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Hobbit essay ideas

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Uni Essay: Thesis Ideas For The Hobbit …

business plan grant Rio Grande and hobbit, Phone. Thorpe's Essays! I am available at 481-1424 on Mondays and hobbit essay, Wednesdays from thorpe's essays, 9 to 10 as well as after class at Rio Grande on Tuesdays and Thursdays after my class the first 8 weeks of the semester. Please make an appointment by emailing me at [email protected] so that we can make sure we connect. Please note that this syllabus is not as detailed as that available in Blackboard. Please refer to that Syllabus for up to date information. Thanks. Essay Ideas! Syllabus: ETWR 1376-002 Grant and Business Proposal Development. Instructor:Ana Mejia-Dietche, JD.

Phone: 481-1424 and 597-7123 (days, emergency only). Note: It is REQUIRED that you copy both email addresses when trying to contact me. ACC#39;s spam blocker can catch some of your emails so I like to have a backup in place! Course Structure: In the the value education classroom, this course is hobbit ideas taught in a highly interactive format that includes some lecture but is dissertation mostly based on group interaction, self-evaluation and exercises, peer evaluation, case studies, and role-playing. Ideas! For this approach to enhance your and your classmates’ learning, you must participate regularly. Course Rationale: If I were to boil down my approach to teaching this class to ferro homework, one idea, it would be that we all learn by doing. This is essay ideas a project based class. You can only be successful if you do your work and review others#39; work. This gives you the opportunity to apply what you learn in multiple ways. Both grant writing and business proposal writing are about positioning your ideas and/or organization in such a way that others will want to invest in them. You simply cannot position your organization in best thesis, this way without careful planning and research.

Then, you must write, edit and get critiques from everyone who will read it. The course is divided into four segments. We will do practical, real world examples of each type of essay ideas, activity during the course of the semester, culminating in at least one complete proposal for can a be at the end an organization that you select or create. You will review your classmates#39; work and they will review yours. 2. Plan. We will look at the importance of planning both for the business as a whole and to essay ideas, ensure project success. Pope Essays! 3. Write from the plan.

We will focus on each section of the proposal and draft and review the proposal in order to complete a full proposal this semester. 4. Peer review proposals. Essay Ideas! This is the heart of the course. Swift! You will learn so much from applying what you read to reviewing others#39; work. Essay Ideas! It is also the way you will learn about both forms of proposals. Since I consider it so important to your learning, class participation is worth 27% of your grade. Please note that this syllabus is not as detailed as that available in Blackboard. Please refer to that Syllabus for up to date information. Thanks.

You will read both of these books for the course at a rate of two to and jonathan, four chapters a week. Abrams, Rhonda, The Successful Business Plan: Secrets and Strategies,425 pages. The Planning Shop; 5 edition (September 16, 2010) , English, ISBN-10 : 1933895144. (OPTIONAL - if you are using this class to write a business proposal, you may want to purchase the Excel spreadsheets so that you can fully develop your financials. Hobbit Essay! These can be found at www.theplanningshop.com) Please note that this syllabus is not as detailed as that available in pope and jonathan swift essays, Blackboard. Please refer to that Syllabus for up to essay ideas, date information. Thanks. We will cover the following topics in lecture, write each section, complete a peer review and redraft in response to that peer review.

I will grade that draft and you will use this feedback for a final draft of the proposal. Finding a funder for a business or grant proposal. Writing the ferro homework company description (business plan) or organization background (grant proposal). Writing the Industry Analysis and Trends and Target Market or the Needs Statement. Writing the Strategic Position and Risk Assessment and Marketing Plan or the Goals and Objectives Writing the Operations, Management and essay ideas, Organization and Technology Plan or the Methods Sections Writing the Community Involvement and Development and ferro homework, Milestones, Exit Plan or the hobbit Evaluation and Sustainability Sections Writing the Exeutive Summary or Program/Project Summary Financials. At the end of the semester, you will present your proposal to the class.

Student Learning Outcomes/Learning Objectives. Student Learning Outcomes/Learning Objectives. Please note that this syllabus is not as detailed as that available in Blackboard. Ferro Homework! Please refer to hobbit essay, that Syllabus for up to date information. Thanks. ETWR 1376 SCANS Competencies. Please go to www.austincc.edu/mkt/scans.htm#whatisfor a complete definition and explanation of SCANS. This list summarizes the swift essays SCANS competencies addressed in this particular course. Essay Ideas! 1.1 Manages Time. 2.1 Participates as a Member of a Team.

2.5 Negotiates to Arrive at a. 3.1 Acquires and Evaluates Information. 3.2 Organizes and Maintains Information. (none for this course) 5.1 Selects Technology. 5.2 Applies Technology to Task. 7.1 Creative Thinking. 7.2 Decision Making. 7.3 Problem Solving. 7.4 Mental Visualization. 7.5 Knowing How to Learn. The End Essay! Enhance students#39; understanding of government agencies and funding opportunities.

Encourage the use of collaborative planning, sound research techniques, and analysis in hobbit, the development of grant and business proposals. Practice the skills necessary to write competitive proposals. Alexander Pope Swift Essays! Encourage ethical practices in grant writing and business planning. Course Objectives: Students who complete this course will be able to: Research funding sources, demographics and agency profiles Understand various business and grant proposals components Write a competitive proposal either for a nonprofit or for-profit organization Review a proposal for content and style and evaluate for funding viability. Please note that this syllabus is not as detailed as that available in Blackboard. Please refer to that Syllabus for up to date information.

Thanks. Attendance/Time Management: Remember that this is a 16-week course being taught in an 8-week semester. That does not mean that you have half the work. Rather, it means you will do all the work in half the time. So it is essay really like taking two classes in one for 8 weeks. It is really easy to get behind. We need to cover a good bit of material quickly. Classroom students spend three hours in class twice a week and are expected to put in at chris dissertation, least that much time in outside of class. You will want to hobbit essay, budget your time accordingly. My advice is that you familiarize yourself with the schedule and work ahead on reading and writing so that last minute things in your life do not throw you off. I have the ability to monitor your participation in Blackboard and ferro homework, within Google Apps, so I can see when you’ve accessed course materials.

Peer Reviews are due on Saturdays of the week the first draft is turned in: so that everyone has time to review/ discuss and incorporate suggested changes before they turn in their second draft the following Thursday. Students will complete peer review of essay, one other student’s proposal every week. Can A Thesis Essay! Grading Policy: The final grade for the course will be based on a 100 point scale that includes the following. If it’s easier to understand, think of each of these categories as an average of scores on a 100 point scale that each are worth the indicated percentage. You will earn about hobbit ideas 3 points of your final grade for each week of participation. I will give you a point for posting first drafts of thesis blog, each section of your proposal for peer review and a point for the peer review that you will complete responding to your classmate’s work each week. I will also award up to 8 points for class attendance and my observation of your visits to the site and participation in ideas, the discussion group. Points will be subtracted only if you do not have a homework assignment ready, miss required peer reviews or do not post to the site. Of College Education! You must check in every week.

Please let me know if you need to hobbit, be away or are offline for more than a few days for some reason. 28 Percent/Points - Writing Homework. You will select the funder for a nonprofit grant proposal OR a business plan that you would like to thesis blog designs, be funded and write the proposal one section at a time. I will critique second drafts of all sections and award a numerical grade. The average of those grades will be weighted at essay, 28 percent of your final grade. This will give you an opportunity to alexander and jonathan swift essays, make corrections in hobbit, response to peer review before I. The worksheets are a great tool in putting together your proposal and you will find writing easier if you use them. If you are behind or not participating, I may ask you to submit completed worksheets as a way to gauge your progress and may average the chris plagiarized results of that check into this part of your grade. Otherwise, you are on the honor system in completing that piece of the course. At the end of the semester, you will have a complete proposal. Your proposal should meet a specific funder#39;s criteria or encourage investment in your business idea by a specific type of hobbit, investor, usually a loan officer.

Drafts of each section are peer reviewed. I correct and grade second drafts after you complete the rewrites of each during the course of the semester. This draft should be at least your third and it should be easy to ferro homework, earn full credit for this assignment if you accept and incorporate suggestions. The final will be a take-home test. I will post the test in week 4 and you will complete the proposal and return it to me by email during the ideas last class..

Students who complete other requirements for the course in a timely manner and do not need an thorpe's essays A in essay, the course may be exempt from the final. I will let you know if you are eligible for that exemption. You must complete the final to earn an A in the class. Austin Community College District #8226; Austin, TX #8226; Syllabus Version 0.5 Beta.

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Uni Essay: Thesis Ideas For The Hobbit …

John O Hara The Ideal Man Essays and Research Papers. Ideal Man Ideal is a word with several different definitions depending on one’s interpretation. Marriam Webster . Dictionary says that ideal is “a standard of excellence.” The Random House College Dictionary gives a slightly different meaning with the definition of “regarded as perfect of hobbit ideas, its kind.” Hence, society can interpret the words standard, excellence, and plagiarized dissertation perfect as they please. Each individual may have a different perspective on the ideal man because of the way they understand the definition. Character , Fiction , Gabriel Garcia Marquez 1108 Words | 3 Pages. In the Arthurian time period, the ideal man in hobbit ideas, society was to act in accordance with the code of chivalry, follow the practices . of courtly love, and be the romantic hero. Thesis Be At The End Of An? During the hobbit essay ideas, time period of King Arthur’s reign, the thesis blog designs, knights of Camelot were expected to live up to essay ideas, the role of being the ideal man . However, not all knights lived up to this role properly.

Although the men in the stories “Le Morte d’Arthur” by Sir Thomas Malory, “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” by Pearl Poet, and the movie, “First. Excalibur , Gawain , Guinevere 1041 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sophia Lopez Mrs. Beall English 11th December 9, 2014 An Ideal Man Life is spence plagiarized not about ideas, gaining possessions, a good reputation or . social life. There is much more to life than what meets the eye.

Nothing in life will ever satisfy our human greed or desire, for the heart of man is chris spence plagiarized constantly changing. Material things such as possessions, a good reputation, etc. may satisfy our desire, but only for essay, a certain time because as soon as our heart changes we will want more and more and of college never be fully satisfied. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Heart 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Ideal Man Essay: Rewrite Alicia Luttrell AP English October 11, 2012 From ancient times to present day, authors from . Hobbit Essay? around the world have tried to pursue the ideal man . After reading some of their stories, it is easy to see that each story depends on the type of culture the author was raised in. Throughout this pursuit, the ideal man has taken on many different forms. The ideal man may be thought of as someone who is perfect, but some may see him as someone who overcomes faults or doubts.

A Good Man Is Hard to ferro homework, Find , Family , Fiction 849 Words | 3 Pages. Scarlette O' Hara Charater Analysis. SCARLETT O ’ HARA Analysis Essay 02/13/12 SCARLETT O ’ HARA Scarlett O ’ . Hobbit Essay Ideas? Hara is a woman who does what it takes to survive no matter what the case may be. In the book Gone with the Wind, Scarlett O ’ Hara plays a role of what most people might think is crazy. This upper class southern belle living in the country side of Atlanta, Georgia just before the Civil War takes place. She embarks on an adventure of turmoil, death, and deceitfulness. In this era of ferro homework, time during the Civil War Scarlett did. American Civil War , Ashley Wilkes , Gone with the hobbit ideas, Wind 1446 Words | 4 Pages. « You would be so much more the man » The play Macbeth published in 1603 by pope swift essays, Shakespeare presents the rise and the decadence, the decline of . power of King Macbeth. After killing, in order, King Duncan, his two chamberlains, Macbeth's general Banquo, Lady Macduff and her children, Macbeth manages to secure his power until Macduff battles with him and finally kills him. Essay Ideas? In the the value essay, play, Shakespeare indicates features that make up an ideal man . Through various character’s representations and actions.

Duncan I of hobbit ideas, Scotland , Gender , Macbeth 896 Words | 3 Pages. Johnson-Holland 12-15-13 Project Kenya Hara Kenya Hara was born in can a thesis the end of an, 1958, he is a graphic designer, professor at the . Musahino Art University and the art director of MUJI since 2002. In his career Hara has travel all over the world to find the meaning of designing, he is still searching for hobbit, the answer as we speak. Hara has built Japanese design of the thesis blog, opening and closing ceremonies of the Nagano Winter Olympics, and promotion of the Aichi Expo. Hara got a lot of design awards and even release. China , Chinese literature , Design 894 Words | 3 Pages.

? The Man of the House by Frank O'Connor SUMMARY This short story is about a little boy called Sullivan who has a sick mother. Essay Ideas? Sullivan is . initially unconcerned about ferro homework, his mother’s illness, and mildly pleased, because he got to hobbit essay, stay home and play at being the ‘ man of the house’. However, his initial delight changes to concern on the second day due to his fear that his mother has pneumonia. The second night and the value education the third day are even more frightening because he had to ideas, fetch the doctor and travel. 2000s music groups , Boy , Cough 696 Words | 3 Pages. Rabbits, war, amp; speech By: Kira 10/23/2014 John Steinbeck-- a famous man that made great additions to literature. . Steinbeck wrote classics such as Of Mice and Men, Once There Was a War, and many others. All of best blog, his stories were quick to talk about hobbit, human nature of some sort.

In 1962 when he received the spence dissertation, Nobel Prize, he openly expressed his opinion on what a writer should be making their readers feel. Mankind can either win or lose the battle internally as well as externally. Humans can conquer. Emotion , Great Depression , Henry Fonda 893 Words | 2 Pages. Imperial University, but instead, went on to become one of Japan’s best known modern novelists. Hobbit Ideas? His novel The Box Man (originally published as . ??, 1973), one of ferro homework, his most famous works, is a powerful metaphor about the hobbit essay ideas, high-speed economic growth in 1960s Tokyo, and the problems arising from it.The novel begins with the first of many images, a photographic negative showing the figure of a man . Beside this image is thorpe's essays what appears to essay ideas, be a newspaper clipping with the headline, “CLEAN SWEEP OF UENO HOBOS- Check.

Capitalism , Economic growth , Government of Japan 847 Words | 3 Pages. S.R. Thorpe's Essays? Nelson's Steel Drivin' Man Reviewed. S.R.NELSON’S STEEL DRIVIN’ MAN REVIEWED 1 S.R. Nelson’s Steel Drivin’ Man – John Henry, The Untold Story of an . American Legend Reviewed Caroline M. Smith University of Houston – Downtown 1 S.R.NELSON’S STEEL DRIVIN’ MAN REVIEWED 2 Introduction Scott Reynolds Nelson examined the hobbit ideas, life and death of the value essay, a Mr. John William Henry in the insightful book titled, Steel Drivin’ Man – John Henry, The Untold Story of an American Legend. According to Nelson, John Henry was from essay, Elizabeth City.

African American , Black people , Prison 1606 Words | 6 Pages. Hirosi Hara A Line Between Fantasy and Reality Fall 12 Hiroshi Hara The Line Between Fantasy Reality . Course: ARCH 028 – Japanese Concept of Space Instructor: Hani Zgheib Term Paper By: Hikmat El Edelbi ? 200900166 Brief Introduction Hiroshi Hara was born on September 9, 1936 in Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. He studied under . Hiroshi Hara , Japan , Kita-ku, Osaka 3317 Words | 6 Pages. Disney and Ideal Beauty What is alexander pope and jonathan “ ideal beauty” to you?

To me, it is how our society perceives the perfect man or . woman to look like, and how all humans should strive to make their appearance similar to. Hobbit Ideas? In today’s world, the media tries to push their opinions of “ ideal beauty” on thesis of an to the ideas, younger generation; through mass media and marketing. Disney, one of the largest and most prominent companies that appeal to alexander pope swift, children around the world, uses products such as animated features and merchandise to. Aladdin , Animation , Antagonist 1429 Words | 4 Pages. the Englishmen, John Locke.

John Locke was a philosophical influence in both political theory and essay ideas theoretical philosophy, which . was embraced among the era of 1789-1914 and the concept of equal rights among men. John Locke’s writings influenced the works of multiple diplomats concerning liberty and the social contract between society and the government. Education Essay? Locke’s ideology of hobbit essay ideas, man and thorpe's essays power was the base for essay ideas, the concept of separation of powers. As one of the enlightenment thinkers, John Locke wrote the. Age of Enlightenment , American Revolution , French Revolution 1801 Words | 5 Pages. Poetry Anthology on John Brereton. ASSIGNMENT ? Biography John Le Gay Brereton was born in Sydney, Australia, on the 2nd of September 1871. He was the fifth son of . Of College? John Le Gay Brereton (snr), a doctor, and his wife Mary Tongue.

His parents and family life impacted greatly on his view of the world, distorting it from the hobbit essay, views of the norm of the times. Of College Education? John senior was also a poet, and published several volumes of ideas, poetry. John junior went to school at alexander pope and jonathan essays Sydney grammar school, and was just 15 when his father died in 1886. John moved on to study. Love , Poetry , Rhyme 1400 Words | 5 Pages. To What Extent Does John Proctor Conform to the Ideal Tragic Hero in essay, “the Crucible” To what extent does John Proctor conform to the ideal tragic hero in “The Crucible”?

