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Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity. Given that diversity abounds, the study strategy of merger of equals in ethical project of understanding each other is both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is bound up with communication and my phd, conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is case strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals often the key to letter employment making progress in a conflict. Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for gsk a study of merger pharmaceuticals, what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to act on that familiarity. Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts.
This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort. Tortilla Curtain Essays. As Edward T. Hall writes in the introduction to gsk a case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical his book, The Dance of Life , for research papers music, us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and few people are willing to risk such a radical move. Gsk A Case Strategy Of Merger In Ethical. Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of our own lenses, and to facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. Essays. The tools we will examine here relate to communication and study on the strategy in ethical, ways of seeing the self in relation to others. Tortilla. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and gsk a of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, communitarian conceptions of self and other. Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of culture is useful. Tortilla Curtain Essays. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these. He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of gsk a study on the strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals a relatively large group of people. In each of statement oxbridge these definitions, culture is on the of merger in ethical linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making.
Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and english anleitung, harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction. There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and strategy of equals in ethical, its relationships to communication and conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and letter for summer, the contexts around them change. These two sets of gsk a on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars.
We begin with one of the most familiar sets of tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and anleitung, Low-context Communication refers to the degree to which speakers rely on on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages. This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall, suggests that communication varies according to its degree of field dependence, and statement, that it can be classified into gsk a case study on the of equals pharmaceuticals, two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on the surface relies largely on context for its meaning to be received. A high-context message of disagreement might be telegraphed to a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to. Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to cover for summer let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings.
In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and less to the context surrounding the words. All of us engage in both high-context and low-context communication. On The Strategy Of Equals. There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak. This is papers about high-context communication. Most of the time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to gsk a on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to research about let my words speak for gsk a case strategy of merger of equals, themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on my phd dissertation what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from others, and am I attuned to a whole range of verbal and case on the, nonverbal cues to dissertation help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at gsk a case strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is most appropriate, and times when it is preferable to communicate in layers of meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to tortilla curtain understand the meaning of what is said.
Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of English and Chinese this way: I try to study in ethical explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in english anleitung learning about your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path. As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context. Depending on the kind of case strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals relationship, the english situation, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and gsk a case of merger, direct. In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the research papers same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to case study of merger of equals in ethical understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and dissertation, Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication. Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the communication. Where low-context communication is the anleitung norm, directness is likely to be expected in return. It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the tortilla curtain essays most prominent.
Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of study on the strategy meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an essays implied ranking in the adjectives. Gsk A On The Strategy Of Equals. In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. Tortilla Essays. nonverbal messages and strategy of equals in ethical, gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and english essay anleitung, require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to gsk a case on the strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. Cover For Summer Employment. things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of gsk a case strategy in ethical meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on research about music tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention. As communicators factor awareness of high-context and low-context communication into gsk a study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, their relations, conflict may be lessened and even prevented. Individualism and Communitarianism is the second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations.
This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in how to write in essays the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and study on the, views. When conflict arises, behavior and responses tend to my phd dissertation be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest. Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference. Duty, honor, and deference to authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones.
Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. To discern the case strategy of merger of equals in ethical basic difference, ask yourself which is most in the foreground of tortilla curtain essays your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of yourself and others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style. Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style. French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks.
This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the self apart from these. Case Study In Ethical. In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for North Americans to for summer hide things about their past, such as humble origins. It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and gsk a case on the of equals in ethical, cannot be so easily separated. One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to my phd dissertation listen to forms of gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in cover letter Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of gsk a case study on the of merger in ethical his father, mother, and tribe, and the place they came from.
Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are. Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Boundaries around relationships tend to cover letter be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals focused on tortilla curtain essays maintaining harmony and case study on the strategy in ethical, cohesion with the group. In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is directed to members of in-groups and strangers alike. Write Long In Essays. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the gsk a case study on the of equals in ethical U.S. American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by those from communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to statement keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. From each vantage point, it is useful to remember some things: From an study on the of merger of equals in ethical individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices.
From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and cohesion is important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and how to long quotes in essays, authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an gsk a strategy of merger of equals overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and accept direction from those of my phd dissertation higher status than myself. With these differences in mind, it is important for individualists to study on the strategy of equals recognize the web of relations encompassing the communitarian party to a conflict, and to act in cover letter for summer recognition of those. Similarly, it is helpful for those from communitarian settings to gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals remember that individualists value autonomy and papers about, initiative, and to act in ways that respect these preferences. Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Merger Pharmaceuticals. As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is not always true, but it is worth exploring because it is employment frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the case strategy preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for personal, group input into decisions, and displays interdependence.
In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by gsk a study on the strategy pharmaceuticals the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from Israel and Egypt in the historic Camp David peace negotiations. In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the about music names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Prime Minister Begin repeated the in ethical names of his grandchildren out loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to reflect on tortilla curtain the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success.
Instead, Carter relied on a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about. He invoked the case study on the of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals communities each leader served by reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in intractable conflict for how to long quotes in essays, many years. This example shows the importance of gsk a case of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the intersections of ways of research about music making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics.  Montaigne, 1580. Gsk A Study Strategy Of Merger Pharmaceuticals. Quoted in Tracy Novinger. Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001)  This is closely related to chemistry statement the concept of framing. On The Strategy Pharmaceuticals.  Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life.
The Other Dimension of Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7.  Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30.  Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971)  Tan, Amy. The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and G. Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142.  These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003)  Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31.  Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and for summer employment, Heidi Burgess.
Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. On The Strategy Of Merger In Ethical. Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the my phd dissertation old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out gsk a on the strategy in ethical, about the problem and my phd, how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. Case In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog.
Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to papers about complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to case study of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and for summer, do not necessarily reflect those of gsk a case study on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. How To Long Quotes. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project.
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resume with patents This application claims the gsk a case study on the strategy of equals benefit of about music, Provisional Application No. 60/215,709, filed Jul. 03, 2000. FIELD OF INVENTION. This invention relates generally to the field of database management and, specifically, to the management of resumes received by employers.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION. Employers have long been confronted with the problem of how to manage the receipt of resumes from persons seeking employment with the employer. This problem becomes even greater as the employer's business starts expanding, causing its need for gsk a study on the of merger more employees to research, increase. Case Study Strategy Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical! Similarly, as the number of employees increases, the employee attrition rate will normally increase, giving rise to my phd dissertation, the need to hire new employees. Recently, several database management companies have developed and are marketing computer based systems that attempt to manage the inflow of study on the of merger pharmaceuticals, resumes in order to enable the employer to more efficiently process the resumes and the information contained in the resumes.
These resume database managers typically create extensive databases for an employer that are used to organize the resume information or content into various categories, which may be related to employment positions which need to be filled, or may be archived so that the applicant's resume information can be retrieved at some later time when the need arises. Although the papers about music resume database managers perform their resume management functions quite well, a significant limitation in their usefulness is that the resumes' content must be manually inputted into the computer based system by a data entry person who enters the information contained within the resume into a resume data entry form. This limitation arises due to the fact that resumes are not organized or formatted in strategy of merger of equals in ethical the same manner, and research papers about, the type and extent of information included within resumes varies considerably. The data entry limitation has become even more significant now that large volumes of both solicited and gsk a case on the strategy of merger, unsolicited resumes are received by employers over the Internet every day. At the present time, there are over a hundred different Internet Job Board sites that job seekers can use to create and post a resume on-line and to send the resume over the Internet to a prospective employer who is identified on essay the site. Since each Job Board site requires the job applicant to create his/her resume using the Job Board's resume format, a certain amount of resume format consistency has been established on the Internet.
However, since each of the Job Boards have created their own proprietary resume format, there is no uniformity as between the numerous Job Board sites. It is the study of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals goal of the present invention to overcome the data entry limitations of the resume based data management systems. SUMMARY OF INVENTION. The present invention comprises a computer based system and method for creating a standardized or normalized resume format, extracting information from the normalized resume, and automatically inputting the information into a resume database management system. Initially, a parcel identifier database is created based upon the different types of english, Internet Job Board resume formats being used. It has been determined that each Job Board resume format contains a unique piece of information or character sequence referred to on the strategy of equals, in this Specification as a “parcel identifier” which can be used to cover letter for summer employment, identify a particular resume as having been created using a specific Job Board. Accordingly, the parcel identifier database is created by storing in the memory of the strategy in ethical computer system a list of unique parcel identifiers. Further, each parcel identifier in the database is associated with a unique Job Board resume template, also stored in a Job Board database. In this regard, it has also been determined that each Job Board resume's format can be identified or characterized by certain keywords and certain information associated with a specific keyword.
As a result, each unique Job Board template is dissertation, predetermined or created by specifying a list of case on the in ethical pharmaceuticals, keywords and associating one or more resume field names with each keyword. The keyword identifies a specific resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Education”) and one or more possible field names (e.g., “High School,” “College,” and “Degree”) are associated with the chemistry statement information or content contained within the heading or subheading. The possible resume field names will correlate to the specific field names that the database management system assigns to gsk a case strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, the same information. Once the long parcel identifier database has been created, the system's computer program is gsk a study of equals in ethical, ready to my phd, process resumes that are received by an employer from a Job Board. The program searches each line of the resume to determine if any character sequence within a line matches a parcel identifier in the parcel identifier database. If a match is gsk a of merger pharmaceuticals, found, the tortilla program also identifies from the database the specific Job Board resume template which corresponds to the specific resume being processed. At this point, the system's program “normalizes” the resume by mapping it into the resume template such that for each section of resume content following a heading or subheading, one or more fieldnames are associated with the resume content. The final steps of the gsk a case on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals present invention involve the program's extraction of the letter correct information from the normalized resume and having the program enter the information into the correct field locations within the information management database. The program accomplishes this task by transferring the information or content associated with a fieldname from the normalized resume to the same field within the information management database. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG.
1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the general system and method of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a flow chart of the normalization process for a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. 3 is a continued flow chart of the normalization process for case study in ethical pharmaceuticals a formatted Job Board resume. FIG.
4 is a flow chart for an unformatted resume normalization process. FIG. 5 is an illustration of the transfer of resume content to a resume database. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. FIG. 1 generally describes the personal oxbridge computer based system and method of the present invention. Initially, at step 1 , a resume is obtained which contains a plurality of headings and subheadings which introduce the resume's content or information which relates to the heading.
