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How to write a thesis (Bachelor, Master, or PhD) and which software tools to use. Available translations: Chinese (thanks to Chen Feng) | Portuguese (thanks to Marcelo Cruz dos Santos) | Russian (thanks to ethics, Sergey Loy) Writing a thesis is a complex task. You need to find related literature, take notes, draft the thesis, and eventually write the final document and create the bibliography. Many books explain how to perform a literature survey and with, how to ethics question, write scholarly literature in general and a thesis in particular (e.g. In this tutorial, we present a new method to reviewing scholarly literature and hydrothermal chemosynthesis, drafting a thesis using mind mapping software, PDF readers, and reference managers.
This tutorial focuses on writing a PhD thesis. However, the presented methods are likewise applicable to planning and writing a bachelor thesis or master thesis. This tutorial is special, because it integrates the essay, management of PDF files, the relevant content in PDFs (bookmarks), and essay for ibsat, references with mind mapping and word processing software. To make the tutorial better understandable, we provide many examples in essay, which we assume that you want to write a PhD thesis about academic search engines. Please note that. All tools recommended in on ap english exam, this tutorial are free and open source (except Microsoft Word) All tools presented in this tutorial are based on Java and run on ethics, Windows, Linux and MacOS (again, except Microsoft Word) All tools used in this tutorial may be substituted: Docear may be substituted with FreeMind, MindManager, XMIND and most other mind mapping tools allowing to essay for ibsat, link PDF files Foxit Reader may be substituted with Adobe Acrobat Reader or PDF XChange Viewer. JabRef may be substituted with any other reference manager supporting BibTeX, e.g. BibDesk, Referencer and Mendeley Microsoft Word may be substituted with OpenOffice, LaTeX or any other word processor that supports BibTeX out essay of the 3 types of essays, box or through plugins. As a bachelor or master student, completing your senior thesis will dominate your life for months. As a PhD student, you will spend years on compiling your PhD thesis.
We highly recommend reading this and other tutorials to ethics essay, find the process that works best for you to organize your literature, to manage your references, and to sample french, write your thesis. Spending a few hours now will save you days, if not weeks later. This tutorial will be updated from time to time to consider the latest features of the tools presented here. Last update of essay, this tutorial: November 2013. This tutorial is vents, divided into three parts. The first part explains how to manage literature.
The second part shows how to draft a thesis. Essay Question. The final part covers how to write a thesis, which includes the statement begins with in this essay i will, management of references and the creation of the bibliography. Before we start, we present some user feedback for our software Docear and this tutorial. We hope it motivates you to complete the entire tutorial :-). You have read my mind.
You have put into practice what I could envisage yet not even come close to ethics essay, develop. You are helping to tackle the biggest obstacle to my research. I really like SciPlore’s approach. Connecting papers through a mindmap is genious! I’m in the middle of my PhD and was becoming overwhelmed with the amount of hydrothermal vents, information I need to manage. Ethics Essay Question. Nothing else was really cutting it for me and I stumbled on Sciplore. Great software! Trying to get my adviser and yang ye waterloo thesis, all the graduate students in our lab to start using SciPlore. Keep up the efforts! I very much enjoyed using Sciplore and was very impressed by its performance and options. Congratulations on question, a great time saver and program to make PDF Bookmarks useful.
I’d like to thank you for the great work you’re doing. Thank you very much for the excellent software. SciPlore has helped me organise my notes and research while undertaking my Masters degree. I was greatly surprised to find SciPlore, and it seemed to be exactly what I needed for my work. Just wanted to say that SciPlore is a wonderful program. I use it to organize my thoughts and my research.
Can’t wait to see what’s coming! Thanks for resume making SciPlore! You may also want to check out this video of Docear, which gives an overview of the great features Docear offers for managing your academic literature. Keeping track of related work in your field is key to writing a good thesis, especially for ethics essay question writing a good PhD thesis. This tasks entails knowing about the relevant studies, results, facts, and ideas in your field. Keep in mind that by the end of your literature review for sample french essay your PhD thesis you will have read or at question, least skimmed through hundreds of papers and essay for ibsat, books. Ethics Question. Without using tools, you must be a genius to remember every interesting fact and idea you have read. Statement In This. Before the computer-age, academics relied on ethics, index cards, (post it) notes, highlighting pens, indices, etc. With computers, and essay, especially mind mapping software, new possibilities evolved. In this part of the tutorial we explain how use academic search engines to find relevant literature. Then we show you how to create summaries of your PDFs using bookmarks and how to keep an overview of essay, all important information in a mind map.
By the end of this part, your mind map will contain literally all information that you have considered to be important. Essay. Whenever you want to know something, you can look it up in your mind map, and read about it in more detail by clicking on the link to the PDF. Searching for (Electronic) Literature. Knowing what others have done in your field of research is a prerequisite for any thesis. But how to find this related work? Due to ethics essay, computers and the internet, searching for vents chemosynthesis literature has changed dramatically over the last years. Essay. Instead of using library catalogs, students can use full text search offered by essay for ibsat academic search engines and databases such as Google Scholar and ethics essay question, ACM Digital Library.
In addition, academic search engines usually offer sophisticated ranking algorithms that help in finding the most relevant documents [10-12]. Dozens of 3 types of essays, academic search engines exist. Ethics Essay Question. Some focus on specific disciplines such as computer science, while others try to ye waterloo thesis, cover several or even all academic disciplines. For computer science, popular academic databases include Springerlink, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect and to some extent Emerald Insight (Wikipedia provides you with an extensive list of essay, available resources). All these databases require a subscription to access their content. If you are lucky, your institution has an essay for ibsat agreement that allows you to access some or all of these databases for free.
Ask your supervisor or the staff in your institution’s library about which databases you can access. Free alternatives to commercial literature databases include CiteSeer, SciPlore’s collection, which is accessible through Docear. Often, but not always, Google Scholar provides a free download link to articles in ethics, its listings. In this tutorial we will focus solely on the management of electronic literature. Storing Documents in a Folder Structure. Most academic search engines and databases offer to download scholarly literature as PDFs. The simplest way to store (and retrieve) these PDFs is by resume for reception organizing the PDFs in ethics essay, a reasonably structured folder system.
Each PDF can be stored in one folder labeled with an yang appropriate descriptor. Assigning meaningful file names, such as the article’s title, to PDFs is ethics, generally helpful. Resume. If one document falls into question two or more categories, most operating systems allow creating a shortcut or alias for sample essay a file (see picture). Some users consider this approach as being too structured and ethics question, prefer tagging instead. Possibility: Save PDFs relevant to your thesis in different folders. Tagging allows assigning multiple keywords (tags) to a file independent of the file’s physical storage location. Based on these tags, users can retrieve the files from their hard drive. Essay. Popular desktop tagging tools include Tag2Find, iTag, and Punakea. There are also services that allow online tagging and storage of academic articles, e.g., CiteULike or Bibsonomy. However, the approach we present in this tutorial focuses on desktop tools and, more importantly, neither folder structures, nor tags are necessary . Of course, a good folder structure never hurts, but it is not a requirement.
Especially at the beginning of a PhD, you should use academic search engines to ethics, search for the most relevant keywords in essay for ibsat, your field and store any paper you get on ethics essay question, your hard drive. Essay For Ibsat. If you wanted to do a PhD about academic search engines, starting you research by searching information about Google Scholar, one of the leading academic search engines, might be useful. Essay Question. Let’s assume you have found a hand full of interesting PDFs and stored them in c:literature Don’t spend too much time on judging the a good in this, relevance of a PDF. If the title or abstract sound interesting, store it. Your first PDFs for writing a thesis. Keeping Track of ethics question, Important Information in PDFs. What you really need to know as a researcher is: Where have I read certain information?
Information for which you forgot the origin is worthless or even harmful for your thesis, because you may inadvertently plagiarize if you present certain information without proper attribution. You will have to reference the origin of information taken from other sources, ideally with page number. As a first step, PDF readers are perfect to keep track of a PDF’s most important information. You need a PDF reader that can create bookmarks, highlight passages and create annotations. For best compatibility with Docear, we recommend the free version of PDF XChange Viewer. However, the free Foxit Reader or Adobe Acrobat Reader will do, too. Now, whenever you read an interesting PDF, you create a bookmark for every statement that might be interesting for your thesis. We would also suggest highlighting the interesting text directly in resume for reception, the document.
Have a look at the picture. Highlighting important information for your thesis. This is the PDF of an article titled “Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co.”. It is question, about how to get your papers indexed and well ranked by academic search engines such as Google Scholar. If you write your thesis about academic search engines, it might be interesting to keep in mind that this paper is the very first paper about academic search engine optimization. Additionally, the definition of sample, “academic search engine optimization” might be relevant for your thesis.
Therefore you create a bookmark for each of these information (see the picture). How detailed you create your bookmark structure is up to ethics question, you. In the ye waterloo thesis, very beginning of your literature research, creating just one bookmark that briefly describes the paper (e.g. “first paper about academic search engine optimization”) might be appropriate. If you need more information, you could return to essay question, the paper later. Getting lost in all the information you read is essay, very easy. Therefore, we recommend to start with only ethics essay, creating bookmarks for very important information. When you have finished reading the essay, first PDF, you proceed with the other PDFs in essay, the same way. Managing Information from Multiple PDFs. In the yang ye waterloo thesis, long run, having information annotated solely in the PDFs isn’t very helpful.
At this point, mind mapping joins the essay question, game. 3 Types On Ap English Exam. Mind maps were ‘invented’ by ethics essay Tony Buzan in the 1970s . A mind map is a diagram with a central topic and yang ye waterloo, subtopics branching from it like a tree (see the picture for an example). Usually a node in ethics question, a mind map contains only one or two important keywords. Resume. Due to its visual structure, many people consider mind maps very effective learning tools. If you never used mind mapping before, the concept might appear strange to you at first. In fact, mind mapping isn’t the best solution for everybody. However, we urge you to invest 30 minutes and give mind mapping a try.
We guarantee that the question, chance you will love mind mapping is really high. Example of a Mind Map. In this tutorial, we use Docear for creating mind maps as this tool is especially designed for students and researchers. Of Essays On Ap English Exam. Please download and ethics essay question, install it. Monitor all new PDFs in your Mind Map. Our goal is to keep track of all the information you have read in one single place. To achieve this, Open Docear and create a new mind map, which you will use to manage your literature (press Ctrl+N ). The central node, called New Mindmap, is automatically created and can be renamed, e.g. to on ap, My Literature, by either clicking on it or pressing F2 and typing the new name. One of Docear’s special features is monitoring a folder for new files.
We use this feature to automatically include all our PDF in the mind map. The goal is ethics essay, that whenever you find a new PDF on a good thesis statement begins with in this essay i will, the Internet, you store it in this special folder, to have it displayed immediately within your mind map. Create a new child node by pressing the Insert key on your keyboard or selecting Insert | New Child Node from the menu. Ethics. Call this node Incoming Literature . Now, right-click on that node, select Add PDF Monitoring Directory and choose your literature directory (e.g. c :myliterature ) . N ow, all PDF files (plus DOC(X), TXT, RTF, ODT and XLS(X)) that are stored in the specified folder are displayed in essay for ibsat, your mind map’s Incoming Literature node. Other files are ignored. And the best – also the PDF bookmarks are imported. The following picture illustrates this. Monitoring a folder for new PDFs that are important for your thesis.
That means, as of now all the question, information you annotated in essay for ibsat, your PDFs are accessible and manageable in a single place – your mind map. Giving Structure to Your Mind Map and Literature. After you have read the first PDFs and created bookmarks, you should start giving some structure to the information: Create nodes for all the important categories you plan to do research in (you can change them at essay, any time later on). Then drag drop the french, bookmarks from the incoming node to the appropriate categories. If you feel that one bookmark fits to several categories, just create a copy of it. The following picture shows an example.
Giving Structure to your Mind Map and Literature (and hence to the thesis) Now you have a good overview of what you have read. On first glance, this might seem similar to a folder structure on your hard drive and indeed it is. However, there is one big advantage (and there will be more): In contrast to a folder structure, you have not only categorized your PDFs but the PDFs’ contents and you have direct access to all the bookmarks in all the ethics essay, PDFs via your mind map. Furthermore, creating, deleting, renaming, copying and moving nodes in a mind map is 3 types of essays english exam, much faster than doing the same operations with folders in ethics, a file structure. To extend and sample french essay, deepen your literature review, you can basically go on as you did before.
You find new PDFs, read them, create bookmarks, and ethics essay, categorized them within your mind map. Of Essays. Let’s assume you want more information about a certain topic that is already in ethics essay question, your mind map. Chemosynthesis. For instance, about differences between academic and classic search engine optimization. Ethics. In this case, you can just click on the node “Differences between ASEO and classic SEO” in ye waterloo thesis, the mind map. Add more bookmarks if a PDF is relevant for ethics essay the thesis. The PDF will open at essay for ibsat, the corresponding position in the paper, so you can read more about that topic and, if you like, create more bookmarks. Jumping to the in-text position of bookmarks only works when using Docear in combination with PDF XChange viewer. Essay. Other PDF viewers will open the front page of the a good begins with, PDF when clicking on the bookmark in ethics essay question, the mind map. This behavior is due to the handling of thesis with essay, bookmarks by the viewers and can not be influenced by Docear . The new bookmarks can be easily imported by performing a right click on the respective node and essay, selecting Import Bookmarks . Import new PDF bookmarks to the mind map to complement the literature review.
After a while, you will have a large mind map with all the information that is important for your thesis. You can use the thesis statement in this essay i will, search function ( STGR+F ) to find nodes. Essay Question. To get a better overview, you can fold and unfold nodes by selecting a node and pressing Space . Another feature that makes mind maps superior to simple file systems is the possibility to add notes. You can add any kind of ye waterloo, text as a note to any node in the mind map. Essay. The note is shown in a hovering window when passed over by the mouse or in a separate window when clicked (see illustration). Making additional notes in sample, the mind map. Part II: Structuring and ethics, Drafting the Thesis.
This is the second part of our tutorial about how to hydrothermal, write a thesis. In this part we cover how to ethics, structure and draft your thesis. Yang Ye Waterloo. There is lots of good literature on ethics essay question, how to structure a thesis conceptually, so we will not cover this aspect in here. However, we will show you a practical way to devise, maintain and store the structure of essay for ibsat, your thesis in a mind map. Typical structure of a PhD thesis in ethics, a mind map.
You start with devising a basic structure, which you can create in your literature mind map or in a new mind map, see the resume for reception, picture above for an example. You can then start drafting your thesis directly in the mind map. Create one node for each heading and ethics essay question, one sub-node for each sentence (see picture below). You might wonder why not doing this directly in for reception, a word processor. Simply, because it is much easier to question, move nodes of a mind map than to for reception, move sentences and ethics question, paragraphs in a text document.
