carefully construes popular English concerns and interests to make a case for occupational, the validity of expansion and the overwhelming promise of positive rewards. Literature Education? The ideas and propositions he outlines deal with a “range of national problems which he proposed to solve by means of a brand of colonial adventure that presented itself as virtually risk-free, at least to the crown” (Scanlan 31). The relative ease and confidence with which Hakluyt presents his plan is the result not of a naïve, idealistic mind, but rather is the product of a thoughtfully constructed political agenda. Looking at this document through the framework of “justification literature,” that is, having to do with the representation and validation of overtaking a land that is already populated with people, Discourse of Western Planting gives a keen insight into the ideology of the Elizabethan mind. Through the presentation of the material, what is and is not included or acknowledged, and the depth of coverage, this document brings to research, light issues that were central to English interests. (2) Before immediately jumping into this analysis, though, it is important to set a general frame of context for - analytical purpose, both the author of the document and the events surrounding its creation. Occupational Paper? Richard Hakluyt the Younger, who would later dedicate his life to the cause of English expansion into The NISPM the New World, was a Protestant Reverend, educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Son of a member of the occupational paper, Skinner’s Company, Hakluyt supplemented his formal studies by making “regular trips to listing essay, the principal seaports of London and Bristol to collect notes and records from sailors, offering intelligent insights into their problems and gaining the research paper, confidence of captains, merchants, and mariners alike” (Horning 368).
The result of such trips was that Hakluyt developed an understanding of what it took to successfully outfit large voyages, knowledge that would become invaluable to power amplifier, him while writing Discourse . (3) Commissioned in occupational 1583 by Francis Walsingham, Secretary of State to Elizabeth I, Hakluyt goes to France to learn as much as he can about research purpose French and Spanish explorations and research paper colonies in the New World. He is to use what he learns to write a piece of promotional literature designed to gain support for a voyage to be undertaken by Christopher Carleill, stepson to Walsingham. While there, Hakluyt reads Las Casas’s The Spanish Colonie (also known as A Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies ), which dramatizes Spanish atrocities done to native populations in the New World. When Hakluyt returns to listing essay, England in occupational July of 1584, Carleill has already left on another voyage, having shifted his focus to a different realm. In spite of this, Walsingham still urges Hakluyt to write on the subject of colonization, though now with the intent of assisting Sir Walter Raleigh, who is fema resume, himself seeking royal support to colonize what would be called Roanoke. (4) The support, however, would not come as the men hoped for. Occupational Research Paper? Although Queen Elizabeth appreciated what Hakluyt was doing with the piece and even found some of his ideas tempting, she knew the realistic limits of her abilities. At the time she felt she had been lucky to avoid open conflict with Spain and knew that the most practical use of thesis, her investments would be in building up the research, English military, as the tensions between the England and introduction+essay Spain were sure to climax. In spite of this, the research paper, Queen did lend some support to Raleigh in his 1585 Roanoke venture, assisting him with “a ship, ammunition and power to enroll men for his venture if they were not willing enough to go as his servants” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxx). While the men did not achieve all they had hoped for, a move such as this proved that the Queen did support them ideologically, even if she could not support them financially. (5) The major content of Discourse deals with the economic and nationalistic benefits that England will derive from colonizing the New World.
Throughout the text, Hakluyt outlines several important points that were at the heart of English interest. He plays upon economic concerns, suggesting that North America will be the key in brown fema developing new outlets for trade and reinvigorating certain important industrial areas, such as the cloth industry, that were at the time lapsing. Occupational Research Paper? Colonization in the New World will, he suggests, provide countless new jobs, both there and in the mother country, by providing raw materials that could be developed into goods. Such raw materials will necessitate workers in the New World to harvest the material, as well as workers in England to turn them into finished products. (6) In addition to reinvigorating the economy through new jobs, colonization will provide a solution for what many English considered to be an overcrowding of the country.
Sending people to the New World will help to redistribute population growth and prevent people in England from going jobless due to overcrowding. This, in turn, will also cut down on introduction+essay crime in England, since there will be fewer jobless people to commit crimes. Research? Even more, it would be possible to send current petty criminals to the New World where they can work and produce, rather than overcrowding English jails with nonviolent, non-threatening people, all at the expense of the listing essay, taxpayers. Aside from these economic benefits, a strategically positioned port colony would also provide the English with a foothold from which they could begin to regulate the trade of other countries. Occupational Research? Control over heavily traveled areas will allow the English to charge duties to those who pass through, thus making a profit for England and boosting their power and influence on a national level. In addition to this, a strong English foothold will also force a barrier on research papers Spanish expansion, shutting them off from the occupational research, possibility of spreading their colonization further northward. (7) This desire to close off or compete with the Spanish is an underlying theme in almost all of what Hakluyt writes. The Spanish are considered by the English as the ultimate enemy, and anything that can be done to injure them is viewed as beneficial to the English. Introduction+essay? It is primarily through this framework of competition with Spain that Hakluyt deals with the question of the Native Americans.
In regard to England and Spain, the natives become something of a pawn in occupational paper an international game of chess. Research - Analytical Purpose? Hakluyt constructs the natives as a tool that can be manipulated and occupational research used by the English to either benefit them (by helping them pull ahead in the competition with Spain) or, failing to do that, at least hurt the research papers - analytical purpose, Spanish. His attitude towards the natives is utilitarian, presenting them as something to be constructed as the English see necessary, and then utilized to occupational, their fullest advantage. (8) One of the most extensively developed means of utilizing the natives in this competition comes in brown fema the first part of Discourse , which deals with the spreading of the Protestant religion. Hakluyt presents the idea of conversion in a way that appears to be kind and gentle, suggesting the colonists plant themselves in with the natives and “firste learne the language of the people nere adioyninge (the gifte of tongues beinge noew taken awaye) and by little and little aquainte themselues with their manner and so with discrecion and myldenes distill into their purged myndes the swete and lively lignes of the gospell” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 8). Disturbingly, Hakluyt presents the natives solely as a passive object, one that is to be acted upon by the English. The removal of their agency has the effect of pushing them “into the background as if they were a part of the landscape” (Quinn, The First Colonists iv). Like the fields that can easily be made ready for sowing, the natives can easily be made ready to receive the Christian god. (9) This interest in Christianizing the natives (and the apparent ease with which it is to be accomplished) is motivated by several things.
Protestantism during Elizabeth’s reign is deeply embedded in the English psyche and national identity; “the Church of England was the outward symbol of paper, English nationalism – the phrase ‘God is English,’ first printed in 1558, was reiterated several times later in amplifier the reign” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxii). Religion becomes synonymous with national identity, and therefore the spreading of that religion became a form of validation for the English as a people. The necessity of this validation derives in part from occupational research, Spain’s critique of the English church, whose “Catholic missionary successes, trumped in print by the Jesuits, in Asia, Africa, and especially in the Americas, enabled Catholic propagandists to sneer at the English church which had converted no heathen or pagan people and so remained purely insular” (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxii). The desire to convert becomes a means of competition between the nations, and systematic of the literature on simulation in nursing education converting the “heathen or pagan people” of the New World is occupational research, a form of validation for listing essay, the English. By converting these people to Protestantism, the English felt they would be proving that their religion is as good, powerful, and “holy” as the Spanish Catholics. The natives, through this, function as a tool between the two nations.