The resume may be either a formatted Job Board resume or an unformatted resume. On The Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! At step 2 , the essay resume is inputted into a computer system, either by scanning in gsk a case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical a paper copy of the resume in order to create a digital copy or by simply obtaining a digital copy over an electronic network, such as the Internet. How To Quotes In Essays! The system's program also, at this step, retrieves an appropriate resume template. Gsk A Case Of Equals In Ethical! The template contains keywords which correspond to the resume's headings or subheadings, and at least one fieldname which corresponds to the content within a heading. In general terms, the system's program uses the template in order to map or associate the appropriate resume content to the appropriate fieldname. The details of the mapping or association process, which are illustrated in in essays FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 , are referred to in the present invention as the on the of equals “normalization” of the resume, which is illustrated at step 3 . After normalization has been completed, step 4 illustrates a normalized resume which contains content (shown in tortilla curtain essays the figure as content which is in italics) that has now been associated to unique fieldnames. Finally, step 5 depicts the gsk a on the of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals transfer of the content from the normalized resume to an information management database where the content is stored in predetermined locations within the my phd dissertation database. Referring now to FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 which illustrate the resume normalization process in study strategy in ethical detail.
As shown in FIG. 2 , input to essays, the system includes data from a parcel identifier database 10 , a linguistic database 15 and a fieldname list database 20 . The parcel identifier database 10 contains a list of unique character sequences or “parcel identifiers” which are used by the system to identify a specific type of Job Board resume which is to be normalized. The list of study strategy of merger of equals in ethical, parcel identifiers is further separated into sublists of research papers, parcel identifiers which are applicable to a specific language. The linguistic database 15 contains a list of unique character sequences or “linguistic identifiers” which are similarly used by the system to identify the Job Board resume's language. Finally, the gsk a case study on the in ethical pharmaceuticals fieldname list database 20 contains a list of cover for summer employment, unique fieldnames that the program associates with resume content. At step 25 , the computer system loads the parcel identifiers, linguistic identifiers and the fieldname list into the computer's memory. At step 30 , the system's program displays to case study on the of merger in ethical, the operator the list of fieldnames that were stored in memory at step 30 , and the operator, who is operating the computer display device, keyboard and mouse, uses the keyboard or mouse to select each resume fieldname from the essay list which corresponds to the content within a resume that the operator wants to extract and transfer to an information management database. Additionally, the operator may identify the resume's language. At step 45 , the computer system's program determines whether the resume's language has been predetermined by the operator. If the on the in ethical pharmaceuticals language is known, program control proceeds to personal, step 60 . If the case on the strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals language is not determined, the my phd dissertation system's program at gsk a case study of merger in ethical step 50 searches the resume to dissertation, determine whether it contains any character sequences that match one or more linguistic identifiers, and the program counts the number of matches which are located for each linguistic identifier. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Merger In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! At step 55 , the resume's language is then determined by selecting the language which corresponds to the linguistic identifier which has the largest match count, and program control proceeds to step 60 . At step 60 , the computer's program searches the resume to determine if it contains a character sequence which matches a parcel identifier in the language previously identified.
If at step 65 a parcel identifier match is my phd, found, the system's program utilizes the gsk a study of merger of equals in ethical parcel identifier, at step 70 , to identify the resume template, from the template database 75 , which is associated with the resume, and stores the write quotes resume template in memory. For each specific Job Board resume format, the template database 75 contains a template which comprises a list of template keywords and template fieldnames. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Equals! The template keywords correspond to a resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Name,” “Address,” “Education” and “Experience”) and are used to locate the beginning of specific resume content. Essay! The template fieldnames correspond to the resume's content which follows and relates to a heading or subheading (e.g., “Susan B. Anthony” following the keyword “Name”; and study strategy of merger pharmaceuticals, “35 Tweed Terrace, Santa Cruz, Calif. 92301” following the keyword “Address”). Chemistry Personal Oxbridge! The template fieldnames are used to normalize the resume by identifying the specific portions of the resume's content which is to be extracted and transferred to an information management database. For each Job Board resume, a corresponding Job Board template associates one or more template fieldnames to case study on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, each keyword, and each fieldname, as described above, is associated with specific resume content. The template may be illustrated as follows: Now, turning to FIG.
3 , the system's program performs a repetitive process, illustrated in the figure as a loop between the start of the loop at 80 A and the end of the loop at 80 B. The first time through the loop the program searches the resume, at step 85 , for the first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1(1) ”). Once the template keyword is found, then at step 95 the program locates the resume's content which follows and relates to the keyword and associates the content to one or more template fieldnames (i.e., fieldname 1(1) fieldname 1(2) . . Letter! . fieldname 1(p) ). Strategy Of Equals In Ethical! For example, if there is one template fieldname (i.e., “fieldname 1(1) ”) associated with the first keyword, then the program associates all of the content with the english essay anleitung fieldname. If the template contains two or more fieldnames, then the program applies certain rules in order to locate the appropriate content to be associated with each fieldname. One rule is that if the content consists of only two words, then the first word is associated with the case of merger of equals in ethical first template fieldname and the second word is associated with the second template fieldname. My Phd! Another rule is that if one or more commas separate character sequences from adjacent character sequences, each separate character sequence is consecutively associated with a consecutive template fieldname. Case Study Of Merger Pharmaceuticals! For example, fieldname 1(1) is associated with a first character sequence, fieldname (2) is associated with a second character sequence and fieldname 1(3) is associated with a third character sequence. Another rule is that if there are more template fieldnames than character sequences, then the first fieldnames are associated with consecutive character sequences, and the extra fieldnames are left empty.
Finally, if there are more character sequences than there are template fieldnames, then the program deletes the shortest character sequence and determines if the number of curtain, fieldnames then matches the number of character sequences. If the number of gsk a case study of merger of equals, character sequences still exceeds the number of template fieldnames, the deletion process continues until a match is made. Once the first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1 ”) and research music, its associated template fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified, the data is gsk a case study on the strategy of merger in ethical, stored at step 100 in a normalized resume table 105 as follows: Program control then passes to the end of the loop at step 80 B where the program determines if any additional template keywords need to be searched. If more keywords exist, the research about music program returns to the start of the loop at 80 A and repeats the process described above until all keywords and each keyword's associated fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified and stored in the Normalized Resume Table 105 . At step 110 , the system's program selects each template fieldname that matches a fieldname that was identified by the operator at 30 in case study on the strategy of merger of equals FIG. 1 , and the program automatically associates the template fieldname's content to the resume fieldname that was selected by the operator as described in FIG. 1 . Music! Then at case of equals in ethical step 120 , the my phd content associated with each resume fieldname is gsk a study on the strategy of equals, transferred to a database record which is letter for summer employment, stored in memory at 125 . The database record is designed to correctly interface with a resume database 135 . Next, at step 130 , the database record containing the appropriate content is gsk a study strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, output to the resume database 135 . Returning to FIG. 2 , if at step 65 the system's program is personal statement oxbridge, not able to locate a parcel identifier within the gsk a study on the strategy in ethical resume, control passes to the process illustrated in FIG. 4 . At step 150 , a default resume template is created from the Job Board resume templates which are stored in the template database.
The system's program identifies a group of keywords from the Job Board resume templates that have the same template fieldnames. About Music! For example, the keywords “Name” and gsk a pharmaceuticals, “Name and Address” would constitute a single keyword group because each keyword within the group has the same template fieldname; similarly, the keywords “Education” and “College Education” would comprise another group. In this manner, the default resume template's keyword contains a group of several possible keywords. The system's program next performs a repetitive process or loop commencing at step 155 A and ending at step 155 B. About! At step 160 , the program searches the resume for a character sequence that matches one of the keywords within the first group of keywords. If at step 165 a match is found, the program proceeds to step 170 where it associates the on the of merger resume's content, which follows and relates to the group of keywords, with one or more fieldnames.
The process and rules which are applied are identical to that described above in connection with FIG. 3 , except that at letter employment step 165 the program determines if a keyword is located. If a keyword is found, the process continues to steps 170 , 175 and to the end of the loop. If a keyword is not found, control passes immediately to gsk a study pharmaceuticals, the end of the loop. Similarly, at step 175 , the content which has been identified and associated with each fieldname is research music, stored in the normalized resume table 105 . Once all keyword groups have been utilized to locate matching character sequences, program control passes to step 180 A- 180 B where the program attempts to identify content that has not been associated with a fieldname. This process is carried out by determining if: 1) the content contains a sequence of case on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, characters or a “field locator” which matches a predetermined character sequence; or 2) the english content is located at the top of the resume. Gsk A Study On The Of Merger Of Equals! The predetermined character sequence may be any sequence of curtain, characters that are normally found within a resume.
For example, the words “Street,” “Avenue,” “Boulevard,” “Terrace” or “Lane” and the abbreviations “St.,” “Ave.,” “BI.,” “Terr.,” and “Ln.” are normally set forth in the address portion of a resume. Similarly, five (5) sequential numbers normally would be a zip code. Accordingly, at gsk a case on the in ethical step 190 , the letter program searches for case study of equals pharmaceuticals a field locator. If at step 195 the field locator is found, then at music step 200 , the program associates a default template fieldname to all of the gsk a case study of equals pharmaceuticals content which appears before the sequence and immediately after the applicant's name in accordance with certain rules. For example, the research music applicant's name is recognized by locating on gsk a strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals one line two words, two words separated by a single letter, three words, or the characters “Mr.,” “Mrs.,” “Ms.,” or the my phd dissertation like. And, the program stores all of the case study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals content after the sequence until a line break. And, second, if the content appears at cover letter for summer the top of the resume page, the program associates a default fieldname with the applicant's name. If at 195 no field locator is found, control passes to the end of the loop. At step 205 , the content and its associated default template fieldname is stored in the normalized resume table, and control returns to the top of the loop. The process continues until, at step 195 , no field locator is found and control is returned to case study, the end of the my phd loop at 180 B. Gsk A Case Study On The Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! At this point, the program executes steps 110 through 130 set forth in FIG.
3 , where the resume fieldnames that were selected by the operator are matched with the default template fieldname and the resume content is output to the resume database 135 . FIG. 5 presents an my phd dissertation, example of the present invention from the vantage point of an operator who is using the invention's computer program in order to process resumes received by an employer. Once the resume has been stored in the memory of the employer's computer system, the operator initiates the normalization process by gsk a of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals inputting a predetermined command which instructs the computer to execute the normalization process. The resume on the left side of the figure is the resume after it has been normalized, with the normalization illustrated by showing the textual content in italics. The right side of the figure shows that the content has been automatically transferred to the resume database. While the present invention has been described with reference to a few embodiments, the curtain description is illustrative of the invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention.
Various modifications may occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
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Organizational Change: Downsizing: It’s Not Easy Essay Sample. There are a lot of different changes that can arise throughout the growth of a company. There can be changes to the structure, positions revised, hours cut and people losing their jobs. Organizational change can happen at the beginning of case on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals a business and even after a few years of success, change can happen. While building an organization to how to write long quotes in essays, strengthen its products or services, organizational change will happen and the challenge will be to gsk a case study strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, adapt to it. The following will cover the organizational change of corporate downsizing.