Moreover, you have all the important information in your mind map already. Hydrothermal Vents. Thus, restructuring your thesis in a mind map is much easier and quicker than using a text document. We guarantee that you will have to restructure your thesis several times before you are really happy with the structure. Additionally, you may put all the administrative data related to your thesis project such as deadlines or important contacts into your mind map, as you see in the left half of the picture above. The following picture shows how a final mind map for a PhD thesis could look like (nodes with a circle are folded and contain additional sub-nodes). You will notice that the related work section is very similar, yet not identical to your literature mind map. Most likely you will not use all the literature you have read. Accordingly, your literature mind map will probably contain more information than the essay question, final related work section in your mind map / thesis. Yang Ye Waterloo. Therefore, we suggest using two mind maps: one for managing all your literature and one for structuring your bachelor, master or PhD thesis. The complete draft of a PhD thesis in a mind map (nodes with a circle contain more sub nodes) Keep in mind that your mind maps are not limited to ethics essay, containing PDF links.
You can add text, pictures or formula, you can insert icons, link to other files and webpages, highlight nodes and much more (see Docear’s User Manual for details). Chemosynthesis. Again, have a look at the picture to get an idea of how your final mind map could look like. Now, read in the third part how to eventually write a thesis. Part III: Writing the Thesis and Managing References. This is the third part of our tutorial about how to write a thesis. In this part we finally explain how write up a thesis and how to manage references. Every thesis project will eventually come to ethics question, the point where you start writing up everything that is in thesis, your mind map (see Part II of the ethics, tutorial) using the word processor of your choice. You could rightfully argue that typing every information twice, once in your mind map and again in your word processing software, is terribly inefficient. Docear offers a function to export your mind maps to resume for reception, Microsoft Word, OpenOffice, LaTeX, HTML, PDF, PNG, JPEG, SVG, and many other formats. However, we have to admit that the export function is not perfect. Ethics. We suggest you try it to see if it fits your needs.
Personally, we do not use the export function, but draft our paper in Docear , and then write the entire paper/book/thesis/… in the text processing software. While this process requires more work, it has the advantage of carefully thinking about the text again. On Ap Exam. You will find more errors and essay question, enhance the quality of the text greatly if you write your thesis after you have structured it in great detail in the mind map than as if you had started directly in the text document. In theory, you could write your thesis within a few days if you have created a really, really good mind map. In practice, finally writing your thesis will probably take you a few weeks, because you will likely realize issues that you want to work on more during the essay for ibsat, writing process. Be assured that we know that a good export function is ethics question, important, and that improving Docear’s export capabilities is on our todo list. However, realizing this feature will not happen within the sample essay, next few months or so. There is one important task that we have left out so far: The management of bibliographic data and ethics essay, creation of reference lists. For many people, this task is the most annoying in a good thesis statement with i will, writing a thesis. Referencing a hundred or more publications in a thesis is quite common.
Imagine you have to create a bibliography for ethics question 200 publications like the one shown in the right part of the picture. Now imagine, you manually created that bibliography and on ap english, your supervisor tells you to ethics, use a different citation style, which means you would have to sample essay, do it all over again. Alternatively imagine you have numbered your references manually (see left part of the pictures) and for some reason you have to ethics, insert another reference at the beginning of your thesis, thus renumber all references in your thesis. Example of a reference list in a PhD thesis and its use in essay for ibsat, the full text. Fortunately, this process can be largely automated, especially if you use Docear . We recommend using JabRef, which by default is integrated into the Docear suite, to ethics question, manage reference data. Sample French. Alternatively, you can download and install JabRef as a standalone application. JabRef allows you to essay, maintain a database of bibliographic data in BibTex format. A brief step-by-step tutorial how to resume for reception, create a BibTeX database and new entries using the stand alone version of JabRef is question, available here and the complete manual here. For instructions on using the JabRef version integrated in sample essay, Docear see the respective part in Docear’s User Manual. You need to create a BibTex entry for question each paper you want to cite. Fortunately, many academic search engines and literature databases offer bibliographic metadata in BibTex or other structured formats for download.
Copying or importing this data into JabRef/Docear greatly speeds up the process. Additionally, Docear offers the possibility to semi-automatically retrieve BibTex data for PDF’s linked in your mind map. Eventually, your BibTeX database file will look like this. Managing Bibliographies for a thesis with JabRef. To integrate your BibTeX data with your mind map (and finally MS Word, OpenOffice, …) one more step is necessary. You need to sample french essay, link the corresponding PDF to the BibTeX entry.
This can easily be done by drag drop the ethics essay, PDF from your literature directory to the BibTeX entry. Integrating BibTeX (JabRef) with Docear. Docear supports BibTeX (no other mind mapping software can do that). Of Essays On Ap English. That means whenever a node in ethics, your mind map links a PDF (or PDF bookmark) the BibTeX key will be displayed as an attribute. 3 Types Of Essays English Exam. To do so, just go to Docear | Preferences and specify your BibTeX file. Then select Docear | Update reference keys in current mind map . Displaying BibTeX keys and title in a mind map.
You now see the title and BibTeX key of the linked PDF file as attribute. This way you can easily see where the information in your mind map is from. If the information is annoying you, select View | Attributes | Hide All Attributes (the attributes are still stored in your mind map, you just won’t see them any more). You might not realize this right now while reading this text but actually this feature is ethics essay, fantastic. It will allow you to very easily create a reference list for ye waterloo your thesis. Read on… Integrating BibTeX and Docear with Microsoft Word. To automatically create reference lists in essay question, MS-Word, based on BibTeX, you need a plug-in. We recommend BibTeX4Word. The installation is anything but user friendly and also requires the separate installation of MikTeX but it is definitely worth the effort.
If you have installed BibTeX4Word you can simply copy and paste the BibTeX key from Docear to MS Word as shown on the following picture. Copy bibliographic data from Docear to sample french, your thesis in MS Word. Then you can copy the BibTeX key from Docear with a right mouse click and paste it into MS-Word (click on the red +). Creating an in-text reference in your thesis. After copying the BibTeX key to ethics question, your word processor you just need to click on the reference list icon and sample essay, there reference list is created automatically (you can choose out of ethics essay, hundreds of reference styles such as APA, IEEE, ACM, Harvard, …)
Create a bibliography (reference list) for your thesis automatically. That’s it, your thesis is done #128578; To remind you what makes this tutorial (and the software Docear ) special in contrast to other software tools and tutorials is the fact that everything – PDF files, the content of ye waterloo, PDFs (bookmarks) and ethics, references are integrated with mind mapping and word processing software. Imagine, for instance, you would not have the yang ye waterloo, BibTeX keys in the mind map (or wherever else you draft your thesis with). Ethics Essay Question. You would have to manually make some notes where the information is from and later look the bibliographic data up in you reference manager. And without having PDF bookmarks you could hardly read in more detail about something that interests you.
You might have a note somewhere (maybe even with the page number the information is from) but to look it up would take some time. With PDF bookmarks it takes 2 seconds. If you have any questions, please contact us or post a comment here in the Blog.  J.L. A Good Statement In This I Will. Galvan. Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and essay, behavioral sciences . 3 Types Of Essays English. Pyrczak, 3 edition, 2005.
 Judith Garrard. Ethics Essay Question. Health sciences literature review made easy: the resume, matrix method . Question. JONES AND BARTLETT P, 2006.  Chris Hart. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . SAGE Publications, 1998.  L.A. Machi and B.T. McEvoy.
The Literature Review: Six Steps to Success . Corwin Press, 2008.  D. Ridley. A Good Thesis Essay I Will. The literature review: a step-by-step guide for students . Sage, 2008.  John M. Swales. Telling a Research Story: Writing a Literature Review . University of Michigan Press/ESL, 2009.
 Rudi Studer, Richard V. Question. Benjamins, and Dieter Fensel. Knowledge Engineering: Principles and hydrothermal vents, Methods. Data and Knowledge Engineering , 25 (1-2): 161–197, 1998. Elsevier.  Steffen Staab and Rudi Studer, editors. Handbook on question, Ontologies in Information Systems . 3 Types Of Essays On Ap English Exam. Springer-Verlag, 2004.
 Joran Beel and Bela Gipp. Google Scholar’s Ranking Algorithm: The Impact of Citation Counts (An Empirical Study). In Andre Flory and Martine Collard, editors, Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on ethics essay question, Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS’09) , pages 439–446, Fez (Morocco), April 2009. IEEE. doi: 10.1109/RCIS.2009.5089308. ISBN 978-1-4244-2865-6.
Available on http://www.sciplore.org.  Joran Beel and Bela Gipp. Google Scholar’s Ranking Algorithm: An Introductory Overview. In Birger Larsen and Jacqueline Leta, editors, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI’09) , volume 1, pages 230–241, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), July 2009. International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Thesis Statement Begins With In This I Will. ISSN 2175-1935. Available on http://www.sciplore.org.  Joran Beel and ethics essay, Bela Gipp. Google Scholar’s Ranking Algorithm: The Impact of Articles’ Age (An Empirical Study). A Good Thesis Statement Begins Essay. In Shahram Latifi, editor, Proceedings of the essay, 6th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG’09) , pages 160–164, Las Vegas (USA), April 2009.
IEEE. doi: 10.1109/ITNG.2009.317. ISBN 978-1424437702. For Reception. Available on ethics essay question, http://www.sciplore.org.  Toni Buzan. Making the Most of your Mind . Pan Books, 1977. Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Docear 1.0 Alpha 1 available for registered users. The new name of SciPlore MindMapping is… “Docear”
SciPlore MindMapping now provides literature recommendations (Beta 15) Help us finding a new name for “SciPlore MindMapping” Good by FreeMind, welcome FreePlane. I can’t find a PDF reader to on ap exam, create bookmarks with Linux. Any hints? KDE’s Okular can insert bookmarks and highlight text. It runs on GNOME too. Both KDE and GNOME can coexist on a box Ubuntu. As appeared somewhere on this site as well as on question, the Web, jPDFbookmarks is yang thesis, IMHO the most appropriate and established software for embedding bookmarks and notes into PDF files on Linux. Okular is a nice allowing to visually add bookmarks, highlights and notes to the PDF file BUT those are linked with current user only so can’t be transferred and get visualised on other computers, that is, Okular stores all those modifications in ethics question, the user’s home dir, not in the PDF file itself. I am just about to start my PhD.
Thank you very much for this tutorial, it is really helpful and on first glance sciplore mindmapping looks great! does there exist also a german version of this tutorial? no sorry, there is french essay, no german version of this article. i found this tutorial two month ago, tried sciplore mindmpping, and finished my literature survey for essay my BSc yesterday. A Good Thesis Begins With I Will. Your software is awesome! awesome! awesome! It helped me so much! Thank you! Thanks. This is fantastic.
I was just thinking how valuable it would be to have this… and then I found you on ethics essay question, wikipedia. One question. I have a PDF that already has a ton of bookmarks in it (a dissertation) — What’s an on ap easy way to remove those, so I can start fresh? you can delete bookmarks in a PDF e.g. with foxit reader. Question. alternatively create a node in your mind map (e.g. “trash”) and move the imported bookmarks into that node. this way the bookmarks won’t be deleted in the PDF but at least they won’t be imported again. how to delete Map and what is reference key. Currently I am using endnote and how can I link the reference to Sciplore pdf.
Also, is it possible to get the pdf into one folder with a click from each reference in endnote rather rafting each reference to copy it. endnote is currently not supported by essay for ibsat SciPlore MindMapping and ethics essay question, we have no intensions to change that. The in (wordprocess) text references are given as numbers that refer to the bibliography references. Thesis. Can this tool enter in text references in the Harvard format of (Author, date)? SciPlore MindMapping does not directly create reference lists. Accordingly, it depends on whatother tool you use if references can be created in Harvard style. This is great article and software too.. I am using freeplane for ethics essay mind mapping- basically to organize whatever I understood from research article. But this software seems to be good for researcher like me.
It is hard to organize PDF when collection become huge. Thanks for yang the great software not only similar to freeplane but also supports Mendeley- one of the best PDF organizing software. I thank the developer for making good software for researches (nobody bothers about ethics essay researchers, one who bothers makes money- was slogan with reference to Endnote or VectorNTI ). Any hints, how I can create bookmarks on mac, besides Adobe software? Apparently there is no Foxit Reader for Mac. no sorry, I only know of Adobe Acrobat for resume Mac. If you find an alternative, please tell me. I don’t know if you are still checking back to this site, but the latest version of preview (s/w standard on ethics question, mac o/s) does bookmarking and highlighting. For mac (also for windows and linux) you might use the program jpdfbookmarks.
I’ve just try it in a windows environment. Thesis Statement With In This Essay I Will. This program can also be used in a mac environment because it is written in java. Another good alternative for windows is PDFX-Change Viewer. I use the pro version which costs money, but I think with the free version of the program you can also make bookmarks. thank you very much. Ethics Essay Question. i will have a look at the websites. ohhh…I was really lagging behind in terms of thesis with in this i will, my Master dissertation….and now with this I am very hopeful to meet the submission deadline.. thanks a lot and will surely send you my comments once i am done with my project work and will share my experience using SciPlore mindmapping. Great service by question all developers and their team. congratulations. I just recently stumbled upon Sciplore Mindmapping and I love the idea. I directly tried it out, but stumbled onto two rather annoying problems: 1. When I select a directory (along with it’s subdirectories) to monitor my PDFs and import them, they are re-imported at thesis begins essay i will, each start-up.
As a result I end up with the entries being duplicated EVERY time. 2. The second thing is perhaps not so much a problem than a question: Assume I already have a PDF and ethics, with it’s bookmarks imported into a mindmap. 3 Types Of Essays On Ap. Now if I add more bookmarks to that PDF is it possible to just import the essay, added bookmarks. I didn’t find an “Update Bookmarks” option and if I do “import bookmarks”, it imports ALL the bookmarks, which is unnecessary and french, if the PDF has many bookmarks very annoying… I hope somebody can help me with this as it is kind of putting me off from reallying digging into Sciplore and doing everything with it. Thanks and best regards, regarding 1: this definately is a bug. Ethics. i have sent you an email. regarding 2: thx for sample the suggestion, i added it to our todo list. maybe we will have implemented this in beta 13. Unfortunately I didn’t get your email regarding the bug. Perhaps you could send it again? I sent it again (maybe it’s in your spam folder?).
Anyway, ths is what I wrote: Are you sure you are using the latest beta 11 from our website. If so, please could you send me the mind map this happens with? or. ideally, create a new and simple mind map in which this problem. occurs and send this to me.
It would be nice, if one were able to select the PDF viewer that is used by essay Sciplore to open the hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis, PDFs. I am working in Linux and used Wine to install the question, “Foxit Reader”, which does work great. Nonetheless I don’t want it as my default viewer for the whole system, as it’s not part of Linux and a good thesis statement with in this essay i will, it takes long to start up. I’d prefer just starting “Foxit Reader” from question inside JabRef and Sciplore for adding bookmarks and resume, else use the default viewers from Linux. Is there any way this is question, possible? Best regards and thanks again, I also added this suggestion to essay for ibsat, our todo list. But it will take some more time than your other idea before we will implement it. ——— PDF-Xchange + Wine = bookmarking PDF reader in SciPlore under Linux ——— I found this workaround which may be useful to Linux users that want to use a bookmark enabled PDF reader within SciPlore. 1) download the free version of PDF-Xchange, (a viewer that allows bookmarking and has a very nice search tool) from here:
2) install PDF-Xchange so it runs under Wine. 3) Copy the following lines, paste them to ethics, a text file and save it as PDF-Xchange.sh or something similar. # Purpose: To convert Linux-style filename to Windows-style to pass as an argument. # to resume, wine when starting PDF Reader. #assuming you use the default installation folder in Wine. App=`eval wine “‘C:Program FilesTracker SoftwarePDF ViewerPDFXCview.exe'” “‘$Filename'”` path to ethics question, PDF-Xchange executable may be different, check it for your system..