The most well known definition of a tragic . hero comes from the philosopher, Aristotle. When explaining a tragic hero, Aristotle states The change in thesis blog, the hero's fortunes be not from misery to happiness, but on the contrary, from happiness to ideas, misery, and the cause of it must not lie in any depravity but in some great error on his part. Also, he explains the of college education essay, four essential qualities that a tragic hero should possess. Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 941 Words | 3 Pages. 11 F December 7th, 2010 Character analysis: John Proctor John Proctor John Proctor is the leading role, . also known as the protagonist, in The crucible by Arthur Miller.

John Proctor is the play’s tragic hero; a good man with one fatal flaw that eventually leads to hobbit, his fall. John Proctor is honest, resolute, amp; upright. He is a man with pride. At the opening of the play, the narrator portrays the can a be at essay, real direct characterization of essay, John , The steady manner he displays does not come from. Confession , Giles Corey , Martha Corey 890 Words | 3 Pages. when you mention the can a thesis be at the end of an essay, name John Lewis is an image of a high street retail giant. Indeed the John Lewis Partnership is one of the hobbit ideas, . UK's top ten retail businesses with 27 John Lewis department stores and more than 166 Waitrose stores, the upmarket supermarket chain owned by the partnership, in Great Britain. The first store opened in Oxford Street London in 1864 with the first branch of the ferro homework, Waitrose chain opening in 1904.

But for many, what may be an essay ideas unknown detail about the John Lewis Partnership is that. Corporation , John Lewis , John Lewis Partnership 1720 Words | 6 Pages. New jersey city university | Ideal Society | Philosophy | | Parshv Shah | 4/21/2013 | This paper contains a personal opinion and . rough creation of an ideal society. The society created is based on ferro homework the personal values, present society issues and hobbit essay ideas from the reading and ferro homework teachings of the great philosophers who have tried to build their utopias in the past. | The perfect society does not exist. If it did however, it would probably sound much like the hobbit essay ideas, vacation brochures you can read. Capitalism , Communism , Democracy 1269 Words | 4 Pages.

John Locke and John Stuart Mill's Definition of Freedom. John Locke and John Stuart Mill's Definition of thorpe's essays, Freedom John Locke believes that man ought to have . more freedom in political society than John Stuart Mill does. John Locke's The Second Treatise of Government and John Stuart Mill's On Liberty are influential and potent literary works which while outlining the essay ideas, conceptual framework of each thinkers ideal state present two divergent visions of the very nature of man and his freedom. John Locke and John Stuart Mill have different views regarding how. Freedom of speech , John Stuart Mill , Liberalism 2018 Words | 6 Pages. Is John Proctor a Good Man? ('the Crucible', Arthur Miller) To characterise a man as “good” or “bad” is undoubtedly a near impossible task.

There are few men (or women) in this world that can honestly be . defined as purely one or the other. Thesis Blog Designs? Most cannot be categorised as “righteous” or “depraved”, simply because there is no such thing as a one-sided personality. Each person has multiple faces, multiple identities. Such is the hobbit, case of John Proctor. Proctor is can a thesis be at the end one of the key characters in Arthur Miller’s satirical play “The Crucible”.

Set in 1692, the play is. Elizabeth Proctor , Form of the Good , John Proctor 1273 Words | 3 Pages. Hemingway's Gender Ideals in The Old Man and the Sea. ?Kaitlin Lee December 5 2012 Miss Bone Honors English – Period 1 Masculinity and Gender in Hemingway's The Old Man and The Sea One of the hobbit essay ideas, . most predominantly accepted themes of and jonathan, Ernest Hemingway's assorted works is the importance of masculinity. His experiences in the war and personal values are reflected in his work, and are particularly clear in his prize winning novella, The Old Man and The Sea. The Old Man's connections and hobbit essay ideas relationship with the natural world around him and his responses to thesis, the. Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 1098 Words | 4 Pages.

What is your ideal man ? I never know how to answer questions like this one, so I usually just say something along the lines . of, My ideal man is someone who wants a committment, now, that may not sound like a bad thing-- actually, I believe every woman wants that-- but for hobbit ideas, a question like this, it needs depth; it needs detail, which is something I am not very good at doing-- I'll still try. - My ideal man reads novels, not those ragged Playboy, and Penthouse magazines but real books like. 2006 albums , 2006 singles , 2009 albums 847 Words | 2 Pages. 4, Midterm A Good Man Is Hard To Find By; Flannery O’Connor The grandmother in “A Good Man Is Hard to find” considers . herself morally superior to others by virtue of her being a “lady,” and ferro homework she freely and frequently passes judgment on others. She claims that her conscience is a guiding force in essay, her life, such as when she tells Bailey; I wouldn’t take my children in thorpe's essays, any direction with a criminal like that aloose in it. I couldn’t answer to hobbit essay, my conscience if I did” ( O ' Connor 250). She criticizes. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Cat Power , Flannery O'Connor 2165 Words | 6 Pages. indulgence that is be at characteristic of ideas, her artistic style.

There are huge differences in the application of color between the spence, two works. Albert Bierstadt uses . color in essay ideas, his landscape with one purpose in mind: accurately depicting the subject matter in its ideal state. Earthly tones are used for ferro homework, the dirt and mountains, lush green shades for essay ideas, the vegetation, and soft blue tones for the sky and its reflection on the lake’s surface. Although slightly idealized, the colors reflect something that can unquestionably. Albert Bierstadt , Hudson River School , Impressionism 1601 Words | 4 Pages. 1010 30 March 2015 John Wick John Wick is an incredible action packed movie about a hit man and a bunch of . mobsters. Chris Spence Plagiarized Dissertation? The legendary assassin John Wick decides to retire from his job of pretty much of just killing people that were in the wrong. John Wick is hobbit essay played by thesis, the famous actor Keanu Reeves.

John retires from hobbit ideas, his job because he marries his beloved wife. 5 years later his wife dies, but leaves him something to remember her by. Thesis Be At The End? She left him a dog so he would not be alone. Essay Ideas? John is torn apart by his. Assassination , Contract killing , Hitman 1089 Words | 3 Pages. On July 10, six days after our own Independence Day, the world will celebrate the ferro homework, birthday of ideas, John Calvin, the and jonathan essays, man most . responsible for our American system of hobbit essay, liberty based on Republican principles of representative government. Chris? It was Founding Father and the second President of the United States, John Adams, who described Calvin as a vast genius, a man of singular eloquence, vast erudition, and polished taste, [who] embraced the cause of Reformation, adding: Let not Geneva be forgotten or.

Calvinism , Geneva , Jean-Jacques Rousseau 688 Words | 3 Pages. A Good Man Is Hard to hobbit, Find and Flannery O Conner. Clarification of Flannery O’Conner: “A Good Man is Hard to Find” Clarification of Flannery O’Connor: “A Good Man is alexander Hard . to Find” Flannery O’Connor’s short story, “A Good Man is Hard to Find,” reveals a sense of personal corruption demonstrated through manipulation and the views of society. She shows these by using foreshadowing and characterization. In the beginning, a family of six people have a disagreement about where they are going for a vacation. The pleasant family road. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Family , Fiction 1432 Words | 5 Pages. 20 , , , , , 25 , , , , , , , , , ? , , , , , , ? , ; , , 1. , R G 1943) : , , , , , , : : ( 1963- ) , , , : , ( . Collinwood, 1889, , , , , , , , , : 2002 07 15 58 , , , , , , : 2. , ( A Good Man Is H ard to Find) , , , , : ; , ( Good Country People) , , : , , , , , , , , , , ( The Life You Save May Be Your Own) , : , , , ; , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ( Tertullian, 145- 200) : , , , ) , , ( , . 1903 , 1904 , 1907 393 Words | 5 Pages. John Lennon was known best for his music, but in addition to that he was a philosopher, artist, visionary, social leader and hobbit essay most importantly a . common man with a dream.

John Winston Lennon was born on October 9, 1940 in Liverpool, England. At a young age he was already very interested in music and would sit in his room and of college education play his guitar for hours on end. His skill with the guitar led to John bouncing around from band to hobbit essay, band until he met Paul McCartney and formed the Beatles (Encyclopedia of thesis be at of an essay, World. George Harrison , Give Peace a Chance , Imagine 1345 Words | 4 Pages. A Good Man Is Hard to hobbit, Find written by Flannery O’ Connor. A Good Man Is Hard To Find “A Good Man Is Hard To Find” is written by thorpe's essays, Flannery O ’ Connor. Hobbit Ideas? This cynical short story . takes a dive into this family’s lives while they are on spence plagiarized a road trip to Florida. During this supposed to hobbit essay, be long-lasting vacation, the reader gains a grasp of each character and the value essay their personalities.

As this ‘not so close’ family travels through Georgia, the grandmother and children convinced the father, Bailey, with their whining, to hobbit essay, go off course to ferro homework, some house the grandmother remembers. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Family 1105 Words | 3 Pages. John Steinbeck and the context of essay ideas, his book Of mice and man Where from is the chris spence plagiarized dissertation, title? John Steinbeck and the context of his book Of mice and man Where from ideas, is the ferro homework, title? John Steinbeck was . born in Salinas, California in hobbit essay ideas, 1902. Plagiarized Dissertation? Although his family was wealthy, he was interested in essay, the lives of the farm labourers and spent time working with them. Be At Of An? He used his experiences as material for his writing..

He worked his way through college at Stanford University but never graduated. Hobbit Essay Ideas? In 1925 he went to New York, where he tried for a few years to establish himself as a free-lance writer. Great Depression , John Steinbeck , Novella 827 Words | 3 Pages. An Successful Enlighten Thinker: John Locke. An Successful Enlighten Thinker: John Locke John Locke (1632-1704) is a Philosopher and Physician. He was known as one of the thorpe's essays, . most affective Founding Father of Enlighten movement.

Because of his past occupation, who used to persuade to become a doctor, he understood how people's lives, and what was the best form of government that they need. Ideas? Locke's theories in the Second Treaty of Government and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and his State of of college education, Nature, for ideas, examples, have influenced people. Government , John Locke , Law 901 Words | 3 Pages. the ideal society: An ideal society is something that the human kind strived to achieve throughout the whole existence, a . society where needs of the people regardless of their race, religion or wealth would be met. There has been pondering over the conditions of pope and jonathan swift essays, such system, and many great thinkers, such as Plato, Thomas More, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. etc have offered their opinions on essay ideas them to the public over the years.

A dream of be at the end, ‘Utopia’, however, seems unreachable as of now, as ideals and. Democracy , Human , Human rights 1256 Words | 3 Pages. “Happy The Man ” by John Dryden John Dryden was born on 9 August in 1631 in a small town in Northamptonshire, . England, the eldest of 14 children, was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who dominated the literary life of hobbit essay ideas, Restoration England to such a point that the period came to and jonathan swift essays, be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden. Walter Scott called him Glorious John .[1] He was made Poet Laureate in 1668. As a humanist public school, Westminster maintained. Iamb , Iambic pentameter , John Dryden 916 Words | 3 Pages. Renaissance Ideals of essay ideas, Humanism Are Expressed in the Italian Art of the Period. Discuss how Renaissance ideals of humanism are expressed in ferro homework, the Italian art of the period, referring to specific works and artists. During . the fourteenth century Italy witnessed notable changes, which throughout the next couple of centuries extended towards northern Europe. Hobbit? This was later described as the Renaissance, the best thesis designs, cultural achievements through sixteenth centuries; those achievements rest on the economic and ideas political developments of earlier centuries. (Western Society, 413) This was.

Florence , Italian Renaissance , Italy 960 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of essay, John from the Painted Door. An Analysis of John from The Painted Door John , a character of essay, Sinclair Ross’ short story, The Painted Door, is a very admirable . Essay? character. A struggling farmer, he resides in a small farmhouse alongside his wife of seven years, Ann. During a raging snowstorm, John ventures to his father’s house to assist him.

This leaves Ann alienated in the farmhouse. John arranges for his friend Steven to visit Ann and accompany her during her isolated hours. Hobbit Ideas? While he is visiting, Steven seduces Ann, and they. John from best blog designs, Cincinnati , Marriage , Money 898 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of four types of conflict in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, man versus man, man versus nature, man versus society, and ideas man versus himself. In John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, the of college essay, journey of the Joad family is riddled with conflict. Ideas? The family experiences all of the four major . types of conflicts: man vs. himself, man vs. society, man vs. nature, and alexander pope essays man vs. Essay Ideas? man . In the case of The Grapes of Wrath, man represents the alexander pope swift, Joad family as a single unit. They experience conflict within the hobbit essay ideas, family itself, with the essays, society they are coming from essay, as well as the one they are going to, and with nature and the elements. The man vs. man conflict. Conflict , Dust Bowl , Family 1479 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Skylight Room by of college, O . Henry The Skylight Room by O . Henry This story would be most enjoyed by teen-age girls, I think.

The . first character we meet is the landlady who is a bit snobbish. She has a number of rooms available to hobbit ideas, let. The Value Of College Essay? The largest rooms (and the most expensive) bring her great satisfaction. Ascending the essay ideas, stairs brings us to smaller and cheaper rooms. Thorpe's Essays? The smallest room is an embarrassment to the landlady. She has the housekeeper show this room. We next meet Miss Leeson, a young typist. Doctor , English-language films , Room 660 Words | 2 Pages. The Importance of ideas, Logos Christology in the Gospel of John.

The Importance of the Logos Christology in the Gospel of John John wrote the immortal words of the best thesis blog designs, Prologue into a desperately . troubled world. The Romans held most of the hobbit ideas, known world in their political grasp. The Value Education Essay? The Greeks had infiltrated every part of Jewish life with their philosophies and ways for over 500 years; the Jewish obsession with ethnic purity divided the hobbit essay ideas, race even from itself. One key issue Jew and Greek could agree on was the existence of the Logos, though not in the same way. To the. Christology , God , Gospel of John 2310 Words | 6 Pages. John Swift The Ideal Puritan Society Puritans thought of themselves as members of the Church of England. Disgusted with the . tainted modern religious practices, puritans tried to change that institution. They soon became frustrated with the lack of designs, successful reform as English kings James I and Charles I persecuted them. The Puritans migrated to ideas, the New World to best thesis, create a nation according to their own beliefs.

The Puritan Society was a very restrictive and socially constrictive one. Massachusetts. Black people , John Winthrop , Massachusetts 1186 Words | 4 Pages. John Brown: Terrorist or Revolutionary? John Brown was a man starkly opposed to slavery. Hobbit Essay? In 1855, . John Brown led an unsuccessful raid on of an essay Harper's Ferry in essay, order to arm slaves with weapons Brown and his men seized from the arsenal in order for the slaves to free themselves. Alexander Pope Swift Essays? Because this was against law of the time, John Brown was tried and executed for treason. Due to his methods, many people labeled him as a terrorist; however, because he worked for hobbit, a good cause, the can a the end, abolition of slavery. Abolitionism , Abuse , American Civil War 1815 Words | 5 Pages.

John Howard - English Prison Reformer. JOHN HOWARD (1726 - 1790) • 1st English prison reformer, he tried to essay ideas, improve the state of alexander pope and jonathan swift essays, prisons in England in hobbit essay ideas, 18th century • He . wasn?t a philosopher, he was a humanist, he was influenced by his real life. Ferro Homework? His life: o When he was 16 years old he inherited a lot of money so he was travelling around the world. Once time his ship was captured by French and he had to hobbit ideas, spend time in a French prison. This experience with living in horrific conditions influenced his future work. Crime , England , Jeremy Bentham 542 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were two of the great political theorists of their time.

Both created great philosophical texts that help to . describe the role of government in man’s life, as well as their views of man’s state of nature. Even though both men do have opposite views on many of their political arguments, the fact that they are able to chris spence plagiarized dissertation, structure their separate ideologies on the state of essay ideas, man in nature is the bond that connects them. Both men look toward the creation of civil order in chris plagiarized, order. Civil society , Government , John Locke 1468 Words | 4 Pages. The husband is amused and is touched by the little girl’s innocence and shows this by “(picking) up one of Sybil’s wet feet….and kissed the arch. (17)” . Afterwards, the man goes back inside the hotel to find his wife asleep. The man then commits suicide by shooting himself with a gun. Through his actions you can note that the man is jealous of the little girl’s innocence and since he knows that he can never recover from hobbit essay ideas, his current state, he takes his life. Therefore the theme in this story is of. Girl , J. Alexander Swift Essays? D. Salinger , Nine Stories 933 Words | 3 Pages. existing.

Through Notes from Underground, Dostoevsky makes a statement that man always has a choice to act against hobbit ideas, the scientific laws of . The End Of An? nature. Notes from Underground includes Dostoevsky’s response to new enlightenment ideas. Numerous times it mocks the ideas of one philosopher in particular: Nikolai Chernyshevsky. Hobbit Essay? Chernyshevsky published a novel called What is to designs, be Done? In this novel Chernyshevsky claims that man is born with reason and has a natural inclination to cooperate with other people.

Age of Enlightenment , Crystal Palace F.C. , England 1963 Words | 9 Pages. Among his many honors as President of the ideas, United States of America, John Fitzgerald Kennedy remains the thorpe's essays, youngest man ever elected . to the office of Chief Executive, and the youngest man to die while still fulfilling his duties. Hobbit Essay Ideas? Serving as America's President, John F. Kennedy held his office for 1000 days, dying November 22nd, 1963, assassinated at the age of 46. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29th, 1917 in ferro homework, Brookline, Massachusetts, the second son of essay ideas, nine children of the wealthy Roman Catholic. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis , John F. Kennedy , John F. Kennedy assassination 1353 Words | 4 Pages. I choose John F. Alexander And Jonathan Swift? Kennedy to write about as he epitomizes a great speaker to me. As I learned in class and in reading the textbook, credibility . is key for hobbit essay ideas, any speaker to be fully respected. I believe that John F. Kennedy not only meets this qualification but surpasses it. Over the years I have looked at his speaking methodology and tried to follow his direction in speaking with knowledge, truth, and having the credibility on the subject matter. After being sworn into office, one of the best blog designs, best speeches.

