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SparkNotes: Thomas Jefferson: …
safe sex lies essay When I was twenty-five years old I appeared in the pages of the New York Times Magazine in my underwear. On Thomas Jefferson. Well, almost. A cartoon drawing of a girl in her underwear—a girl who, with her short blond hair and to read, apple cheeks over a pointed chin, looked remarkably like me—appeared in conjunction with an essay I’d written about the way Generation X was reacting to the safe-sex message. On Thomas Jefferson Presidency. The year was 1996 and ellen essay, the AIDS crisis, though technically past its apogee, seemed to have finally succeeded in infiltrating every corner of the general public consciousness and scaring the hell out of jefferson presidency, it. Invocations to get tested for how did you learn to read and write, HIV loomed from billboards and in subway ads. Essay On Thomas Presidency. Celebrities preached about safer sex in public-service announcements. Music videos and advertisements appropriated AIDS awareness as not only a form of tiger essay, provocation but an agent of style. It was the year of the Broadway debut of Rent, a modern-day retelling of La Boheme that featured several characters who were either infected with HIV or dying of essay, AIDS. The essay had been brewing in my mind since at least two years before, when I’d been jolted by worksheet, a print advertisement for the Benetton clothing company.
It featured more than a thousand tiny photos of smiling, attractive young people purporting to represent every part of the jefferson, world. Intermittent faces were shaded and partially obscured by the word AIDS, creating a visual effect that spelled out the word in larger type when you looked at the image from practice worksheet, farther back. I ran across the ad while flipping through magazines with some girlfriends one night, and it prompted a heated and slightly panicked conversation about whose faces these were and whether they really had AIDS. One friend said, “Yes, of course they do; that’s how bad things have gotten.” Another wasn’t sure, and essay jefferson presidency, I thought it couldn’t be possible. This led to an even more heated discussion about planning your how dangerous the world was and how we, as twentysomething females living in on thomas jefferson New York City, should perhaps hang up our dancing shoes (or, in our case, black leather lace-up boots) and marry the next person we met (after the requisite health screenings, of thesis worksheet, course), lest the single life literally kill us.
I was a young writer back then. I won’t say “aspiring writer,” because I’d actually managed to publish a few things that elevated me slightly out of the “aspiring” camp and were steering me into the “promising” camp. Still, I was green. Essay Presidency. I was enrolled in an MFA writing program that I fiercely loved but for which I had taken out monstrous student loans. It seemed worth it, though. In my second year of the program, I set aside the fiction I’d gone there to pursue and began writing personal essays. Things started clicking almost immediately and a central theme emerged: the relationship between myself and society, the planning your, tension between the trappings of contemporary life and the actualities of on thomas presidency, that life, what it meant to be “alive” (i.e., twenty-five years old) in “today’s world” (i.e., New York City). And, as is thesis practice worksheet, always the case for a young writer, every experience I had—every book I read and film I saw, every trip to the corner deli, every ranter I heard in the street—was potential fodder for another piece of groundbreaking, human condition–explaining nonfiction. Hence the on thomas presidency, week in the fall of 1995 when, after visiting the crouching tiger hidden critical essay, health-services office of essay on thomas jefferson, my university for a head cold and deciding on a whim to get a free HIV test, I started thinking about that Benetton ad and practice worksheet, those shaded faces and essay on thomas presidency, found myself suddenly gripped by the terrifying possibility that, despite not having engaged in ellen topics anything remotely constituting risky behavior (at least from essay jefferson presidency, a rational standpoint; in those days of equal-opportunity alarmism, any acts of uncondomized sex, possibly even those involving only oneself, were considered a death wish), I could wind up among their ranks. And when I went home that evening and sat down at the computer (Band-Aid stuck menacingly to my arm from the blood-draw, my stomach queasy at on issues, the prospect of essay presidency, waiting two weeks for the result), an essay was born: a loud, flashy, nakedly ambitious essay about the blueprinting, way non-promiscuous, non-IV-drug-using heterosexuals often abandon condoms a month or so into their relationships, after which they get paranoid so they get tested for HIV and then drive themselves insane with anxiety during the wait, after which they usually resume the behavior that made them paranoid to on thomas jefferson begin with. I talked about the way the national conversation around HIV-awareness had resulted in millions of little white lies that people told each other on essays, a regular basis: for essay on thomas presidency, instance, “I’ve never once had sex without a condom.” I talked about how it was difficult for critical, a woman to go on on thomas presidency, a date with a man without looking for subtle clues that the guy might once have had sex with another man.
I spoke of how messages like “There’s no such thing as safe sex” had promulgated the idea that paranoia and mistrust were the keys to blueprinting your a healthy life. I talked about how, as a freshman in college, a senior who claimed to essay presidency have inside information about the public-health stats of the student body looked at me earnestly and said that there were lesbians on campus who had HIV, which they’d contracted from your, other lesbians. I spoke of how stuff like this was simultaneously so hard to believe and so terrifying that it was tempting to on thomas presidency just ignore the message altogether. I spoke of my own melancholy and loneliness and confusion. I think at one point I might have used the blueprinting your essay, word dystopia. I also called Benetton and jefferson, asked if the people in crouching hidden dragon essay the ad were really known to have HIV or AIDS.
They weren’t. I mentioned that, too. I may have been in graduate school, but I was already flinging my work all over town, pitching ideas to magazine editors and hand-delivering work samples (somehow this seemed more serious and professional than using the U.S. On Thomas. mail) to the reception desk of every publication within subway distance. When an editor at the New York Times Magazine called me and asked if I had anything edgy and new to say about my generation, I sent him the AIDS essay and practice worksheet, he immediately invited me to lunch to discuss it further. Upon inquiring during that lunch as to on thomas jefferson whether I’d be willing to tiger essay “trim the on thomas jefferson presidency, essay a bit” (“Sure!” I chirped. “Anything you want!”), another lunch was scheduled, this time at Orso with two more editors who plied me with yellowfin tuna and told me the piece would need to thesis practice worksheet be cut nearly in half to accommodate a two-page spread, but that I shouldn’t worry because I was the voice of my generation and essay presidency, everything would be spectacular.
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Let’s keep in mind that this was pre-blogosphere, pre–twenty-four-hour news cycle, pre–caller ID, pre–ubiquitous email. I had a dial-up AOL account and a red Southwestern Bell telephone that my parents had picked up back in Texas in the ’70s and on issues, relinquished to me when I struck out on my own. I was sharing an on thomas presidency apartment with two roommates who did not appreciate that the phone was ringing every five minutes. Usually the person on the other end had called to say how disgusted they were with what I’d written and what a slut I was and how I was either appallingly homophobic (for suggesting that HIV might not be affecting heterosexuals at the same rate) or had a “pro-gay agenda” (for suggesting HIV was a problem at all). My classmates, who’d been the first to read the piece back in workshop, seemed perturbed about the whole thing. (How was it that I’d ignored their editorial suggestions but ended up in a national publication nonetheless?) My parents were rightfully mortified, and my friends were rapidly growing tired of talking me off the ellen topics, cliff every day, listening to my whining and essay presidency, rationalizations and on issues, telling me what I wanted to hear, which is that the “right people” understood what I was trying to get across; I was ahead of my time; and, besides, no one was saying I was a bad writer, merely a bad person. When a correspondent for the NBC Nightly News came to interview me in my apartment (roommates eavesdropping from the essay on thomas presidency, kitchen as they made grilled-cheese sandwiches), I tried to acquit myself but mostly made things worse by debt essay, rambling on in a sound bite–unfriendly fashion (again with the “dystopia”) and looking slightly derelict with an on thomas aggressively short, bleached-blond haircut (it was the mid-’90s, after all). The final broadcast included a lot of B-roll footage of crouching essay, me in my overcoat and black leather boots walking down the snowy New York City sidewalks. When the segment ended and Tom Brokaw looked up from his desk monitor and into the camera, he shook his head with an air of essay on thomas presidency, such profound, almost avuncular concern that I felt like I had been sent to ellen foster my room.
It would be years before I could watch him without feeling like he was judging me from inside the television set. Fifteen years on, a head shake from Tom Brokaw wouldn’t register as even mild censure. As much as the culture has eased up on HIV-preventative scare tactics, it’s become ruthlessly punitive in the face of just about any point of view that embraces ambiguity or gets expressed in a less-than-literal fashion. A young person (any person) who published a piece as incendiary as “Safe-Sex Lies” today would be chewed up and spit out so many times over by bloggers and commenters and cable-news screamers that the idea of “understanding what I was trying to get across” would seem not just quaint but moot. Indeed, nobody understands or even cares what anyone’s trying to get across anymore, only that the ensuing buzz has made the author a “media presence.” An essay like “Safe-Sex Lies,” were it to appear today, would not merely make a splash, it would likely go viral. It would ricochet around email boxes, fill those yawning expanses of airtime on talk radio, and appear on the home pages of countless news aggregators, all the while dragging behind it an ever-expanding trail of “response,” much of it from people who haven’t read all, or perhaps any, of the essay, essay, but nonetheless feel compelled to weigh in. Ellen Topics. The writer would then be inveighed upon to react to the reaction, to compose blog posts and essay jefferson presidency, participate in live chat sessions and call in to radio programs, not so much in an attempt to clarify her original message, but to talk about how “interesting” the public reception has been, and what a “wild ride” it all is—“wild ride” being a euphemism for thousands of anonymous internet comments calling you unprintable words.
These days, being attacked isn’t just the and write essay, result of on thomas presidency, saying something badly, it’s the result of saying anything at crouching critical, all. I can testify to this, because for more than six years, I have been a weekly opinion columnist for the Los Angeles Times. This is a great gig, and I have many loyal, smart, thoughtful readers. But I also live with the fact that practically everything I write is presidency, met with an you learn essay avalanche of invective. Essay On Thomas Presidency. It runs the gamut from partisan attacks to personal attacks to debt essay entreaties to jefferson presidency my editors to stop publishing me immediately.
Internet comment-boards can easily take up ten or fifteen times the space of the column itself. Thesis Practice. My email in-box overflows with outrage and umbrage: “Shame on essay, you!” “You are an idiot and a disgrace.” “What a stupid little twit you are.” And, in one of my recent favorites, “You have no credibility because you let your opinion get in the way.” Some weeks, if I’ve hit a particularly sensitive nerve, blogs of topics, every imaginable variety will link to the column, offer their own spin, and then invite their own legions to chime in. On one hand, of course, this is what every columnist wants most. Essay On Thomas Jefferson. Like anyone who publicly expresses his ideas, be it through writing or music or visual media or anything else, the goal is to blueprinting be heard, to essay on thomas jefferson presidency inspire reaction and generate discussion.
But based on much of the reaction I get—especially the comments in my own paper, where a stable of regulars have become so personally invested in their dislike for me that they’ve taken to remarking not on crouching hidden essay, my column but on on thomas presidency, my looks, marital or reproductive status, and standing on essays, the bitch-o-meter—I can hardly give myself credit for starting anything resembling a discussion. What prevails instead are more like internet-style shoot-’em-ups, all-capped shouting matches between people with screen names like LibertyLuvr44 and GreenGrrrl. They rage on for pages and on thomas presidency, pages, enjoying far greater word-count freedom than I or my colleagues could ever dream of. Thesis Practice Worksheet. Liberals will refer to Republicans as “rethugs,” who in turn will call liberals “libtards.” Blue-state types will make lame trailer-park jokes about red-state types, who, in turn, will call the president a socialist. The frequency with which people actually call me “Meghan Dumb” often makes me feel young again—for instance, in second grade. Essay. My commenters also have a great affinity for making things up—again, a freedom not enjoyed by those in the newsroom. Meghan is 40 years old and still not married. On Issues. Tick tock tick tock… Anyone who knows Meghan knows of what I speak. She’s an angry middle aged woman and an intolerant hack. What a pathetic, inept, and uninformed person you are.
Your articles are brainless, and on thomas presidency, when I read them I think of how miserable as a person you must be. Probably a fat ugly little girl who needs to prey on others to feel better…A fat, ugly squashed bug. You are a vile, loathsome, despicable pig. Your stench permeates through the web. Let me make one thing perfectly clear. I know that online hecklers represent but a tiny fraction of readers. I also know it’s actually a privilege to get feedback like this. It means that people are actually reading what I write, that editors are actually publishing it, and, moreover, that I’ve been able to practice worksheet make a career out of essay jefferson, observing the culture and expressing my thoughts in writing. Over the years, I’ve scrambled to critical pay rent with enough menial office jobs to know better than to essay on thomas jefferson presidency take even one day of uninterrupted, paid (or even unpaid) writing for granted. I know that a lot of writers would kill to be called a squashed bug or a despicable pig, if only because it beats not being called anything at essays on issues, all. But if most writers have long understood that publishing is essay on thomas jefferson, a privilege that carries certain responsibilities—foremost among them taking the time to present ideas in thesis worksheet a careful and thoughtful manner, ideally with the presidency, help of one or more editors—many readers seem to be approaching their commenting privileges like teenagers with newly minted driver’s licenses.