4) Change properties of the script you just saved to make it executable. 5) In SciPlore open “preferences” under ‘tools” menu to open the of essays english, Freemind properties window and click on question, the HTML tab/button. 5) Go to the input box labeled “Default Browser Command Other Os” and replace the text “xdg-open ” with “dir-where-u-saved-yr-script/PDF-Xchange.sh ” 6) Click Save in the Freemind properties window. Sciplore will prompt you to restart to enable the changes but this was not necessary for me. Now when you click on a PDF in 3 types of essays exam, your mindmap it will be opened with PDF-Xchange! The script is a modified version of a Foxit script found here: However Foxit would not work within Scilore in this way, failing to essay, open the pdf, although it worked within Nautilus (the Gnome file manager) Both work fine with PDF-Xchange though! Hello, I tried SciPlore on the Mac OS X 10.6.5.
It seems can not load highlight markers from thesis pdf modified by Acrobat X in ethics question, the same system. However, bookmarks are imported smoothly. currently, sciplore only imports bookmarksand no comments or highlighted text. Hi, this sounds great. I have already started writing my PH.D. working with endnote (not Bibtex), is Endnote compatible with your program? Or is there a way how I can move my reference-files to your program? Thanks! sciplore mindmapping is not compatible with endnote. and sample, if you google, switching from endnote to e.g. jabref seems to be difficult. if you find an easy way i would be very happy if you told me and i would publish it on our blog.
Hi, this is a great blog and essay, extremely helpful however I have a quick question about for reception using JabRef to cite things in MSword. I followed the instructions to use my JabRef citation database with MSword but am having trouble getting the citations in the form I would like. I need to ethics essay question, cite according to American Sociological Assocation standards and can’t seem to essay for ibsat, find a format file that works. The furtherest I have gotten is going to the package manager in MikTex and ethics question, downloading packages that are suppose to hydrothermal vents, contain new formats. Is this how I should be doing this and if so do you know of ethics essay, a packages for ASA citation. I am sorry but I don’t know any packages that contain an ASA citation style but I am very sure that there is one. 3 Types On Ap English Exam. Maybe you could ask here http://www.medicalnerds.com/how-to-use-jabrefbibtex-with-microsoft-word-2003/ or the essay, guys from miktex: http://miktex.org/support. If you find an answer, feel free to post it here. Hi, really nice and helpfull programm. I have a question and maybe an thesis idea for new implementation:
1. I use the latest version (14 Beta) but the bookmarks don’t really guide me to the correct page. I always get to the starting page of the PDF. This happens with own created bookmarks and also with already generated bookmarks from the writer of the PDF. (I use foxit reader) 2. In my opinion the mindmap structure is prefered to use it with LaTeX. Essay Question. If there’s a way to hydrothermal, export the different nodes with downwardly used sections similar to ethics essay, LaTeX (chapter/section/subsection …), an resume easy, first usable text could be generated.
The whole formatting for ethics essay the text have to be done in the header of your writings so you don’t have to think about. you just have to export in a .txt. Maybe one have to define what is “text” and what are headlines. Do you tink that could work? the feature to jump to the bookmarked page is not yet implemented. Resume. regarding the latex export: it`s on out todolist too but definately will take a few more month to be implemented. I installed the ethics essay, SciPlore, but when i start it, i get this message :”freeMind.Main.freeMind cann’t be started” ! What shold i do? Help plz. have you installed the latest Java version from http://www.java.com ? if you still have this problem please contact us at feedback A.T sciplore. Resume For Reception. org and tell us your operating system. I’m not sure I completely understood the process described here. From what I understood: First, you make a mindmap of the literature you collected and organize it by topic perhaps.
Then, you make a second mindmap more according to essay, how you want the paper/arguments to build up. For Reception. I guess what I don’t understand is how the second mindmap works (in general, I do understand mindmapping). Ethics Question. Do you copy nodes from the first map? What if I just want the bookmark, when I copy it to vents, the new mindmap will the essay question, bibliographic info come along with it? I hope you can answer my questions/confusion, and thank you in of essays on ap, advance.
eventually it`s up to you. if you have just a “small project”, e.g. a bachelor or master`s thesis you could do everything in a single mind map. if you have a larger project (e.g. a phd and several additional papers) you might want to use two mind maps. Ethics Question. one for the literature management and one for each paper. and yes, you can just copy nodes (and bookmarks) between mind maps and reference information will be kept. Thank you for your reply – and after using the maps, I realized I already had the answer to one of my questions. By the way, I’d like to mention that I agree with Michael (Oct 2010) #2, that it would be handy to yang ye waterloo, have the option when updating bookmarks to choose between “all” and ethics, “new” (currently all are imported again). right click on a bookmark and select “PDF Management - Import new bookmarks” – this should import new bookmarks only. Hi, I have a few questions related to the “monitoring folder” function:
1) what’s the sample essay, difference between “smart” and “thorough” update of monitoring folder? I deleted some pdfs from the folder being monitored as a test and even after trying the “thorough update” the information from the essay, deleted files remained – I expected data from essay for ibsat deleted files to ethics essay question, have also been deleted. 2) for some pdfs my mindmap automatically makes child nodes for various headings and some other categories I can’t quite figure out (for one pdf the mindmap made a child node for every page in the document). How can I stop it from automatically making child nodes other than manually deleting them? 1) add a section in a good thesis begins with i will, the help mindmap on monitoring folders and on reference management (some information is on question, the web-based manual, but there is nothing in the mindmap itself. 2) you use the term “monitoring directory” in most places and a good thesis in this essay, “watch folder” in one instance, but then in essay question, the mindmap software it’s actually called “monitoring folder”; consistency in the terms would probably be helpful when people are searching for information. what’s the difference between “smart” and “thorough” update of monitoring folder? “smart” checks the file date (last modified) of PDFs and compares this to the date of the mind map. only statement begins with i will, PDF being modified later than the date of the essay question, last incoming folder update are analysed. “thourough” checks all PDFs for bookmarks which might take a long time.
I expected data from hydrothermal vents deleted files to have also been deleted. this will be possible in one of the next versions of SciPlore MindMapping (Docear). However, I would appreciate if you could post your wish here http://docear.idea.informer.com/ too. 2) for some pdfs my mindmap automatically makes child nodes for various headings and ethics, some other categories I can’t quite figure out (for one pdf the mindmap made a child node for resume every page in the document). How can I stop it from automatically making child nodes other than manually deleting them? in the ethics essay question, menu select “SciPlore MindMapping – Preferences – PDF Management”. There you can select which kind of annotations to import. Essay For Ibsat. If you don’t want to import any annotations (un)select “SciPlore MindMapping – Import Annotations from PDFs” regarding your suggestions: yes, we will do this, thank you! If you have any further questions feel free to use our new forum http://sourceforge.net/apps/phpbb/docear/index.php.
And now a question for the community about file management (I’m new at this, so maybe I’m asking the obvious). – Mendeley because it grabs the metadata and renames the files automatically. – Foxit reader to easily import bookmarks into SciPlore MindMapping. – “Folder Monitoring” in MindMapping, but I want to monitor a folder that contains only the files that I’ve actually read and marked up. I imagine the following, but doesn’t seem very efficient: 1) download files to ethics essay question, a folder, e.g.”journal downloads” 2) have Mendeley rename the 3 types, files and save in “Documents library” in “Mendeley Desktop”; delete version in “journal downloads” 3) open and read the file in Foxit, re-save in another folder, e.g. Essay. “read documents”; delete the version in “Documents library”??
Question: For those using Mendeley, Foxit and MindMapping, does anybody have a more efficient way to manage your files? Thanks for any ideas!! Why not doing the essay for ibsat, following: 1) Download new PDFs to ethics question, c:allmypdfs. 2) Specify this directory as a “watched folder” in Mendeley and create a monitoring node for the same directory in the mind map. That means you will have all your PDFs in Mendeley (with the correct meta data) and in for reception, a node in question, a mind map. 3) Double click PDFs you want to read in your mind map. They will open in Foxit Reader.
Create comments and other annotations. 4) Import the annotations to the mind map, sort them, remove the link to the PDF from the monitoring node in the mind map. Then you will have all your other unread PDFs in the monitoring node left and the read PDFs in the other nodes of your mind maps. Of course, on your hard drive everything is in 3 types of essays, one folder, but does this matter? Thanks very much. I am runnign into a problem.
I will use a lot of literature sources. The pdfs during my dissertation work will run up in the hundreds at least. Ethics. So I found it almost unusable when I expanded the folder in for reception, the mind map because of the all the pdfs (let alone the additional bookmarks), So what I did was start breaking down the ethics essay, Node : “incomming literature” into for reception sub headings – however when I do this then I assume the path for each individual pdf, that is ethics, put into a sub node, has a broken path to essay for ibsat, the “monitoring folder” which then then creates deadlinks from the pdf to the bookmarks. I have also tired first structuring my folders on my pc to match the mind map structure I want – but I still get the ethics question, broken link problem. Anyhelp? Is there a way to move nodes around (and into newly created ones) within the essay for ibsat, monitoring folder node? You might want to check this PrepLit software out for preparing the literature review. PrepLit is ethics essay question, a research tool that can search through your PDF collection.
and help doing the literature review. It does not just let you search. PDF files with a lot of extraordinary research search options, but. also helps you through the entire literature review process. The.
search results can be managed which a lot of carefully designed. features such as: saving, exporting to open with Microsoft Office or. Open Office, ranking, etc. It can make the time-comsuning search. possible and save very big amount of your time.
Free license of. PrepLit is available for educational institute, blogger, journalist, and public speaker. More information on Preplit http://preplit.com. good paper for statement in this i will any student PHD or master. Hi there, this is a helpful post, this will give ease to those people who are having a hard time writing their thesis. I think we share the same views as well. I created a blog with step by step guide on making a research. Of course they are free, that is essay question, why I put it on a blog. If you have time, visit it… http://howtothesis.blogspot.com. I like you site – and have directed students to it. But I cannot find it now ! Have you removed it ? Or is there another link.
Please let me know. I am Just starting to write my PhD Thesis. Ye Waterloo Thesis. I find the tutorial immensely useful. FOR MAC USERS RE: READER WITH NOTES, HIGHLIGHTING AND BOOKMARKING. I noticed Foxit is only available for ethics essay Windows. I’m new to Macs, but in case anyone else had that problem, you can use the built in for reception, Previewer.
Sorry if this is ethics question, redundant, I didn’t want to read through all the messages. i am just starting phd .i find this useful. I am doing my research on the enteric nervous system imaging and 3d reconstruction.I want to get use of a good thesis statement begins i will, this programe. I am very Happy to review this. it gave me lot of ethics question, courage. hve solved my problems. please suggest me a software which will help me to write a paper/references in a easy way. i need it for french my paper. I desire to know how to make a questionnaire for ethics essay question my thesis, please suggest me a software which will help me to sample french, write references in a Ph.D. This is very timely advice in writing a thesis, thanks for sharing!
I have just gone through the tutorial, and am strongly inclined to adopt the approach you outline as I undertake writing my thesis, but a few questions: 1.I recently purchased the program, PapersApp. Should I entirely ignore that program if I use your suggested approach? 2. I tend to question, read journal articles in printed form, and have many that I’ve highlighted, etc. I’ve considered reading digital documents and highlighting PDFs, and ye waterloo thesis, recognize the benefits of doing so, but haven’t done so yet because I’ve been unsure about question which PDF reader to sample, use, and how durable any mark-ups I make to files will be. Additionally, I’ll have to go through all of the papers I’ve read and transfer my highlights to ethics, the digital files. Will Foxit Reader (which you recommend) perform essentially the 3 types on ap, same mark-up and organizational functions as Papers? Thanks very much. I apologize for essay the late reply and hope my answers will still be useful to you. Concerning your 1st question: I am not familiar with the vents, PapersApp and the features it offers.
Generally speaking, there are numerous applications that support academic literature management and all have their strengths and weaknesses. Ethics Essay Question. So, I can’t tell you which one is right for you. However, to my knowledge, Docear, which is the successor of our mind mapping software, is the only integrated tool for academic literature management based on mind maps. If you would like to hydrothermal, use our approach, i.e. Essay. make mind maps your main tool for organizing your literature, Docear is likely your best bet. Concerning your 2nd question:
The markup features provided by PDF readers (not only Foxit, but also Adobe and others) have significantly improved since we first wrote this post. Foxit is still my personal favorite, because of its simple and clean interface, fast loading times and good integration with Docear. PDF annotations (highlights, comments etc.) are stored within the hydrothermal vents, PDF, so they’re as durable or persistent as the file itself. Essay. Foxit has a nice feature I haven’t seen in for reception, any other PDF reader so far: it lets you export your annotations in a special XML-based format called FDF. Furthermore, Docear allows you to automatically import all annotations you made in a PDF into essay your mind maps. I hope that answers your questions. I suggest, you check out the for reception, Docear suite to ethics essay question, see whether it fulfills your organizational needs. Hello,I am so interested in essay, SciPlore Mindmapping.But I can not find “Update reference keys in current mind map” when I integrated BibTeX (JabRef) with SciPlore MindMapping.I can not any get reference keys from Jabref. I sincerely expect your reply.
Thanks very much. Thanks for ethics question your interest in SciPlore MindMapping. The development of our mind mapping software has been transferred to ye waterloo thesis, Docear, which is a separate project solely dedicated to advancing the mind mapping suite. Docear offers more features, a large user community and active developer support. We suggest you give it a try. Best, the ethics essay, SciPlore Team! I would like to say THANKYOU. This has been a tremendously great eye opener. I never new such platforms exist, until i stumbled upon this online.
Keep the good work. Sample French Essay. This something i must share not only with my students, but also my research colleagues. It matches my imagination. I wonder why I haven’t seen this before…… Thank you so much. I am in the middle of essay question, my masters thesis and discovered this tool though a Phd forum. It is simple and easy to use for literature management. I am planning to share it with my fellow researcher friends. One question: Is there a back up option in Docear? Thank you Docear team ! Thanks for using Docear and recommending it to your colleagues and friends. Indeed, Docear offers the option to backup you mindmaps.
All you need to english, do is to register for essay question a free user account and activate the backup function. Please see Docear’s user manual for details: http://www.docear.org/support/user-manual/#Backup_Versioning. Thank you Norman for the quick reply. I discovered that the 3 types on ap, online backup option is enabled by default in the preference tab under Online Services in Docear. I am using Docear on Linux and have a slight problem opening linked pdf files with bookmarks or annotations. I have Foxit reader and essay, PDf exchange viewer install using Wine but they refuse to become my default browsers even after I have made them default by answering ‘Yes’ to essay for ibsat, the prompts that pop up when I open Foxit or PDFexchange. Ethics Essay Question. When I click to open pdf links through Docear, it opens with the default Ubuntu pdf viewer. (I have read that Foxit has a linux version as well but it doesn’t give all the functionality that its Windows’ version gives like multiple tabs etc).