Cuban Missile Crisis , Ich bin ein Berliner , John F. Kennedy 2157 Words | 6 Pages. dream of marrying an hobbit essay ideal husband like them. Now, I would still like to marry a charming prince, I always believe that one day, I will meet my . ideal lover and build a happy family with an ideal husband. Some women say that a husband is impossible to find, but an ideal one may be easier to find. The qualities of the ideal husband are probably different for each woman. For me, the ideal husband is chris spence plagiarized a love umbrella to protect his wife from hobbit ideas, all difficulties in life. And Jonathan Swift? The ideal husband should have. Family , Gender , Husband 599 Words | 3 Pages. O . Hobbit Essay Ideas? Henry (1862-1910) was originally born William Sydney Porter in Greensboro, North Carolina. As a young man , he moved to . Austin, Texas where he worked as a bank teller.

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Pablo Picasso was born in spain, however he lived most of his life in france. Picasso was a Genius, he was a master of hobbit essay ideas, almost any median. He ventured in many styles and with fellow Artist, Georges Braque, created cubism. I feel that his strongest paintings, (those leaving lasting interest), would be his unusual. Collage , Cubism , Georges Braque 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Written On The nature of the end essay, man is a subject that dates back centuries, though it is one that is hobbit ideas still highly debated today. Philosophers, . sociologists, and even sociobiologists have brought evidence leading to ferro homework, various conclusions to the table, so the question still stands. Mencius said that man’s nature is good, while Hsun Tzu argued from the opposite side. Centuries later, John Locke published a theory relating the nature of man to a blank piece of paper, stating that man is neutral until he learns.

Human , Human nature , John Locke 1596 Words | 4 Pages. John Donne 'to his mistress going to bed' comparative discussion with 'Courtly love or woman as thing' and 'Unbearable Weight' drawing on a comparative discussion of ANY TWO essays in the Norton Anthology of Theory Criticism to illuminate your argument. Essay? Many love poems are not . actually about love; rather they are the objectification of pope and jonathan swift essays, a woman into a vessel for desire. Hobbit Ideas? John Donne’s poem ‘To His Mistress Going to Bed’1 appears on the surface to be a poem celebrating the beauty of the female body and the joys of thorpe's essays, sex. However it is through a closer reading that we see that this poem is in fact not celebrating the hobbit essay, woman at. Iamb , Iambic pentameter , Love 1737 Words | 5 Pages. Government/Economics 12B 19 Feb. The Value Essay? 2014 John Quincy Adams: A Memoir John Quincy Adams is hobbit essay most known for his presidency during . the early years of the United States. Ferro Homework? The country was new and the people were looking for powerful leaders that knew how to take action.

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29, 2012 John Brown and Spider- Man : Hero? Villain? America Can’t Decide Students of history and those merely interested . in casual inquiry will often explore a topic, find a legitimate opinion, accept it at face value, and move on. Too often with young or inexperienced historians this is the case. It does, in a way, make sense. Many topics an individual will study have been researched and written on education countless times.

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During this time, the South was defending their right to practice slavery, while the North’s desire to end. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 2078 Words | 5 Pages. ? Tyler Parsons 9:15 class The Human Ideal Human Ideal is alexander and jonathan a very subjective idea across the board. Hobbit Essay? There are many factors . that influence a person’s perspective on a prefect human ideal . The most prevalent factor seems to be the best blog designs, culture of the society. The culture and the society I was raised in brought me to the finalization of my personal human ideal . People should live to fulfill the ultimate good of happiness without stepping on others to reach it and at hobbit essay ideas the same time to avoid extreme and.

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Job Tips News – Your Weekly Roundup. Your Weekly Job Tips News Roundup is Here. This week I decided to hobbit essay ideas, do things a bit differently. It’s a “shake-up” of can a be at sorts in an effort to provide a handful of highlights and happenings in hobbit essay, the employment and job market world. So without further ado, here are the selections for this week’s top tips and alexander swift news: Job hunting today has changed. It’s time to discard preconceived ideas when you are deciding how to go about five aspects of your job search.

How you job hunt says a good deal about your character, inquisitiveness and personality. And, you’ll get different results when you stay up to date and carefully position yourself among your competitors. Are you thoughtful and proactive, or are you lazy and feel entitled? Do you want to essay ideas, be seen as a go-getter, or just one more person hoping to gain some consideration? Here are five choices you make when applying to blog, jobs, sometimes without even realizing that you are making them.

Buckshot applying to everything vs. a focused approach. Do you send your resume far and wide, just hoping that someone will respond? Or, do you send out just a relatively few well-researched and crafted applications? Resume readers can spot a mass-mailed plea for consideration a mile away, and tend to treat these applicants the same way as you treat the never-ending junk mail that fills your mailbox. Even if you are well-qualified, this approach smacks of laziness. Once in a while it works, but most of the time you are wasting your time with this approach. Don’t measure your job hunt by how many applications you submit, but rather by the quality of case you make for a position that is essay ideas, well-suited to your background, skills, achievements and best blog designs capacity for future career growth. When you take the time to essay ideas, do research on thorpe's essays, every employer you are serious about, and write a killer cover letter that marries the hobbit, company’s needs to your capacities and achievements, you’ll turbocharge your chances for success! Answering ads vs. using ads as primary research. Blog Designs? The obvious strategy is to respond to ads on job boards, company sites and places like Indeed by just submitting your resume online. But then you enter the hobbit, black hole of applicant tracking systems.

The odds always favor the employer, making this a poor strategy without good results the vast majority of the time. Instead, get smart and use these job ads as primary source information about where the jobs are. Then, find or cultivate contacts at the hiring companies and network your way into an interview. Relying on your responsibilities vs. showing your stuff. Somehow you probably got it in your head that your resume is supposed to describe all of your responsibilities in your current and former positions. Statements that begin with “Responsible for” don’t do anything to show how you’ve handled your tasks. Instead, stand out from the education, crowd by calling attention to the accomplishments you’ve attained. How has your company benefited, and what happened because you exercised your responsibilities in an exemplary way?

Resumes that show these things tend to get the attention of hiring authorities! Regurgitating your story vs. actively listening to ideas, an employer’s pain points. Pope Swift Essays? Often, job hunters feel that if they could only get someone to hear their story, they would get hired. And the stories tend to drone on, and on, and on. Hobbit Ideas? When you are networking, and especially when you are interviewing, it’s important to speak less and let the ferro homework, other person do more talking. Remember to only share the ideas, points that will be salient for your listener, and keep your narratives short. The more you listen, the more you’ll learn what is important to the value of college education, the employer, and then you’ll be able to draw out from ideas your arsenal of stories and thorpe's essays achievements the things that will be most relevant to sate his or her curiosity and advance your chances of favorable consideration.

Telling what you need vs. showing what you are worth. Of course you know your monthly expenses and understand how much money you need to survive, and you should strive to gain an income equal or greater than that amount. But this is hobbit essay, not of concern to an employer, nor should it be. It is education, important to understand your own value in the current marketplace. You can learn a great deal about that by hobbit ideas consulting sites like Salary.com, SalaryExpert, Glassdoor and others. Then, talk about thorpe's essays your salary expectations from the perspective of what’s fair, given objective criteria rather than just pulling random (or not so random) numbers out hobbit ideas, of the air. Often, employers will look to give you the average salary to thorpe's essays, start out hobbit, with, but this is the the value of college essay, time when you can politely ask, “If you think I have great value for your team and won’t just be an average employee, why are you not reflecting that based on the salary scales for this role or industry?” And then, just listen.

There may be a good and valid reason for hobbit essay, an average offer, or you might just have made your case for a better-than-average rate of compensation. This article first appeared on U.S. News World Report. 5 Parental Leave Trends You Need to Know. You already know about the chris spence dissertation, so-called “arms race” in which companies are upping the ante on hobbit essay ideas, parental leave plans and other family-friendly benefits in an effort to recruit and of college education retain today’s top talent. Ideas? And you’ve seen the headlines – hardly a week goes by, it seems, without another company announcing an expanded maternity or paternity leave plan. With so much noise it can be hard to keep track of the trends.

With that in mind, here’s a look at some of the latest parental leave trends that you need to know about. Crowdfunding maternity leave is a thing now. File this under “It has to be 2016 to be believed.” Publications from BuzzFeed to Scary Mommy to the Washington Post are reporting on a slightly depressing trend spreading in which moms are crowdfunding in order to have some financial security after giving birth. You know, because the United States doesn’t have a policy mandating paid leave for new moms after the alexander and jonathan swift essays, birth of a child and only 12% of essay ideas private sector employees have access to pope essays, any kind of paid parental leave. According to the Washington Post article, a GoFundMe search of “maternity leave” turns up about hobbit essay 1,500 results. The “TODAY” show reported there are about 6,000 campaigns with “maternity leave” or “child care.” Sounds crazy, but is it really?

Almost a quarter of new moms return to chris spence plagiarized dissertation, work within two weeks of giving birth – largely due to financial pressures. And we know child care is the largest household expense for American families. It’s common to hobbit essay, see stories of support pouring in for families who use crowdfunding sites to cover bills after a hospital stay or unexpected event. Given the state of parental leave in alexander pope, the United States, is crowdfunding maternity leave really all that different? More dads want to take their leave. We’ve called it “The Zuckerberg Effect.” But really it’s another sign of the changing times. Modern dads want to – and, often, need to – be more involved in caregiving than past generations. And that starts with taking paternity leave.

So it’s not surprising that 89% of ideas fathers say it’s important for a company to offer paternity leave. Working is reality for plagiarized dissertation, today’s parents. Essay? More than 90% of dads and more than 70% of moms work outside the home. Research has shown that when new fathers take paternity leave, there are long-term positive effects on designs, his child and his partner. The trouble is ideas, that prevailing corporate culture has not yet caught up to these changes. Even as more dads want to take their leave, many are afraid to take time off out of fear of appearing less committed to thesis blog, their jobs and hurting their careers. Essay Ideas? You can read [email protected] VP and GM Michael Marty’s take on this type of “dad-shaming” on Fortune. Companies with gender-neutral leave policies. Earlier this year, Etsy got a whole lotta love here and across the internets for unveiling an thorpe's essays upgraded 26-week parental leave policy that was flexible, gender-neutral and hobbit essay ideas lauded as “basically perfect.” Before Etsy, Netflix rolled out an “unlimited” maternity and paternity leave policy for new parents. In April, Twitter announced it was increasing its parental leave policy to 20 weeks of paid leave for all new parents.

US and Papua New Guinea – we share the dubious distinction of being the only nations without a federal policy providing paid leave for new moms after the birth of a child. More than 70 countries also mandate paid leave for new dads. Not a great look for a global economic leader. The good news is there’s momentum building in support of paid leave legislation, like the FAMILY Act, for example. New York recently became the fourth state to alexander pope essays, mandate paid family leave, following California, Rhode Island and New Jersey. (Washington state passed one, too, but hasn’t done anything with it.) Many cities – from Austin to Boston to Washington, DC – have also passed paid leave policies, and San Francisco recently one-upped the hobbit essay ideas, state mandate and passed a law requiring employers to provide fully-paid parental leave. Placing a premium on post-leave support.

It’s true that the can a be at, lack of a national parental leave policy for new moms (and dads) leads to a focus on employers who offer generous maternity leave and paternity leave programs. But we’re beginning to see leading companies invest in hobbit essay, supports for working parents once they return to thorpe's essays, work. The “flying nannies” of Wall Street are an extreme example, but hundreds of great places to work also provide employee benefits like backup care, child care resource and referral and flexible work arrangements that have less flash but more substance. Why are these types of family care benefits so important? Let’s take a quick look at some staggering statistics: 70% of parents said the cost of child care has influenced their career decisions, according to this Cost of Care survey 90% of employees have left work, and hobbit 30% cut back by ferro homework more than 6 hours per week, due to family responsibilities, according to essay ideas, [email protected]’s Better Benefits survey. 89% of alexander pope swift essays working parents want family care benefits, but 81% say their employers don’t offer any. 58% of working millennial moms told Pew Research being a working mom makes it harder to get ahead at work.

Parental leave is the poster child of family-friendly workplaces, but it’s only one element of a comprehensive solution. When faced with the reality that in most modern families all parents work, more and more employers are realizing that investing in hobbit essay ideas, family-care benefits is a competitive advantage. This article first appeared on the [email protected] blog. A Story from FBI Director James Comey’s time at pope and jonathan Bridgewater perfectly Illustrates the hedge fund’s emphasis on ‘radical transparency’ FBI Director James Comey told the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee Thursday, on the subject of the investigation into Hillary Clinton’s handling of classified information, that he was “a big fan of essay transparency.” When he was an executive at education Bridgewater Associates, the world’s largest hedge fund, from hobbit ideas 2010 to 2013, he was enmeshed in a culture of and jonathan “radical transparency” unlike that of any organization of its size.

In a new Politico article by hobbit essay ideas Garrett M. Graff, Comey offers insight into his time at education essay Ray Dalio’s hedge fund, including a strange scenario where a 25-year-old employee confronted him after a meeting. Ideas? Graff writes: “It was just weeks after he joined Bridgewater — whose corporate culture of the value high-achieving intellectuals resembles a moneyed management cult that shares more in common with the 1970s personal-improvement fad est than it does with a typical Wall Street firm — that Comey was cornered by ideas a similarly new 25-year-old employee. The junior associate interrogated the former Justice Department official on ferro homework, a seemingly illogical stance that Comey had taken in an earlier meeting. ‘My initial reaction was “What? You, kid, are asking me that question?” … I was deputy attorney general of the United States; I was general counsel of a huge, huge company.

No 25-year-old is going to ask me about essay ideas my logic,’ he recalled. Be At Of An? ‘Then I realized “I’m at Bridgewater.”‘” Dalio founded Bridgewater from his apartment in 1975 but didn’t begin developing his intense management culture until the mid-1990s, he told Business Insider in March. He found that codifying his investment principles brought him success, and so he should do the hobbit ideas, same with the way he wanted his company run. It resulted in alexander pope essays, “Principles,” a manual of essay ideas 210 lessons that all Bridgewater employees must learn. Comey told Politico it took him three months to adjust to Bridgewater, at which point he appreciated the thorpe's essays, hardline culture. In a video testimonial on Bridgewater’s website, Comey said, “You combine that intelligence, the depth and the almost 360 [degree] vector of the questioning, there is no more demanding, probing, questioning environment in the world than Bridgewater.” This article first appeared on Business Insider.

Follow these tips to get your resume in to the right hands. There’s no doubt there is endless advice on how to write the “perfect resume”. Search the keyword “resume tips” and you will get over 100 million results to hobbit essay, choose from. There are articles on how to construct the perfect objective. And information on what mistakes to avoid when crafting your curriculum vitae. That’s fancy for a summary of your experience which is pretty much like a resume.

There’s even advice on how to convert your resume in to and jonathan essays, an awe-inspiring infographic that will wow hiring managers. All this information is fantastic. But statistics show that 75% of essay big companies use an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) to screen candidates. To cut through the clutter I came up with the chris plagiarized dissertation, 5 best tips to increase your chances of getting your resume past the ATS, and essay ideas in to a hiring manager’s hands. Use keywords. Ferro Homework? Your resume should showcase the skills, projects and experience that matches keywords to your job. A common resume hack is to look for keywords in the job listing that applies to your experience and hobbit pepper them in to essay, your resume. Hobbit? These keywords will be picked up by the ATS but use caution by not overloading on dissertation, them. An ATS may weed you out hobbit essay ideas, if it looks like you “stuffed” your resume with too many keywords. List specifics. It’s important to quantify your work as much as you can.

For example: A. Implemented customer service software resulting in a 75% decrease in customer complaints B. Implemented customer service software. As you can see, example A. is much more detailed and paints a clear picture of how successful the candidate’s efforts were. Keep it clean and concise. Your resume should be well-structured and easy-to-read from top to bottom. Thesis? Pretty pictures and flashy graphics are great if you’re a graphic designer…and sending your resume directly to an employer’s email.

Straight black and white text works best when it comes to submitting your resume through an ATS. Also make sure to only include the most relevant information in your resume. I hate to hobbit, say it but no one cares if you’re a foodie. Aren’t we all? Make it mobile. This tip is great not only for applying through an ATS but for applying on many mobile friendly job sites. According to alexander pope and jonathan swift, online audience measurement company comScore, mobile devices and tablets make up 60% of all digital media time.

Once your resume makes it through the ATS, it better be ready to essay, be viewed on any device. Our friends at Online Resume Builders have a cool and can a thesis the end easy-to-use tool to help you build a mobile optimized resume. Check it out today! List your most relevant and essay impressive details first. It takes 7 seconds to make a first impression. While I’m not sure if this applies in best thesis blog designs, the virtual screening world, many sources say this is true of essay ideas us humans. Once your resume hits the hiring manager’s desk, pull them in by listing your most valuable skills and experience at the top. When it’s all said and done you should have a well crafted resume that’s set up for applicant screening success. Thesis? That said, you shouldn’t bank on just one way to search and apply to essay, jobs. Now for my not so shameless plug. There are two great services that help get your resume in front of even more employers and recruiters.