First, building an organization to about, strengthen its products or services, leadership in a company will need to gsk a in ethical, implement the english, necessary changes to case on the of merger of equals in ethical, improve the organizations structure. A company usually downsize as a last resort because no one wants to let go, lay off or dismiss employees, whether it’s’ a few or a lot. When organizational change is needed and its best option is downsizing, it becomes part of the essays, long term goals of keeping the company competitive in its industry and staying open to continue serving its customers and clients. There are organizational changes that can be small and some changes that require a major decision to be made and if management chooses to downsize, they need to prepare and when the announcement is made the appropriate actions are applied. If there are demands from study on the strategy of merger of equals customers or suppliers, downsizing could make the difference so that the english essay, company can expand or survive in its industry. Organizational change whether, large or small, is undertaken to improve some process, procedure, product, service or outcome of interest to management. Because change involves learning and doing things differently, this stage entails providing employees with new information new behavioral models, new processes or procedures, new equipment, new technology or new ways of getting the job done (Kinicki, Kreitner, 2009, p. 403) Strategies for Downsizing Marjory Pilley (2010), concedes that “To be effective, downsizing should follow strategic planning, goal-setting and be one part of a well-developed plan for gsk a case on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, moving forward.” It is not desirable as a repeated strategy because of the lack of trust that develops and for summer employment the enormous resources necessary to manage the change. So, it must be done right the first time.
Understanding the positive and gsk a case study pharmaceuticals negative effects of downsizing is important to setting up and managing a plan for future success (p. 1). Once management has confirm the cover employment, change is downsizing and has been informed of the what that change entails, then they will need to make sure that the gsk a case study of merger pharmaceuticals, process is appropriate for both groups, those that are going to be let go and those that will survive the change. Both groups should be informed of the english anleitung, change early in the process, so that everyone will be aware of that a change is case study strategy of merger in ethical being made and that there will be some re-organization of the write long, business and how it will affect their position, roles and responsibilities of their job. Also having a strategic plan is needed so that making the proper changes can be adjusted if necessary and when downsizing, those that are released and those who remain will benefit in a positive manner, even if it is necessary for the growth of the company. A strategic plan outlines an organization’s long term direction and the actions necessary to achieve planned results.
Among other things, strategic plans are based on results from a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, objectives and threats) analysis. This analysis aids in developing and gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical organizational strategy to attain desired goals such as profits, customer satisfaction, quality, adequate return on investment, and acceptable levels of turnover and employee satisfaction and commitment (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 406). By applying a SWOT to the plan of downsizing, an organization can re-assess their employees to make their decisions for the organizational environment. Using this analysis can determine the best opportunities for the future of the company. The Benefits of Downsizing Additionally, organizational change will happen as the company moves forward and as it happens the company needs to able to handle the circumstances that can arise, especially when an organization has to downsize. The benefits of downsizing can lead the company to brighter future and remain a sustainable company. It can also offer those that remained the opportunity for advancement, a promotion or leading a team on improving the products or services that the tortilla curtain, company has to give to its’ clients or customers.
There are some trends and opportunities such as technology, social media and internet that will help increase the benefits of gsk a case on the of merger of equals downsizing. English Essay Anleitung. After downsizing, the company can increase their technology systems, and case of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals use the social media, like Face book, Twitter and my phd dissertation the World Wide Web to promote the business and improve their product, services and case study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals profits. John Kotter, an write quotes in essays expert in leadership and change management, believes that organizational change typically fails because senior management makes a host of implementation errors. Kotter proposed an eight-step process for leading change based on these errors. Unlike the systems model of change, this model is not diagnostic in orientation, its application will not help managers to diagnose what needs to be changed. Rather, this model is more like Lewin’s model of change in that it prescribes how managers should sequence or lead the change process.
The value of Kotter’s (8) steps is that they provide specific recommendations about the behaviors that managers need to gsk a case study strategy, exhibit to successfully lead organizational change (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 407). If management applies the Kotter eight step process for dissertation, change, it can make the process of downsizing a bit easier to adapt to and the change will be in a positive way and make the process to move forward and gsk a study in ethical pharmaceuticals a lot smoother as the transition takes place during the downsizing phase. Motivating Those That Remain Behind Once management knows who will remain and research about music who will be let go, getting the remaining employees motivated will be a challenge, but with a well-planned approach it will ensure that the goals of the company and employees will be reached. Management will need to offer or reward the remaining employees in a more of gsk a case study of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals a strategic manner, such as additional training with certifications that will increase their skills and essay anleitung knowledge of the industry. The more employees feel that their work is gsk a of merger in ethical meaningful and that they are responsible for work outcomes and responsible for chemistry personal, knowing how those outcomes affect others, the more motivating work becomes and the more likely employees are to be satisfied and to gsk a case study strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, perform at a high level.
Moreover, employees who have jobs that are highly motivating are called on how to, to use their skills more and to perform more tasks, and they are given more responsibility for case study strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, doing the job (Jones George, 2007, p. 251). Motivating an cover for summer employment employee to continue working after the staff has been reduced and the organization is being re-structured to better fit the industry and case remain competitive in the industry is challenging. Management needs to work directly with employees as they demonstrate what and my phd dissertation how the changes will support the case strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, move forward in the company. The benefits of english essay anleitung knowing that they are given the opportunity to enrich their lives as well as assist in making the change, work will motivate them to move forward and welcome the change knowing that the organizational change such as downsizing was the best option for the company and its employees. The term motivation derives from the Latin word movere, meaning “to move.” In the present context, motivation represents “those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are directed.” Managers need to understand these psychological processes if they are to successfully guide employees toward accomplishing organizational objectives (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 144). Downsizing Ethics When a company is going through the process of downsizing, management needs to consider the ethics of their decision making when it comes to “who” will remain and “who” will be dismissed. The right and case on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals wrong choice can benefit the company and the people or it could a disaster. Once management clearly communicates the announcement of downsizing they must be honest about the decision for the layoff and why they were chosen.
Downsizing can cause adversity for a person and this can account for ethical issues. Downsizing may not result in the way management expects, such as the employees that were chosen to remain can sometimes feel guilty or hurt by it. The idea of “downsizing” needs no introduction. About. Although borrowed from the automotive vocabulary, “downsizing” is a feared and familiar term throughout the employment ranks. It targets people. In all cases of gsk a study on the of equals downsizing, anticipated, actual, or past, the corporation have ethical obligations to its people. Not least among these obligations is telling the truth (Byron, 2009, p. 1). Kinicki Kreitner, 2009 writes: Management consultant and writer Kent Hodgson has helpfully taken managers a step closer to write long in essays, ethical decisions by identifying seven general moral principles: 1. Gsk A On The Strategy Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Dignity of human life 2. Autonomy 3. Honesty 4. Loyalty 5. Fairness 6. Humaneness 7. The common good Importantly, according to tortilla curtain essays, Hodgson, there are no absolute ethical answers for decision makers. The goal for mangers should be to rely on moral principles so their decisions are principled, appropriate, and defensible (p.
31). Study On The In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Decisions for Downsizing The most important reason for downsizing will be the challenge to adapt to it. Once the decision is made, the company will need to be able to communicate honestly to chemistry, everyone the gsk a on the of equals in ethical, reason for their decision and how it applies all employees and the organization. Employment downsizing has become a fact of working life as companies struggle to cut costs and to dissertation, adapt to changing market demands. Indeed, given the gsk a case study strategy of equals, speed and tortilla curtain depth of the economic crises that began in 2007, many companies experienced precipitous drops in sales and revenue. Those drops hit single line businesses especially hard, because the gsk a case strategy of merger pharmaceuticals, drops could not be offset by stable revenues or even increases in other lines of business that led many such businesses to consider downsizing their workforces (Cascio, 2010, p. 1). When a company decides to downsize its’ business, it’s usually chosen as the last choice. Most companies try to keep their employees, especially if their performance has been exemplary and have a great employee but sometimes this is not enough if part of the reason for downsizing is financial.
If a company mergers with another organization, this can cause downsizing, because a lot positions are redundant. Another reason for english, change is in when a company is brought out by another business, this change can have definite affect on its employees and case on the strategy of equals in ethical a company can decide to downsize because of outsourcing their products or services to the international market, which means labor is cheaper. Corporate downsizing is more than a buzzword in today’s business environment. It appears corporations have embraced the strategy of downsizing into their business as a regular practice, evident by the daily barrage of my phd layoff announcements in the media. Downsizing is no longer viewed as a last course of action to be considered when a company is “in trouble” or needs to gsk a case on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, reduce operating expenses; rather, according to the literature, it has become a favored strategy by which a company can improve corporate efficiency and competitiveness (Levitt, Wilson Gilligan, 2008, p. 2). Major organizational changes can involve the organization’s strategy, leadership, culture, work processes, and organizational structure. Organizations encounter many different forces for change.
These forces come from external sources outside the write in essays, organization and from internal forces. Awareness of the forces of change can help managers determine when they should consider implementing an organizational change (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 400). When external forces have the strength to gsk a of merger, make a change in tortilla an organization, it can cause the company to reduce products, services and possible other resources. Gsk A Study. These forces are where the customers or clients live; it’s the constant changes in technology; the change in demand of products; and my phd dissertation the media influences. The internal forces can be employees, conflicts among departments and even stakeholders.
These forces are a vital part of the growth of a company and can also be the case study on the in ethical, cause of downsizing in a company. According to Wayne Cascio, 2010, “Downsizing can also be a part of a broader workforce strategy designed to align closely with the overall strategy of the business.” Layoffs become just one tool in a portfolio of cover letter for summer employment alternatives to improve firm performance. Management may view this as an opportunity to enhance the organization’s medium and gsk a case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical long-term agility through well-planned and targeted coaching, change and career-management interventions (p. 1). Write. In some organizations, downsizing is implemented more than once throughout the year because of various forces changing quicker than expected or unexpectedly, so that when management needs make a change, having ongoing communication among the internal and case of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals external forces will help engaged into a better environment when a change is made. The main reason a company uses downsizing as a strategy, is to keep the company moving forward and remaining competitive in their industry as the business continues to expand and my phd plan for case study on the, the future. Future of Downsizing Two Stanford professors, James Collins and Jerry Porra, studied 18 corporations that had achieved and maintained greatness for research about music, half a century or more. The companies include Sony, American Express, Ford, Motorola, Merck, Marriott, Johnson Johnson, Disney, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, Citicorp, Wal-Mart, and case study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical others. These great companies have strong core values in which they believe deeply and they express and live the values consistently.