(10) Hakluyt’s means of utilizing the natives against the Spanish is not solely through religion, however. He uses descriptions of occupational paper, Spanish atrocities committed against the natives, primarily from Las Casas’s accounts, to listing essay, fuel the already present hatred between the nations and suggest ways in which the occupational research paper, Indians can be used against the Spanish. In part eleven of Discourse Hakluyt suggests that the English use these atrocities to their advantage and incite the natives to rebel against the oppressive Spanish, saying “the Spaniardes haue exercised moste outrageous and more then Turkishe cruelties in all the west Indies, whereby they are euery where there become moste odious vnto them whoe woulde ioyne with vs or any other moste willinglye to shake of their moste intollerable yoke” (Quinn, Discourse of listing essay, Western Planting 52). While this statement is supposedly about the injustices one people is research, capable of resume, inflicting on another, Hakluyt does not set it up as a plea for humanity. Instead, he plays upon research paper sympathies for the natives only to The NISPM, the degree that it will help the English in their struggle against the Spanish, demonstrating that the English were “not very sympathetic towards the Amerindian, and when the English proponents of American colonization did develop such a sympathy, it was only paper, temporary, and more a response to necessity than to philosophic commitment” (Pennington 176). (11) That these sympathies are a response aimed at utilization rather than “philosophic commitment” is evident in the degree to which Hakluyt develops his idea. While he suggests how the English may help the natives to rebel, he fails to take up the question of what will happen to the natives after the English help them break free from their “intolerable yoke.” It would seem more than unlikely that the papers, English would help restore the occupational research, natives to their own culture and help them rebuild what has been lost. Rather, the most likely solution would be that they would fall under the rule of the English.
Their fate, while it would not be as cruel as Hakluyt portrays it to be in the hands of the Spanish, would still ultimately be one of conquest. (12) By avoiding this question and focusing solely on the Spanish atrocities, Hakluyt carefully manipulates the English mind, painting a picture in which they are ultimately glorified in their actions. His images, therefore, “not only serve as propaganda, but also reveal the hope, and even the faith, that the elect will triumph over The NISPM evil, that England will subdue Spain, that Protestantism will curb the passions of the Catholic whore” (Bess 4). His lack of grounded, practical planning in this section is evidence of a greater, less concrete desire, revealing a national mindset fraught with religious fervor that is an integral part of national identity. Occupational Research? Regardless of the true motives behind English action, however, the reality still remains that the natives are construed as passive recipients, expected to fulfill a role that is imposed upon them. As with the The NISPM, desire to bring them into the Protestant religion, this desire to “save” the natives from the Catholic Spanish is based upon a need to compete with and do injury to Spain, and the natives are expected to fulfill their part in occupational research paper the plan. (13) While English motives for colonization and the use of native peoples certainly have a lot to do with the listing essay, desire to compete with Spain, Hakluyt nevertheless goes to great pains to establish English legitimacy in the New World. He cites the story of Madock, a Welsh seafarer who was a direct ancestor of occupational research, Elizabeth, as the means by which England has claim in the Americas. Telling the story, he says that Madock.
made twoo voyadges oute of Wales discouered and planted large Contries which he founde in the mayne Ocean southwestwarde of Ireland, in listing essay the year of our lorde 1170. […] And this is confirmed by the language of somme of those people that dwell vpon the continent betwene the Bay of Mexico and occupational the granunde Bay of Newfounde lande, whose language is said to agree with the Welshe in diuers wordes. (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 88) The appearance of such a story, had, at least for the English, the result of rendering both the Papal bull Inter caetera (which handed the New World over to Spain in introduction+essay 1493) and occupational paper the Treaty of Tordesillas (which divided the New World between Spain and Portugal) as legally unfounded. (14) The way in which the Madock story is doherty amplifier thesis, presented in Discourse is extremely significant. The story as Hakluyt tells it is a version full of previously inserted editorial interpretations. Cut down to its “historical skeleton,” as Gesa Mackenthun calls it, the story does little to justify English claims in research the New World.
According to Mackenthun, without the editorial interpretations the story would read much more along the lines of listing essay, “Owen Gwyneth, Prince of North Wales, died. His relatives fought for succession. Madoc, son of Owen Gwyneth, left the occupational paper, country by ship and sailed west. In the year 1170 Madoc returned, collected ten more ships and more people, and left again” (27). In this form, there is no way the tale could stand up as legal justification. Hakluyt’s presentation of it, therefore, is a carefully chosen version, one tailored to fit his agenda. (15) While the The NISPM, tale as reiterated by Hakluyt opens the door to legal opposition between European nations, it also had an interesting side effect in relation to the native populations. Through certain ambiguities in the narrative, the story of Madock opens up the question as to the legal and moral grounds of colonization on any level, from any nation. The story, both the way it is told here as well as in Hakluyt’s later publications of it, leaves open “the question of whether the place where Madoc landed was previously settled or not” (Mackenthun 27). Although validity of the research, story is in introduction+essay part based upon “the language of somme of occupational research, those people that dwell vpon the continent,” it is not made clear whether those people were natives who learned the language from the Welsh or were the remnants of a Welsh colony.
(16) The fact that Hakluyt purposely allows this ambiguity has to do with several things. In terms of validity, it is necessary for him to include the reference of fema resume, language, as this is used as one of the main sources of occupational paper, evidence behind the story. However, he may have resisted explicitly referencing the people as descendent from the Welsh because this could become a point of papers - analytical purpose, attack for other nations, as it could become something impossible to prove. In addition to this, even if Hakluyt could provide evidence that the people were Welsh descendents, acceptance of this idea may also prove detrimental to the English, as it could possibly suggest a weakness in occupational research paper English culture, a tendency to “devolve” without other “civilized” nations present, since the culture and The NISPM practices of peoples in paper the America were overwhelmingly viewed as inferior. (17) While the exact motive for allowing this crucial story to be presented with this ambiguity is unclear, the implications inherent in it are very apparent. It demonstrates Hakluyt’s desire to suppress the presence of introduction+essay, native tribes by refusing to research, deal with them directly. Here, as well as elsewhere, the Indians are mentioned or alluded to only in passing, and listing essay when appropriate to English interests.
Unlike the sections dealing with Spanish competition, in which the occupational research, natives are dealt with more fully so as to develop how they can be used and the (obviously unsound) reasons behind why this is to their advantage, sections such as this one, which are more obviously about the justification of colonization, tend to gloss over the native question. Hakluyt’s avoidance of this issue indicates a severe disinterest in and devaluation of native culture and rights, as the “Englishmen were to power thesis, be thrust into land that was assumed to be virtually empty and where there was plenty of research paper, room for listing essay, them, without necessarily disturbing the inhabitants unduly, but with no recognition whatever given to their indigenous rights of occupation” (Quinn, Set Fair for paper, Roanoke 211). It points to feelings of presumed cultural superiority so great that it negates any motivation for research, justifying the taking of the research, natives’ lands. Justification essentially becomes a non-issue for them, as they see no reason as to listing essay, why they cannot do as they please. (18) Hakluyt’s Discourse sets the stage for many attitudes that will carry over into the English/native relations of the actual settlements. In particular, a mixing of research paper, this feeling of - analytical, cultural superiority with the view of natives as utilitarian will continually emerge and be the root cause of many of the paper, settlements’ problems. The way these issues play out together in Roanoke creates an interesting tension. While the review of the on simulation, settlers feel themselves to be generally superior to occupational paper, the natives, it is an undeniable fact that they were often dependent upon power thesis them for survival; “a basic weakness of the English in research Virginia was their reliance upon the Indians for food: corn and fish, especially. This reliance developed as a cause of friction” (Porter 227).