The first is ResumeZapper. ResumeZapper instantly “zaps” your resume to recruiters looking for best thesis blog designs, candidates just like you. The second awesome service is Resume Rabbit. Rather than spend hours posting your resume to every job board under the sun let ResumeRabbit post it to almost 100 job boards at once! To learn more visit ResumeZapper and essay ResumeRabbit today!

The Art of the Job Search – Always Be Looking. You may have heard the of college essay, phrase “Always Be Learning.” To be the best you can be, in your professional and ideas personal life, this certainly holds true. We can and should always be learning. Learning doesn’t cease just because we receive a degree or reach a certain age. We can always learn more about our surroundings and others. There is another phrase to follow in life – Always Be Looking. Ferro Homework? If the recession and economic uncertainty of hobbit essay ideas past years taught us one thing, it could be that we never know the real security of our jobs and lifestyles.

One day we can have it all, and best the next day be forced to look for a new opportunity. While the shock of being laid off or having our companies close cannot be lessened through preparation, we should always be learning and looking. Looking for other opportunities in our field, or in other fields, and keeping our options open. Know Where Your Industry is Going. Are the number of essay ideas job opportunities growing in your field, or are positions like yours disappearing? By constantly looking for job opportunities, you can spot trends, gain the education you need, and be proactive in your career. Give Yourself Goals. Research jobs you would want down the road. If you are in college or a training school, look for positions you would want to the value, apply to after graduation. If you are in a field and want to hobbit ideas, move up (and who doesn’t), look at the descriptions and requirements of those jobs that would appeal to you in 1 year, 5 years, or more.

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You may not write the thorpe's essays, recommendations, but you do have a level of control of the information presented, based on who you ask for a recommendation and how you ask. Check over your list of professional contacts and determine which would present the essay ideas, most relevant and influential information in the value of college education, their letter, based on the position to which you are applying. If you have a former colleague or manager who can vouch for your knowledge in a particular industry or type of job, be sure to ask if they would be willing to provide a reference. Through your research as a job seeker interested in a particular job or company, you are the hobbit, expert in what the potential employer is looking for in their candidates. Plagiarized Dissertation? When approaching your contacts about hobbit writing a letter of recommendation or acting as a reference, you can provide them with some coaching through that knowledge. This will make each reference call or letter more relevant and impressive to your potential employer. If the potential employer wants letters of recommendation, you can ask each contact to ferro homework, base their letters on one of your core strengths. For instance, one letter could focus on your ability to multitask, one on your ability to essay ideas, manage deadlines, and one on your leadership abilities. Have each letter demonstrate how your skills would be a benefit to the potential employer. Your Social Media Recommendations. Social media is best thesis, now a huge factor in hobbit essay ideas, most recruiting processes.

Through social media sites such as LinkedIn, potential employers can see a limitless number of recommendations from colleagues, clients, and others who appreciate the work you’ve done in the value education essay, past positions. You can manage who posts a recommendation for essay ideas, you by asking them directly. LinkedIn also requires that you approve any recommendations before they display on your page, providing further control of education essay your digital image. Photo credit: degreesoftransition.com. The Art of the Resume – How to Promote Your Resume. As a job seeker in today’s highly competitive market, any resource that allows you to broadcast your brand and your marketing pieces, such as your resume, can give you the edge. Posting your resume on job boards such as Job.com is an excellent first step in making your resume available to essay ideas, employers and recruiters in the “hidden job market” – those not currently advertising their open positions. Another great step if you are serious about finding a position is using a resume distribution service.

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5 Coke vs Pepsi 21st Century Case Study. op y 9-702-442 REV: JANUARY 27, 2004 DAVID B. YOFFIE tC Cola Wars Continue: Coke and hobbit ideas, Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century For over designs a century, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola vied for “throat share” of the world’s beverage market. Hobbit! The most intense battles of the cola wars were fought over the $60-billion industry in the United States, where the best blog average American consumed 53 gallons of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) per year. In a “carefully waged competitive struggle,” from hobbit essay 1975 to 1995 both Coke and Pepsi achieved average annual growth of around 10% as both U. S. nd worldwide CSD consumption consistently rose. According to Roger Enrico, former CEO of ferro homework Pepsi-Cola: No The warfare must be perceived as a continuing battle without blood. Without Coke, Pepsi would have a tough time being an original and lively competitor.

The more successful they are, the sharper we have to be. If the Coca-Cola company didn’t exist, we’d pray for hobbit essay someone to can a thesis of an essay invent them. And on the other side of the fence, I’m sure the essay folks at Coke would say that nothing contributes as much to the present-day success of the Coca-Cola company than . . . Pope Essays! Pepsi. 1. This cozy relationship was threatened in the late 1990s, however, when U. Essay! S. Chris Dissertation! CSD consumption dropped for two consecutive years and worldwide shipments slowed for both Coke and Pepsi. In response, both firms began to modify their bottling, pricing, and hobbit essay, brand strategies. They also looked to emerging international markets to fuel growth and broadened their brand portfolios to ferro homework include non-carbonated beverages like tea, juice, sports drinks, and bottled water. Do As the cola wars continued into the twenty-first century, the essay cola giants faced new challenges: Could they boost flagging domestic cola sales?

Where could they find new revenue streams? Was their era of sustained growth and profitability coming to a close, or was this apparent slowdown just another blip in thesis the end, the course of Coke’s and Pepsi’s enviable performance? 1Roger Enrico, The Other Guy Blinked and Other Dispatches from the Cola Wars (New York: Bantam Books, 1988). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Research Associate Yusi Wang prepared this case from published sources under the supervision of Professor David B. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of hobbit essay Harvard Business School. Copying or posting is an of college education, infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century op y 702-442 Economics of the U. S. CSD Industry Americans consumed 23 gallons of CSD annually in hobbit, 1970 and essay, consumption grew by hobbit essay ideas, an average of 3% per spence plagiarized, year over the next 30 years (see Exhibit 1). This growth was fueled by increasing availability as well as by hobbit ideas, the introduction and ferro homework, popularity of essay diet and flavored CSDs. Spence Plagiarized Dissertation! Through the mid-1990s, the hobbit real price of CSDs fell, and consumer demand appeared responsive to declining prices. 2 Many alternatives to CSDs existed, including beer, milk, coffee, bottled water, juices, tea, powdered drinks, wine, sports drinks, distilled spirits, and tap water. Yet Americans drank more soda than any other beverage. At 60%-70% market share, the can a the end of an essay cola segment of the essay ideas CSD industry maintained its dominance throughout the 1990s, followed by lemon/lime, citrus, pepper, root beer, orange, and other flavors.

C CSD consisted of a flavor base, a sweetener, and carbonated water. Four major participants were involved in the production and alexander essays, distribution of CSDs: 1) concentrate producers; 2) bottlers; 3) retail channels; and 4) suppliers. 3 Concentrate Producers The concentrate producer blended raw material ingredients (excluding sugar or high fructose corn syrup), packaged it in plastic canisters, and shipped the ideas blended ingredients to the bottler. The concentrate producer added artificial sweetener to blog make diet soda concentrate, while bottlers added sugar or high fructose corn syrup themselves. The process involved little capital investment in machinery, overhead, or labor. A typical concentrate manufacturing plant cost approximately $25 million to $50 million to build, and essay ideas, one plant could serve the entire United States. No A concentrate producer’s most significant costs were for advertising, promotion, market research, and bottler relations. Marketing programs were jointly implemented and ferro homework, financed by concentrate producers and bottlers. Concentrate producers usually took the lead in developing the essay programs, particularly in product planning, market research, and advertising.

They invested heavily in their trademarks over time, with innovative and designs, sophisticated marketing campaigns (see Exhibit 2). Bottlers assumed a larger role in developing trade and consumer promotions, and paid an agreed percentage—typically 50% or more—of promotional and advertising costs. Concentrate producers employed extensive sales and marketing support staff to work with and help improve the essay performance of their bottlers, setting standards and suggesting operating procedures. Concentrate producers also negotiated directly with the bottlers’ major suppliers—particularly sweetener and packaging suppliers—to encourage reliable supply, faster delivery, and lower prices. Do Once a fragmented business with hundreds of local manufacturers, the best blog designs landscape of the U. S. soft drink industry had changed dramatically over essay ideas time. Among national concentrate producers, CocaCola and Pepsi-Cola, the soft drink unit of PepsiCo, claimed a combined 76% of the U. Swift Essays! S. CSD market in sales volume in 2000, followed by Cadbury Schweppes and Cott Corporation (see Exhibit 3). There were also private label brand manufacturers and several dozen other national and regional producers. Exhibit 4 gives financial data for Coke and Pepsi and their top affiliated bottlers.

2 Robert Tollison et al. , Competition and hobbit ideas, Concentration (Lexington Books, 1991), p. 11. 3 The production and distribution of non-carbonated soft drinks and thesis the end of an essay, bottled water will be discussed in a later section. Hobbit Essay Ideas! 2 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. Education! edu or 617-783-7860. Essay Ideas! 702-442 op y Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century Bottlers. Bottlers purchased concentrate, added carbonated water and thesis be at, high fructose corn syrup, bottled or canned the CSD, and delivered it to customer accounts. Coke and Pepsi bottlers offered “direct store door” (DSD) delivery, which involved route delivery sales people physically placing and managing the CSD brand in the store. Smaller national brands, such as Shasta and Faygo, distributed through food store warehouses.

DSD entailed managing the shelf space by stacking the product, positioning the trademarked label, cleaning the packages and shelves, and setting up point-of-purchase displays and end-of-aisle displays. Hobbit Essay! The importance of the bottler’s relationship with the retail trade was crucial to continual brand availability and maintenance. Cooperative merchandising agreements between retailers and bottlers were used to promote soft drink sales. Retailers agreed to specified promotional activity and discount levels in ferro homework, exchange for a payment from the bottler. tC The bottling process was capital-intensive and involved specialized, high-speed lines. Lines were interchangeable only for hobbit essay packages of similar size and construction.

Bottling and canning lines cost from $4 million to $10 million each, depending on volume and package type. The minimum cost to build a small bottling plant, with warehouse and office space, was $25million to $35 million. The cost of an efficient large plant, with four lines, automated warehousing, and a capacity of 40 million cases, was $75 million in 1998. 4 Roughly 80-85 plants were required for full distribution across the United States. Among top bottlers in 1998, packaging accounted for approximately half of thorpe's essays bottlers’ cost of hobbit essay ideas goods sold, concentrate for one-third, and nutritive sweeteners for one-tenth. Labor accounted for most of the remaining variable costs. Bottlers also invested capital in thorpe's essays, trucks and distribution networks.

Bottlers’ gross profits often exceeded 40%, but operating margins were razor thin. Hobbit Essay! See Exhibit 5 for the cost structures of a typical concentrate producer and bottler. Do No The number of U. S. soft drink bottlers had fallen, from over 2,000 in 1970 to less than 300 in 2000. The Value Education! 6 Historically, Coca-Cola was the first concentrate producer to build nation-wide franchised bottling networks, a move that Pepsi and Cadbury Schweppes followed. The typical franchised bottler owned a manufacturing and sales operation in an exclusive geographic territory, with rights granted in perpetuity by the franchiser. In the case of Coca-Cola, territorial rights did not extend to fountain accounts—Coke delivered to its fountain accounts directly, not through its bottlers. Hobbit Essay Ideas! The rights granted to be at the end essay the bottlers were subject to termination only in the event of default by hobbit essay, the bottler. Ferro Homework! The original Coca-Cola franchise contract, written in 1899, was a fixed-price contract that did not provide for hobbit contract renegotiation even if ingredient costs changed. Chris! With considerable effort, often involving bitter legal disputes, Coca-Cola amended the contract in 1921, 1978, and 1987 to ideas adjust concentrate price. By 1999, over be at of an 81% of Coke’s U. S. volume was covered by the 1987 Master Bottler Contract, which granted Coke the ideas right to determine concentrate price and other terms of sale.

Under the spence terms of this contract, Coke was not obligated to ideas share advertising and alexander pope swift, marketing expenditures with the hobbit ideas bottlers; however, the company often did in order to ensure quality and proper distribution of thorpe's essays marketing. In 2000, Coke contributed $766 million in marketing support and $223 million in infrastructure support to its top bottler alone. The 1987 contract did not give complete pricing control to Coke, but rather used a pricing formula that adjusted quarterly for changes in sweetener prices and stated a maximum price. This contract differed from Pepsi’s Master Bottling Agreement with its top bottler, which granted the bottler 4 “Louisiana Coca-Cola Reveals Crown Jewel,” Beverage Industry, January 1999. 5 Calculated from M. Hobbit Essay Ideas! Dolan et al. , “Coca-Cola Beverages,” Merrill Lynch Capital Markets, July 6, 1998. Timothy Muris et al. Spence Plagiarized Dissertation! , Strategy, Structure, and Antitrust in the Carbonated Soft-Drink Industry, (Quorum Books, 1993), p. 63; John C. Essay Ideas! Maxwell, ed. Beverage Digest Fact Book 2001.

3 Copying or posting is an thorpe's essays, infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in hobbit ideas, the Twenty-First Century op y 702-442 perpetual rights to distribute Pepsi cola products while at can a be at of an the same time required it to purchase its raw materials from Pepsi at prices, and on terms and conditions, determined by Pepsi. Pepsi negotiated concentrate prices with its bottling association, and normally based price increases on the CPI. Hobbit Ideas! Coke and alexander pope essays, Pepsi both raised concentrate prices throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, even as the real (inflation-adjusted) retail prices for CSD were down (see Exhibit 6). tC Coca-Cola and Pepsi franchise agreements allowed bottlers to handle the non-cola brands of other concentrate producers. Franchise agreements also allowed bottlers to choose whether or not to market new beverages introduced by the concentrate producer. Some restrictions applied, however, as bottlers could not carry directly competitive brands. Essay! For example, a Coca-Cola bottler could not sell Royal Crown Cola, but it could distribute Seven-Up, if it decided not to carry Sprite. Education! Franchised bottlers had the freedom to participate in hobbit, or reject new package introductions, local advertising campaigns and promotions, and test marketing. The bottlers also had the final say in decisions concerning retail pricing, new packaging, selling, advertising, and swift essays, promotions in its territory, though they could only use packages authorized by the franchiser.

In 1971, the Federal Trade Commission initiated action against eight major CPs, charging that exclusive territories granted to hobbit essay franchised bottlers prevented intrabrand competition (two or more bottlers competing in the same area with the same beverage). The CPs argued that interbrand competition was sufficiently strong to warrant continuation of the existing territorial agreements. After nine years of best thesis litigation, Congress enacted the “Soft Drink Interbrand Competition Act” in 1980, preserving the right of CPs to grant exclusive territories. Retail Channels No. In 2000, the hobbit ideas distribution of CSDs in the United States took place through food stores (35%), fountain outlets7 (23%), vending machines (14%), convenience stores (9%), and other outlets (20%). Mass merchandisers, warehouse clubs, and drug stores made up most of the last category. Bottlers’ profitability by type of retail outlet is shown in Exhibit 7. Costs were affected by delivery method and alexander and jonathan, frequency, drop size, advertising, and marketing.

The main distribution channel for soft drinks was the supermarket. CSDs were among the five largest selling product lines sold by supermarkets, raditionally yielding a 15%-20% gross margin (about average for food products) and accounting for 3%-4% of food store revenues. 8 CSDs represented a large percentage of hobbit essay a supermarket’s business, and were also a big traffic draw. Bottlers fought for retail shelf space to ensure visibility and accessibility for their products, and alexander and jonathan, looked for new locations to increase impulse purchases, such as placing coolers at checkout counters. Essay! The proliferation of pope swift essays products and packaging types created intense shelf space pressures. Do Discount retailers, warehouse clubs, and drug stores accounted about 15% of CSD sales in essay ideas, the late 1990s. These firms often had their own private label CSD, or they sold a generic label such as President’s Choice. Private label CSDs were usually delivered to a retailer’s warehouse, while branded CSDs were delivered directly to the store. With the warehouse delivery method, the retailer was responsible for of college education storage, transportation, merchandising, and hobbit, stocking the shelves, thus incurring additional costs.

The word “fountain outlets” traditionally referred to soda fountains, but was later used also for restaurants, cafeterias, and the value of college, other establishments that served soft drinks by the glass using fountain dispensers. 8 Progressive Grocer 1998 Sales Manual Databook, July 1998, p. Hobbit Ideas! 68. The Value Of College! 4 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. 702-442 op y Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century tC Historically, Pepsi had focused on sales through retail outlets, while Coke had dominated fountain sales. Coca-Cola had a 65% share of the fountain market in 2000, while Pepsi had 21%. Competition for fountain sales was intense. National fountain accounts were essentially “paid sampling,” with CSD companies earning pretax operating margins of around 2%.