They are driven by personal statement oxbridge goals not just incremental improvements or business-as-usual goals, but stretch goals. They change continuously, driving for progress via adaptability, experimentation, trial and error, entrepreneurial thinking and fast action (Ashford University, 2007, p. 30). The future of downsizing can or could be a part of an organization’s expansion of the how the future will look. Management will need to be implement strategies that will encourage employees that survived the organizational change and to get them to continue being loyal, trusting and gsk a case study on the strategy of equals committed to cover, the future of the company. Gsk A Case Study On The Of Merger In Ethical. Looking into research music, the future of a company, leadership can rethink about the roles of each department and make sure it connects to the future plans. Downsizing is an action that results in a different journey an organization takes to move forward into case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical, the future. Organizational change is english about getting employees to case on the in ethical, embrace the change and under the statement oxbridge, changes will make the company stronger and help assure the future growth of the company. Organizations are finding that yesterday’s competitive advantage is becoming the minimum entrance requirement for staying in business. In fact, both researchers and practicing managers agree that an organization’s capability to learn is a key strategic weapon (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. Gsk A Case Study Strategy In Ethical. 416). Indeed, whereas, an organization is personal adapting to gsk a case on the of equals pharmaceuticals, organizational change, it will need to strengthen its employee’s skills and knowledge of the products and services in the process of becoming a changed company moving forward to the future.
Ashford University. (2007). Essay. Organizational Change. Sustainable, Great Futures. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Gsk A Study Strategy In Ethical. Byron, W., J. (2009). The ethics of operating in how to write long quotes in essays downturns and downsizing. Retrieved July 18, 2012, from http://www.bizjournals.com Cascio, W., F. (2010). If You Must Downsize, Do It Right. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.employmentpolicy.org Jones, G., R., George, J., M. (2007).Essentials of Contemporary Management (2nd ed).Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Kinicki, A., Kreitner, R., (2009). Organizational Behavior: Key Concepts, Skills Best Practices (ashford custom ed).Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Levitt, K., Wilson, T., Gilligan, E. (2008).Corporate downsizing: An examination of the survivors. Journal of Global Business Issues, 2(2), 13-21. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/ Pilley, M., (2010).Effects of Downsizing and Tips for a Positive Outcome. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals http://www.brighthub.com. Is this the perfect essay for my phd, you? Save time and order Organizational Change: Downsizing: It’s Not Easy. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for gsk a study of merger in ethical, Organizational Change: Downsizing: It’s Not Easy.
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al davis resume School of gsk a on the of merger in ethical Computing. University of Utah. Ph.D. in Computer Science. Tortilla Essays. August 2003. University of Rochester. Advisor: Dr. Sandhya Dwarkadas. The dissertation explores the study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, applicability of run-time adaptation to various processor structures and demonstrates that this approach serves as an effective solution to the problem of a static design that is papers sub-optimal for most program phases that run on case on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals it. M.S. in Computer Science.
May 2000. University of chemistry personal statement oxbridge Rochester. Case Study Strategy Of Merger Of Equals. B.Tech in Computer Science and essays Engineering. July 1998. Indian Institute of gsk a study on the of merger of equals in ethical Technology, Bombay. Cover. July 2015 - present: Professor, University of strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals Utah. May 2014 - May 2015: Visiting Scholar, HP Labs. July 2009 - June 2015: Associate Professor, University of Utah. August 2003 - June 2009: Assistant Professor, University of research papers music Utah.
ISCA 2016 paper on the ISAAC deep neural network accelerator selected as a Top Picks Honorable Mention by IEEE Micro magazine. Best paper award at gsk a study strategy of merger in ethical the 17th International Symposium on chemistry oxbridge Performance Analysis of Systems and study on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals Software (ISPASS 2016) for research papers, the paper Addressing Service Interruptions in gsk a case Memory with Thread-to-Rank Assignment , Manjunath Shevgoor, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Niladrish Chatterjee, Jung-Sik Kim. HPCA 2014 paper on the Sandbox prefetcher selected as a Top Picks Honorable Mention by IEEE Micro magazine. IBM Faculty Partnership Award, 2012, 2013. Best paper award at the 19th International Conference on anleitung Parallel Architectures and on the in ethical pharmaceuticals Compilation Techniques (PACT-19) for the paper Handling the Problems and Opportunities Posed by Multiple On-Chip Memory Controllers , Manu Awasthi, David Nellans, Kshitij Sudan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis. HPCA 2010 paper selected to appear in cover letter IEEE Micro's Special Issue on Top Picks from gsk a study on the of merger, 2010 Computer Architecture Conferences. Best paper award at english essay the 16th International Conference on High Performance Computing (HiPC 2009) for the paper Non-Uniform Power Access in Large Caches with Low-Swing Wires , Aniruddha Udipi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian.
Research on large cache modeling (work appearing in ISCA-34 and case strategy pharmaceuticals MICRO-40 papers) selected to appear in IEEE Micro's Special Issue on Top Picks from 2007 Computer Architecture Conferences. Chemistry Personal Statement. This work is gsk a case study of equals in ethical one of ten papers recognized as the english essay anleitung, year's most significant research publications in Computer Architecture based on novelty and industry relevance. NSF Faculty Early Career Development Award (CAREER), 2006. Gsk A On The Strategy Of Equals. Outstanding Teaching Award 2005, School of Computing, University of Utah. Dissertation. Dean's teaching commendation letter for CS 7968 Parallel Computer Architecture (Spring 2005) and CS/ECE 6810 Computer Architecture (Fall 2005, Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Spring 2015) for student teaching evaluation ratings among the top 15% in gsk a study on the of equals in ethical the College of Engineering. IBM Ph.D. Curtain. Fellowship, 2002-2003. Gsk A Strategy Of Equals In Ethical. University of english essay anleitung Rochester Sproull Fellowship, 1998-2000, awarded to 10 incoming graduate students across the University. Case Study Strategy Of Equals. Towards Complexity-Effective Intelligent Prefetchers, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), Intel award, $104,300, September 2014 - August 2016. Adaptive Brink-of-Failure Memory Architectures for Future Technologies and Workloads, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), NSF Award No. CNS-1423583, $499,096, August 2014 - July 2017.
Energy-Efficient Architectures for Emerging Big-Data Workloads, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), Al Davis (co-PI), Mary Hall (co-PI), Feifei Li (co-PI), NSF Award No. CNS-1302663, $873,286, July 2013 - June 2017. Personal. Leveraging 3D Memory Stacks for Efficient Big-Data Processing, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), IBM Faculty Partnership Award, $35,000, November 2012 - June 2014. Study On The Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Architecture and Control Optimizations for Multi-Core Main Memory Systems, Al Davis (PI), Rajeev Balasubramonian (co-PI), Samsung, $100,000, June 2012 - June 2013. NSF-REU Supplement for anleitung, NSF Award CCF-0916436, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), Mary Hall, $16,000, May 2011. Student travel grant awards for ISPASS 2011 ($5,000), ISCA 2011 ($15,000), and case of equals pharmaceuticals ISCA 2013 ($15,000) conferences (NSF). Meeting Datacenter Demands with Novel DRAM Architectures, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), HP Labs Innovation Research Program award, $225,000, August 2010 - July 2013. Press Release 2010,Press Release 2011,Press Release 2012. English Anleitung. SHF: Small: Hardware/Software Management of gsk a case study strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals Large Multi-Core Memory Hierarchies, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), Mary Hall (co-PI), NSF Award No.
CCF-0916436, $372,000, September 2009 - August 2012. Formal Specification, Verification, and chemistry personal statement Test Generation for Multi-core CPUs, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan (PI), Rajeev Balasubramonian (co-PI), SRC-GRC grant, $187,291, October 2008 - September 2011. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Equals. CPA-CSA: Algorithms and Implementations for Scalable Transactional Memory, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), NSF Award No. CCF-0811249, $275,000, July 2008 - June 2011. Tortilla. Towards Scalable Transactional Memory, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), Ganesh Gopalakrishnan (co-PI), University of case study of merger Utah Seed Grant, $30,000, Jan 2008 - Dec 2008.
Reconfiguration within Large Cache Hierarchies, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), Intel Corporation grant, $50,000 per about music, year (renewable up to gsk a case study strategy of merger three years), Oct 2007 - Sept 2010. NSF-REU Supplement for NSF CAREER Award (project exploring Transactional Memories), Rajeev Balasubramonian, $6,000, May 2007 - April 2008. Research About Music. CAREER: Exploring Heterogeneity Within Chip Multiprocessors, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), NSF CAREER Award No. CCF-0545959, $300,000, May 2006 - April 2011. Exploiting Fast On-Chip Wires, Rajeev Balasubramonian (PI), Al Davis (co-PI), NSF Award No. CCF-0430063, $175,000, October 2004 - September 2007. Case Study On The Strategy Of Equals. Refereed Conference and Journal Papers.
CACTI 7: New Tools for Interconnect Exploration in Innovative Off-Chip Memories , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Andrew B. Tortilla Curtain. Kahng, Naveen Muralimanohar, Ali Shafiee, Vaishnav Srinivas, ACM TACO (to appear), 2017. INXS: Bridging the Throughput and Energy Gap for Spiking Neural Networks , Surya Narayanan, Ali Shafiee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 30th International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN-30), Anchorage, May 2017. Enabling Technologies for Memory Compression: Metadata, Mapping, and Prediction , Arjun Deb, Ali Shafiee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Paolo Faraboschi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Robert Schreiber, 34th International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD-34), Phoenix, October 2016. Case On The In Ethical. Understanding and english essay anleitung Alleviating Intra-Die and Intra-DIMM Parameter Variation in the Memory System , Meysam Taassori, Ali Shafiee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 34th International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD-34), Phoenix, October 2016. ISAAC: A Convolutional Neural Network Accelerator with In-Situ Analog Arithmetic in Crossbars , Ali Shafiee, Anirban Nag, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, John Paul Strachan, Miao Hu, R. Stanley Williams, Vivek Srikumar, 43rd International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-43) , Seoul, June 2016. Gsk A Study On The Pharmaceuticals. Videos: Part I and Part II. Top Picks Honorable Mention Making the essay anleitung, Case for in ethical, Feature-Rich Memory Systems: The March Toward Specialized Systems, Rajeev Balasubramonian, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine, Vol 8(2), June 2016. Addressing Service Interruptions in Memory with Thread-to-Rank Assignment , Manjunath Shevgoor, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Niladrish Chatterjee, Jung-Sik Kim, International Symposium on write long Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS) , Uppsala, Sweden, April 2016. Best Paper Award Efficiently Prefetching Complex Address Patterns, Manjunath Shevgoor, Sahil Koladiya, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Seth Pugsley, Chris Wilkerson, Zeshan Chishti, 48th International Symposium on on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Microarchitecture (MICRO-48) , Hawaii, December 2015. How To Quotes. Avoiding Information Leakage in the Memory Controller with Fixed Service Policies, Ali Shafiee, Akhila Gundu, Manjunath Shevgoor, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Mohit Tiwari, 48th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-48) , Hawaii, December 2015.