The settlers, unable to self-sufficiently provide for The NISPM, themselves, were often in the position of pressuring the research paper, natives to provide them with food and other forms of review of the literature on simulation education, material assistance. In this, way, they view the native as a functional tool, there to be used as they see fit. (19) The result of casting the occupational, natives in this way has two different but related effects. In terms of the colonies’ survival, the introduction+essay, most important result was the natives’ reaction to the English’s use of occupational research, them. Unlike the docile, obedient, accepting natives that Hakluyt paints, the Roanoke natives were not willing to play the role of provider, instead actively resisting the English demands.
In terms of psychological consequences, the Roanoke colonies’ use of the natives sets up an introduction+essay, interesting paradox. While the English believe themselves to be culturally superior, it is the natives that are functionally superior. The English reliance on them proves their own weaknesses and shows them, at least in one way, as being inferior to occupational paper, the people they consider secondary. (20) While the research papers - analytical purpose, lack of food was in many ways the occupational research paper, main instigator of problems, poor misplaced goals and poor judgment on introduction+essay the part of settlement leaders also heavily contributed to the colonies’ troubles. The first colony, which set out in June of 1585, was led by Sir Richard Grenville. Shortly after arriving, however, Grenville returned to England for supplies, leaving Ralph Lane, his second in research paper command, in charge. Although the colony was in somewhat of a constant struggle for food, Lane led expeditions for precious metals and listing essay pearls, often times kidnapping natives and forcing them to act as guides for him.
Many natives felt they were severely mistreated by research paper, Lane and resented the colonists for this; “There is little doubt that Lane’s actions inflicted long-term damage to the relations between the research, colonists and the inhabitants” (Quinn, Set Fair for Roanoke 121). Bad feelings such as these were not to go away with the occupational paper, colonists when they abandoned the settlement in June of 1586. Fema? Instead, they would return to haunt the next group of settlers. (21) The second attempt at settlement began in July of occupational research paper, 1587 when John White and 12 assistants returned with over 100 settlers to the site of the previous settlement. Shortly after arriving the group attempted to re-establish ties with the local Indians. This proved to be more difficult than anticipated, due in part to the fact that “some of research papers - analytical, Lane’s cruelty to the Indians may have been silently censored, which meant that the next group of colonists […] had less than realistic expectations about their possible relationship with Americans around them” (Kupperman, Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony 104). Though apprehensive, the research paper, Croatoan Indians eventually agree to fema resume, rekindle old relations and provided the English with information about other tribes that had been sporadically attacking them, in one instance even resulting in the death of one of White’s assistants. Research Paper? As an act of retaliation against these tribes, White and his men attacked one of their villages, only to learn that they had attacked the friendly Croatoans by mistake. In all of thesis, these instances, English ideas about natives as utilitarian come into play. Whether it be to obtain food, learn about the occupational paper, country, or gain knowledge about other tribes, the English treated the natives as if they were there strictly to act as their resource.
The overall poor handing of the situations points to the negative and dismissive attitude with which the English viewed the natives, an The NISPM, attitude which was to help mold the occupational research paper, severe tensions between the groups. (22) Although Discourse of Western Planting is intended as a practical guide to colonizing in the New World, it is research papers - analytical purpose, full of much deeper implications. Discourse opens the occupational research, door to an understanding of the Elizabethan mindset that informs all English action and interaction in the New World. By looking at doherty amplifier what is outlined in the document and how it is done, we can use Discourse as a sort of frame through which to read the motivations behind actions and incidents in occupational research paper the colonies. Bess, Jennifer. “Hakluyt’s Discourse of Western Planting.” Explicator 55.1 (1996): 3-5. Horning, Susan Schmidt. The Power of Image: Promotional Literature and Its Changing Role in the Settlement of Early Carolina. North Carolina Historical Review 70.4 (1993): 365-400. Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony . Systematic Literature In Nursing? Totowa: Rowman Littlefield, 1984.
Mackenthun, Gesa. Occupational Research? Metaphors of Dispossession: American Beginnings and the Translation of Empire, 1492-1637 . Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1997. Pennington, Loren. “The Amerindian in English Promotional Literature.” The Westward Enterprise: English Activities in Ireland, the Atlantic, and America 1480-1650 . Ed. K. R. Andrews, N. P. Canny, and P. E. H. Hair. Liverpool: Liverpool UP, 1978. 175-94. Porter, H.C. The Inconstant Savage: England and the North American Indian 1500-1660 . London, Gerald Duckworth and Co, 1979. Quinn, David B., ed. Set Fair for Roanoke: Voyages and of the literature on simulation in nursing education Colonies, 1584-1606 . Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1985. Quinn, David B., and Alison M. Quinn, eds.
A particuler discourse concerninge the greate necessitie and manifolde commodyties . . . known as Discourse of Western Planting . London: Hakluyt Society, 1993. ---. The First Colonists: Documents on the Planting of the First English Settlements in North America, 1584-1590 . London, Oxford UP, 1973. Scanlan, Thomas. Colonial Writing and the New World: 1583 – 1671 . Occupational Research? London, Cambridge UP, 1999.
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Occupational research paper - Old …
10 Old English Words You Need to Be Using. “There is a single Old English word meaning ‘lying awake before dawn and worrying.’ Uhtceare is not a well-known word even by Old English standards, which were pretty damn low. In fact, there is occupational research paper, only one recorded instance of it actually being used. An expergefactor is anything that wakes you up. This may simply be your alarm clock, in introduction+essay which case it is time to hit the snooze button. But it may be a dustman or a milkman or a delivery van, in which case it is research paper, time to lean out of your window and shriek: 'Damn you all, you expergefactors!' This ought to keep them quiet until one of them has at least found a good dictionary. “Once your toes are snugly pantofled, you can stagger off to the bathroom, pausing only to The NISPM, look at occupational paper, the little depression that you have left in your bed, the dip where you have been lying all night. This is known as a staddle.” It’s time to check whether you’ve got your keys and amplifier thesis, your phone and your purse or wallet. This is occupational paper, done by listing essay grubbling in your pockets. Grubbling is like groping, except less organised. Occupational Research Paper. It is listing essay, a verb that usually refers to research, pockets, but can also be used for feeling around in - analytical purpose desk drawers that are filled with nicknacks and whatnot. “Mugwump is a derogatory word for somebody in charge who affects to research, be above petty squabbles and factions. Resume. So when your boss tries to occupational research, make peace at brown fema resume, the meeting table like an paper impartial angel, he is being a mugwump.” A rawgabbit, just in case you were wondering, is somebody who speaks in strictest confidence about a subject of doherty power amplifier, which they know nothing.
A rawgabbit is the person who pulls you aside and reveals in a careful whisper that the research, head of Compliance is having an affair with the research purpose, new recruit in IT, which you know to be utterly untrue because the head of Compliance is occupational research, having an affair with you, and the new recruit in IT hasn’t started yet. “Once you are properly vinomadefied all sorts of intriguing things start to happen. Vinomadefied, by the way, does not mean ‘made mad by wine,’ but merely ‘dampened by it.’” A lanspresado is (according to a 1736 dictionary of thieves’ slang): 'He that comes into Company with but Two-pence in his Pocket.' Lanspresados are everywhere. They have usually forgotten their wallets or can’t find a cashpoint or some intensely complicated thing has happened with their rent, which means that they’re skint till Thursday. “A vomitorium is of the on simulation in nursing education, not a room in which ancient Romans would throw up halfway through a banquet in order to make room for the next course. That’s a myth. Research Paper. A vomitorium is simply a passage by which you can exit a building, usually a theatre.” A version of this story originally appeared in mental_floss magazine. On an unseasonably warm day in April 1954, hundreds of women in cowboy hats gathered outside Tupperware’s Florida headquarters to dig for buried treasure. Research Papers - Analytical. There, in a nearby swampy area dubbed the “Forest of Spades,” 600 shovels stood at the ready. The excitement was palpable.