For restaurants, by contrast, fountain sales were extremely profitable—about 80 cents out of every dollar spent stayed with the restaurant retailers. In 1999, for example, Burger King franchisees were believed to pay about $6. 20 per gallon for Coke syrup, but they received a substantial rebate on each gallon in the form of hobbit a check; one large Midwestern Burger King franchisee said his annual rebate ran $1. 45 per plagiarized, gallon, or about 23%. Coke and Pepsi also invested in the development of fountain equipment, such as service dispensers, and provided their fountain customers with cups, point-of-sale material, advertising, and in-store promotions to increase brand presence. After Pepsi entered the fast-food restaurant business with the acquisitions of ideas Pizza Hut (1978), Taco Bell (1986), and Kentucky Fried Chicken (1986), Coca-Cola persuaded other chains such as Wendy’s and Burger King to switch to Coke. PepsiCo spun its restaurant business off to the public in 1997 under the thorpe's essays name Tricon, while retaining the Frito-Lay snack food business. In 2000, fountain “pouring rights” remained split along pre-Tricon lines, as Pepsi supplied all of Taco Bell’s and KFC’s, and the overwhelming majority of Pizza Hut restaurants. Coke retained exclusivity deals with McDonald’s and Burger King.

No Coke and Cadbury Schweppes handled fountain accounts from hobbit essay their national franchisor companies. Employees of the franchisee companies negotiated and signed pouring rights contracts which, in ferro homework, the case of big restaurant chains, could cover the hobbit essay ideas entire United States or even the world. The accounts were actually serviced by employees of the franchisors’ fountain divisions, local bottlers, or both. Local bottlers, when they were used, were paid service fees for delivering syrup and fixing and placing machines. Historically, PepsiCo could only sell directly to end-user national accounts. Thorpe's Essays! By 1999, Pepsi had persuaded most of its bottlers to modify their franchise agreements to allow Pepsi to hobbit ideas sell fountain syrup via restaurant commissary companies, which sell a range of supplies to restaurants. Concentrate producers offered bottlers rebates to encourage them to the value education essay purchase and install vending machines. The owners of the property on which vending equipment was located usually received a sales commission. Coke and Pepsi were the largest suppliers of CSDs to the vending channel. Ideas! Juice, tea, sports drinks, lemonade, and water were also available through vending machines.

Suppliers to Concentrate Producers and Bottlers Do Concentrate producers required few inputs: the concentrate for most regular colas consisted of caramel coloring, phosphoric and/or citric acid, natural flavors, and thorpe's essays, caffeine. 10 Bottlers purchased two major inputs: packaging, which included $3. 4 billion in cans, $1. 3 billion in plastic bottles, and $0. 6 billion in glass; and sweeteners, which included $1. 1 billion in essay, sugar and high fructose corn syrup, and ferro homework, $1. billion in artificial sweetener (predominantly aspartame). The majority of hobbit ideas U. S. CSDs were packaged in metal cans (60%), then plastic bottles (38%), and can a thesis be at the end of an essay, glass bottles (2%). Cans were an attractive packaging material because they were easily handled, stocked, and displayed, weighed little, and were durable and recyclable. Plastic bottles, introduced in 1978, boosted home consumption of CSDs because of their larger 1-liter, 2-liter, and 3-liter sizes.

Single-serve 20-oz. PET bottles quickly gained popularity and represented 35% of hobbit ideas vended drinks and 3% of grocery drinks in the value education, 2000. Nikhil Deogun and Richard Gibson, “Coke Beats Out Pepsi for Contracts With Burger King, Domino’s,” The Wall Street Journal, April 15, 1999. 10 Based on ingredients lists, Coke Classic and hobbit, Pepsi-Cola, 2001. 5 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century op y 702-442 The concentrate producers’ strategy towards can manufacturers was typical of their supplier relationships. Coke and Pepsi negotiated on swift essays, behalf of their bottling networks, and were among the metal can industry’s largest customers. Since the can constituted about 40% of the total cost of a packaged beverage, bottlers and concentrate producers often maintained relationships with more than one supplier. In the 1960s and essay, 1970s, Coke and Pepsi backward integrated to make some of their own cans, but largely exited the business by 1990. In 1994, Coke and Pepsi instead sought to establish stable long-term relationships with their suppliers. Major can producers included American National Can, Crown Cork #038; Seal, and Reynolds Metals.

Metal cans were viewed as commodities, and there was chronic excess supply in the industry. Often two or three can manufacturers competed for a single contract. Early History11 tC The Evolution of the the value U. S. Soft Drink Industry Coca-Cola was formulated in 1886 by John Pemberton, a pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia, who sold it at drug store soda fountains as a “potion for mental and physical disorders. ” A few years later, Asa Candler acquired the formula, established a sales force, and hobbit essay, began brand advertising of pope essays Coca-Cola. Tightly guarded in an Atlanta bank vault, the hobbit formula for Coca-Cola syrup, known as “Merchandise 7X,” remained a well-protected secret. Candler granted Coca-Cola’s first bottling franchise in 1899 for a nominal one dollar, believing that the future of the drink rested with soda fountains. The company’s bottling network grew quickly, however, reaching 370 franchisees by 1910. No In its early years, Coke was constantly plagued by imitations and counterfeits, which the dissertation company aggressively fought in court. Hobbit Ideas! In 1916 alone, courts barred 153 imitations of Coca-Cola, including the brands Coca-Kola, Koca-Nola, Cold-Cola, and the like.

Coke introduced and thorpe's essays, patented a unique 6. 5ounce “skirt” bottle to be used by essay ideas, its franchisees that subsequently became an American icon. Alexander Pope And Jonathan Swift Essays! Robert Woodruff, who became CEO in 1923, began working with franchised bottlers to make Coke available wherever and whenever a consumer might want it. He pushed the bottlers to place the beverage “in arm’s reach of desire,” and argued that if Coke were not conveniently available when the consumer was thirsty, the sale would be lost forever. During the 1920s and hobbit essay ideas, 1930s, Coke pioneered open-top coolers to ferro homework storekeepers, developed automatic fountain dispensers, and hobbit essay, introduced vending machines. Woodruff also initiated “lifestyle” advertising for Coca-Cola, emphasizing the ferro homework role of Coke in a consumer’s life. Do Woodruff also developed Coke’s international business. In the onset of World War II, at the request of essay General Eisenhower, he promised that “every man in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for five cents wherever he is and chris dissertation, whatever it costs the company. ” Beginning in 1942, Coke was exempted from wartime sugar rationing whenever the product was destined for the military or retailers serving soldiers. Coca-Cola bottling plants followed the movements of American troops; 64 bottling plants were set up during the hobbit essay war—largely at government expense. Spence Dissertation! This contributed to Coke’s dominant market shares in hobbit, most European and Asian countries.

Pepsi-Cola was invented in 1893 in New Bern, North Carolina by pharmacist Caleb Bradham. Like Coke, Pepsi adopted a franchise bottling system, and by 1910 it had built a network of 270 11 See J. C. Louis and Harvey Yazijian, The Cola Wars (Everest House, 1980); Mark Pendergrast, For God, Country, and Coca-Cola (Charles Scribner’s, 1993); David Greising, I’d Like the World to ferro homework Buy a Coke (John Wiley #038; Sons, 1997). 6 Copying or posting is an hobbit, infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. du or 617-783-7860. 702-442 op y Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in can a thesis be at of an essay, the Twenty-First Century franchised bottlers. Pepsi struggled, however, declaring bankruptcy in 1923 and again in 1932. Business began to hobbit essay ideas pick up in the midst of the Great Depression, when Pepsi lowered the ferro homework price for its 12-ounce bottle to a nickel, the same price Coke charged for hobbit ideas its 6. 5-ounce bottle. When Pepsi tried to expand its bottling network in the late 1930s, its choices were small local bottlers striving to can a thesis be at the end essay compete with wealthy Coke franchisees. 12 Pepsi nevertheless began to hobbit essay ideas gain market share. In 1938, Coke filed suit against Pepsi, claiming that Pepsi-Cola was an infringement on the CocaCola trademark. The court ruled in dissertation, favor of Pepsi in 1941, ending a series of suits and countersuits between the essay two companies. With its famous radio jingle, “Twice as Much, for Nickel Too,” Pepsi’s U. Plagiarized! S. sales surpassed those of essay ideas Royal Crown and chris spence, Dr Pepper in the 1940s, trailing only Coca-Cola.

In 1950, Coke’s share of the U. Hobbit! S. CSD market was 47% and and jonathan swift, Pepsi’s was 10%; hundreds of regional CSD companies continued to produce a wide assortment of flavors. tC. The Cola Wars Begin In 1950, Alfred Steele, a former Coca-Cola marketing executive, became Pepsi’s CEO. Steele made “Beat Coke” his theme and hobbit essay ideas, encouraged bottlers to focus on take-home sales through supermarkets. The company introduced the first 26-ounce bottles to ferro homework the market, targeting family consumption, while Coke stayed with its 6. 5-ounce bottle. Pepsi’s growth soon began tracking the growth of hobbit essay supermarkets and convenience stores in the United States: There were about 10,000 supermarkets in 1945, 15,000 in 1955, and 32,000 at the peak in 1962. No In 1963, under the leadership of new CEO Donald Kendall, Pepsi launched its “Pepsi Generation” campaign that targeted the young and “young at heart. ” Pepsi’s ad agency created an intense commercial using sports cars, motorcycles, helicopters, and a catchy slogan. The campaign helped Pepsi narrow Coke’s lead to a 2-to-1 margin. At the same time, Pepsi worked with its bottlers to modernize plants and improve store delivery services. Chris! By 1970, Pepsi’s franchise bottlers were generally larger compared to essay Coke bottlers. Coke’s bottling network remained fragmented, with more than 800 independent franchised bottlers that focused mostly on blog designs, U. S. cities of 50,000 or less.

13 Throughout this period, Pepsi sold concentrate to its bottlers at essay a price approximately 20% lower than Coke. Thorpe's Essays! In the early 1970s, Pepsi increased the concentrate price to equal that of Coke. To overcome bottlers’ opposition, Pepsi promised to use the extra margin to increase advertising and promotion. Do Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola began to experiment with new cola and non-cola flavors and a variety of packaging options in the 1960s. Essay Ideas! Before then, the two companies had adopted a single product strategy, selling only their flagship brand. Coke introduced Fanta (1960), Sprite (1961), and lowcalorie Tab (1963). Thesis Be At Of An! Pepsi countered with Teem (1960), Mountain Dew (1964), and Diet Pepsi (1964). Each introduced non-returnable glass bottles and 12-ounce metal cans in hobbit essay, various packages.

Coke and Pepsi also diversified into non-soft-drink industries. Coke purchased Minute Maid (fruit juice), Duncan Foods (coffee, tea, hot chocolate), and Belmont Springs Water. Pepsi merged with snackfood giant Frito-Lay in 1965 to become PepsiCo, claiming synergies based on blog, shared customer targets, store-door delivery systems, and marketing orientations. In the late 1950s, Coca-Cola, still under Robert Woodruff’s leadership, began using advertising that finally recognized the existence of competitors, such as “American’s Preferred Taste” (1955) and “No Wonder Coke Refreshes Best” (1960). Hobbit Essay! In meetings with Coca-Cola bottlers, however, executives only discussed the growth of their own brand and never referred to pope and jonathan swift its closest competitor by name. 2 Louis and hobbit essay ideas, Yazijian, p,.

23. 13 Pendergrast, p. 310. Thorpe's Essays! 7 Copying or posting is an hobbit, infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Chris Plagiarized Dissertation! Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in essay ideas, the Twenty-First Century op y 702-442 During the 1960s, Coke primarily focused on overseas markets, apparently believing that domestic soft drink consumption had neared saturation at 22. 7 gallons per capita in thesis be at the end essay, 1970. 14 Pepsi meanwhile battled aggressively in the United States, doubling its share between 1950 and 1970. The Pepsi Challenge. Hobbit Essay! In 1974, Pepsi launched the the end of an essay “Pepsi Challenge” in Dallas, Texas. Coke was the dominant brand in essay, the city and Pepsi ran a distant third behind Dr Pepper.

In blind taste tests hosted by Pepsi’s small local bottler, the company tried to demonstrate that consumers in fact preferred Pepsi to Coke. Of College Education Essay! After its sales shot up in Dallas, Pepsi started to hobbit roll out the campaign nationwide, although many of its franchise bottlers were initially reluctant to join. tC Coke countered with rebates, rival claims, retail price cuts, and a series of advertisements questioning the tests’ validity. In particular, Coke used retail price discounts selectively in markets where the Coke bottler was company owned and the Pepsi bottler was an best thesis designs, independent franchisee. Nonetheless, the Pepsi Challenge successfully eroded Coke’s market share. In 1979, Pepsi passed Coke in hobbit, food store sales for the first time with a 1. 4 share point lead. Breaking precedent, Brian Dyson, president of Coca-Cola, inadvertently uttered the plagiarized dissertation name “Pepsi” in front of Coke’s bottlers at the 1979 bottlers conference. Ideas! No During the best thesis same period, Coke was renegotiating its franchise bottling contract to obtain greater flexibility in pricing concentrate and hobbit, syrups. Bottlers approved the new contract in 1978 only after Coke conceded to link concentrate price changes to the CPI, adjust the price to reflect any cost savings associated with a modification of thesis ingredients, and supply unsweetened concentrate to bottlers who preferred to hobbit ideas purchase their own sweetener on the open market. 15 This brought Coke’s policies in line with Pepsi, which traditionally sold its concentrate unsweetened to its bottlers.

Immediately after securing bottler approval, Coke announced a significant concentrate price hike. Pepsi followed with a 15% price increase of best its own. Cola Wars Heat Up. In 1980, Cuban-born Roberto Goizueta was named CEO and essay, Don Keough president of Coca-Cola. In the same year, Coke switched from sugar to the lower-priced high fructose corn syrup, a move Pepsi emulated three years later. Thorpe's Essays! Coke also intensified its marketing effort, increasing advertising spending from essay $74 million to chris spence $181 million between 1981 and 1984. Pepsi elevated its advertising expenditure from $66 million to $125 million over the same period. Goizueta sold off most of the non-CSD businesses he had inherited, including wine, coffee, tea, and industrial water treatment, while keeping Minute Maid.

Do. Diet Coke was introduced in 1982 as the first extension of the “Coke” brand name. Much of CocaCola management referred to its brand as “Mother Coke,” and considered it too sacred to be extended to other products. Despite internal opposition from company lawyers over copyright issues, Diet Coke was a phenomenal success. Praised as the “most successful consumer product launch of the Eighties,” it became within a few years not only the nation’s most popular diet soft drink, but also the third-largest selling soft drink in the United States. 14 Maxwell. 15 Pendergrast, p. 323. 8 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Hobbit Essay Ideas! 702-442 op y Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in alexander pope and jonathan swift essays, the Twenty-First Century In April 1985, Coke announced the change of hobbit essay ideas its 99-year-old Coca-Cola formula. Alexander Pope! Explaining this radical break with tradition, Goizueta saw a sharp depreciation in the value of the hobbit essay ideas Coca-Cola trademark as “the product had a declining share in a shrinking segment of the market. ”16 On the day of Coke’s announcement, Pepsi declared a holiday for its employees, claiming that the new Coke tasted more like Pepsi. The reformulation prompted an outcry from Coke’s most loyal customers.

Bottlers joined the clamor. Three months later, the alexander pope and jonathan essays company brought back the original formula under the name Coca-Cola Classic, while retaining the new formula as the flagship brand under the name New Coke. Six months later, Coke announced that Coca-Cola Classic (the original formula) would henceforth be considered its flagship brand. tC New CSD brands proliferated in essay, the 1980s. Coke introduced 11 new products, including Cherry Coke, Caffeine-Free Coke, and Minute-Maid Orange. Pepsi introduced 13 products, including Caffeine-Free Pepsi-Cola, Lemon-Lime Slice, and thorpe's essays, Cherry Pepsi. The number of ideas packaging types and sizes also increased dramatically, and the value, the battle for shelf space in supermarkets and other food stores grew fierce. Hobbit! By the late 1980s, both Coke and Pepsi offered more than ten major brands, using at least seventeen containers and numerous packaging options. 17 The struggle for market share intensified and the level of essay retail price discounting increased sharply.

Consumers were constantly exposed to cents-off promotions and a host of essay other supermarket discounts. Chris Dissertation! No Throughout the 1980s, the essay smaller concentrate producers were increasingly squeezed by Coke and can a thesis be at essay, Pepsi. As their shelf-space declined, small brands were shuffled from one owner to another. Over five years, Dr Pepper was sold (all and in part) several times, Canada Dry twice, Sunkist once, Shasta once, and A#038;W Brands once. Some of the deals were made by food companies, but several were leveraged buyouts by investment firms. Philip Morris acquired Seven-Up in 1978 for a big premium, but despite superior brand rankings and essay, established distribution channels, racked up huge losses in the early 1980s and exited in 1985. (Exhibit 8a shows the brand performance of top companies, as ranked by retailers. Ferro Homework! ) In the 1990s, through a series of strategic acquisitions, Cadbury Schweppes emerged as the clear (albeit distant) third-largest concentrate producer, snapping up the Dr Pepper/Seven-Up Companies (1995) and essay ideas, Snapple Beverage Group (2000). (Appendix A describes Cadbury Schweppes’ operations and financial performance. ) Bottler Consolidation and Spin-Off Do Relations between Coke and its franchised bottlers had been strained since the contract renegotiation of 1978. Coke struggled to persuade bottlers to cooperate in marketing and promotion programs, upgrade plant and equipment, and support new product launches. 8 The cola wars had particularly weakened small independent franchised bottlers. Ferro Homework! High advertising spending, product and packaging proliferation, and hobbit essay, widespread retail price discounting raised capital requirements for bottlers, while lowering their margins. Many bottlers that had been owned by one family for several generations no longer had the resources or the best thesis blog designs commitment to be competitive.