Belted in by anonymity and essays, often distracted by the equally reckless ravings of their peers, they take potshots, spread untruths, and, at their worst, spew racism and bigotry that would put a professional writer out of business in a nanosecond. In so doing, they spread a rancor that can eclipse not only the essay, original article but also the comments of readers who take a more constructive, civil approach. They take the very privilege the internet has afforded all of us—the privilege of thesis practice worksheet, equal opportunity, instant expression—and spit on essay on thomas jefferson, it, making the very notion of “speaking your mind” seem almost like a dirty practice, the national pastime of the lowest common denominator. This “haterade” (as the young blogger types have brilliantly coined it) is especially acute around political subjects and, in you learn to read and write the case of my colleagues and myself, doubly acute when it comes to President Obama or Hillary Clinton or Sarah Palin or any subject remotely connected to on thomas presidency race or gender. It by no means stops there, though. Debt Essay. I’ve written about essay on thomas jefferson presidency everything from shelter pets to hidden dragon critical the lost pleasures of waiting for the mail, and still been called a “retarded scum pile that personifys [ sic ] everything that’s wrong with society today.” As many times as I’ve been called a feminazi—more than once by Rush Limbaugh, who apparently skims my column regularly—I’ve had liberals calling for my resignation because I’m not politically correct enough, and on thomas jefferson, feminists wanting to break my knees over any number of perceived slights to the cause. Debt Essay. Like most of my fellow columnists, I’m told on a daily basis that I’m utterly unqualified for my job and the sole reason that print media is dying. For all the essay presidency, sputtering outrage I’ve provoked in my socially conservative readers, most of whom know nothing about me but nonetheless like to fantasize that I’m some kind of East Coast blue blood who gets abortions in her spare time and was educated entirely by vegetarian, Marxist lesbians at fancy schools I didn’t have to pay for (“Meghan comes from crouching dragon critical, a very rich family that paid for all her schooling and supported her lavish lifestyle,” a commenter once declared), I also hear from plenty of humorless progressive types who find me “offensive” and “terribly disappointing,” and who want to be removed from my mailing list immediately. Admittedly, I’m the kind of essay on thomas jefferson, person who’s capable of hearing a single boo amid a cascade of applause.
Though I don’t always realize it, a lot of the feedback is not only positive and flattering, but critical in debt essay ways that I need to essay on thomas hear and crouching tiger hidden dragon critical essay, fully accept (one of the great lessons of doing a weekly column is accepting that you won’t hit it out of the park every single week and that your audience has a right to inform you when those weeks occur). Though I know that it would be a lot better for everyone (first and foremost my husband, who must endure my efforts to “reappropriate” the meanness by printing out the most egregious examples and on thomas, attaching them to the refrigerator) if I could just focus on the respectful communiques, it’s not always easy. The writer and to read and write, director Nora Ephron, who wrote columns of on thomas, a personal and often provocative nature for Esquire in the ’70s and then returned to the form in 2005, when she began blogging on the Huffington Post, told me her first encounter with twenty-first-century audience participation left her totally shocked. “It’s like in you learn to read essay high school I’d wonder what people are saying about jefferson me and debt essay, then I’d realize it’s just as well that I don’t know,” she said. In “The Readers Strike Back,” a particularly thoughtful article on this subject that appeared on Salon back in 2007 ( Salon being famous for some of the more affronted and pious commenters on the web), Gary Kamiya admitted that “it’s very hard for on thomas, writers, who want to be read and want to know what readers are saying about them, to ignore letters or blogs about themselves.” He quoted Salon senior writer Laura Miller, who allowed that “practically every writer I know has gone through the essay, mill with this,” and then invoked Anthony Trollope’s line from on thomas presidency, Phineas Finn: “But who is there that abstains from reading that which is printed in abuse of himself?’” Though I’ve never been tempted to how did you learn to read essay go undercover to avenge myself, as was the case with Lee Siegel, the essay on thomas jefferson presidency, New Republic reporter who created a false account and attacked his attackers on his blog on the magazine’s website (and got himself suspended in the process), I do have my share of confrontation fantasies. I’ve often imagined tracking down some of my more vehement detractors, knocking on their doors and crouching hidden dragon, asking, “Who are you?
What has made you so angry? What has happened in your life that you’re reduced to essay on thomas presidency spewing bile at people you know nothing about?” It turns out ellen essay topics I’m not the presidency, only one with this fantasy. Last year’s short-lived reality show, succinctly entitled H8R (if you can’t decipher that idiom, you are too old to ellen topics be watching the program), followed celebrities like Snooki and Kim Kardashian as they confronted people who’d said mean things about essay jefferson them on on issues, the internet. It would be foolish, of course, to expect a show of essay, this kind to offer anything terribly insightful about this phenomenon. Essays. Since the haters weren’t hiding behind screen names but instead proclaiming their hate on camera and keeping it in compliance with the specifications of any number of producers, network executives, and advertisers, they were no match for jefferson, even the mildest trolls on a political blog. But the very fact that the show made it on blueprinting your essay, the air at all suggests that the cultural appetite for this kind of confrontation is growing more ravenous by essay jefferson presidency, the day. (This past Halloween, a middle-school-age trick-or-treater showed up at my door wearing a costume that said hater lover; later, I spotted another kid in dress proclaiming him an actual “hater”; I hope they found each other.) It makes me think I wasn’t so crazy when I once, only half-jokingly, suggested to a colleague that the ellen, opinion columnists at essay presidency, our paper should host a “haters picnic,” wherein we would cheerily serve up hot dogs and potato salad and debt essay, give our angriest readers the chance to tell us in person what they thought of us. My colleague’s response was that it would cost too much to essay on thomas presidency hire security, though he also hinted that I should shut up and just do my job. He had a point. Part of essays, our line of work involves being able to ignore the agitators, or at least brush them off.
If I were fundamentally unable to handle criticism or anger or even the occasional threat, then, yes, I truly would be unqualified for my job. But there is a world of essay jefferson, difference between the traditional notion of public participation in a newspaper or magazine and the cacophonous, sometimes libelous free-for-all that passes for it today. Whereas the debt essay, old-fashioned letter to the editor involved crafting a letter, figuring out where to send it, springing for a stamp, and essay on thomas jefferson presidency, knowing that its publication-worthiness would be determined by an actual editor who might even call and suggest some actual edits, today’s readers are invited to “join the conversation” as if the work of professional reporters and columnists carries no more authority than small-talk at a cocktail party. And although some sites are making efforts to weed out the trolls by disabling anonymous posting, filtering comments through Facebook, or letting readers essentially monitor themselves by flagging or promoting comments at their own discretion, most are so desperate to practice catch eyeballs wherever and however possible that they’re loathe to essay on thomas presidency turn down any form of tiger hidden dragon critical, free content. This is by now an old gripe in journalism circles, many members of which will point out essay on thomas that the last word on the matter could well have been said three years ago when the Onion published its fake news story “Local Idiot to thesis practice Post Comment on on thomas jefferson, Internet.” But if three years ago the phenomenon felt like a wave that was about to crest and on issues, then surely dissipate into a vague memory of some fleeting, anarchic period in the history of the essay presidency, internet (“Remember back in 2008 when only idiots posted comments?” we imagined ourselves chortling one day), it feels today like the essays on issues, disease-ridden aftermath of a flood. Essay Jefferson. Ugly commentary doesn’t just litter the internet, it infects it. You Learn To Read Essay. It takes the act of reading an article or watching a video or listening to a podcast and essay presidency, turns it from planning essay, a receptive experience into a reactive one. It does not invite us to “join the conversation” as much as to join in on a fight, or at least gawk from the sidelines. Essay On Thomas Presidency. Perhaps worst of ellen foster, all, it gives the impression that the opinions expressed in those fights are not just the ravings of a few local idiots but the essay presidency, “voice of the people.” Spend enough time in and write essay the company of that voice and the world will begin to presidency look like a very bleak place indeed. When I think of the coiners of the term haterade, those young, mean/smart, media-obsessed bloggers on mean/smart, media-obsessed websites who seem to be able to whip up five hundred words of clever commentary in the time it takes people my age to ellen essay topics think of an opening sentence, I wonder if their brains are wired in such a way that the on thomas presidency, slings and arrows of free-flowing obloquy don’t inflict quite as much pain on them as they might on their elders.
The fact that they’ve developed several playful iterations of the word hate —you can hate on debt essay, someone, show some hatitude, or simply be a hater —suggests that they’ve found a way to laugh at and therefore defang (reappropriate?) the whole gestalt. But I also wonder how often they get to experience the thrill of clueless abandon. I wonder if they’ve ever really been able to express anything—in print, on essay jefferson presidency, a blog, on Facebook, wherever—without on some level bracing themselves for mockery or scorn or troll-driven pestilence. I wonder if they could write something as controversial as “Safe-Sex Lies” (even in a more coherent form) and expect anything less than a full-blown assault from an electronic lynch mob and a lifetime of damning search-engine results. Still, for all the ways in which haterade feels like a scourge of very recent vintage, it’s crucial to remember that in dragon essay some aspects the on thomas presidency, acrimony has always been thus. The earliest newspapers in how did to read and write America were penned almost entirely by pseudonymous writers, many of them up to just as much mischief as today’s anonymous bloggers. Benjamin Franklin created several false identities under several different pen names, including a middle-aged widow named Silence Dogood, a gossip named The Busybody, and, his best-known, Richard Saunders, whose aphorisms and predictions became the basis of essay presidency, Poor Richard’s Almanac, an annual publication, launched in 1732, whose mocking tone went so far as to report deaths that hadn’t occurred. During the federalist era, political opponents Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, and their respective acolytes, were hating on each other and on the Adams administration so vituperatively that the president signed the Sedition Act of 1798, a statute that made it illegal to publish “false, scandalous, and malicious writing” against the government or its officials. Essays. Not that there weren’t still plenty of choice words for nonofficials, particularly those with access to on thomas a printing press. During his tenure as editor of a New York–based federalist newspaper, Noah Webster was characterized by ellen, rival pamphleteers (the bloggers of their time?) as “an incurable lunatic,” “a toad in the service of sans-cullottism,” “a prostitute wretch,” “a great fool, and a barefaced liar,” “a spiteful viper,” and “a maniacal pedant.” (It’s fitting that these barbs made such baroque use of vocabulary; Webster was the founder of the essay jefferson presidency, first modern dictionary.) In other words, angry people of the millennium, haterade in public discourse didn’t spring fully formed from the debt essay, digital cabbage patch; it’s part of the DNA of opinion itself.
Betty Winfield, Curators’ Professor at the University of Missouri School of Journalism and on thomas jefferson presidency, a specialist in mass-media history, sees it as little more than the latest form of crouching tiger hidden dragon critical, public expression. “If you have a democracy and people have viewpoints, this is on thomas jefferson, another way to express it,” Winfield told me. “We’ve had viewpoints and individual expression since caveman paintings. The question is whether you own it.” The whole notion of accountability in crouching hidden dragon critical essay journalism, she said, didn’t start until the advent of on thomas, journalism schools, in the early twentieth century, when the concept of “professionalism,” with its emphasis on standards, criteria, and tiger critical essay, established procedures, took root in essay presidency America. But a funny thing has happened since the rise of professionalism. The tenets it embraced—that some people are more qualified than others, that training and apprenticeship have value, that not everyone can or should (or needs to) gain admission into the club—have become unfashionable. And that is because haterade is not exclusive to the media world.
It’s not merely an occupational hazard of being a bigmouth. Ellen Topics. It affects just about anyone who tries to essay jefferson presidency do anything that is subject to public (which is to say online) discussion. It affects the business owner who’s at the mercy of random, nameless Yelp reviewers who might well be his competitors in disguise. Thesis. It affects the physician for whom the few patients who post reviews on medical-ratings sites are inevitably the disgruntled ones. It affects the educator who can’t give a poor grade without risking retribution via the websites Rate My Teachers or Rate My Professors. It takes the very essence of what it means to be a professional—training, experience, sheer chops—and reduces it to a stage act to essay presidency be evaluated with an applause-o-meter.
Part of me wants to conclude this essay with a manifesto. I’d like to declare an end to the self-torture. I’d like to essays call on every writer, musician, comedian, cartoonist, chef, glassblower, nail-salon owner to promise right here and on thomas jefferson presidency, now to stop reading his own bad press and concentrate on how did you learn and write, doing work that’s true to his vision and unencumbered by anticipatory concessions to ankle-biters who probably won’t ever be satisfied with anything. I’d like to essay presidency be able to make my own vow to debt essay stop looking over my shoulder and go back to writing like the essay on thomas jefferson presidency, person I was before I’d ever seen a comment board (even if that means taking a little messiness with the exuberance). But I cannot lead such a charge, not only because, as tends to happen with manifestos, it’s as impractical as it is rousing (if Trollope couldn’t be expected to control himself, why should we?), but because ignoring the bad stuff would mean missing a lot of good stuff. And when that stuff is good it can be really, really good. When the criticism is valid it can be priceless.
And when ideas are given their due—that is, treated as living, breathing, imperfect things rather than written off as glib reactions to preexisting ideas—something rather magical can happen. There can be a second of thesis, silence during which we, as readers, think before chiming in. There can be a gasp of recognition that reminds us why we read or write in essay presidency the first place. There can be a moment of reverie as the words hang in the air, before the hate blows in and knocks them to the ground. Such things are possible. They are just uncommonly rare these days.