At the appointed signal, the women raced for the roped-off soil, grabbed shovels, and began to paper, hunt frantically for loot. Introduction+essay. It was the pinnacle of the inaugural Tupperware Jubilee, a five-day, gold-rush-themed affair celebrating all things Tupperware. No expense was spared: To give the event a Western feel, frontier-style buildings with false fronts had been erected and occupational research paper, bulls and horses were trucked in. The women, and a smattering of men, had traveled from all across the country to research purpose, participate. Occupational Research. A collection of Tupperware dealers, distributors, and sales managers, they made the pilgrimage for the motivational speeches, sales instruction, and especially for the bizarre bonding rituals. Listing Essay. For five hours that day, they prospected for mink stoles and freezer units, gold watches and diamond rings. One of them, Fay Maccalupo of Buffalo, New York, dug up a toy car. When she saw the real Ford it represented, she planted her face against the hood and occupational, began to weep, repeating, “I love everybody.” Four women fainted and had to be revived with smelling salts. It was understandable, considering that the total cash value of all the prizes buried in the Florida dirt was $75,000. Presiding over the treasure hunt was the general sales manager of the doherty power amplifier thesis, Tupperware Home Parties division, a 40-year-old woman named Brownie Wise. For hours, she cheered on the ladies from research, a loudspeaker with an air of royalty.
As she watched them hop on shovels and unearth the rewards of their labors, she couldn’t help but feel proud. Wise took satisfaction in seeing her hard work pay off—once again. The jubilee, which she had organized, had all the pizzazz and spirit expected of an official Tupperware event. The media agreed: Network news was there to cover it, and Life magazine ran a photo essay highlighting the listing essay, excitement and glamour. Clearly, there’s more to Tupperware than leftovers. The story of the ubiquitous plastic container is a story of innovation and reinvention: how a new kind of plastic, made from an industrial waste material, ended up a symbol of female empowerment. The product ushered women into the workforce, encouraging them to make their own money, better their families, and win accolades and prizes without fear of being branded that 1950s anathema, “the career woman.” Digging in the dirt for a gold watch may not mesh with today’s concept of a successful working woman, but at the time, the near-religious fervor seen at the jubilees and other Tupperware gatherings demonstrated just how ground-breaking the paper, company’s sales plan was—the product became a multimillion dollar success not by resume exploiting women, but by embracing and paper, boosting them. All of purpose, this was because of Brownie Wise.
The story of Tupperware is occupational, her story. Brownie Wise, named for her big, brown eyes, was born in rural Georgia. Her parents divorced when she was young, and The NISPM, as a teen she traveled with her mother, who organized union rallies. While touring the Deep South, Brownie started giving speeches at her mother’s rallies and soon proved to be a gifted and motivating orator. She “awed people,” writes Bob Kealing in his biography Tupperware Unsealed. “[They] were surprised that someone so young could deliver a speech like a pastor.” Wise was married briefly, but by 27, she was a divorced single mom in occupational paper suburban Detroit.
During World War II, she worked as a secretary at introduction+essay, Bendix Aviation, a company that made parts for navy torpedo planes. Occupational Research Paper. It was a decent but unfulfilling job. On the side, Wise penned an advice column for the Detroit News, writing under the alter ego “Hibiscus.” A housewife who led an idyllic life with her child and husband in fema a home called “Lovehaven,” Hibiscus had everything Wise did not. But what Wise did possess was an endless fountain of determination. As she wrote in a journal at research, that time, “I wanted to be a successful human being.” It all started with a bad door-to-door salesman. When a Stanley Home Products salesman knocked on her door and proceeded to deliver a terrible sales pitch for cleaning supplies, Wise scoffed that she could do better. Fema. At the time, Stanley was experimenting with a peculiar sales model: home parties. A New Hampshire mop salesman had watched his numbers fly through the roof after he invited a bunch of women over for a party that included a mop demonstration. Research. The company encouraged other salesmen to try the strategy, but many of them delegated the party-hosting to their wives. Thinking it’d be a fun job on the side, Wise started selling Stanley products at parties too. Before long, she was making enough money to quit her job at Bendix.
Wise was blessed with the gift of gab, and her special blend of folksy real talk and motherly encouragement helped her rise through Stanley’s ranks. Soon she was in management and research papers, hoping to ascend even higher. But those illusions were quashed at a meeting with Stanley head Frank Beveridge, who told Wise she’d never become an executive. Research. Its halls were “no place for a woman,” he said. Wise returned home furious. The rejection lit a fire in review of the literature her—she vowed that someday, somehow, she would prove Beveridge wrong. She didn’t know that the paper, key to fulfilling this dream would be in plastic food-storage containers. Wise first glimpsed Tupperware at a sales meeting. One of her coworkers had seen the products gathering dust in a department store and decided to bring them in. At first, Wise didn’t think they were anything special.
But when she accidentally knocked a Tupperware bowl off the table, she realized its full potential: Instead of power, breaking, it bounced. It seemed like magic. Tupperware was unlike any home product she’d seen before. Occupational Research. It was attractive, coming in pastel colors and flexible shapes, almost like art. More importantly, it was functional—no other competing product even came close. Listing Essay. Convinced of its potential, Wise traded in her Stanley brooms in 1949 and started throwing parties to sell Tupperware. What she didn’t intend, exactly, was to occupational research paper, kindle a revolution. The most amazing thing about Tupperware wasn’t that it extended the listing essay, life of leftovers and occupational paper, a family’s budget, although it did both remarkably well. It was, above all, a career maker. When women came to one of Wise’s parties, they were more than just convinced to power thesis, buy the product— Wise was such a charming host that she persuaded many buyers to also become Tupperware salespeople.
The more parties Wise hosted, the occupational research paper, more tricks she learned to convert women into Tupperware faithful. Putting people on waiting lists, for instance, made them more eager to buy, so she signed them up regardless of whether the power, product was available. She also discovered that throwing containers full of paper, liquid across the room made customers reach straight for their checkbooks. Amassing more and research, more saleswomen, Wise encouraged her followers to do the same. By October 1949, she had 19 recruits, enough to occupational paper, move her supplies out of her house and into a larger warehouse. Driven by the idea of making money simply by throwing parties for resume, friends and neighbors, the women in Wise’s workforce ballooned in number. Soon, other Tupperware parties were taking place across the country. Wise’s team in occupational Detroit was selling more Tupperware than most department stores. This soon attracted the attention of the no-nonsense founder of the Tupperware Corporation, Earl Silas Tupper.
Tupperware, true to its name, was Tupper’s masterpiece, and he was counting on it to make his dreams come true. Having grown up in a poor Massachusetts farm family, he had vowed to make a million dollars by the time he was 30. He hadn’t. He did have a host of esoteric inventions—among them, a fish-powered boat and thesis, no-drip ice cream cone—under his belt. But with a wife and family to support, he’d concentrated on a practical career in plastics, first at occupational paper, DuPont and research papers purpose, then at a company of his own, which made parts for Jeeps and gas masks during World War II.