At a July 1980 dinner with Coke’s fifteen largest domestic bottlers, Goizueta announced a plan to refranchise bottling operations. Ideas! Coke began buying up poorly managed bottlers, infusing capital, 6 The Wall Street Journal, April 24, 1986. 17 Timothy Muris, David Scheffman, and Pablo Spiller, Strategy, Structure, and Antitrust in the Carbonated Soft Drink Industry. (Quorum Books, 1993), p. Thorpe's Essays! 73. 18 Greising, p. 88. 9 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860.

Cola Wars Continue: Coke and hobbit ideas, Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century op y 702-442 and thesis, quickly reselling them to better-performing bottlers. Refranchising allowed Coke’s larger bottlers to expand outside their traditionally exclusive geographic territories. When two of its largest bottling companies came up for hobbit essay sale in 1985, Coke moved swiftly to can a of an buy them for $2. 4 billion, preempting outside financial bidders. Together with other bottlers that Coke had recently bought, these acquisitions placed one-third of Coca-Cola’s volume in company-owned bottlers. In 1986, Coke began to replace its 1978 franchise agreement with the ideas Master Bottler Contract that afforded Coke much greater freedom to change concentrate price. tC Coke’s bottler acquisitions had increased its long-term debt to approximately $1 billion. In 1986, on the initiative of Doug Ivester, who later became CEO, the company created an independent bottling subsidiary, Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE), and sold 51% of its shares to the public, while retaining the rest. The minority equity position enabled Coke to separate its financial statements from CCE. As Coke’s first so-called “anchor bottler,” CCE consolidated small territories into larger regions, renegotiated with suppliers and retailers, merged redundant distribution and material purchasing, and and jonathan swift, cut its work force by 20%. CCE moved towards mega-facilities, investing in 50 million-case production lines with high levels of automation. Coke continued to acquire independent franchised bottlers and sell them to hobbit ideas CCE.

19 “We became an investment banking firm specializing in bottler deals,” reflected Don Keough. Ferro Homework! In 1997 alone, Coke put together more than $7 billion in deals involving bottlers. 20 By 2000, CCE was Coke’s largest bottler with annual sales of more than $14. 7 billion, handling 70% of Coke’s North American volume. Some industry observers questioned Coke’s accounting practice, as Coke retained substantial managerial influence in its arguably independent anchor bottler. 21 No.

In the late 1980s, Pepsi also acquired MEI Bottling for $591 million, Grand Metropolitan’s bottling operations for $705 million, and General Cinema’s bottling operations for $1. 8 billion. The number of Pepsi bottlers decreased from more than 400 in the mid-1980s to less than 200 in the mid-1990s. Pepsi owned about half of these bottling operations outright and essay ideas, held equity positions in swift, most of the rest. Essay! Experience in the snack food and restaurant businesses boosted Pepsi’s confidence in its ability to manage the bottling business. In the spence dissertation late 1990s, Pepsi changed course and also adopted the anchor bottler model. In April 1999, the Pepsi Bottling Group (PBG) went public, with Pepsi retaining a 35% equity stake. By 2000, PBG produced 55% of PepsiCo beverages in North America and hobbit, 32% worldwide. As Craig Weatherup, PBG’s chairman/CEO, explained, “Our success is interdependent, with PepsiCo the keeper of the brands and PBG the keeper of the marketplace. In that regard, we’re joined at the hip. ”22 Do The bottler consolidation of the chris spence plagiarized dissertation 1990s made smaller concentrate producers increasingly dependent on the Pepsi and Coke bottling network to distribute their products.

In response, Cadbury Schweppes in hobbit ideas, 1998 bought and merged two large U. S. bottlers to form its own bottler. In 2000, Coke’s bottling system was the most consolidated, with its top 10 bottlers producing 94% of domestic volume. Pepsi’s and Cadbury Schweppes’ top 10 bottlers produced 85% and pope and jonathan swift, 71% of the domestic volume of their respective franchisors. 19 Greising, p. 292. 20 Beverage Industry, January 1999, p. 17. 21 Albert Meyer and Dwight Owsen, “Coca-Cola’s Accounting,” Accounting Today, September 28, 1998 22 Kent Steinriede, “PBG Charts Its Own Course,” Beverage Industry, May 1, 1999. Ideas! 10 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright.

[emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Adapting to the Times 702-442 op y Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century In the late 1990s, a variety of problems began to best blog designs emerge for the soft drink industry as a whole. Although Americans still drank more CSDs than any other beverage, U. S. sales volume registered only a 0. 2% increase in essay, 2000, to chris spence just under 10 billion cases (a case was equivalent to 24 eight-ounce containers, or 192 ounces). This slow growth was in contrast to the 5%-7% annual growth in the United States during the hobbit essay 1980s. Concurrently, financial crisis in various parts of the world left Coke and Pepsi bottlers over-invested and under-utilized. Best Designs! tC Coca-Cola was also impacted by difficulties in hobbit essay, leadership transition. After the alexander pope and jonathan essays death of the popular CEO Roberto Goizueta in 1997, his successor Douglas Ivestor had two rocky years at the helm, during which Coke faced a high-profile race discrimination suit and a European public relations scandal after hundreds of people became ill from contaminated soft drinks. Essay! Douglas Daft assumed leadership in April 2000; one of his first moves was to thorpe's essays lay off 5,200 employees, or 20% of worldwide staff. While expressing “enthusiastic support for the current strategic course of the Company under Doug Daft’s leadership,” Coke’s Board voted against Daft’s eleventh-hour negotiations to acquire Quaker Oats in November 2000.

As they had numerous times over the last century, analysts predicted the end of Coke and Pepsi’s stellar growth and profitability. Meanwhile, Coke and Pepsi turned their attention to bolstering domestic markets, diversifying into non-carbonated beverages (non-carbs), and cultivating international markets. Balancing Market Growth, Market Share, and Profitability in the United States No During the early 1990s, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo bottlers employed a low-price strategy in the supermarket channel in order to compete more effectively with high-quality, low-price store brands. As the threat of the low-priced brands lessened, CCE responded in March 1999 with its first major price increase at the retail level after 20 years of flat take-home pricing. Its strategy was to essay reposition Coke Classic as a premium brand. PBG followed that price increase shortly after. Pope And Jonathan Swift Essays! Price wars had driven soda prices down to the point where bottlers couldn’t get a decent return on supermarket sales,” explained a Pepsi executive.

23 Observed one industry analyst, “Coke’s growth is coming internationally, and essay, Pepsi’s is coming from Frito-Lay. It is in the companies’ mutual best interest not to destroy the domestic market and eat up each other’s share. ” 24 Consumers’ initial reaction to price increases was a reduction in supermarket purchases. When CCE raised prices in supermarkets by 6. 0%-8. 0% in both 1999 and the value of college education essay, 2000, comparable volumes in North America declined each year (1. % in hobbit, 1999 and 0. 8% in 2000). In 2001, however, the bottling companies effected more moderate price increases and consumer demand appeared to be on the upswing. Do Both Coke and Pepsi also set about to boost the flagging cola market in other ways, including exclusive marketing agreements with Britney Spears (Pepsi) and Harry Potter (Coke).

Pepsi reintroduced the highly effective “Pepsi Challenge,” which was designed to boost overall cola sales and ferro homework, draw consumers away from private labels as much as it was to plug Pepsi over Coke. In contrast to the supermarket channel, Coke and Pepsi’s rivalry in the fountain channel intensified in the late 1990s. To penetrate Coke’s stronghold, Pepsi aggressively pursued national 23 Lauren R. Rublin, “Chipping Away: Coca-Cola Could Learn a Thing or Two from the Renaissance at PepsiCo,” Barron’s, June 12, 2000. 24 Rublin. 11 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century op y 702-442 accounts, forcing Coke to make costly concessions to retain its biggest customers. Pepsi broke Coke’s stronghold at Disney with a 1998 contract to supply soft drinks at the new DisneyQuest, Club Disney and ESPN Zone chains. After a heated bidding war in 1999 over the 10,000-store chain of Burger King Corporation, Coke again won the fountain contract involving $220 million per year for 40 million gallons of hobbit syrup soda, but only alexander pope essays, after agreeing to double its $25 million in rebates to essay the food chain. Pepsi also sued Coke over access to the value of college the fountain market, charging Coke with “attempting to monopolize the market for fountain-dispensed soft drinks through independent foodservice distributors throughout the hobbit United States. Ferro Homework! Coke persuaded a Federal court to hobbit dismiss the suit in alexander and jonathan swift, 2000.

Despite Pepsi’s efforts, at the end of 2000, Coke still dominated the fountain market with 65% share of national “pouring rights” to Pepsi’s 21% and Dr Pepper/Seven Up’s 14%. tC The Rise of Non-Cola Beverages As consumer trends shifted from diet soda, to lemon-lime, to tea-based drinks, to other popular non-carbs, Coke and Pepsi vigorously expanded their brand portfolios. Essay! Each new product was accompanied by debate on chris, how much each company should stray from its core product: regular cola. Hobbit! On one hand, cola sales consistently dwarfed alternative beverages sales, and cola-defenders expressed concern that over-enthusiastic expansion would distract the company from its flagship product. Also, history had shown that explosions in demand for alternative drinks were regularly followed by slow or negative growth. On the other hand, as domestic cola demand appeared to plateau, alternative beverages could provide a growth engine for the firms. No By the late 1990s, the soft drink industry had seen various alternative beverage categories come and thesis, go. From double-digit expansion in the late 1980s, diet CSDs peaked in 1991 at 29. 8% of the hobbit CSD segment and then declined to their 1988-level share of 24.

4% in 1999. PepsiCo’s introduction of can a Pepsi One in late 1998 was partially responsible for the minor recovery of the diet drink segment. Flavored soft drinks such as citrus, lemon-lime, pepper, and root beer were also popular. Hobbit Ideas! In 1999, Mountain Dew grew faster than any other CSD brand for thesis the third year in a row, posting 6. 0% volume growth, but in 2000, its growth slowed to 1. 5% due to competing “new-age” non-carbs. Do. At the turn of this century, CSDs accounted for 41. 3% of total non-alcoholic beverage consumption, bottled water accounted for hobbit 10. 3%, and other non-carbs accounted for the remainder. 25 When measured in gallons, sales of non-carbs rose by can a the end, 18% in 1995 and 5% in 2000, compared to 3% and 0. 2% respectively for CSDs.

The drinks with high growth and high hype were non-carbs such as juices/juice drinks, sports drinks, tea-based drinks, dairy-based drinks—and especially bottled water. Hobbit! In the 1990s, the bottled water industry grew on average 8. 3% per year, and pope and jonathan swift, volume reached more than 5 billion gallons in 2000. Revenue growth outpaced volume growth, with a 9. 3% increase to hobbit essay approximately $5. 6 billion, and per capita consumption gained 5. 1 gallons to 13. 2 gallons per person.

Pepsi’s Aquafina went national in the value of college education essay, 1998. Coke followed in 1999 with Dasani. Ideas! Though Pepsi and Coke sold reverse-osmosis purified water instead of spring water, they had a distribution advantage over competing water brands. 26 Coke and Pepsi launched other new drinks throughout the 1990s. They also aggressively acquired brands that rounded out their portfolios, including Tropicana (Pepsi, 1998), Gatorade (Pepsi, 5 Maxwell. Does not include “tap water / hybrids / all others” category. 26 Reverse osmosis is a method of producing pure water by forcing saline or impure water through a semi-permeable membrane across which salts or impurities cannot pass. 12 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. 702-442 op y Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century 2000), and SoBe (Pepsi, 2000). Both companies predicted that future increases in market share would come from beverages other than CSDs. Ferro Homework! Pepsi pronounced itself a “total beverage company,” and hobbit essay, Coca-Cola appeared to be moving in the same direction, recasting its performance metric from share of the soda market to ferro homework “share of stomach. ” “If Americans want to drink tap water, we want it to be Pepsi tap water,” said Pepsi’s vice-president for new business, describing the philosophy behind the new strategy.

27 Coke’s Goizueta had echoed the same view: “Sometimes I think we even compete with soup. ”28 Though cola remained the clear leader in terms of both companies’ volume sales, both Coke and Pepsi relied heavily on non-carbs to essay ideas stimulate their overall growth in the late 1990s. In 1999, non-carbs accounted for 80% of Pepsi’s and ferro homework, more than 100% of Coke’s growth. 29 tC At the turn of the century, Pepsi had the lion’s share of non-CSD sales. Pepsi led Coke by a wide margin in 2000 volume sales in three key segments: Gatorade (76%) led PowerAde (15%) in the $2. 6billion sports drinks segment, Lipton (38%) led Nestea (27%) in the $3.

5-billion tea-based drinks segment, and Aquafina (13%) led Dasani (8%) in hobbit essay, the $6. 0-billion bottled water segment. 30 Including multi-serve juices, Tropicana held an approximate 44% share of the $3-billion chilled orange juice market, more than twice that of Minute Maid. 1 With the thorpe's essays acquisition of Quaker and South Beach Beverages, Pepsi raised its non-carb market share to 31%, to Coke’s 19% (see Exhibit 8b). No Non-CSD beverages complicated Coke’s and Pepsi’s traditional production and hobbit essay, distribution processes. While bottlers could easily manage some types of of an alternative beverages (e. g. Essay Ideas! , cold-filled Lipton Brisk), other types required costly new equipment and changes in production, warehousing, and distribution practices (e. Thesis Be At The End Of An Essay! g. , hot-filled Lipton Iced Tea). In many cases, Coke and Pepsi paid more than half the cost of hobbit these investments. The few bottlers that invested in these capabilities either purchased concentrate or other additives from alexander pope Coke and Pepsi (e. g. , Dasani’s mineral packet) or compensated the franchiser through per-unit royalty fees (e. g. Essay! , Aquafina). Most bottlers, however, did not invest in hot-fill (for some iced tea), reverse-osmosis (for some bottled water), or other specialized equipment, and instead bought their finished product from thorpe's essays a central regional plant or one owned directly by Coca-Cola or PepsiCo. Ideas! They would then distribute these alongside their own bottled products at a percentage mark-up. More split pallets32 led to slightly higher labor costs, but otherwise did not significantly affect distribution practices.

Despite these complicated and evolving arrangements, higher retail prices for ferro homework alternative beverages meant that margins for the franchiser, bottler, and distributor were consistently higher than on CSDs. Internationalizing the Cola Wars Do As domestic demand appeared to plateau, Coke and Pepsi increasingly looked overseas for new growth. Throughout the 1990s, new access to markets in China, India, and Eastern Europe stimulated some of the most intense battles of the cola wars. In many international markets, per capita consumption levels remained a fraction of those in the United States. For example, while the hobbit essay 27 Marcy Magiera, “Pepsi Moving Fast To Get Beyond Colas,” Advertising Age, July 5, 1993. Ferro Homework! 28 Greising, p. Hobbit! 233.

29 Bonnie Herzog, “PepsiCo, Inc. : The Joy of Growth,” Credit Suisse First Boston Corporation, September 8, 2000. 30 Maxwell, p. 152-3. 31 Betsy McKay, “Juiced Up: Pepsi Edges Past Coke, and thesis be at the end of an essay, It has Nothing to Do With Cola,” The Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2000. 32 Pallets are hard beds, usually of wood, used to organize, store, and transport products. A split pallet carries more than one product type. 13 Copying or posting is an essay ideas, infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century op y 702-442 average American drank 874 eight-ounce cans of CSDs in 1999, the average Chinese drank 22. In 1999, Coke held a world market share of 53%, compared to Pepsi’s 21% and Cadbury Schweppes’ 6%.

Among major overseas markets, Coke dominated in Western Europe and much of ferro homework Latin America, while Pepsi had marked presence in essay, the Middle East and Southeast Asia (see Exhibit 9). C By the end of World War II, Coca-Cola was the largest international producer of soft drinks. Coke steadily expanded its overseas operations in the 1950s, and thorpe's essays, the name Coca-Cola soon became a synonym for American culture. Coke built brand presence in developing markets where soft drink consumption was low but potential was large, such as Indonesia: With 200 million inhabitants, a median age of 18, and per capita consumption of 9 eight-ounce cans of soda a year, one Coke executive noted that “they sit squarely on the equator and essay, everybody’s young. And Jonathan Essays! It’s soft drink heaven. 33 By the hobbit essay early 1990s, Coke’s CEO Roberto Goizueta said, “Coca-Cola used to be an American company with a large international business. Now we are a large international company with a sizable American business. ”34 No Following Coke, Pepsi entered Europe soon after World War II, and—benefiting from Arab and Soviet exclusion of Coke—into the Middle East and Soviet bloc in the early 1970s. However, Pepsi put less emphasis on its international operations during the subsequent decade. In 1980, international sales accounted for 62% of Coke’s soft drink volume, versus 20% for Pepsi. Pepsi rejoined the best international battles in the late 1980s, realizing that many of its foreign bottling operations were inefficiently run and “woefully uncompetitive. ”35 In the early 1990s, Pepsi utilized a niche strategy which targeted geographic areas where per capitas were relatively established and the markets presented high volume and profit opportunities.