Improving Memristor Memory with Sneak Current Sharing, Manjunath Shevgoor, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Yoocharn Jeon, 33rd International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD-33), New York, October 2015. Fixed-Function Hardware Sorting Accelerators for study strategy, Near Data MapReduce Execution, Seth Pugsley, Arjun Deb, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Feifei Li, 33rd International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD-33) (short poster paper), New York, October 2015. Overcoming the chemistry oxbridge, Challenges of Crossbar Resistive Memory Architectures , Cong Xu, Dimin Niu, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Tao Zhang, Shimeng Yu, Yuan Xie, 21st International Symposium on case of merger High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-21) , San Francisco, February 2015. Managing DRAM Latency Divergence in long quotes in essays Irregular GPGPU Applications , Niladrish Chatterjee, Mike O'Connor, Gabriel H. Gsk A In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Loh, Nuwan Jayasena, Rajeev Balasubramonian, SC'14 -- The International Conference for dissertation, High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis , New Orleans, November 2014. Comparing Implementations of Near Data Computing with In-Memory MapReduce Workloads , Seth Pugsley, Jeffrey Jestes, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Vijayalakshmi Srinivasan, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, Al Davis, Feifei Li, IEEE Micro Special Issue on Big Data , July/August 2014. Near-Data Processing: Insight from gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical, a Workshop at MICRO-46 , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Jichuan Chang, Troy Manning, Jaime Moreno, Richard Murphy, Ravi Nair, Steve Swanson, IEEE Micro Special Issue on Big Data , July/August 2014. NDC: Analyzing the Impact of 3D-Stacked Memory+Logic Devices on MapReduce Workloads , Seth Pugsley, Jeffrey Jestes, Huihui Zhang, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Vijayalakshmi Srinivasan, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, Al Davis, Feifei Li, International Symposium on how to long quotes Performance Analysis of case on the strategy of merger in ethical Systems and how to in essays Software (ISPASS) , Monterey, March 2014. MemZip: Exploiting Unconventional Benefits from Memory Compression , Ali Shafiee, Meysam Taassori, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, 20th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-20) , Orlando, February 2014.
Sandbox Prefetching: Safe, Run-Time Evaluation of study on the in ethical pharmaceuticals Aggressive Prefetchers , Seth Pugsley, Zeshan Chishti, Chris Wilkerson, Troy Chuang, Robert Scott, Aamer Jaleel, Shih-Lien Lu, Kingsum Chow, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 20th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-20) , Orlando, February 2014. Top Picks Honorable Mention Quantifying the Relationship between the curtain essays, Power Delivery Network and Architectural Policies in a 3D-Stacked Memory Device , Manjunath Shevgoor, Jung-Sik Kim, Niladrish Chatterjee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, Aniruddha Udipi, 46th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-46) , Davis, December 2013. Gsk A. A Novel System Architecture for Web Scale Applications Using Lightweight CPUs and Virtualized I/O , Kshitij Sudan, Saisanthosh Balakrishnan, Sean Lie, Min Xu, Dhiraj Mallick, Gary Lauterbach, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 19th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-19) (Industry Track Paper) , Shenzhen, February 2013. Leveraging Heterogeneity in DRAM Main Memories to Accelerate Critical Word Access , Niladrish Chatterjee, Manjunath Shevgoor, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, Zhen Fang, Ramesh Illikkal, Ravi Iyer, 45th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-45) , Vancouver, December 2012. Optimizing Datacenter Power with Memory System Levers for Guaranteed Quality-of-Service , Kshitij Sudan, Sadagopan Srinivasan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Ravi Iyer, 21st International Symposium on Parallel Architectures and cover letter for summer Compilation Techniques (PACT-21) , Minneapolis, September 2012. Gsk A Strategy Of Equals In Ethical. LOT-ECC: LOcalized and Tiered Reliability Mechanisms for my phd, Commodity Memory Systems , Aniruddha Udipi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, Norm Jouppi, 39th International Symposium on gsk a study of equals in ethical Computer Architecture (ISCA-39) , Portland, June 2012.
Efficient Scrub Mechanisms for Error-Prone Emerging Memories , M. Awasthi, M. Shevgoor, K. English. Sudan, B. Rajendran, R. Balasubramonian, V. Srinivasan, 18th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-18) , New Orleans, February 2012. Gsk A Case In Ethical. Staged Reads: Mitigating the Impact of DRAM Writes on DRAM Reads , N. Chatterjee, N. Muralimanohar, R. For Summer Employment. Balasubramonian, A. Davis, N. Jouppi, 18th International Symposium on case of merger in ethical High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-18) , New Orleans, February 2012. Managing Data Placement in Memory Systems with Multiple Memory Controllers , Manu Awasthi, Dave Nellans, Kshitij Sudan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, International Journal of tortilla essays Parallel Programming (IJPP) , Vol 40(1), February 2012. Combining Memory and a Controller with Photonics through 3D-Stacking to Enable Scalable and Energy-Efficient Systems , Aniruddha Udipi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, Norm Jouppi, 38th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-38) , San Jose, June 2011. Case On The Strategy Pharmaceuticals. CRA Research Highlight . CHOP: Integrating DRAM Caches for CMP Server Platforms , Xiaowei Jiang, Niti Madan, Li Zhao, Mike Upton, Ravi Iyer, Srihari Makineni, Donald Newell, Yan Solihin, Rajeev Balasubramonian, IEEE Micro's Special issue on how to long Top Picks from gsk a strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, 2010 Computer Architecture Conferences , January/February 2011. Handling the Problems and Opportunities Posed by Multiple On-Chip Memory Controllers , Manu Awasthi, David Nellans, Kshitij Sudan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, 19th International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT-19) , Vienna, September 2010. Write. Best paper award SWEL: Hardware Cache Coherence Protocols to Map Shared Data onto Shared Caches , Seth H. Pugsley, Josef Spjut, David Nellans, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 19th International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT-19) , Vienna, September 2010. Case Study On The Strategy Of Merger. Rethinking DRAM Design and dissertation Organization for study in ethical, Energy-Constrained Multi-Cores , Aniruddha Udipi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Niladrish Chatterjee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, Norm Jouppi, 37th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-37) , St. Malo, France, June 2010. Micro-Pages: Increasing DRAM Efficiency with Locality-Aware Data Placement , Kshitij Sudan, Niladrish Chatterjee, David Nellans, Manu Awasthi, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, 15th International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS-XV) , Pittsburgh, March 2010. Towards Scalable, Energy-Efficient, Bus-Based On-Chip Networks , Aniruddha Udipi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 16th International Symposium on my phd High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-16) , Bangalore, January 2010.
CHOP: Adaptive Filter-based DRAM Caching for CMP Server Platforms , Xiaowei Jiang, Niti Madan, Li Zhao, Mike Upton, Ravi Iyer, Srihari Makineni, Donald Newell, Yan Solihin, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 16th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-16) , Bangalore, January 2010. Top Picks Non-Uniform Power Access in Large Caches with Low-Swing Wires , Aniruddha Udipi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 16th International Conference on High Performance Computing (HiPC) , Kochi, December 2009. Best paper award OS Execution on Multi-Cores: Is Out-Sourcing Worthwhile? , David Nellans, Rajeev Balasubramonian, and Erik Brunvand, Position paper in ACM Operating System Review, Special Issue on Interaction among OS, Compilers, and Multicore Processors , April 2009. Dynamic Hardware-Assisted Software-Controlled Page Placement to on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Manage Capacity Allocation and Sharing within Large Caches , Manu Awasthi, Kshitij Sudan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, John Carter, 15th International Symposium on employment High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-15) , Raleigh, February 2009. Optimizing Communication and Capacity in gsk a case study of merger of equals pharmaceuticals a 3D Stacked Reconfigurable Cache Hierarchy , Niti Madan, Li Zhao (Intel), Naveen Muralimanohar, Aniruddha Udipi, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Ravishankar Iyer (Intel), Srihari Makineni (Intel), Donald Newell (Intel), 15th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-15) , Raleigh, February 2009. Scalable and tortilla essays Reliable Communication for study on the of equals, Hardware Transactional Memory , Seth H. Pugsley, Manu Awasthi, Niti Madan, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 17th International Conference on tortilla essays Parallel Architectures and gsk a on the strategy in ethical Compilation Techniques (PACT-17) , Toronto, October 2008. Architecting Efficient Interconnects for chemistry personal statement oxbridge, Large Caches with CACTI 6.0 , Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Norm Jouppi (HP Labs), selected to appear in case on the strategy in ethical IEEE Micro's Special issue on Top Picks from statement oxbridge, 2007 Computer Architecture Conferences , Jan/Feb 2008. Optimizing NUCA Organizations and gsk a study strategy of merger of equals in ethical Wiring Alternatives for letter, Large Caches With CACTI 6.0 , Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Norm Jouppi (HP Labs), 40th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-40) , Chicago, December 2007. Top Picks Leveraging 3D Technology for study on the strategy pharmaceuticals, Improved Reliability , Niti Madan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 40th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-40) , Chicago, December 2007.
Power Efficient Approaches to Redundant Multithreading , Niti Madan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, IEEE Transactions on english anleitung Parallel and gsk a on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals Distributed Systems (Special Issue on CMP Architectures) , Vol. 18, No. 8, pp. 1066-1079, August 2007. Understanding the curtain essays, Impact of case study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals 3D Stacked Layouts on ILP , Manu Awasthi, Vivek Venkatesan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, The Journal of Instruction-Level Parallelism (JILP) , Volume 9, June 2007. Interconnect Design Considerations for Large NUCA Caches , Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 34th International Symposium on for summer employment Computer Architecture (ISCA-34) , San Diego, June 2007. Leveraging Wire Properties at the Microarchitecture Level , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Naveen Muralimanohar, Karthik Ramani, Liqun Cheng, and John Carter, IEEE Micro , Vol.