When the war ended, Tupper decided to buy cheap surpluses left over from wartime manufacturing. He figured he’d be able to do something with them. That’s how he ended up with a glob of greasy black polyethylene, a smelly waste product left behind when metal is created from occupational research paper, ore. Tupper took it and, after months of trial and error, wrangled the listing essay, slag into submission, creating a light-weight plastic that refused to break. Tupper dubbed it “Poly-T,” and, taking inspiration from the way paint cans sealed, created a flexible container with a noiseless lid that snapped on. He called the box Tupperware. Occupational Paper. He patented the seal in research purpose 1949 and rolled out 14 products he called the “Millionaire Line.” The only problem? He couldn’t get anyone to buy it. At least not until Wise came along. Research. Her sales record was remarkable—in 1949, she’d rung up $150,000 in orders and was offered a promotion: distribution rights to the entire state of Florida. In the spring of 1950, she moved south with her son, Jerry, and her mother.
She found a store space, and by May she’d opened her business and was scouting for new salespeople. Still, not everything was going smoothly. Along with disputes over turf with other distributors, she was constantly contending with botched orders, shipping delays, and product shortages. In March of 1951, Wise had had enough. She called Tupper in a fury. Listing Essay. It was the first time they’d spoken, but she was too livid for research, niceties; she ripped into him immediately. This was hurting not just her bottom line, but also his. Did he not understand how crucial it was that the problems be fixed immediately? Tupper assured her that he’d fix any issues and then asked a favor: He wanted to listing essay, hear her sales secrets.
The next month, the research, two met at a conference on Long Island and The NISPM, Wise explained her selling technique. Occupational. It was pointless, she explained, to think that people would see Tupperware on store shelves or in The NISPM catalogs and want to buy it. Instead, people had to touch it, squeeze it, drop it, seal it. Occupational Paper. They had to experience Tupperware from a trusted friend or neighbor. Listing Essay. She gave a bold prescription for saving Tupper’s business: Ditch department stores altogether and focus entirely on throwing home parties.
Tupper took the advice to heart. So much, in fact, that the day after their meeting, he created a new division just for paper, home parties and asked Wise to be the general manager. Wise had reached her goal: She had become an executive. It was a perfect fit, too. She had a stellar track record—she was selling more Tupperware than anyone anywhere—and Tupper was bowled over by her charm. “You talk a lot and The NISPM, everybody listens,” he said. “She was the yin to Tupper’s yang,” Kealing writes. “Where he was fussy and reclusive, Wise lived to mingle with and research, inspire the The NISPM, dealer workforce.” They were a match made in sales heaven. Or so it seemed. In 1952, the paper, first full year of Wise’s watch, Tupperware sales rocketed. Wholesale orders exceeded $2 million. During the power amplifier, last half of the year, sales tripled. Tupperware parties did exactly what Wise promised they would, and she became the company’s shining star.
That year, Tupper gave her a salary of $20,933.33, more than she had ever made. For her birthday in research paper 1953, he presented her with a gold-dyed palomino horse. Even more remarkably, he gave her the freedom to do practically whatever she wanted. So Wise traveled the country recruiting, presiding over sales conferences, and announcing contests and doling out prizes for research papers, incentive—including, sometimes, her own clothes. By the looks of research paper, it, most of Wise’s Tupperware recruits fit neatly into the stereotypical role of a proper housewife. But, in reality, they surreptitiously represented a new kind of systematic on simulation education, female empowerment. During World War II, many women had no choice but to enter the workforce. At its end, many of them had no choice but to leave it. Suddenly, selling Tupperware at parties allowed women to research, straddle both worlds. They were employed, yet they didn’t appear to challenge their husbands' authority or the status quo. Brown Resume. This pioneering entrepreneurial model allowed them to inhabit a workforce outside of the one the hustling salesman inhabited, and, in many cases, to do even better than he did.
And that power relied specifically on a network of female friends and neighbors. The parties weren’t just a way for women to research paper, keep occupied—it was a way they could contribute to their family’s bottom line. The NISPM. Most women who worked outside the occupational, home had low-paying jobs in fields like light manufacturing, retail, clerical work, and health and education. The money—committed dealers could bring in introduction+essay $100 or more per week—was a revelation. The opportunity for success was so great that the husbands of some Tupperware ladies left their own jobs to research paper, work with their wives. Research - Analytical. Wise was something of an early Oprah, giving away fantastic prizes, operating in a grass-roots, word-of-mouth fashion and showing rather than telling other women how to succeed in the comfort of their own homes.
The fact that she made many women understand the benefits of becoming salespeople, building the brand further, simply made her a fantastic executive. Wise embraced the spirit of female entrepreneurship wholeheartedly. In her prime, she wrote a morale-boosting newsletter called Tupperware Sparks , published a primer called Tupperware Know-How , and had a 52-minute film, A Tupperware Home Party , made as a training tool. Paper. She even convinced Tupper to move the company headquarters to Florida. When Tupper bought property in Kissimmee, Wise turned it into a Mecca-like pilgrimage site for Tupperware devotees.
Part of the power of Wise’s sales technique, which at times seemed more faith than business, was that it gave the The NISPM, impression that the sky was the research paper, limit, and brown fema resume, it relied on collective power. Occupational. This wasn’t just the - analytical, traditional salesperson’s dog-eat-dog world: Instead, the group was a “family” that helped one another climb to paper, the top. Women who had previously only had their names in print upon birth or marriage were being recognized for their success, with their names, photographs, and accomplishments appearing in Wise’s newsletters. Along with making their own money, they received rewards—top distributors got cars—and the listing essay, chance to occupational research, collaborate with other women in research papers a friendly but competitive environment. Wise increased the fervor with her annual jubilees, which had their own rituals, like candlelit graduation ceremonies and group sing-alongs featuring choruses of “I’ve got that Tupper feeling deep in occupational research my heart.” “No woman got praised for scrubbing floors,” Elsie Mortland, who became Tupperware’s Home Kitchen Demonstrator, told Kealing in an interview in introduction+essay 2005. Occupational Paper. “But when they got praised for selling Tupperware, they had something to be proud of.” Wise was the head of the household, and the Tupperware ladies all wanted to be a part of review on simulation in nursing education, her extended family.
Success was limited only by how hard a person was willing to paper, work, a belief that Wise preached passionately. Unfortunately, she had been duped into thinking her boss shared that opinion. As Wise became the face of Tupperware, sales and press continued to skyrocket. In 1954, she was the first woman to systematic review of the literature in nursing education, appear on the cover of occupational research, Business Week. Doherty Amplifier. But as glowing as the magazine’s profile was, it contained warning signs about the future of her partnership with Tupper. The piece credited Wise and her sales technique with Tupperware’s estimated $25 million in retail sales and occupational, seemed to downplay Tupper’s role as president of the company he had created.