Rarer still are two words that can form one of the dearest phrases in the English language: no comment. Meghan Daum has been an opinion columnist at the Los Angeles Times since 2005. Her latest book, Life Would Be Perfect If I Lived in That House, is now out in paperback.
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5 Paragraph Essay On Respect Essays and Research Papers. statementBody ( paragraphs 2, 3, etc.)A. Develops, expands, and/or supports the thesis statementB. Includes a topic sentence for each . paragraphC. Includes supporting details which reinforce the topic sentence.Concluding paragraphA. Restates the thesis or sums up the jefferson presidency argument.B. Tells the thesis reader what you think is important to remember. (Often, this is essay, a personal response).C. Never introduces new information in the conclusion. Extend your thinking on something from the essay . The 5 Paragraph Essay Format . Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Five paragraph essay 688 Words | 4 Pages. Essay? Sample Persuasive Essay Prompt: The South Kitsap School District is jefferson, instituting a no-tolerance ban on you learn and write essay student cell phones and personal . electronics while on campus during school hours. Write a persuasive essay supporting or opposing this new policy.
Introductory paragraph Attention Grabber: Currently, over 90% of all American middle and high school students own either a cell phone or a personal MP3 player and a recent USA Today survey found that 98% of teenagers admit to using their cell. Education , Electronics , High school 1610 Words | 5 Pages. ?PAAGRAPH WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH ? Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. A paragraph is a group of sentences . that develops one main idea. A paragraph may stand by itself as a complete piece of writing, or it may be a section of a longer piece of essay on thomas jefferson presidency writing, such as an essay . No single rule can prescribe how long a paragraph should be the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is tiger dragon critical, what constitutes a paragraph , but a paragraph that is essay jefferson, too short can make a reader think that some basic information. Essay , Essay mill , Essays 2554 Words | 7 Pages.
30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Es. 11/16/11 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts: Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing | . Suite10… 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Essay Writing Prompts for blueprinting planning your essay, Practicing College Writing Ads by Google 0 IELTS Writing Writing Story Free Writing Writing Paper Like Oct 5 , 2009 Kristina Bjoran 5 Paragraph Essays are Easy with Practice - Clipart.com, by Subscription The first and second semesters of college demand a lot of writing from new students. Here are essay writing prompts for. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 969 Words | 4 Pages. Five Paragraph Essay Outline Teachers can use these steps to teach students how to write a great five paragraph . essay by using outlines and on thomas jefferson properly organizing thoughts, topics, and details. These directions are written for students to follow when choosing a topic, creating a basic outline, and writing the thesis worksheet essay . Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/education/k-12/articles/2999.aspx#ixzz0lQaL6vBg Step 1 - Choose a Good Topic When writing an essay , it is important to choose a topic that. American way , Argument , Creative writing 1841 Words | 6 Pages.
Romeo and Juliet 5 Paragraph Essay. except Romeo and Juliet. Many people still believe that Romeo is still falling for Rosaline. In fact, at one point Mercutio exclaimed, “Why that same pale . Essay On Thomas? hearted wench, that Rosaline torments him, so that he will sure run mad” (Romeo and Juliet 2.4.4- 5 ). Even until after their marriage, both Romeo and Juliet are pretty secretive about the love or the marriage, except for Juliet expressing her feeling to the nurse. Juliet only told the nurse because she loves the nurse and to read and write essay trusted her as well, and needed. Characters in essay on thomas presidency Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1091 Words | 3 Pages. I have been told that I need to write a 1000 word essay on disrespecting a Non Commissioned Officer. Thesis Practice Worksheet? But it is essay jefferson, really hard to blueprinting planning, write about this . because I am having a hard time wondering how I disrespected them. So, where do I start on this and what do I say about it.
As far as this essay goes I am just going to write how I feel about respect and how respect works both ways. It is wrong to disrespect a Non Commissioned Officer because they are appointed above me to guide me to the right place and. Corporal , Military ranks , Non-commissioned officer 1151 Words | 3 Pages. Five- Paragraph Essay Project: Thesis, Supporting Points, Outline To do well on a project you should be prepared to spend time . over several days to do your best work. You should plan to apply yourself to your project, take a break from it, and come back several times to polish and refine your work. Your goal for essay, this project is to complete some exercises about a prompt for a five- paragraph essay . The essay will. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Rhetoric 1291 Words | 5 Pages.
Example Of A 5 Paragraph Critical Analysis. Debt Essay? HOW TO WRITE A 5 PARAGRAPH CRITICAL ANALYSIS . The following is an essay from bookrags.com which gives you a great example of how to essay on thomas, write your essay . You should rely on the format only and not the essay words or transitions as they are lacking. Essay Jefferson? Read the following essay and then discuss and type answers to the questions that follow. INTRODUCTION Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in blueprinting planning essay corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for essay presidency, . 22 , Debut albums 1014 Words | 4 Pages. an essay that contains at least one quotation per body paragraph , choosing from ONE of the following topics. [500-600 words]. 1. . Discuss the various kinds of on issues fear faced by the major characters and assess the jefferson presidency extent to planning essay, which they overcame them. OR 2. Essay On Thomas Jefferson? Why does Michele continue to love and planning your essay respect his father, despite knowing what his father has done and is prepared to do? B Level You are to produce a detailed plan and an essay that.
Assessment , English-language films , Evaluation 912 Words | 5 Pages. understanding that he will not only just forget it ever in his life but also implement it in his life with an equal degree of effectiveness. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? The clear cut . inference is this that if the education is the debt essay car then sports and jefferson activities are the Is this Essay helpful? Join OPPapers to read more and access more than 325,000 just like it! get better grades keys to drive on towards the success! Yesterday I read a newspaper report which showed the essay tendency oildren to remain away from all sorts of physical. Nutrition , Sport , United States 674 Words | 3 Pages. On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? flexibility to be a stay at home mom. I do yoga with my kids, and once I learned about YogaKids and how incredible the program is, I saw a future in not just . teaching children yoga, but teaching other adults to teach yoga to children as well. 5 . Describe your personal strengths, gifts and skills that you bring as a mentor? I have over 10 years experience teaching yoga. I am really good at putting together ideas and themes, even my adult classes are creative and different each time. Education , Pelvis , Pranayama 1635 Words | 6 Pages. for college level courses.
The course integrates reading, writing, speaking, listening comprehension, and grammar as well as the writing process, . Essays On Issues? organization, grammar and mechanics, and sentence structure. Students will produce three essays and several paragraphs . The content of the course focuses on American culture and issues facing new immigrants. The course is essay jefferson presidency, designed for hidden dragon, Limited English Proficient students at Cincinnati State who are enrolled in a pre-tech or degree program. Essay On Thomas? In addition. Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages.
Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). Crouching Tiger Critical Essay? So, here we are presenting you How to on thomas jefferson, write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. On Issues? How to write an essay ? 1. Essay Jefferson Presidency? Analyze the on issues prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. 5 Paragraph Format For Narrative Essay. ? The Five Paragraph Essay Paragraph 1 - introduction This paragraph has two main purposes: 1) . On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? To attract the reader's attention.
Have a good, strong opening sentence. 2) To inform the reader what the essay is about. However, do NOT write This essay is about. or I am going to on issues, write about. On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? It is ellen foster essay, not wrong to start like that, but it's not very good style (ask Paul!). However, you DO need a THESIS STATEMENT which usually comes at on thomas presidency the end of the introductory paragraph and explains. Department store , Essay , Five paragraph essay 327 Words | 2 Pages. Zinn 5 Paragraph Essay In “A People’s History of the United States,” by thesis, Howard Zinn, Zinn states “To emphasize . the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discovers, and to deemphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves-unwittingly-to justify what was done,” this quote is essay presidency, true to all extent. True, Columbus and his followers founded Central America, but they were obviously not the first or the “native” Americans would have not been.
Americas , Christopher Columbus , Hero 471 Words | 2 Pages. mutually a false belief. Productivity and you learn to read and write essay competition make up a portion of what capitalism is. Essay Jefferson? Whereas busyness is the action capitalism creates. As a whole, . the incorporation of busyness adopts the smallest aspects of worksheet everyday life. In the Adam Gopnik’s essay “Bumping into Mr. Ravioli,” he writes about his three-year-old daughter’s frustration trying to find the time to play with her imaginary friend, Charlie Ravioli. Olivia creates an imaginary friend Mr. Ravioli, a busy New Yorker who “lived in essay on thomas jefferson an apartment. Arlie Russell Hochschild , Cereal , Imaginary friend 1755 Words | 7 Pages. How to Write 3 Paragraph Essay Responses.
How to write 3 paragraph essay responses Before you read: Take note of the title, the author’s name and look to see if there is how did you learn and write essay, . any biographical information on presidency the author. Have you heard of this author before? You might want to Google him/her. Go on the internet to look over the periodical (publication) that the article came from. What do you already know about the subject, the publication or the website it came from? I recommend that you print out a hard copy of the reading. That. Essay , Font , Modern Language Association 968 Words | 3 Pages. taught and students are to apply them in their writing. Writing will focus on the development of coherent paragraphs . Your? Reading skills will . cover such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on essay on thomas academic texts 4. give oral. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages.
ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to how did, help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to essay on thomas presidency, organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and debt essay will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and on thomas presidency Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to crouching tiger essay, approach the on thomas presidency subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. You Learn And Write? 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Jefferson Presidency? chose the word respect for thesis worksheet, my definition essay , and asked my mom what I should write about, she started singing an Aretha . Franklin song, which I have heard, but I do not know it that well, so I looked up the presidency lyrics. (What you want Baby, I got What you need Do you know I got it? All I'm askin' Is for a little respect when you come home (just a little bit) Hey baby (just a little bit) when you get home (just a little bit) mister (just a little bit) Lyrics from the crouching tiger hidden essay song, Respect by Aretha.
1990 singles , Aretha Franklin , Respect 867 Words | 2 Pages. In The Introductory Paragraph To This Essay About Essays. ?In the introductory paragraph to this essay about essays I will tell you that you don’t need an jefferson presidency, introductory . paragraph , at least not of the 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in high school. What you do need is That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury. It makes your blood boil.
It’s all you can talk about when you sit down with your friends over a glass of wine or two or five, or maybe you can’t talk about it with anyone, just your. Education , Essay , Essays 1304 Words | 4 Pages. Reflective Essay: Dignity and Respect. Reflective essay : Dignity and you learn to read essay respect 10053603 Introduction The Purpose of this essay is to on thomas presidency, reflect upon . an experience which relates to the chosen topic of how did and write essay dignity and respect , this was highlighted in essay jefferson my self-assessment (please see appendix) Acknowledging a persons’ dignity can contribute to their sense of good health, well-being and independence. Worksheet? Dignity is an essential element of high quality care and involves aspects such as respect , privacy, autonomy and essay jefferson self-worth (The Welsh Assembly. Nursing 2400 Words | 7 Pages. and use it. 2 II. Formula for an Essay Basically, the writing expected of students in college is of one type that can be used for how did you learn to read and write essay, all . disciplines. Essay? This handout generally focuses on the basic, formulaic nature of the college level essay and its components. THIS IS THE PROCESS ITS PRODUCTS: 1. BRAINSTORM: Write down whatever comes to mind about the topic.
2. A.A.: AUDIENCE ATTRACTOR: This is the planning essay first sentence of the opening paragraph which catches the essay reader's attention. Foster Essay? 2005 albums , Doctor of Philosophy , Essay 2176 Words | 12 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of essay on thomas jefferson writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of foster essay a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of on thomas presidency daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. On Issues? Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in essay jefferson verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's.
Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Five Paragraph Essay Women today are facing some of the same problems that those women of the 1800’s tried to overcome. . Equality for women! Many women today find themselves in the position to make career changes due to family shifts, a lack of education, or a failing economy. Many women during the 20th century left behind their careers to be married and raise children. But in the 1970s divorce rates reached an all time high, leaving women to blueprinting planning essay, raise children on their own and go back. Presidency? 20th century , Family , Five paragraph essay 385 Words | 2 Pages. Respect Respect is a definition that has many meanings and aspects to it. But what meanings that means the most to me is . Essays? family, yourself and your peers. Respect comes with trust, obedience and jefferson presidency integrity.
Those meanings all together have not only debt essay a personal meaning but also a reflection on essay on thomas jefferson presidency me and to debt essay, others as well. Here’s an explanation of how all these meanings come together to define the essay word respect . First off, family is the most important part of life. If you don’t learn respect from. Core issues in ethics , Family , Gain 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Blueprinting Your Essay? Respect Essay I am very lucky to live in Canada, where this beautiful country has not been shattered by essay on thomas jefferson, destruction of the . On Issues? land and towns, but rather provides protection from on thomas jefferson it, and blueprinting your delivers respectful education, freedom, and safety so that we don’t need to live a decided life, or a life of fear. On Thomas Jefferson? What is “respectful education”? Well, you could say that it is education that teaches children not only curriculum, but also how to be respectful to everyone and you learn essay everything around them, you may. Creator deity , Democracy , Dictatorship 883 Words | 3 Pages. Jefferson? How to Write a Five Paragraph Essay Essays come in various forms, as do subjects, professors, writing styles, . and graders. In order to crouching tiger hidden critical essay, make the best of essay jefferson presidency a writing assignment, there are a few rules that can always be followed in order to planning, find success.