26, No. 6, November/December 2006. Exploring the Design Space for 3D Clustered Architectures , Manu Awasthi, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 3rd IBM Watson Conference on Interaction between Architecture, Circuits, and Compilers (P=ac2) , Yorktown Heights, October 2006. The Effect of Interconnect Design on the Performance of Large L2 Caches , Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 3rd IBM Watson Conference on Interaction between Architecture, Circuits, and study on the of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Compilers (P=ac2) , Yorktown Heights, October 2006. Interconnect-Aware Coherence Protocols for Chip Multiprocessors , Liqun Cheng, Naveen Muralimanohar, Karthik Ramani, Rajeev Balasubramonian, and John Carter, 33rd International Symposium on how to quotes in essays Computer Architecture (ISCA-33) , Boston, June 2006. Power Efficient Resource Scaling in Partitioned Architectures through Dynamic Heterogeneity , Naveen Muralimanohar, Karthik Ramani, and Rajeev Balasubramonian, IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS) , Austin, March 2006. A Case for gsk a case study strategy of merger, Increased Operating System Support in my phd dissertation Chip Multi-Processors , David Nellans, Rajeev Balasubramonian, and Erik Brunvand, 2nd IBM Watson Conference on Interaction between Architecture, Circuits, and gsk a study Compilers (P=ac2) , Yorktown Heights, September 2005. Microarchitectural Wire Management for Performance and Power in dissertation Partitioned Architectures , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Naveen Muralimanohar, Karthik Ramani, and Venkatanand Venkatachalapathy, 11th International Symposium on gsk a case of equals High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-11) , San Francisco, February 2005. Cluster Prefetch: Tolerating On-Chip Wire Delays in my phd Clustered Microarchitectures , Rajeev Balasubramonian, 18th International Conference on Supercomputing (ICS-18) , Saint-Malo, June 2004.
Dynamically Tuning Processor Resources with Adaptive Processing , D.H. Albonesi, Rajeev Balasubramonian, S.G. Dropsho, S. Gsk A On The Strategy Of Merger In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Dwarkadas, E.G. Friedman, M.C. Huang, V. Kursun, G. Chemistry Statement Oxbridge. Magklis, M.L. Scott, G. Semeraro, P. Case On The Strategy Of Merger In Ethical. Bose, A. Buyuktosunoglu, P.W. Cook, and S.E. Dissertation. Schuster, IEEE Computer, Special Issue on Power-Aware Computing , Vol.36, No.12, December 2003.
A Dynamically Tunable Memory Hierarchy , Rajeev Balasubramonian, David Albonesi, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, and Sandhya Dwarkadas, IEEE Transactions on strategy in ethical Computers , Vol. My Phd. 52, No. 10, October 2003. Dynamically Managing the Communication-Parallelism Trade-Off in case on the strategy of equals Future Clustered Processors , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and David Albonesi, 30th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-30) , San Diego, June 2003. Integrating Adaptive On-Chip Storage Structures for Reduced Dynamic Power , Steve Dropsho, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, Rajeev Balasubramonian, David Albonesi, Sandhya Dwarkadas, Greg Semeraro, Grigoris Magklis, and Michael Scott, 11th International Conference on Parallel Architectures and cover for summer Compilation Techniques (PACT) , pp. 141-152, Charlottesville, September 2002. Gsk A Case On The Strategy. Energy Efficient Processor Design Using Multiple Clock Domains with Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling , Greg Semeraro, Grigoris Magklis, Rajeev Balasubramonian, David Albonesi, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and Michael Scott, 8th International Symposium on how to High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-8), pp.
29-40, Cambridge, February 2002. Gsk A Strategy In Ethical. Reducing the how to long, Complexity of the Register File in case Dynamic Superscalar Processors , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and David Albonesi, 34th International Symposium on dissertation Microarchitecture (MICRO-34) , pp. 237-248, Austin, December 2001. Case Study Strategy In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Dynamically Allocating Processor Resources Between Nearby and oxbridge Distant ILP , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and David Albonesi, 28th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-28) , pp. 26-37, Göteborg, July 2001. Memory Hierarchy Reconfiguration for Energy and Performance in General-Purpose Processor Architectures, Rajeev Balasubramonian, David Albonesi, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, and Sandhya Dwarkadas, 33rd International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-33) , pp. 245-257, Monterey, December 2000. Multi-Core Cache Hierarchies , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Norman P. Jouppi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Synthesis Lectures in Computer Architecture , Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2011. Buses and Crossbars , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Timothy Pinkston, Encyclopedia of Parallel Computing , D. Gsk A Study Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals. Padua, editor. Springer Science+Business Media, 2011. Refereed Workshop Papers and Posters.
Efficiently Prefetching Complex Address Patterns, Manjunath Shevgoor, Sahil Koladiya, Zeshan Chishti, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 2nd Data Prefetching Championship (DPC2), held in conjunction with ISCA-42, Portland, June 2015. Designing a Fast and Reliable Main Memory with Memristor Technology, Manjunath Shevgoor, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 6th Non-Volatile Memories Workshop (NVMW), San Diego, March 2015. Designing a High-Performance Main Memory by my phd dissertation Overcoming the Challenges of Crossbar Resistive Memory Architectures, Cong Xu, Dimin Niu, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Tao Zhang, Shimeng Yu, Yuan Xie, 6th Non-Volatile Memories Workshop (NVMW), San Diego, March 2015. Gsk A Case On The Strategy Of Merger Of Equals. A Case for Near Data Security , Akhila Gundu, Ali Shafiee, Manjunath Shevgoor, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 2nd Workshop on Near-Data Processing, held in conjunction with MICRO-47, Cambridge, UK, December 2014. Memory Bandwidth Reservation in the Cloud to Avoid Information Leakage in the Memory Controller , Akhila Gundu, Gita Sreekumar, Ali Shafiee, Seth Pugsley, Hardik Jain, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Mohit Tiwari, 3rd Workshop on statement oxbridge Hardware and Architectural Support for Security and Privacy (HASP), held in gsk a case of merger of equals pharmaceuticals conjunction with ISCA-41, Minneapolis, June 2014. Exploring a Brink-of-Failure Memory Controller to Design an cover letter for summer employment, Approximate Memory System , Meysam Taassori, Niladrish Chatterjee, Ali Shafiee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 1st Workshop on Approximate Computing Across the on the strategy of merger pharmaceuticals, System Stack (WACAS), held in conjunction with ASPLOS-19, Salt Lake City, March 2014. Chemistry Statement Oxbridge. Understanding the Role of the Power Delivery Network in 3D-Stacked Memory Devices , Manjunath Shevgoor, Jung-Sik Kim, Niladrish Chatterjee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, Aniruddha Udipi, 5th Workshop on Energy Efficient Design (WEED), held in conjunction with ISCA-40, Tel Aviv, June 2013. In Ethical. Prediction Based DRAM Row-Buffer Management in the Many-Core Era , Manu Awasthi, David Nellans, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Al Davis, Proceedings of PACT-20 (poster session, second prize) Galveston Island, October 2011. Understanding the Behavior of Pthread Applications on Non-Uniform Cache Architectures , Gagandeep S. Sachdev, Kshitij Sudan, Mary W. Essay Anleitung. Hall, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Proceedings of PACT-20 (poster session) Galveston Island, October 2011. Refining the gsk a case study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, Utility Metric for essay, Utility-Based Cache Partitioning , Xing Lin, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 9th Workshop on gsk a study of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Duplicating, Deconstructing, and research about music Debunking (WDDD), held in conjunction with ISCA-38, San Jose, June 2011. Handling PCM Resistance Drift with Device, Circuit, Architecture, and System Solutions , Manu Awasthi, Manju Shevgoor, Kshitij Sudan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Bipin Rajendran, Viji Srinivasan, 2nd Non-Volatile Memories Workshop (NVMW), San Diego, March 2011.
Improving Server Performance on Multi-Cores via Selective Off-loading of gsk a case of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals OS Functionality , David Nellans, Kshitij Sudan, Erik Brunvand, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 6th Workshop on Interaction between Operating Systems and Computer Architecture (WIOSCA), held in conjunction with ISCA-37, St. Malo, France, June 2010. Chemistry Statement Oxbridge. Rethinking DRAM Design for gsk a study strategy of merger of equals, Low-Power Datacenters, Aniruddha N. Udipi, Naveen Muralimanohar, Niladrish Chatterjee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 16th International Conference on High Performance Computing (HiPC)(poster session, best poster presentation award), India, December 2009. Optimizing a Multi-Core Processor for my phd dissertation, Message-Passing Workloads , Niladrish Chatterjee, Seth H. Pugsley, Josef Spjut, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 5th Workshop on case study strategy Unique Chips and Systems (UCAS-5), held in conjunction with ISPASS, Boston, April 2009. Papers About Music. Exploiting Eager Register Release in a Redundantly Multi-Threaded Processor , Niti Madan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 2nd Workshop on Architectural Reliability (WAR-2), held in conjunction with MICRO-39, Orlando, December 2006. Case Pharmaceuticals. Leveraging Bloom Filters for music, Smart Search Within NUCA Caches , Robert Ricci, Steve Barrus, Dan Gebhardt, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 7th Workshop on gsk a on the strategy of equals in ethical Complexity-Effective Design (WCED), held in conjunction with ISCA-33 , Boston, June 2006. Re-Visiting the Performance Impact of Microarchitectural Floorplanning , Anupam Chakravorty, Abhishek Ranjan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 3rd Workshop on personal statement oxbridge Temperature Aware Computer Systems (TACS), held in gsk a study of merger of equals in ethical conjunction with ISCA-33 , Boston, June 2006.
A First-Order Analysis of Power Overheads of Redundant Multi-Threading , Niti Madan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, 2nd Workshop on the System Effects of Logic Soft Errors (SELSE-2) , Urbana, April 2006. Wire Management for letter employment, Coherence Traffic in Chip Multiprocessors , Liqun Cheng, Naveen Muralimanohar, Karthik Ramani, Rajeev Balasubramonian, and John Carter, 6th Workshop on Complexity-Effective Design (WCED), held in conjunction with ISCA-32 , Madison, June 2005. Microarchitectural Techniques to case on the strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Reduce Interconnect Power in Clustered Processors , Karthik Ramani, Naveen Muralimanohar, and Rajeev Balasubramonian, 5th Workshop on Complexity-Effective Design (WCED), held in conjunction with ISCA-31 , Munich, June 2004. Papers. Hot-and-Cold: Using Criticality in on the strategy the Design of Energy-Efficient Caches , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Viji Srinivasan, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and how to quotes Alper Buyuktosunoglu, 3rd Workshop on strategy pharmaceuticals Power-Aware Computer Systems (PACS), held in conjunction with MICRO-36 , San Diego, December 2003. Chemistry Personal Statement Oxbridge. Dynamic Memory Hierarchy Performance Optimization , Rajeev Balasubramonian, David Albonesi, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, and case of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Sandhya Dwarkadas, Workshop on Solving the Memory Wall Problem , held in conjunction with the 27th ISCA, Vancouver, June 2000. USIMM: the Utah SImulated Memory Module , Niladrish Chatterjee, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Manjunath Shevgoor, Seth H. Pugsley, Aniruddha N. Dissertation. Udipi, Ali Shafiee, Kshitij Sudan, Manu Awasthi, Zeshan Chishti, Technical Report UUCS-12-002, February 2012. Interference Aware Cache Designs for Operating System Execution , David Nellans, Rajeev Balasubramonian, and Erik Brunvand, Technical Report UUCS-09-002, February 2009. On The Strategy Of Equals Pharmaceuticals. Scalable, Reliable, Power-Efficient Communication for Hardware Transactional Memory , Seth H. My Phd Dissertation. Pugsley, Manu Awasthi, Niti Madan, Naveen Muralimanohar, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Technical Report UUCS-08-001, January 2008. Commit Algorithms for Scalable Hardware Transactional Memory , Seth H. On The Of Merger Pharmaceuticals. Pugsley, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Technical Report UUCS-07-016, August 2007.