Is there a way I can open my bookmarked pages or highlighted text through Docear in Linux ? Please post your question in the Docear Support Forum: http://www.docear.org/support/forums/ (no registration required). The experts at Docear are better capable to help you. Resume. Best, If your question refers to formatting the bibliography in APA style, you can achieve that by installing the apalike BibTex style (http://ctan.mackichan.com/biblio/bibtex/base/apalike.bst) and ethics essay question, using the following style flag in BibTex4Word (assuming you use MS Word): apalike/pluh( hello…please i would like someone to help me with an article containg the APA STYLE. thanks. Excellent exposition of critical thinking for students. University of Canberra, Australia. Good tutorial. Centrally focused on electronics aids to writers.
Will help students a lot. Currently Iam in the middle of my disserttaion working on chapter two. Since last year I have been typing all of my notes and references paperlesly on the computer. Essay For Ibsat. Finding this tutorial really helps and I will be using it. Thank you. I’m in the midst of preparing my literature chapter and ethics, I found this tutorial is really helpful.
Help me to understand much about the reference manager.
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Marketing Ethics Essay Research Paper The question
The beating of Rodney King: the dynamics of backfire. Published in essay question, Critical Criminology, Volume 13, Number 3, 2005, pp. 307-326. A revised and expanded version of this article appears as a chapter in Brian Martin, Justice Ignited: The Dynamics of Backfire (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2007), pp. 43-64. The 1991 beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police provides rich case material in how an attack perceived as unjust can backfire. Drawing on nonviolence theory, an original framework is developed to analyze attacks as potential backfires that are usually, but not always, inhibited.
Attackers can use a variety of methods to inhibit backfires, including covering up the attack, devaluing the target, reinterpreting the events, using official channels, and using intimidation and bribery. Writings on the Rodney King beating include evidence on the use of for reception, each of these methods. Studying the backfire process offers improved understanding on how to oppose unjust attacks. Not long after midnight on March 3, 1991, Rodney King was beaten by officers of the Los Angeles Police Department. King was hit by two high-voltage tasers and then struck dozens of times by metal batons, as well as being kicked, over a period of several minutes.
More than 20 police were present at the beating, which was illuminated by floodlights from a police helicopter hovering overhead. This event probably would have become just another arrest statistic except for the fact that a portion of the incident was captured on videotape by an observer, George Holliday. Essay Question! After the video was screened on television, the Rodney King beating became the most well-known case of police use of force in essay for ibsat, history, with serious adverse effects for the police. The reputation of the LAPD took a battering, as the force was widely perceived to be tolerant of brutality. There were vociferous calls for LAPD Chief Daryl Gates to resign. The four officers directly involved in ethics essay, the beating were charged with assault and brought to of essays english trial. Media attention was intense over the following months, with thousands of newspaper articles published as well as extensive coverage by electronic media. Morale in the LAPD was seriously damaged (Cannon 1999; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp. 1-22). The King beating is an ideal case study for social analysis given the great amount of documentation of the incident and the subsequent media coverage, trials, and riots. Among the studies undertaken are assessments of the context of racism and social control (Gooding-Williams 1993a), examination of the discursive practices of professionals, namely the police (Goodwin 1994), narrative analysis of media stories about the beating (Jacobs 1996, 2000), and study of the ethics essay question effects of the yang beating on public opinion about racial discrimination (Sigelman et al.
1997). Here, the King beating is analyzed using an original framework: the dynamics of backfire. If the ethics essay question beating is conceptualized as an attack on ye waterloo thesis, King, then it is reasonable to say that the ethics question attack backfired: it recoiled adversely on the attackers. That the beating ended up being damaging to the police has been attested by observers of a good statement, diverse persuasions (e.g., Cannon 1999, p. 228; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, p. 10) and confirmed by research (Lasley 1994). Beyond the existence of a backfire effect, though, is the question of what processes either inhibit or promote backfire. To gain insight into the dynamics of backfire, it is valuable to look at ethics essay, other attacks, even though they appear on the surface to be qualitatively different from a police beating. By examining violent assaults are made on peaceful protesters, such as the chemosynthesis Sharpeville massacre in South Africa in 1960 and the Dili massacre in East Timor in 1991, it is possible to perceive five principal means by which attackers can inhibit a backfire effect: covering up the essay question attack; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the events; using official channels to give the appearance of justice; using intimidation and hydrothermal, bribery.
Challengers can augment the backfire effect by countering these five methods of ethics essay, inhibition, for example by exposing the attack. Backfire analysis is built on the assumption that reality is socially constructed (Berger and Luckmann 1966). Although the video of the King beating has often been assumed to be self-explanatory, in practice it must be interpreted (Butler 1993, p. 17; Gooding-Williams 1993b, p. 165). Defenders of the sample police interpreted the essay question events as a fully justified use of 3 types of essays on ap exam, force. Reactions to ethics question the King beating were part of a struggle over perceptions of reality and what to do in response to those perceptions. In some cases virtually everyone agrees that police use of force was justified; other cases are highly contested. Due to its prominence and the high level of disputation, the King beating provides exceptionally rich case material for examination. The analysis here is also compatible with, but different from, the essay for ibsat political process model of Ross (2000) for police violence.
This model, consisting of the stages of media initiation, arousal, reaction, and outcomes, is descriptive of what can happen after a public case of police violence; backfire analysis draws attention to tactics used by those who stand to gain or lose from outrage over police violence. In the ethics essay question next section, several historical examples are used to illustrate the five main methods for limiting or amplifying backfire. Yang Thesis! Subsequent sections apply this framework to the King beating, drawing especially on evidence from a number of ethics essay question, books, written from distinctively different perspectives, about the beating. This analysis shows that the essay framework of backfire is quite fruitful in placing a range of apparently diverse phenomena into essay question a unified picture. In 1960, about a hundred black South Africans were killed when white police in the township of Sharpeville opened fire on an unarmed crowd protesting against the restrictive pass laws (Frankel 2001).
What became known as the Sharpeville massacre was disastrous for the South African regime, greatly reducing its credibility as a democratic state and leading to a huge upsurge in international solidarity action. On November 12, 1991, hundreds of people were killed when Indonesian troops opened fire on a peaceful protest at a funeral in resume for reception, Dili, the capital of ethics, Indonesian-occupied East Timor (McMillan 1992). A British filmmaker with the ye waterloo pseudonym Max Stahl managed to capture the massacre on film and smuggle the tape out of the question country. Shown on television internationally, the so-called Dili massacre had a galvanizing effect on international support for on ap exam, the East Timor liberation movement. East Timor gained independence less than a decade later, largely through nonviolent struggle (Fukuda 2000). These are two prominent examples of massacres that backfired. In each case, official violence that was intended to crush opposition instead had the opposite effect, namely stimulating more resistance. Gene Sharp, the world's leading nonviolence researcher, developed the concept of political jiu-jitsu, a term that makes an analogy to the sport of jiu-jitsu, in which the opponent's strength and force are turned against essay them (Sharp 1973, pp.
657-703). Political jiu-jitsu occurs when violence used against nonviolent opponents generates outrage and rebounds against the aggressor. The attack can lead to greater support for the challengers among third parties, among some members of the attacker group, and among what Sharp calls the grievance group, namely those with potential affinity with the target of the attack. Hydrothermal! He is careful to point out ethics question, that not all violent attacks lead to political jiu-jitsu; context is important, as is the configuration of sample french, forces and tactics used in the struggle. Sharp's case studies and question, analysis provide strong support for the view that some attacks can be counterproductive. He restricts his attention to violent assaults on nonviolent protesters, but it is reasonable to presume that the same dynamics can apply to hydrothermal chemosynthesis any attack that is seen as unjust or disproportionate. King was certainly not a nonviolent activist - he was speeding, fled police in a high-speed chase, and resisted arrest - but his beating was widely perceived as unjust or disproportionate to anything King had done to the police. This is compatible with the view that there are recurrent moral codes that, in nearly every culture, lead people to respond against perceived injustice, except when strong inhibiting factors are present (Moore 1978, pp. 3-48). This is essay question, also compatible with Durkheim's views on norm violation, with the qualification that the norm violation in resume for reception, the sort of cases covered here is by authorities rather than deviant individuals.
I have introduced the essay question term backfire to refer to the reaction against attacks that are perceived to be unjust or disproportionate; in essence, backfire is a generalization of Sharp's political jiu-jitsu beyond the category of statement begins essay i will, nonviolent action. Sharp focuses on political jiu-jitsu as an observed phenomenon. Taking a cue from ethics essay question, Moore's (1978) discussion of factors that can inhibit reactions against injustice, it is possible to look for factors that inhibit outrage. One obvious way to inhibit outrage is to hide the attack. The Dili massacre might have received relatively little attention except for the presence of Western journalists and a film that was smuggled out of the country. The Indonesian military, after attacking and occupying East Timor in 1975, had cut off virtually all external communication, thereby reducing awareness of resume, human rights abuses. Question! In 1991, a more liberal policy allowed Western journalists to enter East Timor, setting the stage for exposure of the Dili massacre. A second way to inhibit outrage is to devalue the target. In the case of the Sharpeville massacre, South African police blamed the event on agitators in the crowd, a view adopted by many white South Africans, for whom blacks were seen as inherently inferior. Outrage against the massacre was far greater internationally and among black South Africans than among white South Africans. The commander-in-chief of the Indonesian armed forces denigrated Dili protesters as scum and delinquents who must be shot (McMillan 1992, p. 162).
A third way to minimize outrage is to reinterpret the events. Even the vents chemosynthesis most brutal attack against a defenseless victim is not self-explanatory: all social phenomena are socially constructed and hence require interpretation. South African authorities claimed that the essay large crowd at Sharpeville was threatening the safety of police, whereas other observers detected a more playful atmosphere. In some cases, authorities lie blatantly about events, but in others the attackers and their supporters may genuinely believe an interpretation that justifies the attack. Statement With In This I Will! For a reinterpretation of events to inhibit outrage, truth and truthfulness are less important than the persuasiveness of competing interpretations. A fourth way to reduce outrage is to ethics question use official channels to give the appearance that justice is sample, being done. Following the Sharpeville massacre, the South African government set up a commission of inquiry to investigate. The aim was to reassure supporters of the government that democratic ways had not been jettisoned. There was a risk that an official inquiry might come up with damaging findings and make matters worse, so a pliant commissioner was sought, but not one who would be so subservient as to essay lose all credibility (Frankel 2001, p. Resume! 188).
After the essay question Dili massacre, there was an official Indonesian investigation that greatly underestimated the number of casualties but did lead to hydrothermal chemosynthesis removal of some officials from their posts. International pressure prompted the Indonesian government to prosecute a few members of the security forces for ethics essay, their role in the massacre; however, their sentences were light (Kohen 1999, pp. 170-71). A fifth way to inhibit the ye waterloo expression of outrage is to essay question intimidate or bribe targets, participants, and witnesses. After the Sharpeville massacre, police went through the township arresting anyone involved in organizing the protest.
So effective was intimidation that very few eyewitnesses to the massacre were willing to testify at the commission of sample french, inquiry. More generally, potential defectors among the attackers, such as among police or troops who carry out massacres, are commonly deterred by the implicit or explicit threat of reprisals. Similarly, those who toe the line, such as tame officials who ignore or approve an atrocity, often can look forward to career advantages. In the tradition of developing grounded theory, I discovered and ethics essay, elaborated these five ways to inhibit outrage by looking at a range of cases, especially at hydrothermal chemosynthesis, detailed accounts such as Frankel (2001) and at a range of case studies from different fields (Jansen and Martin 2004; Martin 2004; Martin and Wright 2003). Essay! Nevertheless, there is a certain logic in the classification. The backfire process can be conceptualized as an event that leads to a perception of a target being attacked unjustly which in turn leads to action. Each of the methods of inhibition engages with a different facet of this process, as shown in of essays on ap english, Figure 1. Figure 1. A schematic portrayal of backfire dynamics, with each of five methods of inhibition linked to facets of the backfire process. Method 1, cover-up, deals with access to information, potentially preventing any perception occurring.
Method 2, devaluation of the target, deals with psychology, especially attitudes about just desert, that affect perception of injustice. Ethics! Method 3, reinterpretation, deals with knowledge, meaning, and narrative, again affecting perception of injustice. Method 4, official channels, deals with justice as formally administered, affecting the reaction to injustice. Method 5, intimidation and bribery, deals with the exercise of power, typically affecting willingness to take action against injustice. The five-method classification has limitations. The methods, in practice, are not fully independent. For example, intimidation can be used to promote cover-up; devaluing the target could be considered to be a facet of reinterpreting the a good statement with essay i will events. Some of the methods can be subdivided. Essay Question! For example, the yang ye waterloo thesis method of cover-up can be applied to the very existence of an attack, just to essay question the participation of certain parties in the attack, or to the use of sample french, intimidation. Any classification scheme is bound to ethics essay have shortcomings.
The test of this scheme is whether it facilitates understanding of thesis, new cases, especially those in entirely different domains. There are correspondences between the five methods for ethics question, inhibiting public outrage over a good with in this, injustice and psychological mechanisms by which individuals disengage from responsibility for ethics question, their actions. Bandura (1986, pp. 375-389) lists a number of such psychological mechanisms, such as dehumanizing the victim, euphemistic labeling, and vents, misconstruing the essay consequences, that can be mapped on the methods of inhibition. Similarly, Sykes and Matza (1957) list five techniques of neutralization, again as psychological mechanisms for justifying deviant behavior. Resume! Of these, denial of responsibility and denial of injury can be categorized as methods of reinterpretation; denial of the essay victim and english, condemnation of the ethics essay condemners can be categorized as methods of sample french essay, devaluation; and appeal to ethics question higher loyalties can be categorized as an begins with in this essay i will, attempt to replace official channels. Note that the techniques of neutralization apply to deviant individuals whereas the methods for inhibiting outrage are applied here to deviant authorities. With this prelude, it is now appropriate to look more closely at the King beating.
This will be done by examining in some detail each of the five methods of inhibiting outrage, presenting evidence, especially from partisan books about the beating, that illustrates features of the struggle over reactions to the beating. This is not an essay, attempt to tell the story of the King beating, much less to determine what really happened. Despite the existence of the essay for ibsat videotape, the meaning of the events remains contested. The aim here is to show how attackers and their supporters used a variety of methods that inhibited backfire and how critics of the beating countered these methods. The defining feature of the King beating is the availability of a videotape recording the event. As noted by numerous commentators, without the videotape, the ethics essay beating would have been unlikely to come to public attention (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. 6; Omi and Winant 1993, p. 97; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp.
3, 190). Cover-up, as a means to inhibit backfire, failed spectacularly in King case. Nevertheless, evidence of cover-ups can be found in the King saga. But first it is worth noting that the usual scenario for thesis in this i will, cases of essay, police brutality and other misconduct is no publicity and on ap, little or no negative consequences for ethics essay question, police (Ross 2000, p. 199). For example, in the 1988 Dalton Avenue incident, 80 Los Angeles police trashed four apartments, destroying property and spraying graffiti, and, according to witnesses, beat many people, but this received little media attention (Lawrence 2000, p. 67). An investigation into police misconduct in the US, stimulated by the King beating, stated: Many cases of police misconduct take place out of the public eye. Often, there are no witnesses to the incident other than police officers and the victim of the misconduct, and thus no one to corroborate the hydrothermal vents complainant's account. Representatives of community organizations and legal agencies described the difficulty of pursuing complaints against the police, particularly in the absence of witnesses. Both police and civilians agreed that, if it comes down to a citizen's word against an officer's story, the question police version controls. Hydrothermal! In the vast majority of cases involving one civilian and one officer the complaint is not sustained. Ethics! (Ogletree et al.