While you can never know exactly what a teacher will like, as long as you have proven a point, you will write a successful essay . The beauty of writing is that the power is in your hands. There is not always a right or wrong answer. You simply. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1114 Words | 4 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. | | | |* Content includes excellent details. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? | . Essays On Issues? Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Jefferson Presidency? Respect Being responsible for essays, what you do will earn you the respect you deserve, also doing what is right and not running your . Essay On Thomas Presidency? mouth demonstrate a lot of ellen essay respect , “Being brilliant is no great feat if you respect nothing”. Jefferson? (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) Every military in and write this world has some sort of chain of command in which respect is the main premise behind the essay on thomas entire Idea of organization and with a chain of debt essay command. Respect is important in essay on thomas jefferson presidency the design of the military system itself. You have. Practice Worksheet? Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 1517 Words | 4 Pages.
Good Habits for Writers 1. Essay On Thomas? Did I begin this essay on the day it was assigned? 2. Essays? Did I ask questions about essay, part of the assignment . I did not understand? 3. Did I work at ellen essay least twelve hours on essay on thomas jefferson this paper? 4. Did I bring drafts of this essay to class when requested? 5 . Ellen Topics? Did I have another person read my draft? 6. Did I proofread my draft in jefferson stages rather than all at once?
Essay Submission Checklist ? Follows correct MLA format (see the end of the. Bertrand Russell , Bibliography , Citation 841 Words | 5 Pages. ?Classifications of paragraph A classification paragraph begins a main idea and discusses the subcategories of that topic, . comparing and contrasting them with each other. Following are some examples of classification paragraphs . Foster Essay Topics? Here are a couple of short classification paragraphs , in order to get you started with learning about how they should be formed and what they are. Remember: Classification paragraphs start with a main idea, using the rest of the paragraph to on thomas jefferson presidency, explain a series of secondary. Debt Essay? Weight loss 2231 Words | 6 Pages. Mastering the 5 Paragraph Essay Most students do not need to be professional writers or a wizard in English . Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? class to learn how to write outstanding five paragraph essays . Practice makes perfect and planning essay with some basic skills and a lot of practice, any student can be writing proper essays in essay presidency no time. The five paragraph essay is of utmost importance because it is the chosen standard for measuring a student's writing skills and proficiency. Most grade schools use the five paragraph essay for class assignments.
Conclusion , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1005 Words | 4 Pages. And Write? MABETH ESSAY INFORMATION: In each paragraph , ask yourself questions, a you respond to the topic Why did Macbeth act this way? . What is essay on thomas jefferson presidency, revealed about his state of mind? How do his actions impact on blueprinting planning essay others? What do you think he should have done? Why USE TEEL : T opic Sentence E xplanation E vidence L ink (TO THE TOPIC(NOT TOPIC SENTENCE)) ESSAY TOPIC: By the essay presidency end of the play, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are described as “a dead butch and his fiend like queen” Is this a fair appraisal. Duncan I of Scotland , KILL , King Duncan 731 Words | 3 Pages. On Issues? h only on e desire : t o eat . I n o longe r though t o f m y father , o r m y mother . Fro m tim e t o time , I would . dream . Bu t only abou t soup , a n extr a ratio n o f soup . ON APRI L 5 , th e whee l o f histor y turned . It wa s lat e afternoon . W e wer e standin g insid e th e block , wait - in g fo r a n S S t o com e an d coun t us . H e wa s late . Suc h latenes s wa . Hausa language , Hawaii 8550 Words | 264 Pages. Essay On Thomas? where she belonged.
I wasn’t until the summer of her ninth to tenth grade year of school that she fully accepted the thesis practice role of essay on thomas jefferson presidency fully being lesbian. Stacy went . on to tell me about her first encounter with a female but, I chose to not write that out of ellen topics respect for her privacy. My next question was when she first came out to her parents. She replied that she didn’t simply come out to her mother and stepfather at 17years old, she was tricked. Unbeknownst to Stacy, her stepfather had created a fake profile. On Thomas Presidency? Academic degree , Coming out blueprinting essay, , Ellen DeGeneres 601 Words | 2 Pages. Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay Assignment. Letter from Birmingham Jail Argument Analysis Essay Assignment (100 points) Assignment:? Write a five paragraph . essay analyzing ? Letter from essay jefferson Birmingham Jail Question? : What is Dr.
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REVIEW Paragraph 1 A good introductory paragraph . This summarizes the next couple of presidency paragraphs and also has a . certain intriguing appeal - it arouses the reader's curiosity and impels him to read further. The first sentence, however, could easily have been dropped - the second sentence would make a more compelling introduction to the essay . Paragraph 2 Here the writer develops on the thread of diversity. Note that there is an emphasis on aspects that are important to an MBA course (strong. Balance sheet , Essay , Essays 842 Words | 3 Pages. Foster Topics? ?An expository essay is essay on thomas jefferson presidency, a piece of writing where the writer presents opinions, points of view, ideas, concepts, arguments on debt essay a particular . topic. It is usually a formal piece of writing with an essay on thomas jefferson, introduction, a discussion, and essay a conclusion. Ang isang nagpapaliwanag sanaysay ay isang piraso ng pagsulat kung saan ang manunulat nagtatanghal ng mga opinyon, punto ng view, mga ideya, konsepto, argumento sa isang partikular na paksa. On Thomas Presidency? Ito ay karaniwang isang pormal na piraso ng pagsulat na may isang panimula. Blueprinting Planning Your Essay? Article , Essay , Essays 2149 Words | 10 Pages. help him and he also gets the respect that money can’t buy. People will respect you because you have money but if you don’t have . On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? that, you will still get the same respect as many rich people has because you’re good and essays people love you because of essay on thomas that. There’s a story about a rich man vs. a poor good man.
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Writing the essay jefferson Essay U.S. History Organization • Basics – Introduction (4- 5 sentences) – Body (4-6 sentences each) – . Conclusion (3- 5 sentences) • Paragraphs – Should be concise and TO THE POINT • Avoid paragraphs that are longer than one page • Helpful Hint – Use a concluding sentence to thesis practice, each body paragraph to summarize main idea and reiterate your thesis • **This does not differ between FRQs and DBQs Introduction • Length: 4- 5 sentences • Be sure of what the question is asking. Essay , Sentence 616 Words | 4 Pages. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency? ?And now the bottom bun. Once again aren’t these great buns. On Issues? So finally we come to the conclusion paragraph , the end of your paper and essay on thomas an . extremely important part. Why? Because this is the final feelings the reader is reader is ellen topics, left with. Do you want the left with a poor vision of your paper? No you don’t you don’t want the left with bad taste because of a stale bun. Go ahead and on thomas presidency write conclusion on your last sheet of debt essay paper So now we have the essay presidency bottom bun. And wow looks pretty familiar definitely.
2005 albums , Frederick Douglass , Hamburger 1107 Words | 3 Pages. writing essays and to read and write usually do well at it, you may be able to skip this. There are other good ways to write an essay that will . Essay Jefferson? work just as well and be more interesting to tiger critical, read. But if you have any doubts about your ability to write a good essay and essay on thomas jefferson presidency get a good mark, learn this pattern and follow it to the letter. It is the fool-proof, fail-proof method that you can use right up through English 3201 and possibly beyond (though university profs often require a more complex approach to essay writing. Essay , Geoff Stirling , Joey Smallwood 364 Words | 2 Pages. Argumentative Essay Packet Essay format Title Page I. Introduction a. Attention Getter b. General Information c. Specific . Information d. Thesis Statement II. Counter Argument a. Topic Sentence b. Thesis Practice Worksheet? Evidence c. Explanation of Evidence d. Explanation of essay jefferson presidency Why Your Argument is Still Correct III. Supporting Body Paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Essay? Explanation of essay jefferson presidency Argument c. Evidence d. Explanation of Evidence e. Closing Statement IV. Supporting Body paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation. Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 632 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. Practice Worksheet? essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. then have 15 minutes to write a paragraph of how to make a birthday cake for their partners.
The students explain the process from beginning to . end, showing clear organization and transition from one step to the next. Read more: Mini-Lesson Ideas for Expository Writing | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8250265_minilesson-ideas-expository-writing.html#ixzz1ojVOu3u6 Instructions Things You'll Need Pen Paper 1. 1 Examine the topic or subject of the essay . Jefferson? Take time to essay, consider it, then. Academia , Creative writing , Essay 1901 Words | 7 Pages. have, and few want to essay, give. Thesis Practice Worksheet? Respect gives a positive feeling of esteem or deference for presidency, a person or other entity (such as a nation or a . How Did To Read Essay? religion), and also specific actions and essay jefferson presidency conduct representative of that esteem. Respect can be a specific feeling of regard for the actual qualities of the one respected. From that fact, the researcher wanted to crouching tiger hidden essay, show the audience how to being a respected person and give respect to essay on thomas presidency, other people, environment and nation. Essays? In this world, respect has great importance in. Essay On Thomas? Personal life , Research , Respect 735 Words | 3 Pages. An essay is generally a short piece of writing written from an author's personal point of dragon critical view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article and a short story. Essays can consist of essay on thomas jefferson a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and planning your essay reflections of the author.
Almost all modern essays are written in on thomas jefferson presidency prose, but works in worksheet verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Essay Presidency? Alexander Pope's An Essay on to read Criticism. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 944 Words | 3 Pages. Respect Respect is to show regard or consideration towards someone or something. It can be defined as a positive feeling of essay on thomas jefferson presidency . appreciation towards a person or thing. Respect expresses the regard and consideration shown by an individual towards others. Respect cannot be demanded, it is an asset that has to be earned. From childhood we are taught to practice, respect our parents, elders, teachers and the list goes on. There is a personal form of respect , which is well known as self- respect . Essay Presidency? If an individual.
Feeling , Human behavior , Individual 1262 Words | 3 Pages. Study Guide Quiz Overview: 15 multiple choice/true or false questions. Only one right answer per question Time limit = 30 minutes Only one opportunity to . take the quiz In order to best prepare for the quiz it would be a good idea to review chapters 1- 5 in blueprinting planning essay the E-book as well as complete this study guide. 1. What is the difference between credible and non-credible sources? Provide an example or two of each kind. The difference between credible and non credible sources is credible sources are believable. Presidency? Citation , Grammatical person , Hard return 666 Words | 3 Pages. Worksheet? EASY WAY TO MAKE AN ESSAY Name: Rani Ersalina Trisnawati Class: Accounting 3/ 2011 ID Number: 008201100039 Mr. Marc President . university Jababeka education park Jalan ki hajar dewantara Cikarang The word Essay coming from the term Assay which means “to try”, try to explain people, method, and everything that can be explained. Essay needs at least five paragraphs that consist of one introductory paragraph , three main body paragraphs and one concluding paragraph . Introductory is the.
Copy editing , Editing , Essay 860 Words | 3 Pages. can successfully construct a four- paragraph expository essay (introduction, two body paragraphs , and conclusion), . as well as revise and edit their essay using a rubric and pre-established classroom criteria. The student should present a perspective on American values using logically sound and grammatically correct paragraphs , basing their reasoning on clearly stated themes and concrete, illustrative examples. The produced paragraphs will be evaluated from on thomas 0 to 5 based on three categories: organization. Planning Essay? 2005 albums , Assessment , Essay 739 Words | 3 Pages. Respect Respect , especially in essay jefferson presidency the Army is a very important value to live by. It is planning your, much more than just talking kindly and . listening to someone, it is the jefferson presidency process of crouching hidden dragon critical essay taking into consideration someone’s emotions, feelings and needs. You must also focus on their ideas, thoughts, and preferences. It is showing someone that you value their time; that you care what they have to say. Showing someone respect allows that person to know and acknowledge that you comprehend and believe in what they are. Military , Non-commissioned officer , People 2857 Words | 7 Pages. Essay Related questions What are the different parts in an essay ?A.
Introduction, Body (3 paraghaphs), Conclusion 2. What . Essay Jefferson? should be done to plan for an essay ? A. Analyse the questions: Read the question multiple times and try to understand it to the fullest. Brainstorming: pen down all your thoughts and then select the stuff that you will include in blueprinting planning your the essay . Planning: plan the structure of your essay before you start writing. 3. On Thomas? How do you structure an introduction? A. Funnel shaped. 2005 albums , Essay , Paragraph 612 Words | 2 Pages. How to write an ellen foster essay, argumentative essay.
problem: a clear thesis statement. + definitions Paragraph : topic sentence a. argument 1 b. Presidency? argument 2 c. argument 3 d. . . Paragraph : topic sentence a. argument 1 b. argument 2 c. Crouching Hidden Dragon Critical Essay? argument 3 d. . Conclusion: a. Essay On Thomas Jefferson? Give a balanced view. b. Give your opinion. Argumentative Essay How to write an essays on issues, Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, Examples, Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the position of proving that the presented. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages.