Power-Efficient Approaches to curtain Reliability , Niti Madan, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Technical Report UUCS-05-010, December 2005. Dynamic Management of Microarchitecture Resources in gsk a study on the in ethical Future Microprocessors , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of english anleitung Computer Science, University of Rochester, August 2003. Case Study Strategy Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Microarchitectural Trade-offs in the Design of about a Scalable Clustered Microprocessor , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and David Albonesi, URCS Technical Report #771, January 2002. Case Study On The Strategy Of Equals. A High-Performance Two-Level Register File Organization , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and David Albonesi, URCS Technical Report #745, Apr 2001. Dynamically Allocating Processor Resources between Nearby and Distant ILP , Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and curtain David Albonesi, URCS Technical Report #743, Apr 2001. A Heterogeneous Architecture for Reliable, High-Endurance Memory Systems, patent pending (filed 6/2011). A Slot-based Memory Interface with Single-Point Arbitration and Simplified Memory Controllers, patent pending (filed 3/2011). Memory Access Methods and gsk a strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals Apparatus, patent pending (filed 1/2010). Performance Monitoring for New Phase Dynamic Optimization of oxbridge Instruction Dispatch Cluster Configuration, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, David H. Albonesi, US Patent No.
8,103,856, issued Jan 24 2012. Multi-Cluster Processor Operating only Select Number of Clusters during each Phase Based on Program Statistic Monitored at Predetermined Intervals, Rajeev Balasubramonian, Sandhya Dwarkadas, David H. Gsk A On The Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical. Albonesi, US Patent No. 7,490,220, issued Feb 10 2009. Microarchitectural Wire Management for Performance and Power in papers Partitioned Architectures, R. Gsk A Case On The In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Balasubramonian, L. English Essay Anleitung. Cheng, J. Carter, N. Muralimanohar, K. Ramani, US Patent No. 7,478,190, issued Jan 13 2009. Case Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical. Multiple Clock Domain Microprocessor, David H. Albonesi, Greg Semeraro, Grigoris Magklis, Michael L. Research Papers Music. Scott, Rajeev Balasubramonian, and Sandhya Dwarkadas, US Patent No. 7,089,443, issued Aug 8 2006. Gsk A Case On The In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Memory Hierarchy Reconfiguration for Energy and Performance in chemistry General-Purpose Processor Architectures, Rajeev Balasubramonian, David H. Albonesi, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, and strategy in ethical Sandhya Dwarkadas, US Patent No. Letter Employment. 6,834,328, issued Dec 21 2004.
Dynamically Reconfigurable Memory Hierarchy, Rajeev Balasubramonian, David H. Albonesi, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, and Sandhya Dwarkadas, US Patent No. 6,684,298, issued Jan 27 2004. Current: Meysam Taassori, Ph.D. Gsk A On The Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals. student, DRAM Variation Karl Taht, Ph.D. student, Prefetching Anirban Nag, Ph.D. student, Machine Learning Accelerators Surya Narayanan, Ph.D. student, Neuromorphic Architectures Shirley Hon, M.S. student, Memory Systems. Co-General Chair, ASPLOS 2014 Program Chair, ISPASS 2011 General Chair, ISPASS 2012 Workshop Co-Chair, Journal Guest Editor: IEEE Micro Special Issue on tortilla Near Data Processing , guest co-editor, Jan/Feb 2016. Study On The Strategy Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. 3rd Workshop on Near-Data Processing , co-located with MICRO 2015 2nd Workshop on statement oxbridge Near-Data Processing , co-located with MICRO 2014 The Memory Forum , co-located with ISCA 2014. Gsk A Case Study Of Merger In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. 1st Workshop on Near-Data Processing (WoNDP), co-located with MICRO 2013. 3rd JILP Workshop on Computer Architecture Competitions (JWAC-3), Memory Scheduling Championship (MSC) , co-located with ISCA 2012. Letter For Summer. 4th Workshop on Chip Multiprocessor Memory Systems and Interconnects (CMP-MSI) , co-located with HPCA 2010. 3rd Workshop on Chip Multiprocessor Memory Systems and gsk a case study strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals Interconnects (CMP-MSI) , co-located with ISCA 2009.
2nd Workshop on cover letter Chip Multiprocessor Memory Systems and Interconnects (CMP-MSI) , co-located with ISCA 2008. Program committee member: ISPASS 2006 , ISPASS 2007 , HiPC 2007 , HPCA 2008 , ICPP 2008 , HiPC 2008 , MICRO 2008 , dasCMP 2008 , NOCS 2009 , 3D Workshop 2009 , UCAS 2009 , HiPC 2009 , NOCS 2010 , HiPC 2010 , IISWC 2010 , UCAS 2010 , WRA 2010 , HPCA 2011 , NOCS 2011 , IEEE Micro Top Picks 2010 , MICRO 2011 , HiPC 2011 , HiPEAC 2012 , ISCA 2012 , NOCS 2012 , ICPP 2012 , MSPC 2012 , MICRO 2012 , HiPEAC 2013 , ISPASS 2013 , WIVOSCA 2013 , ACM SRC (PACT) 2013 , IEEE Micro Top Picks 2013 , HPCA 2014 , SC 2014 , ICS 2014 , WDDD 2014 , ASPLOS 2015 , ISCA 2015 , WACAS 2015 , ASBD 2015 , MICRO 2015 , IEEE Micro Top Picks 2015 , HPCA 2016 , ASPLOS 2016 , ISCA 2016 , NSF panels (2005, 2006, 2008, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2014, 2015, 2015), DOE panel (2010, 2013). Study On The Strategy Of Merger In Ethical. Finance chair: ISCA 2011 , HPCA 2013 , IISWC 2013 , ISCA 2016 . Statement Oxbridge. Student Travel Chair: ISCA 2013 . Study Strategy In Ethical. ACM Student Research Competition Chair: PACT 2012 . Registration chair: ISPASS 2007 , HPCA 2008 , ISPASS 2008 , ISPASS 2009 , HPCA 2010 . Steering Committee: ISPASS 2013 , ISPASS 2014 , ASPLOS 2015 , ASPLOS 2016 . Tortilla. External Review Committee for ISCA 2010 , ASPLOS 2012 , ISCA 2014 , MICRO 2014 , HPCA 2015 . Study On The Strategy Of Merger Of Equals. Reviewer for numerous conferences and journals. Invited participant at english essay NSF-sponsored workshops: OCIN 2006 , WETI 2012 , CPOM 2012 . Organizer, Multi-Core Colloquium , School of Computing, University of Utah, Fall 2007. School of Computing ABET Co-ordinator, Computer Engineering program, 2007-2009. Member of the case on the of merger in ethical, University of Utah, College of how to long Engineering Council, 2005-2007. Gsk A Case On The Of Equals. Graduate admissions committee (School of my phd Computing), 2003-2009, 2015. Strategy Of Merger In Ethical. Curriculum committee, 2010-2012. Graduate admissions chair (School of Computing), 2010-2012. Faculty Search Committee Chair (HCI), Spring 2013. Faculty Search Committee Chair (HCI), Spring 2015.
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GlaxoSmithKline: History and Case Studies | Big Pharma
Feeding the World Today and Tomorrow: The Importance of Food Science and Technology. An IFT Scientific Review. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: [email protected]). Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: [email protected]).
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Search for anleitung more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: [email protected]). Search for more papers by this author. First published: 26 August 2010 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00127.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 61 articles Check for updates. by Philip E. Nelson, 2007 World Food Prize Laureate; Professor Emeritus, Food Science Dept., Purdue Univ.
Just as society has evolved over gsk a case on the strategy of merger in ethical, time, our food system has also evolved over centuries into a global system of immense size and complexity. The commitment of letter for summer food science and technology professionals to advancing the gsk a study strategy of equals in ethical science of food, ensuring a safe and how to write quotes, abundant food supply, and gsk a on the of merger of equals in ethical, contributing to healthier people everywhere is integral to that evolution. Food scientists and technologists are versatile, interdisciplinary, and collaborative practitioners in about music a profession at the crossroads of scientific and technological developments. As the food system has drastically changed, from one centered around family food production on gsk a study on the of merger pharmaceuticals, individual farms and home food preservation to the modern system of today, most people are not connected to their food nor are they familiar with agricultural production and food manufacturing designed for better food safety and quality. The Institute of Food Technologistsa nonprofit scientific society of english essay individual members engaged in food science, food technology, and related professions in case strategy industry, academia, and governmenthas the mission to advance the science of food and the long-range vision to ensure a safe and abundant food supply contributing to healthier people everywhere. IFT convened a task force and called on contributing authors to develop this scientific review to inform the general public about the importance and benefits of food science and technology in IFT's efforts to feed a growing world. The main objective of this review is to cover serve as a foundational resource for public outreach and education and to address misperceptions and misinformation about processed foods.
The intended audience includes those who desire to know more about the application of science and technology to meet society's food needs and those involved in public education and outreach. It is IFT's hope that the reader will gain a better understanding of the study on the strategy of merger of equals goals or purposes for various applications of science and technology in the food system, and an appreciation for the complexity of the modern food supply. Abstract: This Institute of Food Technologists scientific review describes the scientific and technological achievements that made possible the modern production-to-consumption food system capable of feeding nearly 7 billion people, and it also discusses the promising potential of ongoing technological advancements to enhance the food supply even further and to increase the health and wellness of the growing global population. This review begins with a historical perspective that summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food technology, from the beginnings of modern society to the present. A section on food manufacturing explains why food is processed and chemistry statement oxbridge, details various food processing methods that ensure food safety and on the of merger pharmaceuticals, preserve the quality of products. A section about potential solutions to future challenges briefly discusses ways in how to quotes which scientists, the food industry, and policy makers are striving to improve the food supply for a healthier population and feed the gsk a on the of merger of equals future. Applications of science and dissertation, technology within the food system have allowed production of foods in adequate quantities to meet the study on the strategy of merger in ethical needs of society, as it has evolved. Chemistry! Today, our production-to-consumption food system is gsk a study on the of merger of equals in ethical, complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and chemistry personal, less costly and gsk a of equals pharmaceuticals, more readily accessible than ever before.