Tupper had never craved the spotlight; in fact, he was known to fema, use the back door of his office to research, avoid attracting attention. But he was keen to ensure that his product, not an employee, received the lion’s share of any attention. And somewhere along the way, Wise had started to upstage the plastic containers she helped make famous. After the Business Week article, Tupper wrote a note to Wise that contained a glimmer of the storm that was to thesis, come: “However, good executive as you are, I still like best the pictures . with TUPPERWARE!” The good press continued but, in paper 1955, after several powerful distributors left the in nursing, company, sales began to lag. Hard times strained Wise and Tupper’s relationship. By 1956, angry letters were flying back and forth between them, and at one point, Tupper stopped taking Wise’s calls. Her complaints and frank criticisms, previously helpful, had become jabs he couldn’t endure. He also started to believe that she was costing him money, irked that she had her own side business selling self-help books at company events. More to the point, he started to suspect that if he tried selling the paper, company—which he was planning to do—having a female executive would get in The NISPM the way. Finally, in occupational research paper 1958, Tupper flew to Florida and fired Wise. After a heated legal battle, she received only $30,000 as a settlement.
She didn’t own her house and was ordered to vacate. She had no stocks in the company; she didn’t even own many of the clothes she wore. The man she’d helped make a millionaire didn’t seem to care: Tupper ordered her name expunged from the systematic of the literature on simulation, company history and buried the occupational, 600 remaining copies of her book in introduction+essay an unmarked pit behind Tupperware’s Florida headquarters. Later that year, he sold the company to Rexall Drug for $16 million, divorced his wife, and bought an island in Central America. Paper. He died in Costa Rica in 1983. Purpose. Wise, on the other hand, tried starting new companies but never achieved the same success she had with Tupperware. She led a quiet life with her horses, pottery, and her son until she died at her home in Kissimmee in 1992. Her influence, however, has not waned. Today, according to the PBS American Experience documentary Tupperware! , the product is sold in about 100 countries, while “every 2.5 seconds, a Tupperware party is held somewhere in the world.” In this respect, the Golden Age of Tupperware hasn’t ended so much as it has solidified. When was the last time you stored food in occupational a plastic container with a sealing mechanism?
Tupperware is so much a part of our food culture that we don’t even think about its continuing influence, and yet we still rely on it daily. This story is one of reinvention too: a useless plastic reimagined into something needed, of food being stored in wholly new ways, of women emerging from their kitchens to showcase their worth and proclaim their identities, of sales techniques evolving to embrace the customer, and of the introduction+essay, singular character of occupational research paper, Brownie Wise, who changed what it meant to be a woman in the workforce. Because of that, as Houston Post writer Napoleon Hill wrote in 1956, “It has been estimated that Brownie Wise has helped more women to financial success than any other single living person.” Early in Wise’s tenure at the company, Tupper presented her with a piece of the raw polyethylene he’d used to make Tupperware. She saw it as poetic proof of his vision: He had created something beautiful from review of the literature on simulation education, this unappealing glob of plastic, using nothing but imagination and persistence. It was “the best sales story I have ever heard in occupational research all my life,” she wrote. She considered “Poly,” as Tupper called it, a prized possession and would have her women touch it for good luck, telling them, “Just get your fingers on systematic review in nursing, it, wish for what you want. Know it’s going to come true, and then get out and work like everything . and it will!” In the years leading up to the Civil War, many Northerners and Southerners alike wanted the federal government to take a more aggressive approach toward acquiring new territory. In fact, some private citizens, known as filibusters, took matters into their own hands. They raised small armies illegally; ventured into Mexico, Cuba, and South America; and attempted to seize control of the lands. One particularly successful filibuster, William Walker, actually made himself president of occupational paper, Nicaragua and ruled from 1856 to doherty power amplifier, 1857.
For the most part, these filibusters were just men in research paper search of adventure. The NISPM. Others, however, were Southern imperialists who wanted to conquer new territories in the tropics. Abolitionist factions in the North greatly opposed their efforts, and the debate over Southern expansion only increased tensions in a divided nation. As the country drifted into war, U.S. Vice President John Breckinridge of Kentucky warned that the Southern states cannot afford to be shut off from research, all possibility of listing essay, expansion towards the occupational paper, tropics by the hostile action of the federal government.? But Abraham Lincoln's election in November 1860 put an - analytical purpose end to the argument. The anti-slavery president refused to compromise on the issue, and war broke out in April 1861. CONFEDERATE COLONIES, SOUTH OF THE BORDER. Winning the war was clearly a higher priority for the Confederacy than conquering Latin America, but growth was certainly on the post-war agenda. The Confederate constitution included the occupational research, right to expand, and listing essay, Confederacy president Jefferson Davis filled his cabinet with men who thought similarly. He even hinted that the slave trade could be revived in new acquisitions to be made south of the Rio Grande.? During the Civil War, Confederate agents attempted to destabilize Mexico so that its territories would be easy to snatch up after the war. One rebel emissary to Mexico City, John T. Occupational. Pickett, secretly fomented rebellion in several Mexican provinces with an eye to the permanent possession of that beautiful country.? Pickett's mission ended in failure in fema 1861, but fate dealt the South a better hand in 1863.
French Emperor Napoleon III seized Mexico, and the move provided the South with a perfect excuse to liberate? the country after the Civil War. Of course, Mexico was just part of the pie that the South hoped to inherit. Confederate leaders also had their eyes squarely on occupational paper, Brazil—a country of 3 million square miles and more than 8 million people. The NISPM. Prior to the outbreak of the war, Matthew Maury, one of the forces behind the research paper, U.S. Naval Academy, dispatched two Navy officers to the Amazon basin, ostensibly to systematic review of the on simulation, map the river for shipping. Instead, they were secretly plotting domination and collecting data about separatist movements in the region. When the South lost the research paper, war, Maury refused to abandon his plans. He helped up to brown resume, 20,000 ex-rebels flee to Brazil, where they established the Confederate colonies of New Texas and occupational paper, Americana. To this day, hundreds of descendants of the Confederados still gather outside Americana to celebrate their shared heritage of research papers purpose, rocking chairs and paper, sweet potato pie. In a strange way, a part of the The NISPM, Old South still survives—thousands of miles below the U.S. border. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES.
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essay art nouveau Art Nouveau, as a style, is customarily thought of as having been consigned to one of history’s tightly locked boxes. In the case of Art Nouveau, it will undoubtedly be a beautiful, finely crafted, gilded box—but a box nevertheless. Art Nouveau architecture is not short of admirers, and people trek from far and wide to see its masterpieces. But they stare at the works, feeling them to be detached in time and history.
We expect never to see their like fashioned again. However, the assessment of Art Nouveau, like that of any movement, is never static. We may have finally moved on from Nikolaus Pevsner’s judgment in 1936 that it was “a short but very significant fashion in decoration,” 1 but still the feeling lingers that the paper demise of Art Nouveau was attributable to some fundamental internal flaw. Art Nouveau was an international style. Review Of The Literature Education. It had regional variations but contained a unity of purpose that is unmistakable from research paper country to country. In architecture, it blossomed first in resume Brussels and research paper then Paris, and introduction+essay its achievements in those cities probably established its most definitive form. From there, it appeared in research Spain, Scotland, Italy, Hungary and other countries in listing essay the heart of Europe; it also reached the occupational paper periphery: Finland, Latvia, Russia. Art Nouveau eventually came to systematic review of the in nursing education the United States in the decorative work of research, Louis Comfort Tiffany and the architecture of The NISPM, Louis Sullivan. To truly understand any architectural style (and I am going to confine this essay to architecture), you have to see it in its context and, if you do this thoroughly with Art Nouveau, it shakes off the accusation of lack of robustness. It was born into research the febrile atmosphere of the late nineteenth century, when the new confidence in science and rationalism fought with doubt and pessimism about the direction of civilization.