1995, pp. 60-61). Some of the reported cases of police brutality are far more serious than the King beating and seem to have less justification. They include beatings without pretext, torture, and killings, some apparently premeditated (Ogletree et al. 3 Types Of Essays On Ap English Exam! 1995; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). From the point of view of targets and witnesses of such cases, cover-up is central to essay reducing a backlash. The basic means of of essays on ap, cover-up is police lying about what happened: Far too many officers lie with impunity about the conduct of a defendant, about essay question, what they were able to resume for reception observe, and about whether proper procedures were followed (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. 57). Other police often know that their colleagues are lying but decline or refuse to speak out against them. This so-called code of silence - sometimes called the blue wall of silence - is a form of police loyalty that inadvertently can sanction abuse (Ogletree et al. 1995, pp.
72-76; Quinn 2005; Skolnick and ethics essay, Fyfe 1993, pp. 108-112). The code of silence was a feature of the Los Angeles Police, like many other forces. As described by the Christopher Commission, set up in response to hydrothermal chemosynthesis the King beating, the code of silence consists of one simple rule: an officer does not provide adverse information against a fellow officer (Christopher et al. 1991, p. 168). The code of ethics essay question, silence is part of the culture of many police departments, but it is also enforced by reprisals against those who speak out, as described later in the section on essay for ibsat, intimidation. Of crucial importance in the cover-up or exposure of police misconduct is the role of the media. Ethics Essay! In the conventional social science view of the news, the statement begins in this i will official dominance model, officials are the primary definers of events. Consequently, most police use-of-force incidents are never mentioned in the news, and ethics, even those that are covered typically receive only cursory treatment, with the official versions of events predominating (Lawrence 2000, pp.
28-29). In most cases journalists do not even find out about police use-of-force incidents, and essay for ibsat, many cases do not conform to usual news values. For example, only a minority of police shootings in the U.S. are reported (p. 29). The interaction of ethics essay question, official lying, the thesis with in this police code of silence, police public relations techniques, and the orientation of most news to official sources operates to minimize attention to most cases of alleged police brutality.
These processes serve, in effect, as means of cover-up. Regina Lawrence (2000), in her highly sophisticated analysis of media treatment of police use of question, force, argues that a few exceptional events break through the usual elite-oriented framing of a good statement begins essay, news. The King beating is the most prominent example of an alternative, event-driven media treatment of police use of force. She argues that three factors combined to make the beating into an agenda-setting event: the video, a dramatic political struggle between LAPD Chief Daryl Gates and Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, and public reaction (Lawrence 2000, pp. 62-85). Though the King beating is the most dramatic exception to the usual pattern of cover-up, nonetheless there are some instances of attempted cover-up in its story. George Holliday, who made the video of the beating, rang the local police station saying he had witnessed a police beating, intending to offer the video.
However, the ethics desk officer expressed no interest in what Holliday had to say, nor did the officer record a complaint. Given this official unconcern, Holliday offered the tape to KTLA, a television station in Los Angeles (Christopher 1991, p. 11; Owens 1994, p. 56). In retrospect, it is possible to say that had the a good begins with in this essay officer taken Holliday's call seriously and obtained the videotape, then destroyed it and claimed to have lost it, the scale of the backfire might have been dramatically reduced if not eliminated. Paul King, Rodney King's brother, attempted to make a complaint, but was given the brush-off. Indeed, Paul King was inappropriately asked whether he himself had ever been in trouble (Christopher 1991, p. 10; Owens 1994, p. 39). Essay Question! But for the videotape, no complaint about police misconduct might have been recorded. When police use violence, they commonly blame deviant, violent suspects (Lawrence 2000, pp. 14, 37, 179). The beating of King was more likely to generate outrage if King was perceived as innocent, indeed exemplary, not only during his encounter with the Los Angeles police on a good statement begins with in this essay i will, March 3, 1991, but also before and after.
In many news reports of the beating, King was described as a black motorist, with the implication that he had been doing nothing wrong (Cannon 1999, p. 82). Others, though, emphasized King's shortcomings and transgressions, thereby devaluing him as a person and reducing backfire. The officer in charge of King's arrest was Sergeant Stacey Koon, who with the support of journalist Robert Deitz wrote a book about the affair (Koon 1992). A few years later, Deitz (1996) wrote his own book, again focusing on Koon's role. Tom Owens, in contrast, was a former LAPD officer who became an investigator for prosecutions of police for misconduct. He was hired as investigator for question, King's initial legal team. His book (Owens 1994) gives a very different perspective. 3 Types English Exam! Each of these authors pays attention to the characters of both King and Koon, as well as the other indicted police officers.
As might be expected, Koon's and ethics, Deitz's books are far more derogatory of King. Koon was proud of the arrest; he considered it a model arrest and for reception, was initially pleased that it had been videotaped. In subsequent trials he justified every blow to King as appropriate and carried out question, according to official procedures. He is also forthright in mentioning a critical perspective on King. The force we used was well within the guidelines of the Los Angeles Police Department; I'd made sure of vents, that. And I was proud of my officers, proud of the ethics essay question professionalism they'd shown in subduing a really monster guy, a felony evader seen committing numerous serious traffic violations. And subduing this guy without the deadly force that all too often accompanies the arrest of a PCP-dusted felony suspect. (Koon 1992, p. 21). Deitz (1996, pp.
31-60) wrote about essay, matters of character, lauding Koon's sterling record, giving extensive attention to King's failings, and claiming that King was treated with kid gloves by ethics essay question the police and courts because he was so well known through the video. Owens (1994) gives an entirely different perspective. He describes various attempts to smear King by associating him with crimes or by framing him. On March 28, 1991, Los Angeles media reported that King was being investigated for two robberies early in the year, with the victims being shown photos of King by officers from the resume for reception Foothills Division, where key police involved in the beating had worked (p. 103). Owens collected evidence that cleared King, concluding that the question episode was a set up by the LAPD meant to mitigate [sic] King's image, detract from his credibility and integrity, make the four cops look good by french making King look bad (p.
105). Owens spends some time in his book telling of question, his personal interactions with King. While Owens certainly does not idolize King - he tells of hydrothermal vents, King's crimes and impulsive and dangerous behavior - he does describe good sides to question King, for example King spontaneously spending time with a group of kids, encouraging them to get an education and buying them ice creams (p. 151). Owens concludes that King is neither a hardened criminal nor a saint, but just a man (p. 152). Hydrothermal Vents Chemosynthesis! In humanizing King, Owens counters others' denigration. In the first trial, King did not testify, making it easier for the defense to essay demonize him; in the second trial, he did testify, making him more human to the jury (Cannon 1999, pp. Thesis! 427-28).
There is no doubt that King is an easy target for denigration, given his limited literacy, his arrest and question, prison record, and his penchant for drinking and a good thesis statement with in this essay i will, fast driving. In a 1992 article in Vanity Fair, King's failings are recounted, along with criticisms of his lawyer and ethics essay, others cashing in on the Rodney King trade (Boyer 1992). In an article about yang ye waterloo, yet another arrest of King on August 27, 2003, Horowitz (2003) defends the LAPD, criticizes liberals, and denigrates King, calling him a self-destructive lout, a pathetic bum, and a reckless criminal. The struggle over the meaning of the beating, including the reputation of the target, thus continues long after the event. If backfire can result from a perceived injustice, then an effective way to counter it is to ethics essay question convince people that what happened was not actually what it seemed. In the essay for ibsat case of King, most people perceived a brutal police beating of an outnumbered and defenseless man. Police countered this with a different story: that King was a powerful and potentially dangerous threat to the police and that they had followed procedures in arresting him. Stacey Koon, in charge of the arrest, said that the LAPD policy had been followed throughout.
The policy specifies a series of options, with escalating use of force: presence; verbalization; commands; firm grips; pain compliance; impact techniques; and deadly force (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp. 37-42). On the night of March 3, 1991, police went through the stages of presence, verbalization, and commands, but King did not acquiesce. Koon ordered a swarm: four officers each grabbed one of King's arms or legs, but he threw them off. Then Koon used two tasers, whose high-voltage shocks normally bring down the target, but King, unlike most people hit with tasers, was not subdued; he made a charge at officer Powell. Koon believed that King had superhuman strength due to being dusted with the drug PCP. Ethics Essay Question! Next on the list of force options was impact techniques. Koon instructed two officers to use their batons on King; policy insists that there be occasional pauses between strikes to observe whether the chemosynthesis suspect is essay question, complying, in which case a lower-force option can be adopted. But, said Koon, King did not adopt the fully prone position demanded by the police; the beating continued until he did. Koon said that the arrest was undoubtedly brutal, but it followed procedure (Koon 1992, pp.
25-52; see also Deitz 1996, pp. 61-91). Because the police adopt force options in response to the suspect's behavior, the police attribute their own actions to the suspect. Koon claimed that I had been in charge of the officers, but Rodney King had been in charge of the situation (p. 45). This theme of King being in charge was used by the defense throughout the resume trials and essay, nicely captures the resume reinterpretation involved. Normally, in charge implies having power or authority, which the ethics police certainly had during the arrest. By portraying King as being in yang ye waterloo, charge - validly so, from the perspective of police use-of-force options - the responsibility for the beating was attributed to King. More generally, the defense tried to make King the focus of attention, not the essay question police (Geller and Hemenway 1997, p. Vents Chemosynthesis! 186). In the initial Simi Valley trial, the ethics question jurors accepted the police framing of yang ye waterloo, events, finding the four officers on trial not guilty (Osborne 1992). The police thus blamed King for his own beating, whereas most viewers of the video blamed the police.
But the police has multiple meanings: it could mean the question four police directly involved in the arrest, the 20 or so other police at the scene who did not intervene, the Los Angeles police force generally, the LAPD as an organizational entity, or LAPD top officials - especially chief Daryl Gates - who were formally responsible for policies, training, and discipline. The popular and political response to the beating opened some divisions between these groups. Gates (1992, p. 316) referred to the beating as an aberration, blaming the individual officers. The Christopher Commission took a more structural view, examining police attitudes, complaint procedures, and official tolerance of brutality, concluding that The problem of excessive force in the LAPD is 3 types of essays on ap english exam, fundamentally a problem of supervision, management, and leadership (Christopher et al. 1991, p. Ethics Question! 32).
Koon blamed not only 3 types of essays on ap exam King but also LAPD managers, especially Gates, as self-interested bureaucrats who protected themselves at the expense of street cops (Koon 1992, pp. 105-9). Some commentators agreed: Cannon (1999, p. 107) noted that because there had been other events equivalent to the King beating, the problem was systemic. One way to reduce the popular outcry from injustice is to ethics essay refer the matter to official bodies or experts that have a reputation for being independent and 3 types of essays, fair; commissions of inquiry are commonly set up after prominent incidents of police violence (Ross 2000, pp. Question! 6, 38-44). If people believe that justice will be done, they are less likely to take matters into yang ye waterloo thesis their own hands; for example, they will be less likely to join a protest group or take direct action. The King beating was seen by many as a blatant injustice, leading to demands and expectations that justice be done, with a range of possibilities for obtaining justice expressed, including penalties for the police involved in the beating, resignation of police chief Gates, reform of the police to reduce brutality and essay question, penalize its perpetrators, and new policies to redress the economic and political disadvantage of poor minority inner-city communities in sample french essay, Los Angeles and elsewhere. The meaning of ethics essay question, justice in part depended on whether a person saw the beating as an isolated incident or as a symptom of systemic problems, and on which of the multiple publics the for reception person was a member (Jacobs 2000). Within days of the ethics essay screening of the Holliday video, a grand jury was formed to look into the beating. This was followed by initiation of an FBI investigation and by the indictment of four Los Angeles police officers (Cannon 1999).
These uses of formal procedures focused on the police involved in the beating, but pressure was intense for statement with in this essay i will, more sweeping reforms. Calls for chief Gates to resign reflected an assumption that new policies would be implemented. At the end of March 1991, Gates formed a commission to essay question investigate the beating; at the same time, mayor Tom Bradley also formed one. By agreement of the thesis essay i will two bodies, they combined to form the Christopher Commission, which carried out a thorough investigation in a matter of months, reporting in ethics essay, early July (Cannon 1999). The commission did not examine the culpability of individual officers for ye waterloo, the beating, which was a matter for the courts, but instead reported on systemic problems in the LAPD: the ethics essay use of excessive force, racism and bias, police culture, recruitment and ye waterloo thesis, training, complaint systems, and formal structures for control of the police department and its chief. The commission's report (Christopher et al. 1991) was seen by many as a largely sound and far-sighted document which, if its recommendations were implemented, would transform the police (Cannon 1999, pp. 121-47). (In contrast, Gates (1992, pp. 347-51) was very critical of the report.) This was quite different from some official reports that essentially whitewash the problems.
After release of the report, pressure mounted on Gates to resign; eventually he announced he would step down in 1992. Attracting far more attention was the trial of the ethics essay question police officers directly involved in the beating (Cannon 1999). All four were charged with assault by yang thesis force and with unnecessarily beating a person under color of authority, Koon and essay, Powell with submitting a false police report, and Koon with being an sample french, accessory after the fact (Geller and Hemenway 1997, pp. 164-165, 316-317). Nearly everyone - the public, journalists, lawyers, and the defendants - expected a guilty verdict on at least some of the ethics question charges. Hence, news of the verdict of for reception, not guilty for all four officers acted like a shock wave through the question country and especially through South Central Los Angeles. The massive riot that ensued can be attributed, in part, to outrage over justice denied or, in other words, to an extension of the original backfire over the King beating. On the third day of the riots, President George Bush addressed the nation on television and virtually promised federal prosecution of the for reception acquitted police officers . the president and the attorney general felt the prosecutions were politically imperative (Cannon 1999, p. 374; see also Deitz 1996, pp. Ethics Essay! 96-98). According to Cannon, the government's goal was preventing far-reaching investigations into police conduct and defusing the concerns of vents, civil rights activists (p.
375). Enormous government resources were poured into the federal trial of the same four officers; with a different venue and jury composition, plus enormous pressures on the jurors to reach a guilty verdict to prevent further riots, the result was that two of the four officers were found guilty and sent to prison. The system appeared to work and ethics essay, this time no riots or disturbances occurred (Cannon 1999). The two criminal prosecutions of the four officers received saturation media coverage; far less media attention was given to system reform in the LAPD. In part this reflects news values that give priority to personalities and conflict. Sample French! The net effect was to personalize the provision of justice and question, divert attention away from a good statement begins in this i will, system reform. To point to the role of ethics essay question, official channels in reducing backfire is sample french, not to essay question reject official channels, especially when they can bring about real change. The point here is hydrothermal chemosynthesis, that official channels can be used, cynically or inadvertently, to essay reduce backfire from a perceived injustice. The media are offered a ritual of normalization in which problems are identified but then handed off to officials to resolve (Lawrence 2000, p. 113). Yang Thesis! In terms of narrative analysis, the government's initiatives in ethics essay question, setting up a commission and holding trials served to retain a romantic narrative - with the government as hero (Jacobs 1996, p. 1252). Police abuses are often accompanied by yang ye waterloo thesis intimidation: the victim may be threatened or arrested.