These were often “Coke fortresses,” and Pepsi put its guerilla tactics to work, noting that “as big as Coca-Cola is, you certainly don’t want a shootout at high noon,” said Wayne Calloway, then CEO of PepsiCo. 6 Coke struck back; in essay ideas, one high-profile coup in 1996, Pepsi’s longtime bottler in best thesis designs, Venezuela defected to Coke, temporarily reducing Pepsi’s 80% share of the cola market to nearly nothing overnight. Hobbit Ideas! In the essay late 1990s, Pepsi moved even further away from ideas head-to-head competition and instead concentrated on thorpe's essays, emerging markets that were still up for grabs. “We kept beating our heads in markets that Coke won 20 years ago,” explained Calloway’s successor, Roger Enrico. “That is a very difficult proposition. 37 In 1999, PepsiCo’s bottler sales were up 5% internationally and its operating profit from overseas was up 37%. Hobbit! Market share gains were reported in most of Pepsi-Cola International’s top 25 markets, including increases of 10% in swift, India, 16% in China, and more than 100% in Russia. Essay Ideas! By 2000, international sales accounted for 62% of Coke’s and 9% of Pepsi’s revenues. Be At The End Of An! Do Concentrate producers encountered various obstacles in international operations, including cultural differences, political instability, regulations, price controls, advertising restrictions, foreign exchange controls, and essay ideas, lack of infrastructure. When Coke attempted to acquire Cadbury Schweppes’ international practice, for example, it ran into regulatory roadblocks in Europe and in Mexico and Australia, where Coke’s market shares exceed 50%.

On the other hand, Japanese domestic-protection price controls in the 1950s greased the skids for Coke’s high concentrate prices and high profitability, and in India, mandatory certification for pope swift bottled drinking water caused several local brands to fold. 33 John Huey, “The World’s Best Brand,” Fortune, May 31, 1993. 34John Huey, “The World’s Best Brand,” Fortune, May 31, 1993. 5 Larry Jabbonsky, “Room to Run,” Beverage World, August 1993. 36The Wall Street Journal, June 13, 1991. 37 John Byrne, “PepsiCo’s New Formula: How Roger Enrico is hobbit ideas Remaking the Company#8230; and Himself,” BusinessWeek, April 10, 2000. 14 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Of College Education! 702-442 op y Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century To cope with immature distribution networks, Coke and essay ideas, Pepsi created their own ground-up, and often novel, systems.

Coke introduced vending machines to Japan, a channel that eventually accounted for more than half of Coke’s Japanese sales. Ferro Homework! 38 In India, Pepsi found the most prominent businessman in hobbit essay ideas, town and thesis, gave him exclusive distribution rights, tapping his connections to drive growth. Significantly, both Coke and hobbit essay, Pepsi recognized local-market demands for non-cola products. Chris Spence Plagiarized Dissertation! In 2000, Coke carried more than 200 brands in Japan alone, most of which were teas, coffees, juices, and flavored water. Essay Ideas! In Brazil, Coke offered two brands of guarana, a popular caffeinated carbonated berry drink accounting for one-quarter of that country’s CSD sales, despite rivals’ TV ads ridiculing “gringo guarana. ” tC When the economy foundered in certain parts of the world during the late 1990s, annual consumption declined in many regions. Major financial quakes in East Asia in 1997, Russia in 1998 and Brazil in education essay, 1999 shook the cola giants, who had invested heavily in bottler infrastructure. From 1995 to 2000, Coke’s top line slowed to an average annual growth of hobbit ideas less than 3%. Dissertation! Profits actually fell from $3. 0 billion in 1995 to hobbit essay $2.

2 billion in 2000. In Russia, where Coke invested more than $700 million from 1991 to 1999, the collapse of the economy caused sales to drop by as much as 60% and left Coke’s seven bottling plants operating at 50% capacity. In Brazil, its third-largest market, Coke lost more than 10% of its 54% market share to low-cost local drinks produced by family-owned bottlers exempt from that country’s punitive soft-drink taxes. In 1998, Coke estimated that a strong dollar cut into net sales by 9%. Pepsi, with its relatively lower overseas presence, was less affected by the crises. Thesis Be At Essay! Nonetheless, Pepsi also subsidized its bottlers while experiencing a drop in hobbit essay, sales. No Despite these financial setbacks, both Coke and Pepsi expressed confidence in the future growth of international consumption and used the downturn as an opportunity to snatch up bottlers, distribution, and even rival brands. To increase sales, they tried to make their products more affordable through measures such as refundable glass packaging (instead of plastic) and cheaper 6. Plagiarized Dissertation! ounce bottles. The End of an Era?

At the hobbit essay turn of the century, growth of cola sales in the United States appeared to have plateaued. The Value! Coke and Pepsi were investing hundreds of millions of dollars to hobbit ideas shore up international bottlers operating at low capacity. The companies’ overall growth in soft drink sales were falling short of precedent and of investors’ expectations. Alexander And Jonathan Essays! Was the fundamental nature of the cola wars changing? Would the hobbit parameters of this new rivalry include reduced profitability and stagnant growth— inconceivable under the spence plagiarized old form of rivalry? Do. Or, were the troubles of the late 1990s just another step in the evolution of two of America’s most successful companies? In 2001, non-cola, non-carbs, and even convenience foods offered diversification and growth potential. Low international per capita soft drink consumption figures hinted at tremendous opportunity in the competition for worldwide “throat share. ” Noted a Coke executive in 2000, “the cola wars are going to be played now across a lot of different battlefields. ”39 38 June Preston, “Things May Go Better for Coke amid Asia Crisis, Singapore Bottler Says,” Journal of Commerce, June 29, 1998, . A3.

39 Betsy McKay, “Juiced Up: Pepsi Edges Past Coke, and It has Nothing to Do With Cola,” The Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2000. 15 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. Do Exhibit 1 702-442 Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617-783-7860. No U. S. Industry Consumption Statistics 1970 1975 1981 1985 1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 Historical Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption Cases (millions) Gallons/capita As a % of total beverage consumption 3,090 22. 7 2. 4 3,780 26. 3 14. 4 5,180 34. 2 18.

7 6,500 40. 3 22. Essay! 4 7,914 46. 9 26. 1 8,160 47. 2 26. 3 8,608 50. 0 27. 2 8,952 50. 9 28. 1 9,489 52. 0 28. 8 9,880 54. 0 30. 0 9,930 53. 6 29. 4 9,950 53. 0 29. 0 22. 7 22. 8 18. 5 35. 7 6. 5 5. 2 1. 3 1. 8 26. Ferro Homework! 3 21. 8 21. 6 33 1. 2 6. 8 7. 3 4. 8 1. 7 2 34. 2 20. 6 24. Essay Ideas! 3 27. 2 2. 7 6. 9 7. 3 6 2. 1 2 40. 3 24. 0 25. Can A Thesis Be At The End Essay! 0 26. 9 4. 5 7. 8 7. 3 6. 2 2. 4 1. 8 46. 9 24. 3 24. 2 26. 2 8. Essay Ideas! 1 8. 8 7. 0 5. Best! 4 2. 0 1. 5 47. 2 23. 3 23. 8 26. 5 8. 2 9. 1 6. 8 5. 4 2. 0 0. 6 1. 4 50. 0 22. 8 23. 2 23. 3 9. 6 9. 4 7. 1 4. 8 1. 7 0. 9 1. 3 50. 9 22. Essay! 3 22. 8 1. 3 10. 1 9. 5 6. 8 4. 9 1. Ferro Homework! 8 1. 1 1. 2 52. 0 22. 3 22. 7 20. 2 11. 0 9. 7 6. 9 4. 8 1. 8 1. 1 1. Essay! 2 54. 0 22. 1 22. 0 18. 0 11. 8 10. 0 6. Chris Dissertation! 9 4. 7 2. 0 1. Hobbit Essay! 3 1. 3 53. 6 22. 2 21. 9 17. 2 12. 6 10. Thorpe's Essays! 2 7. Hobbit Ideas! 0 4. 6 2. 0 1. Ferro Homework! 4 1. 3 53. 0 22. 2 21. 7 16. 8 13. Hobbit Ideas! 2 10. 4 7. 0 4. 6 2. 0 1. 5 1. Best Designs! 2 114. 5 126. 5 133. 3 146. 2 154. 4 154. 3 154. 0 152. 6 153. 6 154. 1 153. 8 153. 6 68 56 49. 2 36. 3 28. 1 28. 2 28. 5 29. 9 28. 9 28. 4 28. 7 28. 9 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. 5 182. Hobbit Ideas! 5 U. S. Liquid Consumption Trends (gallons/capita) Carbonated soft drinks.

Beer Milk Coffeea Bottled Waterb Juices Teaa Powdered drinks Wine Sports Drinksc Distilled spirits Subtotal Tap water/hybrids/all others Totald tC opy Source: John C. Maxwell, Beverage Digest Fact Book 2001, and The Maxwell Consumer Report, Feb. 3, 1994; Adams Liquor Handbook, casewriter estimates. aFrom 1985, coffee and tea data are based on a three-year moving average to counter-balance inventory swings, thereby portraying consumption more realistically. bBottled water includes all packages, single-serve, and bulk. cSports drinks included in “Tap water/hybids/all others” pre-1992. Plagiarized! This analysis assumes that each person consumes on average one-half gallon of liquid per day. Essay Ideas! -16- Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century Advertisement Spending for education the Top 10 CSD Brands ($ millions) op y Exhibit 2 Share of market 2000 Total market 20. 4 13. 6 8. 7 7. 2 6. 6 6. 3 5. 3 2. 0 1. Essay Ideas! 7 1. 1 1999 20. Thorpe's Essays! 3 13.

8 8. 5 7. 1 6. 8 3. 6 5. 1 2. 1 1. 8 1. 1 Advertisement Spendinga per 2000 2000 1999 share point 207. 3 130. 0 1. 2 50. 5 84. 0 83. 6 0. 5 44. 5 NA 2. 7 148. 9 91. 1 25. 5 37. Hobbit Ideas! 1 68. 4 71. 3 0. 8 39. 2 NA 2. 9 tC Coke Classic.

Pepsi-Cola Diet Coke Mountain Dew Sprite Dr Pepper Diet Pepsi 7UP Caffeine Free Diet Coke Barq’s root beer Total top 10 702-442 72. 9 72. 9 10. 2 9. 6 0. 1 7. 0 12. 7 13. 3 0. 1 22. 3 NA 2. 4 604. 2 485. 2 8. 3 707. 6 650. 0 NA Source: “Top 10 Soft-Drink Brands,” Advertising Age, September 24, 2001; casewriter estimates. aAdvertisement spending measured in 11 media channels from CMR.

Brands and total market in 192-oz cases from Do No Beverage Digest/Maxwell. Case volume from all channels. 17 Copying or posting is an infringement of best thesis designs copyright. [emailprotected] arvard. edu or 617-783-7860. 702-442 Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in hobbit ideas, the Twenty-First Century U. S. And Jonathan Swift Essays! Soft Drink Market Share by Case Volume (percent) 1966 op y Exhibit 3 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1998 2000E 27. 7 1. Hobbit Essay! 5 1. 4 2. 8 33.

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Can Writing Be Both True and hobbit essay Beautiful? The author Ethan Canin probes the depths of a single sentence in Saul Bellow’s short story “A Silver Dish.” Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. 'It Feels Like Someone Has Opened a Window Into Hell' Why Did the Islamic State Claim the Las Vegas Shooting?

By Heart is a series in which authors share and discuss their all-time favorite passages in literature. See entries from Karl Ove Knausgaard, Jonathan Franzen, Amy Tan, Khaled Hosseini, and more. For Ethan Canin, the thesis essay, author of A Doubter’s Almanac , Saul Bellow’s short story “A Silver Dish” is a masterwork. The protagonist is a businessman named Woody Selbst who’s unsure of how to mourn his con artist father. Pop didn’t just abandon the family when Woody was a teenager. Hobbit Ideas! He tricked his son into becoming an accomplice in spence, his escape—a cruel ruse that permanently thwarted Woody’s ambitions in the process. In our conversation for this series, Canin explained that his favorite part comes at the very end. As Pop pulls off one last con on his deathbed, Woody’s coming-to-terms is expressed in essay, a simple final sentence: “That was how he was.” We discussed how Bellow infuses five ordinary words with such uncanny power; why endings should make us feel, not think; and what “A Silver Dish” teaches about dialogue, plot, and chris spence character. A Doubter’s Almanac is a family saga about the destructive power of genius, and hobbit essay ideas like “A Silver Dish” it concerns a complex father/son legacy. It’s the ferro homework, story of a groundbreaking mathematician from northern Michigan, whose brilliance is only equaled by his capacity for betrayal and violence. A cast of long-suffering characters support the celebrated work, including the son who fears he’s inherited his father’s gifts and penchant for self-destruction.

In 1998, Ethan Canin left medicine to teach fiction at ideas, the Iowa Writers’ Workshop (where he was my professor). The best-selling author of the story collections Emperor of the Air and The Palace Thief, and novels including America America and For Kings and Planets , his fiction has been published in The New Yorker , The Atlantic , and The Best American Short Stories . We spoke at a coffee shop in alexander swift, downtown Manhattan. Ethan Canin: When I went for my medical school interview, I had an old paperback of Henderson the essay ideas, Rain King in the pocket of my coat. Ferro Homework! I was wearing the best clothes I had, a pair of cords and a sport coat—but when I got to the office, all the other interviewees were lined up in their black suits. Hobbit! As they stood there talking about whether they preferred intravenous versus oral chemotherapy, I thought, “Oh my god, I’m about to get myself into the wrong line of essay work.” But when I went in for hobbit, the interview, the guy noticed I had a book in my jacket pocket. Can A Thesis The End Essay! He asked what I was reading, and when I took it out, he said, “Oh, that’s my favorite book.” All we did was talk about Henderson the Rain King . I think that’s how I got into hobbit ideas, medical school. I think Bellow’s the greatest American writer of his century, personally.

When I read him, I’m in awe. One of thorpe's essays my favorite works is the great short story “A Silver Dish,” a story not too many people seem to know. It ends with, for me, one of the most memorable lines in fiction: That was how he was. There are five words in that sentence, each one essentially meaningless: T hat was how he was . Two of them are the same word: “was” and “was.” Hardly any sounds even, in those words, there’s no tilt, no break, no angle to the rhythm—just tap, tap, tap, tap, tap. Of all those words, only hobbit essay “he” and thorpe's essays perhaps “was” have any sort of meaning. “How” is technically an adverb the way it’s used here but feels more nounish to me, in the sense that I get a little visual spark when I read it, entirely from what has come before in the story. The whole sentence uses only seven distinct letters, and contains only essay ideas 15 letters total: three a’s, three h’s, three w’s, two s’s, two t’s, an o, and an e. It’s an amazingly restrained line from Bellow, who was a poet of the first order. I think he was intentionally restricting his palette. Compare it to best some of his other great sentences, like the ideas, famous first line of spence plagiarized dissertation The Adventures of Augie March : I am an American, Chicago born—Chicago, that somber city—and go at things as I have taught myself, free-style, and will make the hobbit ideas, record in and jonathan, my own way: first to knock, first admitted; sometimes an essay ideas, innocent knock, sometimes a not so innocent. You can open that book up to page 400 and best designs find the best sentence you’ve ever seen.

It’s an hobbit ideas, astonishing, volcanic eruption of thorpe's essays ideas and language. Or take this section from “A Silver Dish,” when Woody takes a streetcar ride that leads him to the story’s culminating moment: What he heard and saw was an old red Chicago streetcar, one of those trams the color of a stockyard steer. Cars of this type went out before Pearl Harbor—clumsy, big-bellied, with tough rattan seats and brass grips for the standing passengers. Those cars used to make four stops to the mile, and hobbit ran with a wallowing motion. They stank of carbolic or ozone and throbbed when the air compressors were being charged. Thesis Blog Designs! The conductor had his knotted signal cord to pull, and the motorman beat the foot gong with his mad heel. That passage is full of hobbit visceral, Anglo-Saxon words, and every single one of those words means something instantly.

I think that’s what poets try to do: They try to alexander pope sidestep neurology and go straight to meaning. But the last line of “A Silver Dish,” is ideas nothing like that. I can’t tell you what any single one of those words means. The End Of An! Imagine you’re a lexicographer and you have to define the word that , or how. And on top of this, there’s none of essay ideas Bellow’s typical play with rhythm and language—it’s almost a non-sentence. And yet, when I get to alexander pope and jonathan swift it in the story, I weep.

I’ve read the story three times in the past few weeks, and each time I arrived at essay, that sentence, tears came to alexander and jonathan swift my eyes. How does Bellow pack so much emotion into those five ordinary words? I think it’s their very blankness that allows them to channel so much emotion. Ideas! Because they don’t bring anything specific to mind, they allow us to feel without thinking. At the end of education essay a story or novel, you do not want the hobbit essay, reader thinking. Endings are about emotion, and logic is emotion’s enemy.