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columbus goals essay Archive of Articles. Archive of on thomas jefferson Free Life. The Mystery of blueprinting Fascism. by David Ramsay Steele. Mussolini - as he would like to have been remembered. You're the Great Houdini! Soon after he arrived in Switzerland in presidency 1902, 18 years old and looking for work, Benito Mussolini was starving and penniless. All he had in his pockets was a cheap nickel medallion of Karl Marx.
Following a spell of vagrancy, Mussolini found a job as a bricklayer and union organizer in the city of Lausanne. Quickly achieving fame as an agitator among the Italian migratory laborers, he was referred to by a local Italian-language newspaper as the great duce [leader] of the Italian socialists. He read voraciously, learned several foreign languages, (2) and sat in on Pareto's lectures at the university. The great duce 's fame was so far purely parochial. Ellen Foster Essay! Upon his return to essay on thomas jefferson presidency Italy, young Benito was an undistinguished member of the debt essay, Socialist Party. He began to edit his own little paper, La Lotta di Classe (The Class Struggle), ferociously anti-capitalist, anti-militarist, and essay on thomas jefferson presidency, anti-Catholic. He took seriously Marx's dictum that the working class has no country, and vigorously opposed the Italian military intervention in Libya. Jailed several times for involvement in strikes and anti-war protests, he became something of a leftist hero. Crouching Dragon! Before turning 30, Mussolini was elected to the National Executive Committee of the Socialist Party, and made editor of its daily paper, Avanti!
The paper's circulation and Mussolini's personal popularity grew by leaps and bounds. Mussolini's election to the Executive was part of the presidency, capture of control of the Socialist Party by the hard-line Marxist left, with the expulsion from the Party of those deputies (members of parliament) considered too conciliatory to the bourgeoisie. The shift in Socialist Party control was greeted with delight by Lenin and other revolutionaries throughout the world. From 1912 to 1914, Mussolini was the Che Guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism. Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to tiger dragon critical the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left. He looked like the head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary. In 1913, while still editor of Avanti! , he began to publish and edit his own journal, Utopia , a forum for controversial discussion among leftwing socialists.
Like many such socialist journals founded in hope, it aimed to create a highly-educated cadre of essay on thomas jefferson revolutionaries, purged of dogmatic illusions, ready to seize the moment. Two of those who collaborated with Mussolini on Utopia would go on to help found the Italian Communist Party and one to help found the German Communist Party. How Did You Learn To Read! (3) Others, with Mussolini, would found the Fascist movement. The First World War began in August 1914 without Italian involvement. Should Italy join Britain and France against Germany and Austria, or stay out of the war? (4) All the top leaders and intellectuals of the Socialist Party, Mussolini among them, were opposed to Italian participation. In October and November 1914, Mussolini switched to presidency a pro-war position. He resigned as editor of Avanti! , joined with pro-war leftists outside the Socialist Party, and launched a new pro-war socialist paper, Il Popolo d'Italia (People of Italy). On Issues! (5) To the Socialist Party leadership, this was a great betrayal, a sell-out to the whoremasters of the bourgeoisie, and Mussolini was expelled from the Party.
It was as scandalous as though, 50 years later, Guevara had announced that he was off to Vietnam, to help defend the South against North Vietnamese aggression. Italy entered the war in May 1915, and Mussolini enlisted. In 1917 he was seriously wounded and hospitalized, emerging from the war the most popular of the pro-war socialists, a leader without a movement. Post-war Italy was hag-ridden by civil strife and jefferson, political violence. Sensing a revolutionary situation in you learn and write the wake of on thomas presidency Russia's Bolshevik coup , the worksheet, left organized strikes, factory occupations, riots, and political killings. Socialists often beat up and sometimes killed soldiers returning home, just because they had fought in the war. On Thomas Presidency! Assaulting political opponents and wrecking their property became an everyday occurrence.
Mussolini and a group of adherents launched the Fascist movement (6) in 1919. How Did To Read! The initiators were mostly men of the left: revolutionary syndicalists and former Marxists. (7) They took with them some non-socialist nationalists and futurists, and recruited heavily among soldiers returning from the essay on thomas jefferson, war, so that the bulk of rank-and-file Fascists had no leftwing background. The Fascists adopted the black shirts (8) of the anarchists and Giovinezza (Youth), the song of the front-line soldiers. Apart from ellen essay, its ardent nationalism and on thomas presidency, pro-war foreign policy, the Fascist program was a mixture of radical left, moderate left, democratic, and liberal measures, and for more than a year the new movement was not notably more violent than other socialist groupings. (9) However, Fascists came into conflict with Socialist Party members and in 1920 formed a militia, the squadre (squads). Essays! Including many patriotic veterans, the squads were more efficient at arson and terror tactics than the essay, violently disposed but bumbling Marxists, and often had the tacit support of the police and on issues, army. By 1921 Fascists had the upper hand in essay on thomas jefferson physical combat with their rivals of the left. The democratic and liberal elements in Fascist preaching rapidly diminished and in 1922 Mussolini declared that The world is turning to the right. The Socialists, who controlled the unions, called a general strike. Marching into blueprinting essay, some of the major cities, blackshirt squads quickly and forcibly suppressed the strike, and most Italians heaved a sigh of relief. This gave the blackshirts the presidency, idea of essay topics marching on Rome to seize power.
As they publicly gathered for the great march, the government decided to avert possible civil war by bringing Mussolini into office; the King begged Mussolini to become Prime Minister, with emergency powers. Instead of a desperate uprising, the March on Rome was the essay on thomas jefferson presidency, triumphant celebration of a legal transfer of authority. The youngest prime minister in how did and write essay Italian history, Mussolini was an essay presidency, adroit and indefatigable fixer, a formidable wheeler and dealer in a constitutional monarchy which did not become an outright and permanent dictatorship until December 1925, and thesis, even then retained elements of unstable pluralism requiring fancy footwork. He became world-renowned as a political miracle worker. Mussolini made the trains run on time, closed down the essay on thomas presidency, Mafia, drained the essays on issues, Pontine marshes, and on thomas jefferson presidency, solved the tricky Roman Question, finally settling the essay topics, political status of the Pope. Cole Porter -- sang Mussolini's praises. Mussolini was showered with accolades from sundry quarters. Winston Churchill called him the essay on thomas jefferson presidency, greatest living legislator. Cole Porter gave him a terrific plug in a hit song.
Sigmund Freud sent him an to read and write, autographed copy of one of his books, inscribed to the Hero of Culture. (10) The more taciturn Stalin supplied Mussolini with the plans of the May Day parades in Red Square, to essay presidency help him polish up his Fascist pageants. The rest of il Duce 's career is now more familiar. He conquered Ethiopia, made a Pact of Steel with Germany, introduced anti-Jewish measures in 1938, (11) came into the war as Hitler's very junior partner, tried to strike out on his own by invading the Balkans, had to be bailed out by Hitler, was driven back by the Allies, and then deposed by the Fascist Great Council, rescued from imprisonment by SS troops in one of the most brilliant commando operations of the war, installed as head of a new Italian Social Republic, and debt essay, killed by Communist partisans in presidency April 1945. Given what most people today think they know about Fascism, this bare recital of facts (12) is a mystery story. Planning! How can a movement which epitomizes the essay jefferson presidency, extreme right be so strongly rooted in the extreme left? What was going on in the minds of dedicated socialist militants to turn them into on issues, equally dedicated Fascist militants? What They Told Us about Fascism. In the 1930s, the essay jefferson presidency, perception of fascism (13) in the English-speaking world morphed from an exotic, even chic, Italian novelty (14) into an all-purpose symbol of evil.
Under the debt essay, influence of leftist writers, a view of presidency fascism was disseminated which has remained dominant among intellectuals until today. It goes as follows: Fascism is capitalism with the mask off. It's a tool of Big Business, which rules through democracy until it feels mortally threatened, then unleashes fascism. Mussolini and Hitler were put into planning, power by Big Business, because Big Business was challenged by the revolutionary working class. (15) We naturally have to explain, then, how fascism can be a mass movement, and one that is neither led nor organized by Big Business. The explanation is essay presidency, that Fascism does it by fiendishly clever use of ritual and symbol. Fascism as an on issues, intellectual doctrine is presidency, empty of serious content, or alternatively, its content is an incoherent hodge-podge. Fascism's appeal is a matter of emotions rather than ideas.
It relies on hymn-singing, flag-waving, and other mummery, which are nothing more than irrational devices employed by the Fascist leaders who have been paid by Big Business to manipulate the masses. As Marxists used to say, fascism appeals to the basest instincts, implying that leftists were at a disadvantage because they could appeal only to noble instincts like envy of the rich. Since it is irrational, fascism is blueprinting planning essay, sadistic, nationalist, and racist by nature. Essay On Thomas! Leftist regimes are also invariably sadistic, nationalist, and thesis practice worksheet, racist, but that's because of regrettable mistakes or pressure of difficult circumstances. Leftists want what's best but keep meeting unexpected setbacks, whereas fascists have chosen to commit evil. More broadly, fascism may be defined as any totalitarian regime which does not aim at presidency the nationalization of industry but preserves at least nominal private property.
The term can even be extended to any dictatorship that has become unfashionable among intellectuals. Blueprinting Essay! (16) When the Soviet Union and People's China had a falling out in the 1960s, they each promptly discovered that the essay, other fraternal socialist country was not merely capitalist but fascist. Essay! At the most vulgar level, fascist is a handy swear-word for such hated figures as Rush Limbaugh or John Ashcroft who, whatever their faults, are as remote from historical Fascism as anyone in on thomas jefferson presidency public life today. The consequence of 70 years of debt essay indoctrination with a particular leftist view of fascism is essay presidency, that Fascism is crouching tiger hidden, now a puzzle. We know how leftists in essay the 1920s and 1930s thought because we knew people in college whose thinking was almost identical, and because we have read such writers as Sartre, Hemingway, and essays, Orwell. But what were Fascists thinking? Some Who Became Fascists.
Robert Michels was a German Marxist disillusioned with the on thomas jefferson, Social Democrats. He became a revolutionary syndicalist. In 1911 he wrote Political Parties , a brilliant analytic work, (17) demonstrating the impossibility of participatory democracy--a phrase that was not to be coined for half a century, but which accurately captures the early Marxist vision of socialist administration. (18) Later he became an Italian (changing Robert to Roberto) and how did to read, one of the leading Fascist theoreticians. Hendrik de Man was the leading Belgian socialist of essay presidency his day and recognized as one of the two or three most outstanding socialist intellects in Europe--many in the 1930s believed him to be the most important socialist theoretician since Marx. He is the most prominent of the numerous Western European Marxists who wrestled their way from Marxism to Fascism or National Socialism in the interwar years. Foster! In more than a dozen thoughtful books from The Remaking of a Mind (1919), via The Socialist Idea (1933), to essay jefferson Aprs Coup (1941) de Man left a detailed account of the theoretical odyssey which led him, by 1940, to acclaim the Nazi subjugation of Europe as a deliverance. His journey began, as such journeys so often did, with the conviction that Marxism needed to be revised along idealist and psychological lines. (19) Two avant-garde artistic movements which contributed to the Fascist worldview were Futurism and practice, Vorticism. Essay Presidency! Futurism was the brainchild of essays Filippo Marinetti, who eventually lost his life in the service of Mussolini's regime. You can get some idea of the Futurist pictorial style from the credits for essay on thomas jefferson presidency, the Poirot TV series. Practice! Its style of poetry was a defining influence on Mayakovsky.
Futurist arts activities were permitted for jefferson, some years in ellen foster essay topics the Soviet Union. On Thomas Jefferson Presidency! Futurism held that modern machines were more beautiful than classical sculptures. It lauded the esthetic value of critical essay speed, intensity, modern machinery, and modern war. Pound, found to be mentally ill because he supported fascism Vorticism was a somewhat milder variant of essay presidency Futurism, associated with Ezra Pound and the painter and novelist Wyndham Lewis, an American and a Canadian who transplanted to London. Pound became a Fascist, moved to Italy, and was later found mentally ill and incarcerated by tiger hidden dragon, the occupying Americans. The symptoms of his illness were his Fascist beliefs. He was later released, and essay, chose to blueprinting planning essay move back to on thomas Italy in 1958, an you learn essay, unreprentant Fascist.
In 1939 the essay jefferson, avowed fascist Wyndham Lewis retracted his earlier praise for Hitler, but never renounced his basically fascist political worldview. Lewis was, like George Bernard Shaw, one of those intellectuals of the debt essay, 1930s who admired Fascism and Communism about equally, praising them both while insisting on their similarity. Fascism must have been a set of ideas which inspired educated individuals who thought of themselves as extremely up-to-date. Essay On Thomas! But what were those ideas? Five Facts about Fascism. Over the last 30 years, scholarship has gradually begun to topics bring us a more accurate appreciation of what Fascism was. (20) The picture that emerges from essay on thomas jefferson presidency, ongoing research into the origins of Fascism is not yet entirely clear, but it's clear enough to show that the thesis practice, truth cannot be reconciled with the conventional view. We can highlight some of the unsettling conclusions in five facts: Fascism was a doctrine well elaborated years before it was named. Essay Jefferson Presidency! The core of the essay, Fascist movement launched officially in the Piazza San Sepolcro on 23rd March 1919 was an intellectual and jefferson presidency, organizational tradition called national syndicalism. As an intellectual edifice, Fascism was mostly in place by essay, about 1910.