Far too frequently, the citizen who has just been subjected to police abuse is then arrested and charged with a variety of crimes (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. 42). Sometimes witnesses are charged as well. Many people are afraid to complain about police abuses, fearing retaliation and lack of response, hence complaints are made about only some incidents. Police discourage complaints by resisting the filing of them, by harassing the complainant, by making threats, and by making arrests. For example, In Virginia Beach, an NAACP attorney was arrested and prosecuted for trespass when he went to the police station to file a complaint about police misconduct toward an NAACP observer at a major disturbance (p. 56).
Police may also sue citizens who they allege are making false allegations about essay question, police misconduct, an example of Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participations (SLAPPs) (Pring and essay, Canan 1996). Most of this intimidation by police is made more effective by being behind the scenes; cover-up and intimidation go hand in hand. Bribery is another tool to limit backfire. When citizens sue police over ethics essay question, alleged misconduct, the result is resume, often a settlement in which the citizen receives a pay-out but in ethics, return signs a confidentiality agreement that restricts public comment on thesis statement begins in this essay, the case. Evidence about intimidation and bribery can be hard to obtain, given the ethics essay reluctance of hydrothermal, targeted individuals to talk and the interest of the police in keeping the issue quiet. In the King case, the most extensive account of intimidation is given by Tom Owens (1994), the former LAPD officer who became an investigator for King's legal team. It seemed every time someone on our side became publicly known, confidential information about essay question, that person's background surfaced. Hydrothermal Chemosynthesis! Within two days of appearing at essay question, a press conference, a doctor who had initially scheduled various specialists to work with King became the sample french essay target of a minor scandal. Confidential information about an alleged past problem of the doctor's - an overbilling to an insurance company - was leaked to the media 'from an informed source.' As quickly as the smear was out, the doctor resigned from the team. (p.
32). Owens tracked down quite a number of witnesses to the beating of King, most of whom were reluctant to comment, much less testify, due to fear of essay, reprisals (pp. 93-94, 99-101, 112). Freddie G, one of the two passengers in King's car during the chase before the beating, was killed a few months later in a car crash. Vents! Owens spoke to ethics question witnesses who said the car was run off the road (p. 119). Police and others who spoke out critically about the LAPD and chief Gates suffered threats and harassment (pp. Essay For Ibsat! 182-87, 249). Police use-of-force experts were highly reluctant to testify at ethics, the trials of the four officers: the police code of silence was backed up by reprisals, especially ostracism (pp. 186-87).
Alan Yochelson, one of the prosecuting attorneys in the first trial, told Owens: . we talked to any number of other force and policy experts, who told us the video showed excessive force. Clearly, there was excessive force on that video, but none of them would go on the record. They said it would end careers. (p. Essay For Ibsat! 266). Lou Cannon (1999), in his mammoth account of the ethics question King beating and its aftermath, reports some of the same findings as Owens. Cannon recounts how LAPD use-of-force experts refused to testify at the Simi Valley trial. Fred Nichols, who had testified to excessive force at the grand jury, did everything possible to avoid testifying in court, including resisting a subpoena by yang ye waterloo claiming to suffer stress (pp. 237-38). In the second, federal, trial, LAPD use-of-force expert Mark Conta testified for essay, the prosecution and was subsequently ostracized by fellow officers; Koon called him a whore (pp.
416-17). [Note added after publication: Conta's wife says that he was not ostracized: some people were initially mad at him, but most officers respected him for telling the truth. Kathy Conta, personal communication, 13 June 2006.] One of the four officers involved in sample french essay, the beating, Theodore Briseno, testified against his fellow officers. He was labeled Benedict Briseno; the LAPD later instigated an investigation of Briseno for ethics question, perjury (p. 598). As noted, intimidation is difficult to yang thesis document, but even more so is bribery. Were police who adhered to the code of silence and refused to testify against essay question fellow officers rewarded with collegial support, better assignments, or promotions? The processes involved are often unconscious, so producing documentation is extremely difficult. Bribery may be too strong a word to describe the process of rewarding those who do not speak out begins in this essay, about an injustice.
The King beating offers an exceptionally rich and vivid case study showing how what is perceived as an attack can backfire. The video enabled this particular beating to break through the media's usual reporting of official interpretations of police use of force, generating widespread outrage, and triggering a major political struggle and crisis of legitimacy. The case provides ample evidence of five methods for inhibiting outrage: covering up the essay question attack; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the events; using official channels; and using intimidation. This evidence shows that the of essays english backfire model, developed out of the study of violent attacks on nonviolent protesters, can usefully be applied to ethics police use of force. Cover-up is a highly potent technique of inhibiting outrage. This suggests that reformers and activists should devote attention to means of exposing abuses. Skolnick and Fyfe (1993, p. 266) adopt openness as a key principle of police reform, arguing that we should routinely videotape police conduct during those occasions where propensity to excessive force are most likely to occur: high-speed chases, interrogations, protests, and riots, a recommendation endorsed by of essays Ross (2000, p. 126), though it is important to remember that all videotapes are open to ethics question manipulation and interpretation. French Essay! Other means of ethics essay question, challenging cover-ups are to hydrothermal support investigative journalism and essay question, encourage whistleblowers, something especially challenging and important for police departments where the code of silence reigns.
Devaluing or stigmatizing the target is a familiar technique; it is now commonplace to hear activists called terrorists, a generic term of abuse. More long-standing is 3 types of essays english, devaluation of groups such as people with disabilities, ethnic minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and people with criminal records (Ryan 1972; Wolfensberger 1972). Opposing devaluation is not easy. Those who are concerned about justice to all, regardless of status or stigma, need to be aware of techniques of devaluation, to be prepared to expose it, and to argue that everyone deserves to be treated with dignity and fairness. Struggles over interpretations of events are a central feature of communication, from news to gossip, so it is not surprising that interpretation struggles are central to backfire dynamics. What is important to note is that interpretation struggles can persist long after an apparently uncontestable documentation such as the Holliday video. News stories and interpersonal communications - from backyard conversations to chatrooms - are all part of interpretation struggles, which can carry on for months, years, or decades.
For many activists, participation in protests seems more real and substantial than writing a letter to ethics essay question the editor; looking at backfires suggests that interpretation struggles can be as crucial to the impact of social action as the immediate action itself. Official channels such as courts are often seen as vehicles for providing justice. Analysis of backfire dynamics leads to a rather different view: official channels can be potent tools for dissipating popular outrage against injustice. The implication for activists is that official channels should only be used with care, including advance investigation of their effectiveness. Someone studying the fate of complaints against the police - nearly all of which exonerate the police of any wrongdoing - might conclude that it would be far more effective to write a letter to the newspaper, circulate a leaflet, or call a meeting. As argued by Lawrence (2000), mobilization of popular concern is a key reason why the King beating received such intense media coverage. Finally, intimidation and bribery can be potent tools for inhibiting backfire, but they are seldom studied. Police brutality is often accompanied by threats and arrests of the victims, a process that has strong links with cover-ups. More widely, many activists and sample french, movements have been targeted for harassment and disruption, but there is relatively little written on ethics, how to deal with this (Glick 1989). 3 Types Of Essays On Ap Exam! Preparation is crucial, as is refusal to ethics essay be intimidated and willingness to expose threats and attacks. There is a good thesis statement begins with, much more to learn about backfire dynamics by looking at individual cases, both where backfire occurs and where it is largely inhibited.
It is worth looking at ethics essay, backfire in a range of arenas, including censorship seen as an attack on free speech (Jansen and Martin 2004), torture (Martin and Wright 2003), terrorism, war (Martin 2004), and genocide. By comparing diverse cases, insights can be gained about common characteristics and a good statement begins with essay i will, idiosyncratic features. Ethics! Studying backfire dynamics thus can lead to ideas on on ap exam, how to promote action to deal with injustice. I thank Don Eldridge, Jeff Ross, Barbara Sims, and an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on drafts of this paper and Truda Gray, David Hess, Hannah Lendon, George Matheson, David Mercer, and Greg Scott for helpful discussions. This research was supported by the Australian Research Council. Bandura, Albert. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann.
1966. The Social Construction of Reality. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Boyer, Peter J. 1992. The Selling of Rodney King, Vanity Fair (June):78-82, 158-61. Butler, Judith. 1993. Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia.
Pp. 15-22 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Cannon, Lou. Ethics Question! 1999. Essay! Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD.
Boulder, CO: Westview. Christopher, Warren, et al. 1991. Report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department. Ethics Essay! Los Angeles: Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department. Deitz, Robert. 1996. Willful Injustice: A Post-O.J.
Look at Rodney King, American Justice, and Trial by Race. Hydrothermal Chemosynthesis! Washington, DC: Regnery. Frankel, Philip. 2001. An Ordinary Atrocity: Sharpeville and its Massacre. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Fukuda, Chisako M. 2000. Question! Peace through Nonviolent Action: The East Timorese Resistance Movement's Strategy for Engagement. Pacifica Review 12(1):17-31.
Gates, Daryl F. with Diane K. Shah. 1992. Chief: My Life in the LAPD. New York: Bantam. Geller, Laurence H. and yang, Peter Hemenway. 1997. Last Chance for Justice: The Juror's Lonely Quest.
Dallas: NCDS Press. Glick, Brian. 1989. War at Home: Covert Action against ethics essay question U.S. Activists and What We Can Do about It. Boston: South End Press. Gooding-Williams, Robert, ed. 1993a. Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising. New York: Routledge. Gooding-Williams, Robert, 1993b. 'Look, a Negro!' Pp.
157-77 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Goodwin, Charles. 1994. Professional Vision. American Anthropologist 96(3):606-33. Jacobs, Ronald N. Thesis In This! 1996. Ethics Essay! Civil Society and Crisis: Culture, Discourse, and the Rodney King Beating. American Journal of Sociology 101(5):1238-72.
Jacobs, Ronald N. 2000. Chemosynthesis! Race, Media, and the Crisis of Civil Society: From Watts to question Rodney King. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kohen, Arnold S. 1999. From the Place of the Dead: The Epic Struggles of Bishop Belo of essay, East Timor. New York: St. Martin's Press. Koon, Stacey C. with Robert Deitz.
1992. Presumed Guilty: The Tragedy of the ethics question Rodney King Affair. Washington, DC: Regnery. Lasley, J. R. Hydrothermal Chemosynthesis! 1994. The Impact of the Rodney King Incident on Citizen Attitudes toward Police. Policing and Society 3:245-55. Lawrence, Regina G. 2000.
The Politics of Force: Media and ethics essay, the Construction of Police Brutality. Berkeley: University of California Press. Martin, Brian. 2004. Iraq Attack Backfire. Ye Waterloo Thesis! Economic and Political Weekly 39(16):1577-83.
McMillan, Andrew. 1992. Death in Dili. Sydney: Hodder and Stoughton. Moore, Barrington, Jr. 1978. Injustice: The Social Bases of Obedience and ethics essay, Revolt. London: Macmillan.
Ogletree, Jr., Charles J., Mary Prosser, Abbe Smith and William Talley, Jr.; Criminal Justice Institute at english, Harvard Law School for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 1995. Beyond the Rodney King Story: An Investigation of Police Misconduct in Minority Communities. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. Essay! 1993.
The Los Angeles 'Race Riot' and 3 types on ap english exam, Contemporary U.S. Politics. Pp. 97-114 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Osborne, D. M. 1992. Reaching for Doubt. Ethics Essay! American Lawyer (September): 62. Owens, Tom with Rod Browning. 1994. Lying Eyes: The Truth behind the Corruption and Brutality of the LAPD and the Beating of Rodney King.
New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. Pring, George W. and chemosynthesis, Penelope Canan. 1996. SLAPPs: Getting Sued for ethics question, Speaking Out. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Quinn, Michael W. 2005. Walking with the Devil: The Police Code of thesis statement i will, Silence. Minneapolis, MN: Quinn and ethics, Associates. Ross, Jeffrey Ian.
2000. Vents! Making News of Police Violence: A Comparative Study of Toronto and New York City. Westport, CT: Praeger. Ryan, William. 1972. Blaming the Victim. New York: Vintage. Sharp, Gene. 1973. The Politics of Nonviolent Action.
Boston: Porter Sargent. Sigelman, Lee, Susan Welch, Timothy Bledsoe and Michael Combs. 1997. Police Brutality and Public Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: A Tale of Two Beatings. Political Research Quarterly 50(4):777-91. Skolnick, Jerome H. and James J. Ethics Essay! Fyfe. Resume! 1993.
Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of question, Force. New York: Free Press. Sykes, Gresham M. and David Matza. 1957. Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency.
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Andy Warhol Campbell S Soup Can Essays and Research Papers. Pennsylvania on August 6th, 1928, Andy Warhol was focused on all his talents at an early age. He studied commercial art at the . Ethics Question? School of Fine Arts at Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, now known as Carnegie Mellon University. After graduating with a degree in fine arts, Warhol decided to start his new life in New York City. He was lucky enough to find a job in 3 types on ap english, magazine illustration and advertising and quickly began his up-and-coming career. Ethics Essay? Warhol became a significant figure in the. Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell Soup Company 865 Words | 3 Pages. With Campbell’s Soup Can (Tomato) Andy Warhol takes as his subject a ubiquitous staple food found in . millions of American homes and turns it into high art.
With the unique candor he displayed in the best of his early Pop art works he appropriates the curved lines and iconic graphic imagery of a tin of canned soup and hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis re-examines them in the context of ethics their pure visual qualities. Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans transformed him into hydrothermal, an overnight sensation when they were first exhibited in Los. Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell Soup Company 1398 Words | 4 Pages. Andy Warhol’s rise to fame was not an easy one. Question? Troubled by his profession as a commercial artist in sample, New York, he struggled to gain recognition . as a real artist, yet he kept at it. He experimented with different styles of art hoping to get a solo exhibition at a gallery. One of Warhol’s experimental styles was influenced by comic books; he made paintings that included characters from comics, along with though balloons. Ethics? Warhol was greatly disappointed after seeing paintings of an artist by the name.
Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 1780 Words | 5 Pages. Hydrothermal Vents? When one is reflecting on the life and ethics question works of Andy Warhol , it is established that he changed the world we live in. Through the . use of paintings, sculptures, drawings, and a good begins with essay i will films, Warhol transformed the standard of modern art by making his artworks more vibrant and energetic. Ethics Essay? His nonconforming style had attracted much of society, which included many celebrities. Using many techniques, such as repetition and color placement, Warhol brought his views on materialism, politics, economics, and the media. Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 1206 Words | 3 Pages. Revolutionized Artist Andy Warhol was an American artist during the 1900s and was a leading figure in sample french, pop art. He was an . artist that revolutionized society with his art during that time.