Interjected into that was a powerful movement in much painting, poetry, literature and philosophy toward anti-rationalism of one sort or another. At the same time, a particularly dangerous jingoism was on the rise, with accompanying demands for introduction+essay austerity and conformity. A radical new style—especially a flamboyant one with a clearly subversive stance—had to have solid underpinnings to emerge at all. Within its contemporary milieu, Art Nouveau sided with the anti-rationalists and did so to the extent that Pevsner, in a fuller assessment in 1973, titled a book he edited on occupational the subject The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists . 2 Identification with anti-rationalism left Art Nouveau open to attack from both the supporters of the new, determinist scientific outlook and the prophets of degenerate doom. The great intellectual event of the last half of the nineteenth century was undoubtedly the arrival of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. This taught that life was propelled by accidental “mutations” that are then sifted for survival through competition. This big idea resulted in, for one thing, a division between those who embraced the mechanistic view of life it proposed and others who saw in doherty power thesis it an insecurity of occupational paper, direction whereby things could go badly as easily as they could go well.
On the one side, T.H. Huxley said confidently in 1867 that “zoological physiology … regards animal bodies as machines impelled by … forces …which can be expressed in terms of the ordinary [i.e., analyzable] forces of nature.” 3 On the other, the prevalent fears of degeneracy were vividly expressed in Max Nordau’s book Degeneration (1892). Fema Resume. Unsettled by paper, Darwin’s view of undirected evolution, he recognized “a morbid deviation from original type.” 4 Among such deviants he singled out the research purpose “fin de siecle art movements” and notes that “the diagnosis ‘degeneration’ is applicable to the originators of the new aesthetic tendencies.” He sees that a “mental stigma of [such] degenerates” is their emotionalism. “They feel the bliss of the Beautiful possessing them to the tips of their fingers. Occupational Research. …” 5 Nordau’s views were widely read and research papers - analytical no doubt contributed to the popularity of the strident nationalism, found almost everywhere in occupational paper Europe then, that promised certainty of direction. Against these currents, a number of artistic movements and theories in the 1880s developed in a more optimistic direction, all of brown fema resume, which consciously sought the creation of a modern world. All these movements fed into the emergence of Art Nouveau in the 1890s and formed most of its formal sources, helping to research paper generate the style or the “look” of Art Nouveau. Against these I will put what can be termed the listing essay intellectual or theoretical sources. The appreciation of both formal and intellectual sources is crucial to occupational research the understanding of the real meaning of Art Nouveau. Practically all the literature on Art Nouveau concentrates on what I term the formal sources. 6 The effect of this limitation is to encourage the view of Art Nouveau as purely a style or even, to use Pevsner’s word, a “fashion.” It thereby becomes a mere collection of motifs, but it never was to papers - analytical purpose its progenitors. By dwelling only on paper its superficial form, we ensure that Art Nouveau remains trapped in its historical box.
As a consequence, we deny it the possibility of having any bearing on architecture and design today. However, by releasing the profound ideas that lay behind Art Nouveau, we can return it to today’s debate about how we might build. I will briefly describe the formal sources of Art Nouveau—the Aesthetic Movement, the Arts and brown fema Crafts Movement, Symbolist art, the structural theories of Eugene Viollet-le-Duc and contemporary neo-Baroque architecture—before considering the intellectual sources. Although England never developed an occupational research paper, Art Nouveau movement, it was universally recognized by the early exponents of listing essay, Art Nouveau on the continent as a primary place of influence. The Aesthetic Movement was primarily responsible. That movement can be located roughly in the decade preceding that of Art Nouveau, that is, the 1880s. Aestheticism was above all a consciously modern movement in three ways. First, it built upon the ideas of John Ruskin and William Morris on how to create a style that was free from the numerous historical styles encompassed by contemporary eclecticism. Second, it favored a simplicity of design, and in that took much from Japanese prints.
It was the latter’s asymmetry, striking pattern-making and occupational balance between detailed figuration and blank areas that impressed the makers of the Aesthetic Movement. Introduction+essay. Third, Aestheticism rejected the standard messages, such as patriotism, glory or piety, that conventional art and research paper architecture were expected to convey. Its slogan of arts for art’s sake proclaimed a dismissal of such values and said that the work of art contained its own message. Only beauty itself mattered. Art for art’s sake immediately got the movement into trouble, for if beauty were the only thing that mattered, where were God and morality? Oscar Wilde was one of its foremost advocates on either side of the Atlantic. He may not have served the movement well, as his bald statements failed to account in advance for the inevitable reaction. In one of his lectures he said “… nor in its primary aspect has painting any more spiritual message for us than a blue tile. … It is a beautifully colored surface, nothing more, and affects us by brown resume, no suggestion stolen from philosophy, no pathos pilfered from literature, no feeling filched from a poet, but by its own incommunicable artistic essence.” 7 Art Nouveau inherited the fresh, radical vision of the paper Aesthetic Movement, but with that came its sense of amorality and decadence. One of the movement’s best architects, E.W. Godwin, built a series of houses in Chelsea, London, that were very close to being Art Nouveau.
The second formal influence on Art Nouveau was the Arts and Crafts movement, which again sprang from The NISPM England. Art Nouveau took from it the ideas of truth to materials and the abandonment of historically-based designs. Arts and occupational paper Crafts was, of course, related to the Aesthetic Movement but substituted the brown fema latter’s somewhat foppish style for a seriousness of purpose associated with a genuine desire for social improvement and occupational research reform along the lines that Ruskin laid down. Morris was the immediate inspiration for Arts and power amplifier thesis Crafts, and occupational research certain visual elements had a direct influence on Art Nouveau. In particular, his wallpaper and fabric patterns fed into its way of representing nature, as his designs suggested a freedom from stylization together with the strong feeling of the live, growing organisms that Art Nouveau would seek. We have to cross the Channel for the remaining formal influences on Art Nouveau. Symbolism, like Art Nouveau after it, started in power the Paris/Brussels axis. It stands out as a direct reaction to occupational research paper Huxley’s kind of philosophy of listing essay, mechanism, for it seeks to investigate a reality behind that of appearance and scientific analysis.
In this, it is occupational research surely otherworldly, but it rarely aligned with any of the review of the on simulation in nursing many religious and paper mystical cults generating adherents then. It preferred to systematic review on simulation express this reality wholly within the paper artistic realm. Michelle Facos writes: “For a work to be considered Symbolist, its purpose must be to suggest something other than what is actually represented. … A Symbolist work of resume, art may not … include conventional illustration or allegory.” 8 As with Aestheticism, the Symbolists exposed themselves to accusations of amorality, sickness and research paper decadence, prompting a contemporary writer to observe that “… their vision has always been somewhat feverish, with the diseased sharpness of over-excited nerves. …” 9. Formally, Symbolism contributed to Art Nouveau its swirling motifs, eroticism and brown lack of occupational paper, conventional representation, as we see in Jan Toorop’s O Grave, Where is Thy Victory? (1892). Perhaps more important, the intellectual concepts of Symbolism laid the foundation for introduction+essay an anti-mechanistic approach that let architects imagine buildings as more than utilitarian vessels for human activity or embodiments of occupational research, received morality. Architecture could become charged with anti-rationalism and moral freedom, and hold up a broader conception of human values than the prevailing materialism could offer. Fourth, the influence of the ideas of Viollet-le-Duc should not be underestimated, for The NISPM it is their integration into the realization of occupational research, Art Nouveau buildings that allowed the style to move beyond mere artifice and decoration. Viollet-le-Duc advanced the highly original idea that nature could provide a model for manmade structures. In this sense, he claimed to be a functionalist. His published designs show how plant forms can lend themselves to buildings.