Historically, the taproot of Fascism lies in the 1890s--in the Crisis of Marxism and in the interaction of nineteenth-century revolutionary socialism with fin de sicle anti-rationalism and essay on thomas jefferson presidency, anti-liberalism. Fascism changed dramatically between 1919 and 1922, and again changed dramatically after 1922. This is what we expect of essays any ideological movement which comes close to power and then attains it. Bolshevism (renamed Communism in 1920) also changed dramatically, several times over. Many of the older treatments of Fascism are misleading because they cobble together Fascist pronouncements, almost entirely from on thomas, after 1922, reflecting the pressures on debt essay a broad and flexible political movement solidifying its rule by compromises, and essay jefferson presidency, suppose that by this method they can isolate the you learn to read essay, character and motivation of essay on thomas presidency Fascist ideology.
It is as if we were to reconstruct the ideas of Bolshevism by collecting the practice worksheet, pronouncements of the Soviet government in 1943, which would lead us to conclude that Marxism owed a lot to on thomas jefferson Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great. Fascism was a movement with its roots primarily in the left. Its leaders and initiators were secular-minded, highly progressive intellectuals, hard-headed haters of existing society and especially of its most bourgeois aspects. There were also non-leftist currents which fed into Fascism; the on issues, most prominent was the nationalism of Enrico Corradini. This anti-liberal, anti-democratic movement was preoccupied with building Italy's strength by essay, accelerated industrialization. Though it was considered rightwing at the time, Corradini called himself a socialist, and crouching essay, similar movements in the Third World would later be warmly supported by the left. Fascism was intellectually sophisticated. Fascist theory was more subtle and more carefully thought out essay on thomas jefferson presidency than Communist doctrine. As with Communism, there was a distinction between the theory itself and the line designed for a broad public. You Learn! Fascists drew upon such thinkers as Henri Bergson, William James, Gabriel Tarde, Ludwig Gumplowicz, Vilfredo Pareto, Gustave Le Bon, Georges Sorel, Robert Michels, Gaetano Mosca, Giuseppe Prezzolini, Filippo Marinetti, A.O. Olivetti, Sergio Panunzio, and Giovanni Gentile.
Here we should note a difference between Marxism and Fascism. The leader of a Marxist political movement is essay presidency, always considered by his followers to be a master of theory and a theoretical innovator on the scale of Copernicus. Fascists were less prone to any such delusion. Mussolini was more widely-read than Lenin and a better writer, but Fascist intellectuals did not consider him a major contributor to the body of Fascist theory, more a leader of genius who could distil theory into action. Fascists were radical modernizers. By temperament they were neither conservative nor reactionary. Fascists despised the status quo and were not attracted by thesis practice worksheet, a return to bygone conditions. Even in power, despite all its adaptations to the requirements of the immediate situation, and despite its incorporation of more conservative social elements, Fascism remained a conscious force for modernization. (21) Two Revisions of Marxism. Fascism began as a revision of Marxism by Marxists, a revision which developed in successive stages, so that these Marxists gradually stopped thinking of themselves as Marxists, and essay on thomas jefferson presidency, eventually stopped thinking of themselves as socialists. Thesis! They never stopped thinking of themselves as anti-liberal revolutionaries.
The Crisis of Marxism occurred in the 1890s. Marxist intellectuals could claim to speak for mass socialist movements across continental Europe, yet it became clear in those years that Marxism had survived into a world which Marx had believed could not possibly exist. The workers were becoming richer, the working class was fragmented into sections with different interests, technological advance was accelerating rather than meeting a roadblock, the rate of profit was not falling, the number of on thomas presidency wealthy investors (magnates of capital) was not falling but increasing, industrial concentration was not increasing, (22) and in all countries the workers were putting their country above their class. In high theory, too, the hollowness of practice Marxism was being exposed. The long-awaited publication of Volume III of Marx's Capital in 1894 revealed that Marx simply had no serious solution to the great contradiction between Volumes I-II and the real behavior of prices.
Bhm-Bawerk's devastating critiques of Marxian economics (1884 and 1896) were widely read and discussed. Eduard Bernstein -- a Marxist revisionist. The Crisis of Marxism gave birth to the Revisionism of Eduard Bernstein, which concluded, in effect, that the goal of revolution should be given up, in favor of piecemeal reforms within capitalism. (23) This held no allure for men of the hard left who rejected existing society, deeming it too loathsome to be reformed. On Thomas Presidency! Revisionists also began to attack the fundamental Marxist doctrine of historical materialism--the theory that a society's organization of you learn to read essay production decides the character of essay jefferson presidency all other social phenomena, including ideas. At the beginning of the ellen foster topics, twentieth century, leftists who wanted to be as far left as they could possibly be became syndicalists, preaching the general strike as the way to demonstrate the workers' power and essay on thomas jefferson, overthrow the bourgeois order. Syndicalist activity erupted across the world, even in Britain and the United States. Promotion of the general strike was a way of defying capitalism and at the same time defying those socialists who wanted to use electoral methods to negotiate reforms of the crouching hidden, system.
Syndicalists began as uncompromising Marxists, but like Revisionists, they acknowledged that key tenets of Marxism had been refuted by the development of modern society. Most syndicalists came to accept much of Bernstein's argument against traditional Marxism, but remained committed to the total rejection, rather than democratic reform, of existing society. They therefore called themselves revolutionary revisionists. They favored the on thomas jefferson, idealist revision of Marx, meaning that they believed in thesis worksheet a more independent role for ideas in social evolution that that allowed by essay jefferson, Marxist theory. In setting out to crouching dragon essay revise Marxism, syndicalists were most strongly motivated by on thomas presidency, the desire to be effective revolutionaries, not to tilt at windmills but to achieve a realistic understanding of the way the world works. In criticizing and re-evaluating their own Marxist beliefs, however, they naturally drew upon the intellectual fashions of the day, upon ideas that were in the air during this period known as the fin de sicle . The most important cluster of such ideas is thesis, anti-rationalism. Many forms of anti-rationalism proliferated throughout the nineteenth century. The kind of anti-rationalism which most influenced pre-fascists was not primarily the view that something other than reason should be employed to decide factual questions (epistemological anti-rationalism). It was rather the view that, as a matter of sober recognition of reality, humans are not solely or even chiefly motivated by rational calculation but more by intuitive myths (practical anti-rationalism).
Therefore, if you want to understand and influence people's behavior, you had better acknowledge that they are not primarily self-interested, rational calculators; they are gripped and moved by myths. (24) Paris was the fashion center of the intellectual world, dictating the rise and essay on thomas, fall of debt essay ideological hemlines. Here, anti-rationalism was associated with the philosophy of essay on thomas Henri Bergson, William James's Pragmatism from across the Atlantic, and the social-psychological arguments of Gustave Le Bon. Such ideas were seen as valuing action more highly than cogitation and tiger hidden critical essay, as demonstrating that modern society (including the established socialist movement) was too rationalistic and too materialistic. Bergson and essay on thomas jefferson, James were also read, however, as contending that humans did not work with an thesis practice, objectively existing reality, but created reality by imposing their own will upon the world, a claim that was also gleaned (rightly or wrongly) from Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche. French intellectuals turned against Descartes, the rationalist, and rehabilitated Pascal, the defender of faith. In the same spirit, Italian intellectuals rediscovered Vico.
Practical anti-rationalism entered pre-Fascism through Georges Sorel (25) and his theory of the jefferson presidency, myth. This influential socialist writer began as an orthodox Marxist. An extreme leftist, he naturally became a syndicalist, and soon the best-known syndicalist theoretician. Sorel then moved to defending Marx's theory of the class struggle in and write a new way--no longer as a scientific theory, but instead as a myth, an jefferson, understanding of the world and the future which moves men to action. When he began to abandon Marxism, both because of its theoretical failures and because of its excessive materialism, he looked for an alternative myth.
Experience of current and recent events showed that workers had little interest in the class struggle but were prone to patriotic sentiment. By degrees, Sorel shifted his position, until at the end of his life he became nationalistic and anti-semitic. (26) He died in 1922, hopeful about Lenin and more cautiously hopeful about Mussolini. A general trend throughout revolutionary socialism from 1890 to essay 1914 was that the most revolutionary elements laid an increasing stress upon leadership, and downplayed the autonomous role of the toiling masses. This elitism was a natural outcome of the revolutionaries' ardent wish to have revolution and the stubborn disinclination of the working class to become revolutionary. (27) Workers were instinctive reformists: they wanted a fair shake within capitalism and nothing more. On Thomas! Since the workers did not look as if they would ever desire a revolution, the small group of conscious revolutionaries would have to play a more decisive role than Marx had imagined. That was the conclusion of Lenin in 1902. (28) It was the conclusion of ellen topics Sorel. And it was the conclusion of the syndicalist Giuseppe Prezzolini whose works in the century's first decade Mussolini reviewed admiringly. (29) The leadership theme was reinforced by the theoretical writings of, Mosca, Pareto, and Michels, especially Pareto's theory of the Circulation of on thomas presidency Elites. All these arguments emphasized the vital role of active minorities and the futility of expecting that the masses would ever, left to themselves, accomplish anything. Essays! Further corroboration came from Le Bon's sensational best-seller of 1895--it would remain perpetually in essay on thomas print in a dozen languages-- The Psychology of Crowds , which analyzed the irrational behavior of humans in groups and drew attention to the group's proclivity to place itself in the hands of a strong leader, who could control the debt essay, group as long as he appealed to certain primitive or basic beliefs. (30) The initiators of Fascism saw anti-rationalism as high-tech.
It went with their fast cars and airplanes. Fascist anti-rationalism, like psychoanalysis, conceives of itself as a practical science which can channel elemental human drives in a useful direction. A Marxist Heresy? Some people have reacted to Fascism by saying that it's just the same as socialism. In part, this arises from the fact that fascism is a word used loosely to denote all the non-Communist dictatorships of the 1920s and essay jefferson presidency, 1930s, and by extension to refer to the most powerful and horrible of these governments, that of blueprinting your essay German National Socialism. The Nazis never claimed to be Fascists, but they did continually claim to be socialists, whereas Fascism, after 1921, repudiated socialism by name. Although Fascism had some influence on essay on thomas jefferson the National Socialist German Workers' Party, other influences were greater, notably Communism and German nationalism.
A. James Gregor has argued that Fascism is a Marxist heresy, (31) a claim that has to blueprinting planning your be handled with care. Marxism is a doctrine whose main tenets can be listed precisely: class struggle, historical materialism, surplus-value, nationalization of the means of essay on thomas jefferson presidency production, and so forth. Nearly all of those tenets were explicitly repudiated by the founders of Fascism, and these repudiations of Marxism largely define Fascism. Yet however paradoxical it may seem, there is how did to read essay, a close ideological relationship between Marxism and Fascism. We may compare this with the relationship between, say, Christianity and on thomas jefferson, Unitarianism. Unitarianism repudiates all the blueprinting your essay, distinctive tenets of Christianity, yet is still clearly an offshoot of Christianity, preserving an affinity with its parental stem. In power, the actual institutions of Fascism and Communism tended to essay on thomas jefferson presidency converge. In practice, the Fascist and National Socialist regimes increasingly tended to blueprinting your essay conform to what Mises calls the German pattern of Socialism. (32) Intellectually, Fascists differed from jefferson presidency, Communists in that they had to planning your a large extent thought out what they would do, and they then proceeded to do it, whereas Communists were like hypnotic subjects, doing one thing and rationalizing it in terms of on thomas presidency a completely different and altogether impossible thing. Fascists preached the accelerated development of thesis practice a backward country.
Communists continued to employ the Marxist rhetoric of world socialist revolution in jefferson presidency the most advanced countries, but this was all a ritual incantation to consecrate their attempt to accelerate the development of a backward country. Fascists deliberately turned to nationalism as a potent myth. Communists defended Russian nationalism and imperialism while protesting that their sacred motherland was an internationalist workers' state. Fascists proclaimed the end of democracy. Blueprinting Planning Essay! Communists abolished democracy and essay presidency, called their dictatorship democracy. To Read And Write Essay! Fascists argued that equality was impossible and hierarchy ineluctable. Communists imposed a new hierarchy, shot anyone who advocated actual equality, but never ceased to essay on thomas jefferson babble on about the equalitarian future they were building. Fascists did with their eyes open what Communists did with their eyes shut. This is the thesis, truth concealed in the conventional formula that Communists were well-intentioned and Fascists evil-intentioned. Though they respected the irrational as a reality, the initiators of Fascism were not themselves swayed by wilfully irrational considerations. (33) They were not superstitious. Mussolini in 1929, when he met with Cardinal Gasparri at the Lateran Palace, was no more a believing Catholic than Mussolini the violently anti-Catholic polemicist of the essay, pre-war years, (34) but he had learned that in his chosen career as a radical modernizing politician, it was a waste of time to bang his head against the brick wall of institutionalized faith.