His art encompassed many forms of media including hand drawing, painting, photography and music. Andy Warhol became the ethics question symbol of a movement which made the arts easily available to and understandable for sample essay, the public, thereby causing a change in the culture of America during the 60' s and essay question 70' s . Acknowledging all of. 3 Types Of Essays On Ap Exam? Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell Soup Company 1259 Words | 4 Pages. ? ANDY WARHOL August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987 Andy Warhol was one of the most influential . people in American modern art. Warhol was best known for his bright colored images of ethics essay question famous people and food cans . Through both his art and lifestyle he explored the nature of fame, popular culture, and 3 types english exam the media. His artistic influence and unusual personality redefined the modern art world. Andy Warhol was born August 6, 1928 in ethics question, the working class neighborhood of Oakwood, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Andy Warhol , Art , Arts 1778 Words | 5 Pages. On August 6, 1928, Andy Warhol was born as Andrew Warhola to Andrej and for reception Julia Warhola in ethics essay question, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They were a . working class family that stuck close to the roots and resume traditions of their Eastern European heritage.
In 1934 Andy began attending the local Holmes School and took free art classes at Carnegie Institute (now the Carnegie Museum of Art). Andy had an amazing gift for drawing even from ethics a very young age. In addition to yang thesis drawing, Andy was fascinated by Hollywood cinema and spent. Andy Warhol , Art , Carnegie Institute of Technology 888 Words | 3 Pages. Andy Warhol Andy Warhol was one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. He often . changed his date of birth to ethics essay « add mystery » but most people believe that he was born on August 6, 1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Sample Essay? Andy Warhol Pop art painter, Susan Goldman Rubin His art reflected the rapidly changing American culture.
When he was young, he was obsessed with fame, glamour, Hollywood stars, movies and essay painting. As he grew older, he transformed his obsessions into art and yang ye waterloo started his. Ethics Essay Question? Andy Warhol , Art , Arts 2316 Words | 6 Pages. Pop Culture Spring 2010 Prof. Thesis Statement With Essay? Howell Andy Warhol “Pop Art is an art movement in the U.S. in essay question, the 1950’ s and . reached its peak of activity in the 1960’ s , chose as its subject matter the anonymous, everyday, standardized, and banal iconography in American life, as comic strips, billboards, commercial products, and celebrity images and dealt with them typically in vents, such form as outsize commercially smooth paintings, mechanically reproduced silk-screens, large-scale facsimiles, and soft sculptures”(Dictionary). 20th century , Andy Warhol , Art 1413 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Question? Consumerism can best be defined as the promotion of the for reception consumers’ interests and the theory that an increasing consumption of goods is . economically desirable.
Andy Warhol was amongst many other artists who were attacked for their open embrace of consumerism. He liked the idea that consumerism could unify Americans’ of all different backgrounds but he believed that there was a lack of creativity and originality in advertising. Warhol began to use everyday objects as his subjects’ and built on the. Andy Warhol , Art , Arts 1650 Words | 4 Pages. Andy Warhol , American painter, printmaker, photographer, filmmaker, writer, publisher, commercial artist, and illustrator who . Ethics Question? first gained recognition with his imaginative advertising designs for hydrothermal chemosynthesis, elite clients such as Tiffany Company, retailer Henri Bendel, and I. Miller shoes.
Warhol ultimately became one of the most famous figures of the 20th century, renowned as much for the persona he created as for his multiple original silk-screen images of common supermarket products, front-page news events. Andy Warhol , Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art , Art 1586 Words | 5 Pages. Andy Warhol Never before have I encountered more intriguing works of art than those done by Andy . Warhol . I have been curious about ethics essay question, his life ever since I saw his work in Milwaukee. I saw his famous work of the Campbell's Soup Can . By viewing this, one can tell he is hydrothermal chemosynthesis not your average artist. I'm sure his life is full of interesting events that shaped him into who he was. As an artist myself, I would like to get to know the background of essay his life. I may then be able to appreciate his styles. Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans , Carnegie Mellon University 2008 Words | 5 Pages. Term Paper on Andy Warhol The artist that had the chemosynthesis most influence in the 20th Century was Andy . Warhol . His life was such a struggle from the ethics essay question beginning he contracted rheumatic fever at a young age and had neurological problems. Sample Essay? He was born of parents that were from Czechoslovakia and moved to Pittsburgh before his birth on August 6, 1928.
His mother had a huge influence on his art and would buy him candy bars as a reward for painting. His father died when he was young and his older brother took. Andy Warhol , Campbell Soup Company , Campbell's Soup Cans 2292 Words | 6 Pages. In this day and ethics essay age, the artist Andy Warhol is best known for his iconic pop art prints. Examples of his printed artwork include . the Marilyn Diptych, a silkscreen painting containing fifty identical images of essay for ibsat Marilyn Monroe’s face, and ethics the famous Campbell’s Soup Can series, paintings of the titular can . Warhol’s printed artworks remain the most famous of his creations; however, he was much more than just an ordinary pop artist. Sample? Andy Warhol , working with many media types such as film, sculpture, and.
Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 1358 Words | 4 Pages. ? Abstract Andy Warhol was born and essay raised in a poor family in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. Of Essays On Ap English? . His mother was his influential person; he depended on his mother, Julia which is related to Erickson’s Trust vs. Mistrust. He trusted his mother with everything and she was her inspiration that is why when he grew up to be an artist, he had a lot of portraits of his mother in essay question, his art museum and gallery in New York. And had an odd personality and was very shy. He hid when. Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans , Developmental psychology 2829 Words | 7 Pages. Ye Waterloo? Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola) was one of the most well known and ethics influential artists of the late 20th century. . Essay For Ibsat? Warhol moved from his birthplace of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania to New York and worked as a commercial artist for many magazines including Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and the New Yorker. He also did window displays and advertisements for retail stores. His first profitable job was illustrating an article in Glamour magazine titled Success is ethics essay a Job in New York ( Andy Warhol : Biography).
In. Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans , Joe Dallesandro 905 Words | 3 Pages. neurological disorder, the 3 types on ap exam young Andy Warhol found solace and escape in the form of popular celebrity magazines and DC comic . books, imagery he would return to years later. (http://www.warholfoundation.org/legacy/biography.html) After graduation Andy Warhola attended the Carnegie Institute of ethics question Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon University), graduating in June 1949 with a degree in Pictorial Design and dropping the “a“ from his last name. On February 22, 1987 Andy Warhol , a millionaire at the age of french 58. Andy Warhol , Brigid Berlin , Carnegie Mellon University 795 Words | 3 Pages. Andy Warhol the ethics question “Founder and a Major Figure of the Pop Art Movement” Andy Warhol Andrew Warhola is hydrothermal considered to be the ethics question “founder and a good thesis in this essay a major figure of the pop art movement”. He was born in . Pittsburgh Pennsylvania in 1928. He graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology, where he majored in pictorial design. He worked as an illustrator in many magazines including Vogue, Harpers Bazaar and the New Yorker, but, his big break was in 1949, when he illustrated for Glamour Magazine. Question? Andy Warhol was born with the name Andrew Warhola, he dropped the “a” when his.
Andy Warhol , Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 799 Words | 3 Pages. Andy Warhol - the Pop Arts' Movement. A Good With? 50' s and early 60' s . Ethics Question? Dubbed, the founding father of the movement, Andy Warhol brought forward . society's obsession with mass culture and for reception allowed it to become the subject of question art itself. Using many techniques such as isolation, repetition and colour placement, Warhol brought to the world of art his views on materialism, politics, economics and the media. Andy was quick to 3 types on ap warn his admirers and ethics essay critics, ?do not look any deeper than the surface of my art and my life' (Bockris 21). Andy Warhol produced. Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 1082 Words | 3 Pages.
Robert Tracy April 28, 2009 Flowers, 1967, by Andy Warhol The Bellagio Gallery of Fine Art showcases the a good thesis begins essay i will finest examples of . painting, sculpture and other impressive work by essay question some of the world’s most influential and renowned artists. The current exhibition of Classic Contemporary: Lichtensein, Warhol and a good thesis statement begins with i will Friends is an exhibit that features important paintings and sculpture by major contemporary artists, primarily from the 1960s and essay question ‘70s. Andy Warhol was at sample french essay the forefront of the Pop Art movement;. Andy Warhol , Art , Culture 1013 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics Essay Question? Andy Warhol : A Pop Culture Icon Henry Matisse once said, The freedom of the artist is in reality the impossibility of . following the path beaten by all others. In other words, the yang ye waterloo thesis degree in which an artist interprets the ethics essay world that is laid out before him is vents what makes him unique. Ethics Question? Andy Warhol was a master at creating a distinctive account of what came before him and essay what presently surrounded him. It was this rare talent that made Andy Warhol into question, a pop culture icon with a profound influence on. Andy Warhol , Art , Arts 2404 Words | 7 Pages. Everyone Will Be Famous for 15 Minutes – Andy Warhol. ” – Andy Warhol Andy Warhol’s 15 minutes of fame has lasted for on ap english exam, 25 years. He created different art forms . fromhand drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, silk screening, sculpture, film, and music.
According to http://www.art.com/gallery/id--a76/ andy - warhol -posters.htm ‘he produced more than art-he was essentially his own brand’. Ethics? He was an artist from America who was well known for ye waterloo, being an important part of the starting of a visual art movement by the name of pop art. Warhol was. Andy Warhol , Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art , Art 907 Words | 3 Pages. Question? Campbell Tomato Soup Prepared by X -Executive Summary- The Campbell Soup . Company is the essay for ibsat world’s largest soup manufacturer in the world. In 1897, the Company created their first product, Campbell Condensed Tomato Soup . The White and Red cans are now the essay question most famous brand of tomato soup in the United States and around the globe. Through this product, the hydrothermal chemosynthesis Campbell Soup Company is essay targeting all kinds of populations, from families to the working people. Thesis Statement In This Essay? With an average of. Andy Warhol , Campbell Soup Company , Campbell's Soup Cans 1953 Words | 6 Pages.
Dyer B POP ART AND ANDY WARHOL PRESENTATION. ART AND ANDY WARHOL PRESENTATION Benjamin Dyer Arts/125 June 29,2015 Marianne Murawski What is Pop Art ? Merriam-Webster . Dictionary defines Pop Art as ? An art form in which common objects such as road signs, hamburgers, comic strips, or soup cans are used as subject matter and are often physically incorporated in the work A. Ethics Essay? Warhol Biography Overview ? ? ? ? Born: Aug. 6, 1928 Died: Feb. 22, 1987 Was a successful magazine and ad illustrator who became a leading artist of the 1960’ s Pop Art. Aesthetics , Andy Warhol , Art 669 Words | 8 Pages. ffis in convenience stores. Campbell , s recognizes changing Traditional companies such as . Campbell , s are constantlytry_ ing to come up with new product offerings that will appeal to the ever-changing nature of consumer markets. A4tile Camp_ bell's maintains its position as the market leader for canned, condensed soups , it has found the size of that market shrink_ ing in recent years. But thanks to hydrothermal vents Carl lohnson, chief strate_ gl,officer of Campbell Soup Co., the company is introducing . Campbell Soup Company , Campbell's Soup Cans , Soup 903 Words | 1 Pages. Andy Warhol: Influence on the Twentieth Century Pop Art Movement. As a profound influence on the twentieth century pop art movement, Andy Warhol ascended to become a cornerstone in the modern art . world.
After taking cues from society in the mid-twentieth century, as well as conversing with Muriel Latow, Warhol did what many artists strived to do but failed. Andy also extracted many of essay his ideas from english exam other artists and built on them. He put a culture on canvas and revolutionized pop art for a life time. The nineteen sixties, seventies, and eighties were periods. Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans , Coca-Cola 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Campbell Soup , Co. Camden, N.J. - When R. David C. Macnair, Campbell Soup Co.‘ s chief . technical ofticer, summoned doctors and nutrinists for a preview of the company’s promismg new product, he wasn’t prepared for ethics question, the gasps as he unveiled a helping of mashed potatoes. Unexpectedly, they were glowing bright green The fluorescent spuds might have been a harbinger for Campbell back in resume for reception, 1992, as the soup company pursued its most ambitious and secretive product in ethics essay, a century: a regimen of essay for ibsat nutrient-fortified. Artery , Atherosclerosis , Blood pressure 2460 Words | 6 Pages. Andy Warhol being one of the biggest influences in my work made him the obvious choice for this assignment.
I see Warhol's . influence on ethics essay question, the world we live in everyday and strongly believe he helped in creating the of essays on ap exam pop culture obsession in America. Andy went from rags to riches and defines the ethics essay question American dream. His work has inspired many and continues to be recognized by people throughout the world. Born August 6, 1928 to Andrej and Julia Warhola, Andy was the youngest of a good thesis begins essay three brothers. Andy's. Adobe Creative Suite , Adobe Photoshop , Andy Warhol 1517 Words | 4 Pages. Andy Warhol - Research Artist Andy Warhol was heavy handed in his use of repetition and ethics color.
He . Sample? used these elements in many of his screen printed creations. This print of Marilyn Monroe, first produced in 1967, has become an iconic image often replicated and referenced in the media. Altering colors overlaying the same contoured image is ethics a style now commonly seen. More than twenty years after his death, Andy Warhol remains one of the most influential figures in french essay, contemporary art and culture. Warhol’s. Ethics Essay Question? Andy Warhol , Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art , Carnegie Mellon University 1651 Words | 5 Pages. Sample? Image Analysis – Andy Warhol and Damien Hirst. exploring two artefacts and discussing the relationships between them, considering the meanings behind them, the time and context. The first artefact I have . chosen to explore is ethics ‘Turquoise Marilyn’, which is Acrylic and Silkscreen on Linen created by Andy Warhol , 1964. The second artefact is ‘For the Love of God’, which is platinum cast of a human skull, studded with over 8500 diamonds, created by Damien Hirst, 2007. Essay For Ibsat? While I think these two artifacts offer multiple topics of interesting similarities I want. Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 1882 Words | 5 Pages.
Brief comparison of ethics Andy Warhol and 3 types english Jackson Pollock, and their contrasting body of question work. Preliminary half yealy exam, question 3: Compare and contrast bodies of work by french essay 2 artists you have studied. In your discussion address the essay significance of . intentions to their practice. JACKSON POLLOCK AND ANDY WARHOL Jackson Pollock and Andy Warhol were American based artists during the same period; the 1940s, 50s, and of essays english 60s. Almost every aspect of their art is antonymous and extremely different, from their art practice, to the meaning they constructed in their works, to the audience and world they. Abstract expressionism , Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans 738 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics? Engineering and of essays RD departments. Having a centralized organization with a decentralized engineering department makes meeting the ethics essay company objective quite . difficult.
Also, if the company’s objective does not align with the department specific objectives Campbell Soup is setting their selves up for failure. Sales and Marketing are concerned with increasing market share and gaining profit, while the Plants are worried about operational performance, and Engineering is focused on individual parts of the system. Campbell Soup Company , Innovation , Management 1269 Words | 4 Pages. Campbell Soup Company (CSC) was a diversified food processor known for its strong brands and product quality. One of for reception its products . is produce ready-to-serve soups for customer who is not able to make soup . Formerly, Campbell's products spread all over 3 segments of condensed soups , ready-to-serve soups and question dry soup , and it is considering to a good statement begins in this expand its product to microwavable soups to make customer more convenient for ethics, preparing soup without container. The following figure showed the foundation of CSC. Campbell Soup Company , Industry , Manufacturing 860 Words | 3 Pages. John Lennon by Andy Warhol John Lennon by Andy Warhol was created in 1985 (Christies.com), shortly . after the Vietnam War ended in 1975 (Kennedy Hickman). Sample French Essay? John Lennon, who was an antiwar activist, was assassinated in 1981 (Wikipedia). Due to his pivotal role in the music industry, he was extremely influential.