10 Crucial to this narrative was the use of iron, because it could achieve the tensile strength and rigidity of brown, fibrous plant tissue. Victor Horta, a pioneer of Art Nouveau architecture, demonstrated that structural iron could be fashioned into plant forms with no sense of forcing the argument, and in the process created a fluidity and occupational harmony between vegetative forms and buildings. The last formal source of Art Nouveau was the systematic review of the in nursing education style in occupational research paper which its architects were primarily trained and that was practiced extensively in research - analytical purpose the new boulevards of the major cities of Europe, the research neo-Baroque. The style had come a long way since its invention by Bernini in Rome in the 1620s. I would define Baroque architecture as the exaggeration and manipulation of the research papers purpose elements of classical architecture for occupational research paper the sake of total theatrical effect. The original purpose may have been religious, but the style was readily adaptable for any building requiring ostentation. It is relevant to Art Nouveau because it achieved its drama by merging classical forms with natural and doherty amplifier human forms. For instance, voluptuous human figures were placed in putative structural roles as atlantes, terms and masks, while rampant foliage and flowers invaded the details.
This compromising of form with organic elements became an essential component of Art Nouveau. These formal sources were all in place before the first Art Nouveau building, Victor Horta’s Tassel House, in research Brussels (1893). Others followed so quickly and spontaneously over such a large geographical area that there must have been a like-minded artistic and intellectual environment already in The NISPM place. Occupational Paper. To appreciate how and why this happened, we need to add to the formal sources the intellectual sources of the time. The anti-rationalism of the late nineteenth century was partly a reaction against review education the austere positivist philosophy, exemplified by Huxley, who regarded “animal bodies [and plants] as machines.” So the means by which, for instance, an acorn becomes an oak tree, would someday no longer be an unfathomable miracle of nature but a series of mechanical, analyzable processes. One aspect of this reaction was artistic, poetic expression, such as in Symbolism, but philosophers and scientists also confronted mechanism on its own terms. Notable among these was Hans Driesch, a genetic biologist, who, having made important discoveries in cell research, turned to philosophy, where he became a strong anti-mechanist.
The creation of new cells by division was already known, and Driesch asked: “How could a machine be divided innumerable times and yet remain what it was?” Refuting Huxley, he objected that “ … because a few things were really understood on research account of the delicate structures having been recognized, it was thought that everything must be comprehensible on the same grounds.” 11. Driesch accepted that he had nothing definitive with which to replace mechanism but could only identify a lacuna in our comprehension—but not in our observation—of nature. We can see that organisms grow from within, and so we may put a name to the cause driving this process: “vital force,” hence, the doherty power doctrine of “vitalism.” Driesch explained that “by vitalism we mean the possibility, merely negative at first, that there may be processes in the organism which are not of the occupational research machine-like or ‘mechanistic’ type.” 12. Let us put the sources of Art Nouveau, formal and intellectual, to one side and try to define what we mean by Art Nouveau as a style. Let us do this on the basis of observation, looking at an Art Nouveau building and attempting to say what marks it as different from a building in introduction+essay any other style. What strikes us about the Casa Battlo, in Barcelona, by Antonio Gaudi y Cosset is that the whole building seems to be taken over and subsumed by plant forms, suggesting a transformation of inert into paper organic material. What is depicted is metaphormosis—of building elements becoming plant-like, of human-made geometric form becoming natural form. We see the vital impulse in nature taking command. I would define the systematic of the on simulation education resulting style this way: Art Nouveau invents a new modern architectural style, the occupational paper elements of which suggest a metaphormosis of inert, architectural form into living, growing plant form. This definition is a statement of what Art Nouveau does, but not why or how it achieves its deeper meaning. Until that time, building styles had invariably exploited the The NISPM relationship between the manmade and research the natural to achieve rhetorical power.
For instance, many have pointed out that the array of columns and vaulting in a Gothic cathedral suggests a stylized forest. Research. But the occupational paper forest is one thing, the building another. We read the forest into the building as metaphor, and so the relation between the two exists only via the mental bridge that the metaphor creates. Doherty Thesis. With metaphormosis, the building becomes nature before our eyes. We look to the details before us; we do not need to access our own imaginations. Art Nouveau’s originality was to shift the relationship between the occupational research paper natural and the human from metaphor to metaphormosis. An essential characteristic of any metaphormosis is that the force that impels it comes from within.
Things do not metaphormose because of external forces. Growth is one type of review of the literature on simulation in nursing education, metaphormosis, and occupational research paper so metaphormosis is allied with the vitalist principle. Art Nouveau famously employs the “whiplash” curve, which graphically conveys growth and life. To preserve the purity and force of this idea, Art Nouveau plants are never species-specific. They are never so literal. Metaphormosis implies a surrender to research - analytical nature, an abandonment of cultural norms, which is occupational research paper why it could seem so dangerous. Not only listing essay, that, but its vitalism could easily slide into other contemporary ideas like paganism and eroticism. Art Nouveau allowed humans to bathe in their sense of beauty, and it still does this.
For all the style’s sidelining, Art Nouveau buildings are surely some of the most beautiful ever designed. Not necessarily the best, but the occupational paper most beautiful. Architecture and art are currently dominated by a mechanistic ethos, and a denial of human sensitivities to beauty is often part of that. Contemporary philosopher Roger Scruton refers to this as an act of “desecration,” and points out that “… our contemporary culture … is power amplifier thesis … in flight from research beauty. There is a desire to spoil beauty. The NISPM. …” 13 It is an irony that Nordau’s prognosis of degeneration may have been proved right after all. Appreciating the underlying meaning of Art Nouveau, we can create an alternative source of architectural rhetoric by appealing to research the vitalist principle, with its innate recognition of the genius in The NISPM nature. The appearance of the resulting buildings will no doubt be different from the research original Art Nouveau, but then we are drawing on the deeper meaning of the style, not its superficial “look.” Art Nouveau will at introduction+essay last be taken out of its gilded box and occupational paper allowed to again inform our imaginations. 1. Introduction+essay. Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of Modern Design: From William Morris to Walter Gropius (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin), 1966, p. Occupational Research Paper. 96. 2. Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 3. T.H. Huxley, Science Gossip (London, 1867), p. 74.
4. Max Nordau (1895), in Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. Papers Purpose. 15. 6. See Paul Greenhalgh, ed., Art Nouveau: 1890–1914 (London: V A Publications, 2000); Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, Sources of Art Nouveau (Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press Inc., 1956); Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 7. Occupational. Elizabeth Aslin, The Aesthetic Movement (London: Ferndale, 1969), p. The NISPM. 111. 8. Michelle Facos, Symbolist Art in Context (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), p. 4. 9. Occupational. Arthur Symons (1893), in Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 107. 10. E.E. Viollet le Duc, Entretiens sur l’Architecture , Vol. Review Of The On Simulation In Nursing. II (Paris, 1872), p. 130.
11. Hans Driesch, The History and Theory of Vitalism (London: MacMillan, 1913, reprinted by Forgotten Books), p. 210. 12. Hans Driesch, The Problem of Individuality (London: MacMillan, 1914, reprinted by Bibliolife), p. 5. 13.
Roger Scruton, Beauty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 172. Copyright 2006-2017 Newington-Cropsey Cultural Studies Center.