Leftists often imagine that Fascists were afraid of a revolutionary working-class. Debt Essay! Nothing could be more comically mistaken. Most of the early Fascist leaders had spent years trying to get the workers to become revolutionary. As late as June 1914, Mussolini took part enthusiastically, at risk of his own life and limb, in the violent and confrontational red week. The initiators of Fascism were mostly seasoned anti-capitalist militants who had time and again given the working class the benefit of the doubt. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency! The working class, by not becoming revolutionary, had let these revolutionaries down. Preferred Fascism to Marxism. In the late 1920s, people like Winston Churchill and Ludwig von Mises saw Fascism as a natural and salutory response to Communist violence. (35) They already overlooked the fact that Fascism represented an independent cultural phenomenon which predated the Bolshevik coup . It became widely accepted that the future lay with either Communism or Fascism, and many people chose what they considered the lesser evil. Evelyn Waugh remarked that he would choose Fascism over Marxism if he had to, but he did not think he had to. It's easy to see that the your, rise of jefferson Communism stimulated the rise of Fascism. But since the existence of the Soviet regime was what chiefly made Communism attractive, and since Fascism was an independent tradition of revolutionary thinking, there would doubtless have been a powerful Fascist movement even in the absence of blueprinting essay a Bolshevik regime.
At any rate, after 1922, the on thomas, same kind of influence worked both ways: many people became Communists because they considered that the most effective way to combat the dreaded Fascism. Two rival gangs of murderous politicos, bent on establishing their own unchecked power, each drummed up support by pointing to and write essay the horrors that the other gang would unleash. Whatever the shortcomings of any such appeal, the essay jefferson, horrors themselves were all too real. Thesis Practice Worksheet! (36) From Liberism to the Corporate State. In Fascism's early days it encompassed an essay on thomas presidency, element of what was called liberism, the view that capitalism and the free market ought to be left intact, that it was sheer folly for the state to planning involve itself in production.
Marx had left a strange legacy: the essay jefferson presidency, conviction that resolute pursuit of the class struggle would automatically take the working class in the direction of communism. Tiger Critical Essay! Since practical experience offers no corroboration for this surmise, Marxists have had to choose between pursuing the class struggle (making trouble for capitalism and essay jefferson presidency, hoping that something will turn up) and trying to seize power to debt essay introduce communism (which patently has nothing to essay do with strikes for higher wages or with such political reforms as factory safety legislation). As a result, Marxists came to worship struggle for its own sake. And since Marxists were frequently embarrassed to ellen topics talk about problems a communist society might face, dismissing any such discussion as utopian, it became easy for them to argue that we should focus only on the next step in the struggle, and not be distracted by speculation about the remote future. Traditional Marxists had believed that much government interference, such as protective tariffs, should be opposed, as it would slow down the development of the productive forces (technology) and thereby delay the revolution. For this reason, a Marxist should favor free trade. On Thomas! (37) Confronted by a growing volume of legislative reforms, some revolutionaries saw these as shrewd concessions by the bourgeoisie to take the debt essay, edge off class antagonism and thus stabilize their rule.
The fact that such legislative measures were supported by democratic socialists, who had been co-opted into the established order, provided an additional motive for revolutionaries to essay jefferson take the other side. All these influences might persuade a Marxist that capitalism should be left intact for the foreseeable future. In Italy, a further motive was that Marxists expected the ellen essay topics, revolution to break out in the industrially advanced countries. No Marxist thought that socialism had anything to offer a backward economy like Italy, unless the revolution occurred first in Britain, America, Germany, and France. As the prospect of any such revolution became less credible, the issue of Italian industrial development was all that remained, and on thomas jefferson, that was obviously a task for capitalism. After 1919, the Fascists developed a theory of the state; until then this was the one element in essays Fascist political theory which had not been elaborated.
Its elaboration, in an extended public debate, gave rise to the totalitarian view of the essay on thomas presidency, state, (38) notoriously expounded in Mussolini's formula, Everything in the state, nothing against the state, nothing outside the state. Unlike the later National Socialists of Germany, the debt essay, Fascists remained averse to outright nationalization of industry. But, after a few years of comparative non-intervention, and some liberalization, the Fascist regime moved towards a highly interventionist policy, and Fascist pronouncements increasingly harped on the corporate state. All traces of liberism were lost, save only for the insistence that actual nationalization be avoided. Before 1930, Mussolini stated that capitalism had centuries of essay jefferson useful work to do (a formulation that would occur only to a former Marxist); after 1930, because of the world depression, he spoke as if capitalism was finished and the corporate state was to replace it rather than providing its framework. As the dictatorship matured, Fascist rhetoric increasingly voiced explicit hostility to ellen topics the individual ego. Fascism had always been strongly communitarian but now this aspect became more conspicuous.
Fascist anti-individualism is summed up in the assertion that the death of a human being is like the body's loss of a cell. Among the increasingly histrionic blackshirt meetings from 1920 to essay on thomas 1922 were the funeral services. When the name of a comrade recently killed by the Socialists was called out, the whole crowd would roar: Presente! Man is not an crouching tiger hidden essay, atom, man is essentially social--these woolly clichs were as much Fascist as they were socialist. Anti-individualism was especially prominent in the writings of official philosopher Giovanni Gentile, who gave Fascist social theory its finished form in the final years of the regime. (39) The Failure of Fascism. Fascist ideology had two goals by which Fascism's performance may reasonably be judged: the presidency, creation of a heroically moral human being, in a heroically moral social order, and the accelerated development of debt essay industry, especially in backward economies like Italy. The fascist moral ideal, upheld by writers from Sorel to Gentile, is something like an inversion of the caricature of jefferson presidency a Benthamite liberal. The fascist ideal man is not cautious but brave, not calculating but resolute, not sentimental but ruthless, not preoccupied with personal advantage but fighting for practice, ideals, not seeking comfort but experiencing life intensely.
The early Fascists did not know how they would install the essay on thomas jefferson, social order which would create this new man, but they were convinced that they had to destroy the bourgeois liberal order which had created his opposite. Even as late as 1922 it was not clear to Fascists that Fascism, the third way between liberalism and socialism, would set up a bureaucratic police state, but given the circumstances and fundamental Fascist ideas, nothing else was feasible. Fascism introduced a form of state which was claustrophobic in its oppressiveness. The result was a population of planning your decidedly unheroic mediocrities, sly conformists scared of their own shadows, worlds removed from the kind of dynamic human character the essay on thomas, Fascists had hoped would inherit the essays, Earth. As for Fascism's economic performance, a purely empirical test of on thomas presidency results is inconclusive. In its first few years, the Mussolini government's economic measures were probably more liberalizing than restrictive. The subsequent turn to intrusive corporatism was swiftly followed by the world slump and then the war. Dragon! But we do know from numerous other examples that if it is left to run its course, corporatist interventionism will cripple any economy. (40) Furthermore, economic losses inflicted by the war can be laid at Fascism's door, as Mussolini could easily have kept Italy neutral.
Fascism both gave unchecked power to a single individual to commit such a blunder as to take Italy to war in 1940 and made this more likely by extolling the benefits of war. In the panoramic sweep of history, Fascism, like Communism, like all forms of essay on thomas socialism, and like today's greenism and anti-globalism, is the logical result of specific intellectual errors about human progress. Fascism was an on issues, attempt to pluck the material fruits of liberal economics while abolishing liberal culture. (41) The attempt was entirely quixotic: there is no such thing as economic development without free-market capitalism and there is essay jefferson presidency, no such thing as free-market capitalism without the recognition of individual rights. The revulsion against liberalism was the essay, outcome of misconceptions, and the futile attempt to essay jefferson supplant liberalism was the application of further misconceptions. By losing the worksheet, war, Fascism and National Socialism spared themselves the jefferson, terminal sclerosis which beset Communism. The Man Who Is Seeking When Mussolini switched from anti-war to foster essay topics pro-war in November 1914, the other Socialist Party leaders immediately claimed that he had been bought off by jefferson, the bourgeoisie, and practice worksheet, this allegation has since been repeated by many leftists. On Thomas! But any notion that Mussolini sold out is on issues, more far-fetched than the theory that Lenin seized power because he was paid by essay on thomas presidency, the German government to take Russia out ellen of the war. As the essay on thomas, paramount figure of the Italian left, Mussolini had it made. He was taking a career gamble at very long odds by planning your, provoking his own expulsion from the Socialist Party, in addition to risking his life as a front-line soldier. (42) Like Lenin, Mussolini was a capable revolutionary who took care of finances.
Once he had decided to come out as pro-war, he foresaw that he would lose his income from the Socialist Party. He approached wealthy Italian patriots to get support for Il Popolo d'Italia , but much of the money that came to Mussolini originated covertly from Allied governments who wanted to bring Italy into the war. Similarly, Lenin's Bolsheviks took aid from wealthy backers and on thomas jefferson, from the German government. (43) In both cases, we see a determined group of revolutionaries using their wits to raise money in pursuit of their goals. Jasper Ridley argues that Mussolini switched because he always wanted to thesis practice be on the winning side, and dare not swim against essay on thomas presidency, the tide of public opinion. (44) This explanation is feeble. Mussolini had spent all his life in an antagonistic position to the majority of Italians, and with the founding of a new party in 1919 he would again deliberately set himself at odds with the crouching tiger hidden critical essay, majority. Since individuals are usually more influenced by the pressure of their reference group than by the opinions of the essay jefferson presidency, whole population, we might wonder why Mussolini did not swim with the tide of the Socialist Party leadership and the majority of the Party membership, instead of swimming with the tide of those socialists inside and outside the crouching tiger hidden dragon, Party who had become pro-war.
Although his personality may have influenced the on thomas jefferson presidency, timing, or even the actual decision, the pressure for Mussolini to change his position came from a long-term evolution in his intellectual convictions. From his earliest years as a Marxist revolutionary, Mussolini had been sympathetic to crouching dragon syndicalism, and then an actual syndicalist. Presidency! Unlike other syndicalists, he remained in the Socialist Party, and foster topics, as he rose within it, he continued to keep his ears open to those syndicalists who had left it. On many issues, his thinking followed theirs, more cautiously, and on thomas jefferson, often five or ten years behind them. From 1902 to 1914, Italian revolutionary syndicalism underwent a rapid evolution. Always opposed to parliamentary democracy, Italian syndicalists, under Sorel's influence, became more committed to extra-constitutional violence and the necessity for the revolutionary vanguard to ignite a conflagration. As early as 1908, Mussolini the syndicalist Marxist had come to agree with these elitist notions and began to employ the term gerarchia (hierarchy), which would remain a favorite word of his into the Fascist period. Many syndicalists lost faith in the revolutionary potential of the working class. Seeking an alternative revolutionary recipe, the most advanced of these syndicalists began to ally themselves with the tiger dragon, nationalists and to favor war. Mussolini's early reaction to jefferson this trend was the disgust we might expect from any self-respecting leftist. (45) But given their premises, the syndicalists' conclusions were persuasive.
Nkrumah and friends face the camera. The logic underlying their shifting position was that there was unfortunately going to be no working-class revolution, either in crouching tiger the advanced countries, or in less developed countries like Italy. Italy was on its own, and Italy's problem was low industrial output. (46) Italy was an exploited proletarian nation, while the richer countries were bloated bourgeois nations. The nation was the myth which could unite the productive classes behind a drive to expand output. These ideas foreshadowed the Third World propaganda of the 1950s and 1960s, in which aspiring elites in economically backward countries represented their own less than scrupulously humane rule as progressive because it would accelerate Third World development. From Nkrumah to Castro, Third World dictators would walk in Mussolini's footsteps. (47) Fascism was a full dress rehearsal for post-war Third Worldism. Nixon and friend caught by the camera. Many syndicalists also became productionists, urging that the workers ought not to strike, but to presidency take over you learn and write essay, the factories and keep them running without the bosses. Essay Jefferson! While productionism as a tactic of industrial action did not lead anywhere, the productionist idea implied that all who helped to expand output, even a productive segment of the bourgeoisie, should be supported rather than opposed. From about 1912, those who closely observed Mussolini noted changes in planning your his rhetoric.
He began to employ the essay on thomas jefferson presidency, words people and nation in preference to proletariat. (Subsequently such patriotic language would become acceptable among Marxists, but then it was still unusual and crouching tiger critical essay, somewhat suspect.) Mussolini was gradually becoming convinced, a few years later than the most advanced leaders of the extreme left, that Marxist class analysis was useless, that the proletariat would never become revolutionary, and that the nation had to be the vehicle of development. An elementary implication of this position is that leftist-initiated strikes and violent confrontations are not merely irrelevant pranks but actual hindrances to progress. When Mussolini founded Utopia , it was to provide a forum at which his Party comrades could exchange ideas with his friends the revolutionary syndicalists outside the Party. He signed his articles at this time The Man Who Is Seeking. The collapse of the Second International on the outbreak of on thomas jefferson war, and the lining up of the mass socialist parties of ellen foster essay topics Germany, France, and Austria behind their respective national governments, confirmed once again that the syndicalists had been right: proletarian internationalism was not a living force. The future, he concluded, lay with productionist national syndicalism, which with some tweaking would become Fascism. Mussolini believed that Fascism was an international movement. He expected that both decadent bourgeois democracy and dogmatic Marxism-Leninism would everywhere give way to Fascism, that the twentieth century would be a century of Fascism. Like his leftist contemporaries, he underestimated the resilience of both democracy and jefferson, free-market liberalism.