Andy Warhol executed his portrait of John as a tribute four years after Lennon’s death. Question? As a medium, Warhol used synthetic polymer paint and silkscreen inks on canvas (Christies.com). Essay For Ibsat? His. Ethics Essay? Andy Warhol , David Bowie , George Harrison 952 Words | 3 Pages. a full grown woman arriving at the shore. Painted in 1486, and with the medium of tempera on canvas, The Birth of Venus hangs in the Uffizi gallery in . Florence Italy. This renaissance painting is huge and vents is 67.9 inches tall by 109.6 inches wide.
Andy Warhol’s screen print Venus was done is 1984 and has been mass produced all over the country. There are many critiques and analysis for both of these pieces. Essay Question? Also there is a large amount of comparisons between the two, because they are both of the. Andy Warhol , Florence , History of painting 2161 Words | 5 Pages. Valuation of Campbell Soup Company Susan Price December 11, 2008 Dr. Jacqueline Garner Finance 601 Business . description brief history Campbell Soup Company is ye waterloo thesis a global manufacturer of high quality soup , beverage, confectionery, and prepared food products. The company is 136 years old, counts about ethics essay, 22,500 employees and represents close to $8 billion in in this, annual sales. Its portfolio is very broad and now includes more than 20 market-leading brands.
Campbell’s North American. Arnott's Biscuits Holdings , Campbell Soup Company , Financial ratios 2136 Words | 7 Pages. Andy Warhol : Pop Politics Andy Warhol -- one of the most influential American artists of the ethics essay . twentieth century -- captured the likeness of some of the most visionary and sample french essay powerful political leaders of the essay 20th century. Images of essay John F. Kennedy, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Queen Elizabeth II, and Mao Zedong, among others will hang side-by-side when the ethics essay question Currier Museum of hydrothermal vents Art presents Andy Warhol : Pop Politics from essay September 27, 2008 through January 4, 2009. Pop Politics displays together for. John F. Kennedy , John F. Kennedy assassination , Kennedy family 1132 Words | 4 Pages. Campbell Soup Company 20041794 ??? 20050254 ??? 20061941 ??? 20071546 ??? Contents . 1. Company overview 2. Vents? Case introduction 3. Plastigon developing process 4. Problem Soultion 1. Essay? Over view Campbell soup company /2006 Revenue: $7,343million Operation profit: $1151 million Headquater: Camden, New Jersey Emloyees: 23000 people Market share: about 80% Vision: “Together we will build the world’s most. Arnott's Biscuits Holdings , Camden, New Jersey , Campbell Soup Company 1622 Words | 6 Pages. Hydrothermal? Marcel Duchamp Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhole art essay. ? Case Study Essay ‘The artistic exchange of ideas and influences can profoundly affect the art world’- Explore this statement with reference . to a range of ethics essay question artists and sample french artworks.
Artistic exchange is a conceptual idea involving the exchange of artistic methods, ideas, and other elements of an artist's practice; and if an artist is a pioneer or an innovator, their ideas can resonate through exchange to transform the entire art world. Throughout the essay question 20th Century the shaping of the art world came into. A Good Statement Begins In This I Will? Art , Cubism , Found art 1332 Words | 3 Pages. category that allows for brand building. Socio-cultural During the ethics essay question time of this case study (2007-2008) there was a new awareness of the importance of . eating well. Chemosynthesis? Part of this trend included the at-home consumption of ethics food and beverages, of which soup (Campbell’s single largest focus of their marketing efforts) was a big part of.
There was also the increase in the sales of for reception convenience food for time-constrained customers. “Mainstream consumers have become more health conscious in the last decade. Campbell Soup Company , Campbell's Soup Cans , Food 3721 Words | 17 Pages. ANDY WARHOL Annette Mazzoni ART: 121 Facilitator: Thom Maltbie December 17, 2012 ANDY WARHOL . Andy Warhol was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 6, 1928. He birth name was Andrew Warhola. He grew up in Pittsburgh, with his two older brothers and his parents, both of whom had emigrated from Czechoslovakia (Biography, 2012). His father was a construction worker, while his mother was an embroiderer. They were devout Catholics who attended mass regularly, and maintained much of ethics essay their. AE Network , Andy Warhol , Art 757 Words | 2 Pages. Campbell Soup Company Background Campbell was founded shortly before the start of the Civil War. Abraham . Anderson and Joseph Campbell began manufacturing canned vegetables and fruit preserves. In 1976, Campbell bought out Anderson’s interest and renamed the firm the for reception Joseph Campbell Preserving Company.
Later, Arthur Dorrance was Campbell’s new partner. In the early 1920s, John Dorrance, Arthur Dorrance’s nephew, was the sole owner of the Campbell Soup Company, which was the largest producer. Audit , Auditing , Auditor's report 983 Words | 3 Pages. Natural Environment and ethics question Campbell Soup. by achieving a balance between profits, avoiding damage to the environment, and achieving social benefits (Douglas, 2012). Ye Waterloo Thesis? Traditionally, firms focused on question, . profit maximization to achieve profits to a good statement begins in this essay pay out dividends and capital gains so shareholders can buy things. In a recent article, Nursing Homes are overbilling Medicare $1.5 billion a year for treatments patients don’t need or never receive.
When nursing homes where for-profit, 30% of claims sampled were considered improper while non-profit nursing. Ethics Question? Arterial road , Camden, New Jersey , Campbell Soup Company 1249 Words | 4 Pages. Andy Warhol: Best-known for his silk-screened photographs of Marilyn Monroe. Resume For Reception? Andy Warhol Best-known for his silk-screened photographs of Marilyn Monroe, Jacqueline Kennedy, Elizabeth Taylor and Elvis . Presley, Andy Warhol accustomed artists and critics worldwide to use the art of borrowed imagery. Replicating previous artwork from decades before him, Andy Warhol became the founding father of ethics question appropriation, that has now become a symbol of postmodernism, and an artistic approach for an era in which concepts of innovation and authorship are thoroughly questioned. This theory.
Art , Country music , Elvis Presley 832 Words | 3 Pages. side, the 60s gave rise to the consumer and environmental protection laws. The arrival of the Beatles (1964) from the United Kingdom forever changed the . 3 Types English? music culture in the United States. The 60s also saw major works of art from artists such as Andy Warhol . Significant scientific and technological achievements were also made during this decade as a result of the space war. Ethics? Political The Cold War and space war with the USSR, the election of President Kennedy and his assassination, the beginning. Cold War , John F. Kennedy , Lyndon B. Johnson 1993 Words | 6 Pages. Andy Warhol I’ve chosen to write my paper on the 20th century artist Andy Warhol . Andy . Warhol was born as Andrew Warhola on August 6th, 1928 in french, Pittsburg, PA. He is known as a lead figure in pop art for his visually striking prints and paintings. He was also known on the side for filmmaking, author, and for the people he associated with including celebrities, intellectuals and wealthy people. Andy Warhol is well known in the artist community, one of his paintings being sold for up to $100 million. Andy Warhol , Art , Carnegie Mellon University 518 Words | 2 Pages. Essay? literature deal wish close relationships.” In the novel Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, the two protagonists have a close relationship. George Milton and . Lennie Small are two migrant workers who travel around Salinas Valley, California, in the 1930’ s during the Great Depression.
Unquestionably, George and Lennie affect each other in both positive and negative ways. A Good Thesis Begins With Essay? George Milton and ethics question Lennie Small are the two main characters who share a strong bond throughout the novel. George Milton is a responsible. Great Depression , John Steinbeck , Of Mice and essay for ibsat Men 1395 Words | 4 Pages. Campbell's Soup Cans (sometimes referred to question as 32 Campbell's Soup Cans ) is a work of art produced . in 1962 by Andy Warhol . It consists of 32 canvases, each measuring 20 inches in height ? 16 inches in width (50.8 ? 40.6 cm) and of essays english exam each consisting of a painting of a Campbell's Soup can ? one of each of the question canned soup varieties the company offered at the time. The individual paintings were produced with a semi-mechanized silkscreen process, using a non-painterly style. Campbell's Soup Cans ' reliance. Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell Soup Company 5537 Words | 16 Pages. Question 1. Visit Campbell’s Soup home page at www.cambellsoupcompany.com. Sample? Click on “Governance” and then “Code of Ethics for ethics, the CEO and . Senior Financial Officer.” What leadership concepts presented in this chapter are illustrated in this code?
Is this code consistent with the yang thesis presentation of Douglas Conant in the Learning from Experience feature? Explain. Campbell Soup Company is committed to conducting its business in compliance with the law and the highest ethical standards. The. Campbell Soup Company , Chief executive officer , Chief financial officer 950 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics Essay? Andrew Warhol born in 1928, known as Andy Warhol , was an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a . Essay? leading figure in ethics, the visual art movement knows as pop art.
At an early age, he showed an of essays english exam, artistic talent and studied at the School of Fine Arts at Carnegie Institute of essay Technology. In 1949, he moved from Pennsylvania to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and for reception advertising. In the essay question 1950’ s , he gained his fame, but during the sample french 1096’ s was when his first pop exhibits hit the. Ethics Question? Andy Warhol , Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art , Art 650 Words | 2 Pages. Andy Warhol Biography 1928-1987 Campbell's Soup : Black Bean (c) VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2001/2002 No other artist . is yang thesis as much identified with Pop Art as Andy Warhol . The media called him the Prince of Pop. Warhol made his way from a Pittsburgh working class family to an American legend. Born in Pittsburgh Andy was born in 1930 in ethics essay, Pittsburgh as the resume son of Slovak immigrants. His original name was Andrew Warhola. His father was as a construction worker and died in an accident when Andy was 13 years. Andy Warhol , Art , Arts 3583 Words | 9 Pages.
It is ethics essay rare for an artist to become a celebrity, but Andy Warhol experienced much more than his fifteen minutes of 3 types on ap exam fame, and . Question? became an icon of hydrothermal chemosynthesis his generation. Andrew Warhola was born August Sixth, 1928, in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. He was the youngest son of Julie and Andrej Warhola, both immigrants from ethics essay question Czechoslovakia. In Fifth grade Andrew started attending the free Saturday classes that the Carnegie Institute taught. It is noted that even then young Andrew excelled at his art. Due to the bullying. Thesis Begins With In This Essay? Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans , Exploding Plastic Inevitable 752 Words | 2 Pages.
screen-printing; secondly, a discussion of the formal and conceptual potential inherent to printmaking, and the way in ethics essay, which Warhol expertly . exploited that potential. Vents Chemosynthesis? Finally, I will conclude with an actual demonstration of ethics essay screen-printing in the Museum’s basement studio.) In coming weeks, you’ll have an opportunity to hear much more about the cultural-historical context for Andy Warhol’s work from two exceptional area scholars, beginning next Friday evening with a lecture by my colleague at GV, Dr. Andy Warhol , Andy Warhol Museum of essay for ibsat Modern Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 2586 Words | 7 Pages. Comparison of the Works of Andy Warhol and James F. Gill. Gifford Instructor Tim Harding American Art History 21 May 2013 Andy Warhol vs.
James Gill The following paper will . compare and question contrast the works of sample essay Andy Warhol and James F. Gill. Ethics Essay? I will begin by discussing Mao Tse-Tung No. 91 by Andy Warhol . Yang? This is a silk-screen portrait of the essay communist Chinese leader Mao Tse-Tung. It is a simple forward facing portrait from the shoulders up, created with garish colors. Artist: Andy Warhol Title: Mao Tse-Tung No. 91, 1972 Size: 36” x 36” Medium: Screen. Andy Warhol , Color , Communist Party of sample french essay China 2638 Words | 7 Pages. Interview of Andy Warhol Roy Lichtenstein Pop art historical period developed in question, the 1950’ s . Subjects in . this style come from mass culture and a good thesis begins essay commercial design (Sporre 371). A reflective evaluation of pop art demonstrates the magnitude or importance of art is impartial of the subject matter.
The works of two practioners of pop art Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein demonstrates the genre of pop art. Part art is ethics question fundamentally a poignant reflection of a good thesis statement begins with in this essay i will what is called the contemporary scene. Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans , Comic strip 867 Words | 3 Pages. Corporate Social Responsibility: Campbell Soup Co. Analysis. “COOKING UP SCHEMES” ( CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY) They've been known globally for ethics essay, their infectious Mmmmm mmmm good slogan. In . recent years, however, the New Jersey based, food and beverage company that brought us V8 Splash, Pepperidge Farm and for reception Campbell's Soup , has become known for question, a bit more - their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Essay? Campbell Soup Co. has consistently made the essay question top ten list of Corporate Responsibility Magazine's 100 Best Corporate Citizens - placing second in 2011 and eight in. Arnott's Biscuits Holdings , Camden, New Jersey , Campbell Soup Company 1353 Words | 4 Pages. CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY VISION: “Together, we will do extraordinary things in the workplace and in the marketplace.” . MISSION: Together we will build the ye waterloo thesis world’s most extraordinary food company by nourishing people’s lives everywhere, every day.
STATEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVE: • To improve the essay performance in hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis, marketing strategy • To maximize the profit in global market I. CENTRAL PROBLEM How Campbell Soup Company do an action in essay question, order to a good begins with in this i will keep growing their. Better , Campbell Soup Company , Decision making 473 Words | 4 Pages. A Cat Is Not a Can of Soup Have you been thinking of getting a pet? Wait a minute before you rush down to question a pet shop. . Adopting a pet from the Ferndale Shelter is often a wiser move than buying one. Chemosynthesis? However, many families hesitate to visit the shelter because they aren't aware of its advantages or have mistaken ideas about what they will find there. To begin with, you may believe that you're more likely to find a healthy, well-adjusted dog or cat at a pet shop. From what I have seen here in. All rights reserved , Cat , Dog 956 Words | 3 Pages. I just paint things I always thought were beautiful, things you use every day and never think about ethics essay, I just do it because I like it. (Beckris 110) I just do . it because I like it is essay for ibsat Andy's philosophy on life. Andy might just be the most interesting and and at the same time the most confusing individual you will ever read about. Andy's work is like none others.
His art brought common day people together and ethics essay question showed the thesis statement begins essay i will impact of contemporary society and the idea of mass media on values. Andy's father. Ethics Essay? Andy Warhol , Campbell's Soup Cans , Carnegie Institute of Technology 3750 Words | 8 Pages. For Reception? The Founder of Pop Art: Andy Warhol. The Founder of Pop Art: Andy Warhol Andy Warhol is the god father of Pop Art.
His window . advertisements were the ethics essay question beginning of an era where art would be seen in an array of resume forms away from the traditional paintings and sculptures of the old world. His love of bright colors and bold patters along with his quirky personality paved the way for his successful career as a major figure in essay, the pop art movement. Warhol was born in essay for ibsat, 1930, in the town of McKeesport, Pennsylvania. His parents were Czech. Andy Warhol , Art , Campbell's Soup Cans 543 Words | 2 Pages.
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