It’s the writer’s job to disarm the reader of his logic, to just make the chris spence plagiarized dissertation, reader feel. You’ll often see this in the final moments of a film: The camera tilts up, and the movie ends with a non-distinct image of the sky, or the sea, or the essay, coast. Something the thorpe's essays, eye can’t quite focus on, which allows you to focus on everything that’s come before. That’s how “that was how he was” works, too. Hobbit Essay Ideas! It brings nothing else to mind. Spence Plagiarized! This sentence would be a non-sentence if it began the story—but, placed at essay, the end, it’s packed with the charge of everything that precedes it. Each of those non-words is nitroglycerin, and the story that precedes it is the fuse. At the end of a story or novel, you do not want the alexander swift essays, reader thinking. Endings are about emotion, and logic is emotion’s enemy.

To me, this line also shows that content trumps style. I have a theory about writing, which is that you cannot simultaneously write something true about character and, at the same time, write something linguistically beautiful. Hobbit Essay Ideas! There are too few words to express both truth and beauty, so most empathetic—or another way to say this might be character-driven writers—tend to pope swift naturally reserve their beautiful constructions for when the content is less urgent. You’ll see Bellow get poetic when he’s writing about the scenery, like when Woody and his dad take that streetcar ride. But when he’s trying to write something that really gets to the narrator’s deep emotional experience, the prose is mostly very simple: That was how he was. Essay Ideas! Five plain words.

At the crux of the story it pays to write what’s true, rather than try to write what’s true and spence dissertation then dilute that by making the essay ideas, prose beautiful. It’s a continuum, of course, but I don’t think you can be at both ends of the continuum. For me, I should also say, this story answers almost every question a young writer could have about fiction writing. That dialogue is conflict, for instance. Bellow doesn’t write down a word of dialogue unless people are fighting.

As I always say to my students about dialogue in fiction: If you can’t say something nasty, don’t say anything at all. Or that any story about death must be a story about life. Or how to of college approach one of the most difficult things for literary writers: plot. In a way, plot is essay very simple: You have someone do something wrong. You don’t plan out a plot. You have somebody do something wrong, and that engenders other bad behavior. Behavior—especially bad behavior—is what forces character to emerge. When “A Silver Dish” begins, it’s remarkably static: Woody, pierced by the sound of church bells all over Chicago, is mourning his father, a lifetime of old memories and impressions washing over him.

But the story snaps into sudden focus when he recalls one of his father’s transgressions, a betrayal that’s haunted the younger man all his life. It’s that individual transgression—that memorable instance of bad behavior—that gets the story rolling. I think of that moment as the story standing up . The moment when the black lines on the page suddenly become a story. I’ve heard [the Deadwood creator] David Milch say (though I might be butchering it slightly) that it’s easier to plot your way into an idea than it is to idea your way into a plot. And I think a lot of writers start out designs making the mistake of trying to ideas write a novel about something. Thorpe's Essays! Novels are discussed as though they are intentionally about something, but they’re not. They’re stories. We’re taught to think about them that way by literary critics, or by English teachers, who are, in their defense, generally trying to teach you to write a paragraph rather than a novel. But to be a writer, I think, you have to abandon the idea that fiction is “about” something. This concept is bad enough in your reading life. But it’s fatal in your writing life.

I’ve seen plenty of students come in and say, I want to write a novel about blah blah blah . But you just can’t do it. You can only essay write a novel about a character who does something wrong, and see what happens from there. Novels are compendiums of bad behavior, and literature is the gossip about it. In other words, if you’re writing a piece of ferro homework fiction, I’d urge you not to hobbit ideas try to alexander show anything—instead, try to discover something. There’s no way to write anything powerful unless your unconscious takes charge. I think of that moment as the story standing up. The moment when the hobbit essay, black lines on the page suddenly become a story. The biggest problem for chris dissertation, young literary writers, besides plot, is how to ideas characterize: how to make a character seem like a real human being. One of the more subtle ways, which Bellow does beautifully, is to have a character describe other people.

The trick is that when characters describe other people, it’s they themselves who are being revealed. In this section of “A Silver Dish,” Woody’s description of his father, gives a sense of his own diction, articulation, and philosophy: Pop, as he took his sheepskin off, was in sweaters, no jacket. His darting looks made him seem crooked. Hardest of thorpe's essays all for these Selbsts with their bent noses and big, apparently straightforward faces was to look honest. All the signs of dishonesty played over them. Woody had often puzzled about it. Did it go back to the muscles, was it fundamentally a jaw problem—the projecting angles of the jaws?

Or was it the ideas, angling that went on the value essay in the hobbit essay ideas, heart? It’s physical description and thorpe's essays self-contemplation and contemplation of hobbit others, all at the same time. As Woody meditates on his father’s inherently crooked appearance, we get a sense of Woody, too: that he is in some ways an upright, noble, kind man but also has a sense of his own unworthiness, his own brutishness—a sense that he himself is swift as crookedly bent as his father. Writers tend to think that their own prose is the hobbit essay, compelling thing. You have to of college essay strangle that off, I think. Talk about killing your darlings. It’s not just about killing your good scenes , it’s about killing your instinct to try to impress with witticism and handsome phrasing—becoming, instead, a vessel for telepathy in a way. Ideas! The less present you can be, the thorpe's essays, more you can be the hobbit, character you’re trying to write about. Some of the thesis designs, writers I admire most—like Philip Roth or Alice Munro—they’re beautiful prose stylists in the sense that their sentences are lovely, but as I read them I’m not thinking about the prose. I’m thinking about the truth.

I’m lost in their ability to hobbit essay ideas make me into another human being. That, to me, is the compelling thing. With characterization, you have to thesis be at essay let go. You’ve got to release yourself from your grandiose intentions, your ambitions, your ideas about humanity, literature, and philosophy by focusing on the being-another-person aspect of it—which, by hobbit ideas the way, is freeing, delightful, and one of the few real joys of writing. Stop worrying about writing a great novel—just become another human being. I should add that, to a remarkable degree, it’s a physical thing.

I try to do it by pausing for chris plagiarized, a moment before I begin writing, by essay taking a few seconds at the beginning to let my self drop away. I also find that restrained bits of physical activity help. I have a standing desk—which I have to say, I built myself long before it became fashionable. That works for me. I also put in one of those mini elliptical trainers below it, the kind without handrails, so that I have to concentrate a little to plagiarized not fall off. I’ll start to hobbit ideas walk. Alexander Pope And Jonathan Swift Essays! And as I try to balance, trying not to topple to the side, I’m starting to hobbit essay ideas type—somehow the slight physical activity takes the alexander pope, brakes off. Essay! In the same way, I often get good ideas when I’m driving a stickshift car: The shifting requires just enough concentration that it unglues your inhibitions.

It allows your unconscious to bubble up. With characterization, you have to let go. Stop worrying about writing a great novel—just become another human being. Ultimately, I read for the sensation of alexander pope and jonathan swift being another character. That’s how I know a book is good, when I can no longer tell that I’m reading a book, when I become not a reader but another human being. I read for that sensation of transport, and I write for essay, that sensation, too. I had this weird experience once. I was on stage, I think at the Kansas City Public Library. Some kind of on-stage conversation.

And the first question the interviewer asked me was: What’s the purpose of literature? Imagine getting that question unannounced . And out of my mouth popped: “It’s a rehearsal for death.” I’d never thought about that before I said it, but in some ways I think it’s true. Fiction’s about running through other people’s lives, running through the great and terrible things that happen along the way, and especially the thesis be at the end of an, thing that lies at the end, experiencing it over and over and over. Whether or not a novel actually contains death, it’s often about the highlights of a life. Hobbit Essay Ideas! Literature allows us to experience thousands of lives, to education essay understand how we might want to live our own. But back to “A Silver Dish.” There’s a little mystery in this story: Twice, Bellow slips out of third person and into first. “He wanted me like himself, an American,” the hobbit essay, narrator says, at one point. Is it some sort of meta-fiction, as if Bellow anticipated the current trend of narrators having the same names as their authors? I don’t know what to make of those two little shifts in point of ferro homework view, unless they’re little tacit admissions that this story is indeed about him.

Some kind of ideas winking admission that this is I, Saul Bellow, and not Woody. Whatever it is, “A Silver Dish” gives us profound access to the life of another. For me, that’s what great fiction is: the window through to someone else’s days on earth. That was how he was. Blog Designs! It’s all of hobbit essay ideas literature, isn’t it?

Or pretty damn close. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas.

On the blog, certainty of more shootings. Beyond the scores of people who have been killed and the hundreds who have been wounded in Las Vegas today, thousands of essay other people, though not visibly or directly injured, have had their lives changed forever. Children and best designs parents. Ideas! Husbands and wives. Brothers and education sisters.

Something is instantly and permanently gone from their lives. Co-workers and friends. Members of churches or sports leagues or the PTA. Hobbit Ideas! Customers and clients and thesis blog designs students. Neighbors and casual acquaintances at hobbit essay, the coffee shop or the bar. The rest of their days will be different and shadowed because of this massacre. “Children, I want to explain why Coach Franklin won’t be leading our soccer team any more. Something bad happened, and . ” A small group of programmers wants to plagiarized change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the essay ideas, night of thorpe's essays April 10, 2014, when the entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to ideas break into her house. When he finally crawled into thorpe's essays, her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife.

The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by hobbit ideas a systems provider named Intrado, the thesis be at, server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the ideas, country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for pope and jonathan swift, how high the counter could go. They picked a number in the millions. The world’s most powerful information gatekeepers neglected their duties in Las Vegas.

Again. In the crucial early hours after the essay, Las Vegas mass shooting, it happened again: Hoaxes, completely unverified rumors, failed witch hunts, and blatant falsehoods spread across the internet. But they did not do so by themselves: They used the infrastructure that Google and Facebook and YouTube have built to achieve wide distribution. These companies are the most powerful information gatekeepers that the world has ever known, and yet they refuse to plagiarized take responsibility for hobbit essay, their active role in damaging the chris spence plagiarized dissertation, quality of information reaching the public. BuzzFeed ’s Ryan Broderick found that Google’s “top stories” results surfaced 4chan forum posts about hobbit ideas, a man that right-wing amateur sleuths had incorrectly identified as the Las Vegas shooter. 'It Feels Like Someone Has Opened a Window Into Hell' Faced with the spence, horror of Las Vegas, late-night’s comedians showed their despair. “If comedy is tragedy plus time,” Jon Stewart said in 2014, responding to the death of Eric Garner, “I need more f***ing time.”

That was three years ago, and Stewart is hobbit essay long gone, but his legacy is the stable of comedians on late-night television who use the news not just to entertain, but to advocate. It’s gotten harder. Thorpe's Essays! Increasingly, over the last three years, Stephen Colbert, Trevor Noah, Seth Meyers, James Corden, Conan O’Brien, even Jimmy Fallon, even, yes, Jimmy Kimmel, have been handed an unflinching cavalcade of horrors to turn into humor. Hobbit Essay Ideas! They’ve experimented with sincerity, with sadness, with satire, with moral outrage, with faith, and thesis blog most recently—in Kimmel’s case—with fury. The tempestuous presidency of Donald Trump has provided them with plenty to laugh at. And plenty to despair. Why Did the Islamic State Claim the hobbit essay ideas, Las Vegas Shooting? Assessing the group’s puzzling statement.

This morning, the thorpe's essays, Islamic State’s semi-official news agency, Amaq, took credit for hobbit, the Las Vegas massacre, which killed 58 and wounded another 515. The likely killer, identified by police as 64-year-old Stephen Paddock of Mesquite, Nevada, was not known to be a supporter of the Islamic State, or indeed a Muslim of any type. For now, the ferro homework, only evidence that the Islamic State was involved is its own assurance—first a press release announcing that a “soldier of the Islamic State” executed the concertgoers, and a follow-up for the baffled, explaining that he converted to Islam months ago. The FBI has stated that it doesn’t believe the hobbit essay ideas, attack was related to of college education international terrorism. The sun has barely risen on Las Vegas, and hobbit ideas there may be blood still slick on the Strip. Ferro Homework! Speculation about mass shootings in the hours after they occur is hobbit ideas not just a fool’s game but an impatient fool’s.

Evidence will be forthcoming, and these assertions by and jonathan essays the Islamic State will be tested against reality. But already I hear a familiar chorus of doubt: The Islamic State will “take credit for anything,” it says, “even hurricanes.” Did Manafort Use Trump to Curry Favor With a Putin Ally? Emails turned over to hobbit investigators detail the former campaign chair's efforts to can a thesis be at please an oligarch tied to the Kremlin. On the evening of April 11, 2016, two weeks after Donald Trump hired the political consultant Paul Manafort to lead his campaign’s efforts to wrangle Republican delegates, Manafort emailed his old lieutenant Konstantin Kilimnik, who had worked for him for a decade in the Ukrainian capital, Kiev. “I assume you have shown our friends my media coverage, right?” Manafort wrote. “Absolutely,” Kilimnik responded a few hours later from Kiev. “Every article.” “How do we use to get whole,” Manafort asks. Essay Ideas! “Has OVD operation seen?”

According to a source close to Manafort, the initials “OVD” refer to Oleg Vladimirovich Deripaska, a Russian oligarch and thorpe's essays one of Russia’s richest men. The source also confirmed that one of the individuals repeatedly mentioned in the email exchange as an intermediary to Deripaska is an aide to the oligarch. This Is What a Real Middle-Class Tax Cut Would Look Like. Getting money into the pockets of ordinary Americans is hobbit ideas easy. Pope Swift Essays! Why can’t the White House do it? If one takes the White House’s word for it, tax reform is all about a single goal—helping the hobbit essay, middle class, not the rich. Gary Cohn, the White House’s chief economic adviser, says the president’s tax cut is “purely aimed at middle-class families.” Steve Mnuchin, the Treasury secretary, promised Congress that tax reform wouldn’t benefit the rich.

House Speaker Paul Ryan says the thesis designs, plan’s “entire purpose” is to lower middle-class taxes. But the promises don’t fit the plan. As my colleague Annie Lowrey has written, the still-unfinished GOP policy would deliver half of its benefits to essay the top 1 percent, according to an analysis by the nonpartisan Tax Policy Center (TPC). Meanwhile, America’s poorest families would get a minuscule tax benefit—less than 1 percent growth in after-tax income. Can A Be At The End Essay! One in hobbit ideas, five Americans making the median household income would actually see a tax hike, particularly if they live in high-tax states and have lots of kids. (When Senator Rand Paul discovered this fact, he sharply criticized the plan on Twitter.) The rocker, who always let his songs be the star, is dead at 66. In 2015, The Washington Post asked Tom Petty’s biographer Warren Zanes why Petty doesn’t get more respect. One reason, Zanes said, was that Petty had too many hits: “People go, ‘oh, it’s too commercial.’” The other reason was that this particular rock star emphasized music over personality. Ferro Homework! “He didn’t ever get a trampoline out and ideas do a backflip,” Zanes said. “No, he goes out and plays the songs that he wrote.” Footage of the singer’s 2008 Super Bowl halftime performance testifies to that assessment, and ferro homework it’s worth watching in essay, light of Petty’s death at the age of 66.

On the the value of college essay, largest stage anyone can play on, Petty and the Heartbreakers didn’t do much other than execute their material flawlessly. The lack of spectacle came off like a power move: Can you believe we have these songs ? A Presidential Speech Steeped in Hypocrisy. Trump would have done better to say a few things that sound real than a great many that sound false. Pre-presidential Trump was a man of many faults and vices, but one endearing quality: He was no hypocrite. He exaggerated his wealth, his success, his physical fitness, but he never pretended to hobbit essay religion or morality. Trump’s speech to the nation after the Las Vegas atrocity, however, was steeped in hypocrisy. He is the least outwardly religious president of ferro homework modern times, the president least steeped in hobbit essay ideas, scripture. Education! For him to offer the hobbit essay ideas, consolations of God and faith after mass bloodletting is to invite derision. “It is love that defines us,” said President Trump, and if we weren’t heartbroken, we would laugh. Those who praised the of college essay, speech, as CNN’s John King did, are reacting on hobbit essay reflex. This is the kind of thing we are used to the end hearing from Republican politicians; Trump is a Republican politician; therefore this is what he should say. If guns aren’t a problem, why does the U.S. Hobbit Essay Ideas! have so many more shootings than any other country?

For all its use, “thoughts and prayers” doesn’t appear to have produced a quantifiable reduction in the rates of gun violence. Over years of mass murders in the United States, the aphorism has become a statement of unwillingness to address causes or prevention—the justification being that during a period of mourning, no substantive remarks should be made. On Monday, after the best thesis blog, country’s 273rd mass shooting of the year, President Trump tweeted the thesaurus version: “warmest condolences and sympathies.” Amid an unparalleled epidemic of gun violence—the murderer of some 58 people was reportedly armed with 19 rifles and hundreds of rounds of ammunition—words ripped from a greeting card in a hospital gift shop felt pointedly avoidant. Trump’s speech Monday morning underscored this evasiveness, as he called the mass murder in Las Vegas “evil.” He used the term four times in just 572 words. He did not mention firearms or psychosis or domestic terrorism, but blamed only “pure evil.” What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of hobbit Beef? What can an individual do about climate change?

The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to thorpe's essays your co-workers. Meeting the Son of Your Sister’s Killer. In an exclusive excerpt from The Witness , Kitty Genovese's brother gets close to essay confronting her murderer. Get 10 issues a year and save 65% off the cover price.