But in substance Mussolini's prediction was fulfilled: most of the world's people in on issues the second half of the essay on thomas jefferson, twentieth century were ruled by governments which were closer in practice to Fascism than they were either to liberalism or to Marxism-Leninism. The twentieth century was indeed the worksheet, Fascist century. But Fascism lived on. On Thomas! Most of the world's people in the second half of the twentieth century were ruled by governments which were closer in practice to Fascism than they were either to liberalism or to debt essay Marxism-Leninism. This article first appeared in LIBERTY magazine. Their website can be found at http://www.libertysoft.com/liberty/index.html. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader. This is available. and on many free CDs. From 1912 to 1914, Mussolini was the Che Guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism. Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to essay on thomas presidency the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left.
He looked like the head of how did and write any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary. Mussolini was showered with accolades from sundry quarters. Winston Churchill called him the greatest living legislator. Cole Porter gave him a terrific plug in a hit song. Sigmund Freud sent him an on thomas jefferson, autographed copy of one of his books, inscribed to the Hero of Culture. The more taciturn Stalin supplied Mussolini with the plans of the ellen foster, May Day parades in Red Square, to help him polish up his Fascist pageants. As Marxists used to say, fascism appeals to the basest instincts, implying that leftists were at a disadvantage because they could appeal only to essay on thomas jefferson presidency noble instincts like envy of the thesis worksheet, rich. Since it is irrational, fascism is sadistic, nationalist, and essay on thomas jefferson, racist by nature.
Leftist regimes are also invariably sadistic, nationalist, and racist, but that's because of regrettable mistakes or pressure of you learn to read essay difficult circumstances. Vorticism was a somewhat milder variant of Futurism, associated with Ezra Pound and the painter and novelist Wyndham Lewis, an American and a Canadian who transplanted to London. On Thomas Presidency! Pound became a Fascist, moved to foster essay Italy, and was later found mentally ill and incarcerated by the occupying Americans. The symptoms of his illness were his Fascist beliefs. Essay Jefferson! He was later released, and chose to move back to Italy in foster essay topics 1958, an unreprentant Fascist. Many of the jefferson, older treatments of Fascism are misleading because they cobble together Fascist pronouncements, almost entirely from after 1922, reflecting the pressures on a broad and flexible political movement solidifying its rule by compromises, and suppose that by this method they can isolate the character and motivation of Fascist ideology. It is on issues, as if we were to reconstruct the ideas of Bolshevism by collecting the pronouncements of the Soviet government in 1943, which would lead us to conclude that Marxism owed a lot to Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great. Here we should note a difference between Marxism and Fascism. The leader of a Marxist political movement is always considered by his followers to be a master of essay on thomas presidency theory and essays, a theoretical innovator on essay the scale of Copernicus.
Fascists were less prone to blueprinting planning essay any such delusion. Jefferson! Mussolini was more widely-read than Lenin and a better writer, but Fascist intellectuals did not consider him a major contributor to the body of Fascist theory, more a leader of genius who could distil theory into action. The Crisis of Marxism gave birth to the Revisionism of Eduard Bernstein, which concluded, in effect, that the to read essay, goal of revolution should be given up, in favor of piecemeal reforms within capitalism. This held no allure for men of the jefferson presidency, hard left who rejected existing society, deeming it too loathsome to be reformed. A general trend throughout revolutionary socialism from 1890 to thesis practice worksheet 1914 was that the most revolutionary elements laid an on thomas jefferson, increasing stress upon leadership, and downplayed the blueprinting planning, autonomous role of the toiling masses. This elitism was a natural outcome of the revolutionaries' ardent wish to have revolution and the stubborn disinclination of the on thomas presidency, working class to become revolutionary. The Nazis never claimed to be Fascists, but they did continually claim to be socialists, whereas Fascism, after 1921, repudiated socialism by blueprinting your, name.
Although Fascism had some influence on the National Socialist German Workers' Party, other influences were greater, notably Communism and German nationalism. Leftists often imagine that Fascists were afraid of essay on thomas presidency a revolutionary working-class. Nothing could be more comically mistaken. Most of the early Fascist leaders had spent years trying to get the debt essay, workers to become revolutionary. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency! As late as June 1914, Mussolini took part enthusiastically, at risk of his own life and limb, in the violent and confrontational red week. The initiators of Fascism were mostly seasoned anti-capitalist militants who had time and again given the working class the benefit of the doubt. The working class, by not becoming revolutionary, had let these revolutionaries down. Unlike the later National Socialists of Germany, the Fascists remained averse to debt essay outright nationalization of industry.
But, after a few years of comparative non-intervention, and some liberalization, the Fascist regime moved towards a highly interventionist policy, and jefferson presidency, Fascist pronouncements increasingly harped on the corporate state. All traces of liberism were lost, save only for the insistence that actual nationalization be avoided. The fascist moral ideal, upheld by how did and write, writers from on thomas presidency, Sorel to Gentile, is how did you learn essay, something like an inversion of the caricature of a Benthamite liberal. On Thomas Jefferson! The fascist ideal man is not cautious but brave, not calculating but resolute, not sentimental but ruthless, not preoccupied with personal advantage but fighting for ideals, not seeking comfort but experiencing life intensely. In the panoramic sweep of history, Fascism, like Communism, like all forms of essays socialism, and like today's greenism and anti-globalism, is the logical result of specific intellectual errors about human progress. Fascism was an attempt to pluck the material fruits of essay presidency liberal economics while abolishing liberal culture. The attempt was entirely quixotic: there is no such thing as economic development without free-market capitalism and there is no such thing as free-market capitalism without the recognition of individual rights. These ideas foreshadowed the topics, Third World propaganda of the 1950s and jefferson presidency, 1960s, in which aspiring elites in economically backward countries represented their own less than scrupulously humane rule as progressive because it would accelerate Third World development. From Nkrumah to Castro, Third World dictators would walk in Mussolini's footsteps.
Fascism was a full dress rehearsal for debt essay, post-war Third Worldism.
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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to command the jefferson salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for the best and the brightest to take on leadership roles within their organizations. Critical Essay! A lot of people assume that companies recruit MBAs for their intelligence combined with two years of practical training. While that’s partly true, the on thomas jefferson reality is how did essay that MBAs aren’t the ‘smartest’ people out there in absolute (there are a myriad of on thomas jefferson presidency grad and PhD students out there that far surpass the average MBA in ellen foster essay raw intelligence). Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of business textbooks online and acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in the MBA classroom. I said that employers are looking for the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of best and brightest.
The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to on thomas jefferson the individual herself. To Read Essay! In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA. Kellogg (like every other school) cares about on thomas presidency personality, communication style, and the likability of crouching tiger hidden essay applicants. I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for presidency, this during their interview process. But if you think about ellen it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of what percentage of the candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door.
By that time the essay jefferson Adcom is stuck choosing the practice incoming class from the pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will. Essay Jefferson! Kellogg wants to interview a cohort of applicants in which 100% present well. That’s why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay. Chicago Booth and topics, MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the jefferson video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for the best orators – students will have time to foster essay hone their communication and presentation skills in Kellogg’s courses and clubs. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to see what you, the unpolished candidate, look like in jefferson a spontaneous situation. Essays On Issues! As such, the your main job is to be yourself – to relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to a friend.
The flip side of that is that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and essay on thomas jefferson presidency, then memorized answers to every question the Adcom could possibly put to him during an interview. Essays! He sent me a video of himself ‘interviewing’ and I was shocked by how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the natural pauses in his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question. Essay On Thomas! He spoke rapidly and incessantly in a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to blueprinting your punctuate what he was saying. Essay! That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. No amount of coaching from me was able to practice ‘undo’ the damage and it resulted in some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools. He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an additional opportunity to demonstrate what they will bring to our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way.
Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. The questions are designed to essay jefferson presidency bring to life the you learn to read and write person we have learned about on paper. On Thomas! After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to complete two Video Essay Questions. Ellen Essay! One will be about the essay jefferson candidate’s interest in Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to know you” type of question. Here’s what you need to know about you learn to read and write essay Kellogg’s video essay: After you submit your application to Kellogg, the video essay will become available to essay you in your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the application deadline to essays on issues complete the video essay. On Thomas Jefferson! If you submit in essays on issues Round 1 you need to complete the jefferson presidency essay by October 2nd, if you submit in debt essay Round 2 you need to submit by January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in Kellogg while the other will be more axed around you. Jefferson Presidency! Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the video interface.
When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to think about the tiger dragon question and then one minute to respond to it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to share the first question with applicants ahead of time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and essay jefferson, why is this program right for you?
This is the typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the thesis practice worksheet time to prepare the question prior to their video interview. Here is how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the presidency type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for.
Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in thesis practice with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at jefferson, business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about thesis worksheet Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you?
This is where you really want to bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the essay on thomas jefferson Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you. Ellen Foster! Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an opinion-based question. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and jefferson, 30 questions from previous years. III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback. The problem with video (and watching yourself on video) is that it is almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the process to undermine your self-confidence.
Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to thesis just naturally be yourself. The goal of practicing should be to improve your ability to think and speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry. Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of them at first glance. There are 2 questions in every section. On Thomas! Take some time to worksheet actually practice looking at a question for the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to essay jefferson prepare an answer, and then another 60 seconds to answer.
Then go back and watch the video of debt essay yourself. What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the essay presidency type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. Debt Essay! How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them.
Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is where you really want to bring the charm and essay on thomas, your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the debt essay Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. 2. Tell us about how you overcame an obstacle. 4. Essay On Thomas Jefferson! If you could keep one of your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the thesis worksheet others, which would you choose? 6. Essay Jefferson! What kind of a team player are you?
8. When you leave your job for b-school, what will your teammates miss most about you? 10. Tell us about someone you admire, and why. 2. Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about crouching critical essay a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Tell us about essay on thomas a time when you were on a team and there was disagreement among team members. What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by a work situation.
10. Essay! Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem. 2. If you were going to jefferson donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in tiger hidden your view, one downside for on thomas presidency, business due to globalization. 6. Discuss your thoughts about the following statement: “Business leaders are the debt essay world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection. You can use a couple of floor lights and perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. On Thomas! You’ll need two key lights and one fill light. The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from how did to read and write essay your nose. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in presidency your face from both the left and the right).
The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of crouching tiger hidden dragon critical essay your head. The fill light helps to differentiate the top of your head and shoulders from the background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on film. I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is more for on thomas jefferson, shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam). Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to tiger hidden critical stay away from windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and essay on thomas jefferson, other lighting problems.
Notice how the thesis worksheet right side of this person’s face is lit up and the left side is in shadow? That’s because of the window behind him. If you decide to film at home or in the office, look for a small space without a lot going on in the background. The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the entire office. Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in essay on thomas view. Debt Essay! I recently saw this video which was created by a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the video. The living room is essay on thomas presidency too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of thesis pictures and stenciling on the wall. The shot is from essay on thomas jefferson too far away – ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible. Finally the candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and had to undo a few buttons :/ I’d highly suggest buying a roll of Savage Seamless Background Paper for $10 here . You’re going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and no less). Thesis Practice! Personally I use Thunder Gray for my videos but you can buy whatever color you like.
Keep in mind that red, yellow and jefferson, orange might cause you to look sort of red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to practice worksheet play it safe go for any shade of on thomas gray, blue, purple or beige. Below you’ll find examples of some of the colors Savage offers. If you want to ellen foster topics achieve the effect on the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the shadow your head casts on the paper. Essay Presidency! So you’ll have to add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to blueprinting essay your ring light set-up. The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at the subject and essay on thomas jefferson, creates a much flatter background effect.
Either is fine. In general you want to avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene. If you’re using a color background then you want to wear neutral colors (gray, beige). Ellen Foster Essay! If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. The idea is to have one focal color in the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and women are going to want to choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to your neck or collar bone.
The video essay is presidency supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to to read class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to look like Donald Trump in your video – you want to look smart, friendly and on thomas jefferson, laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on everyone). While a t-shirt might seem too casual to wear to blueprinting an interview, on essay on thomas presidency, camera it will look clean and ellen, the solid material will make you pop. I’d ditch the suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of essay jefferson presidency it in blueprinting essay the shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on my own trials and errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to essay jefferson give viewers the ellen essay topics impression that something is missing (i.e. you’ll look strangely naked) when the shot is only of your head and shoulders. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Presidency! Thin and flimsy materials don’t look great on camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body.
I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of it in a head and shoulders shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck. You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. While that might seem too casual to wear to an interview, on blueprinting planning your essay, camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. Essay On Thomas Presidency! Cashmere is another material that always looks good on on issues, video because it’s a thick and has a matte finish. A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt.
She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and I am so excited to be going to business school this fall. Leah's creativity is unmatched which is essay on thomas presidency exemplified with the stupendous work she did on my Chicago Booth Essays. Her work ethic and willingness to on issues spend as much as time it takes to essay get the essays on issues right answer is incredible. I finally had multiple offers from top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at on thomas jefferson presidency, HBS.