Scientific and personal oxbridge, technological advancements must be accelerated and applied in developed and developing nations alike, if we are to feed a growing world population. The world has progressed through huntergatherer, agricultural, and industrial stages to provider of goods and services. This progression has been catalyzed by the cultural and social evolution of mankind and study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, the need to solve specific societal issues, such as the how to write in essays need for preservation to free people from foraging for food, and gsk a case study on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, the need for adequate nutrition via consistent food supply year round. These forces led to the development of the food industry, which has contributed immensely to the basis for a healthy human civilization and helped society prosper and flourish (Lund 1989). Development of food science and technology. According to my phd dissertation Harvard Univ. biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham, food processing was launched about 2 million years ago by a distant ancestor who discovered cooking, the original form of food processing (Wrangham 2009).
Later, but still during prehistoric times, cooking was augmented by fermenting, drying, preserving with salt, and gsk a case on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, other primitive forms of food processing, which allowed groups and communities to personal statement form and survive. Gsk A Study On The Strategy In Ethical! Humans thus first learned how to cook food, then how to transform, preserve, and store it safely. Curtain! This experience-based technology led to modern food processing (Hall 1989; Floros 2008). Much later, the domestication of plants and land cultivation became widespread, and at the end of the last Ice Age, humans revolutionized eating meat by domesticating animals for food. Thus, plant and animal agriculture also contributed to improving the human condition. Study of every ancient civilization clearly shows that throughout history humans overcame hunger and disease, not only by harvesting food from a cultivated land but also by processing it with sophisticated methods. For example, the 3 most important foods in Ancient Greecebread, olive oil, and winewere all products of complicated processing that transformed perishable, unpalatable, or hardly edible raw materials into safe, flavorful, nutritious, stable, and enjoyable foods (Floros 2004).
Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is study of equals pharmaceuticals, largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before. This vast food system includes agricultural production and harvesting, holding and storing of raw materials, food manufacturing (formulation, food processing, and packaging), transportation and tortilla curtain essays, distribution, retailing, foodservice, and food preparation in the home. Contemporary food science and gsk a case on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, technology contributed greatly to the success of this modern food system by integrating biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science, microbiology, nutrition, toxicology, biotechnology, genomics, computer science, and many other disciplines to curtain essays solve difficult problems, such as resolving nutritional deficiencies and gsk a on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, enhancing food safety. The impact of modern food manufacturing methods is music, evident in today's food supply. Food quality can be maintained or even improved, and gsk a case study strategy of merger pharmaceuticals, food safety can be enhanced. Sensitive nutrients can be preserved, important vitamins and personal oxbridge, minerals can be added, toxins and antinutrients (substances such as phytate that limit bioavailability of nutrients) can be removed, and foods can be designed to optimize health and reduce the risk of case study on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals disease. Personal Oxbridge! Waste and gsk a study on the of merger in ethical, product loss can be reduced, and distribution around the world can be facilitated to allow seasonal availability of dissertation many foods. Modern food manufacturing also often improves the quality of study life for individuals with specific health conditions, offering modified foods to meet their needs (for example, sugar-free foods sweetened with an alternative sweetener for people with diabetes). Controversies about processed foods. Although today the public generally embraces and enjoys key benefits of the food supplyvalue, consistency, and conveniencesome suggest that the cost to society of obtaining these benefits is too high.
Negative perceptions about “processed foods” also exist, especially among consumers in the United States. A range of factors contributes to these perceptions. Write Quotes! These include uneasiness with technology, low level of science literacy, labeling, and advertising that have at case on the of equals in ethical, times taken advantage of food additive or ingredient controversies, influence on perception of voluntary compared with involuntary nature of risk, and cover employment, high level of food availability (Slovic 1987; Clydesdale 1989; Hall 1989). Other factors contributing to negative public perceptions about processed foods include the increasing prevalence of obesity in many industrialized or developed countries, use of chemicals in gsk a study on the of equals production or additives in foods, little personal contact between consumers and the agricultural and food manufacturing sectors, food safety issues, and concern that specific ingredients (particularly salt), may contribute to illnesses or impact childhood development (Schmidt 2009). Some books on cover letter, food in the popular press have implied that the case study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals food industry has incorrectly applied the knowledge of food science and technology to develop processed foods that result in poor dietary habits. The premise of some critics of processed foods is that knowledge of how to write chemistry and the physical properties of food constituents allow the food industry to make processed foods that result in overeating and cause the general population to abandon whole foods. The argument is stretched further to suggest that the development of processed foods is responsible for promoting bad eating habits and is the cause of chronic disease. Such an gsk a study on the of merger in ethical, argument is employment, specious, because personal preferences, choice, will power, and lifestyle factor into the decision of what and gsk a on the of equals, how much to eat. The challenge surrounding the connection between lifestyles and health (that is, diet and chronic disease) is papers, discussed in the next section of this review. During the of merger pharmaceuticals 2009 World Summit on cover employment, Food Security, it was recognized that by gsk a on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, 2050 food production must increase by about 70%34% higher than it is todayto feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a).
This projected population increase is expected to involve an additional annual consumption of nearly 1 billion metric tons of cover cereals for food and feed and 200 million metric tons of meat. Another challenge is the large, growing food security gap in certain places around the world. As much as half of the food grown and gsk a on the of merger of equals, harvested in underdeveloped and oxbridge, developing countries never gets consumed, partly because proper handling, processing, packaging, and distribution methods are lacking. Starvation and study strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, nutritional deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, protein, and calories are still prevalent in all regions of the world, including the United States. English! As a consequence, science-based improvements in agricultural production, food science and technology, and food distribution systems are critically important to decreasing this gap.
In addition, energy and gsk a on the of merger, resource conservation is becoming increasingly critical. To provide sufficient food for everyone in oxbridge a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner, without compromising our precious natural resources, agricultural production must increase significantly from today's levels and food manufacturing systems must become more efficient, use less energy, generate less waste, and produce food with extended shelf life. Although scientific and technological achievements in the 20th century made it possible to study strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals solve nutritional deficiencies, address food safety and quality, and feed nearly 7 billion people, further advancements are needed to resolve the challenges of sustainably feeding the growing future population in industrialized and developing nations alike. In fact, to meet the curtain essays food needs of the future, it is critically important that scientific and technological advancements be accelerated and gsk a strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, applied in both the agricultural and the food manufacturing sectors. The next section of how to in essays this review, “Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System,” summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food manufacturing from the gsk a study on the strategy of merger beginnings of modern society (the Neolithic revolution) to the present; it also addresses the research papers about music current diet and chronic disease challenge. The subsequent section, “Food Processing: A Critical Element,” explains why food is processed and details the various types of food processing operations that are important for different food manufacturing purposes. Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! Then the following section, “Looking to the Future,” outlines suggestions to improve our food supply for a healthier population, and briefly discusses the various roles that researchers, consumers, the research papers about food industry, and study in ethical pharmaceuticals, policy makers play in improving the essay food supply for better health; it also addresses the promises that further advancements and application of technologies in the food system hold for the future. Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System. The life of the huntergatherer was generally uncertain, dangerous, and hardscrabble. Thomas Hobbes, in his Leviathan (I561), described life in those times as “the life of man in a state of nature, that is, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Agriculture transformed that existence by making available a far larger and generally more reliable source of food, in large part through domestication and improvement of plants and animals. Domestication leads to civilization.
Domestication is the process of bringing a species under the control of study humans and gradually changing it through careful selection, mating, and handling so that it is my phd dissertation, more useful to people. Domesticated species are renewable sources that provide humans with food and gsk a on the strategy pharmaceuticals, other benefits. At the my phd dissertation end of the last Ice Age, humans domesticated plants and animals, permitting the gsk a case development of agriculture, producing food more efficiently than in hunter-gatherer societies, and improving the human condition. Domestication did not appear all at once, but rather over a substantial period of time, perhaps hundreds of years. For some species, domestication occurred independently in more than one location.
For animals, the tortilla process may have begun almost accidentally, as by on the of merger in ethical, raising a captured young animal after its mother had been killed and observing its behavior and my phd, response to various treatments. Domesticated plants and animals spread from their sites of origin through trade and war. The domestication of plants and animals occurred primarily on the Eurasian continent (Smith 1998). A prominent early site was in case of equals in ethical the Middle East, the so-called Fertile Crescent, stretching from Palestine to southern Turkey, and down the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where barley, wheat, and lentils were domesticated as early as 10000 y ago and sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs were domesticated around 8000 y ago. Rice, millet, and english anleitung, soy were domesticated in gsk a case study strategy of equals East Asia; millet, sorghum, and African rice in sub-Saharan Africa; potato, sweet potato, corn (maize), squash, and how to write long quotes in essays, beans in the Americas; Asiatic (water) buffaloes, chickens, ducks, cattle, and pigs in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia; pigs, rabbits, and geese in Europe; and llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs, and turkeys in the Americas. The introduction of herding and farming was followed by attempts to improve the wild varieties of plants and gsk a in ethical, animals that had just been domesticated. The Indian corn found by the first European colonists was a far cry from its ancestor, the grass teosinte. While few successful new domestications have occurred in the past 1000 y, various aquaculture species, such as tilapia, catfish, salmon, and shrimp, are currently on their way to chemistry personal statement oxbridge being domesticated. Although the primary goal of case on the strategy in ethical domestication (ensuring a more stable, reliable source of animal and plant foods) has not fundamentally changed, the my phd dissertation specific goals have become highly specialized over time. For example, we now breed cattle for either beef or dairy production, and cattle and hogs for leaner meat.
We breed chickens as either egg layers or broilers. In addition, selection for increased efficiency of producing meat, milk, and eggs is prominent in today's agriculture, as discussed later in this section. Agriculture, built on the domestication of plants and strategy of merger of equals in ethical, animals, freed people from the personal statement oxbridge all-consuming task of finding food and led to the establishment of permanent settlements. Case On The Strategy Of Equals In Ethical! What we know as civilizationcities, governments, written languages, an dissertation, expanding base of knowledge, improved health and life span, the artswas only possible because of agriculture. Gsk A Study Strategy In Ethical! Along with domestication of plants and animals, people began the dissertation journey of discovery of methods to extend the useful life of plant and study on the of merger of equals in ethical, animal food items so that nourishment could be sustained throughout the year. With a fixed (nonnomadic) population also came primitive food storage and, with that, improvements in food safety and quality. In July 2009, an important discovery and conjecture was made about the recognition that food security was of paramount importance. Kuijt and Finlayson (2009) reported that they believe they have discovered several granaries in Jordan dating to my phd dissertation about 11000 y ago. This would suggest that populations knew the importance of having a dependable food supply before the domestication of plants. On The Strategy Of Merger Pharmaceuticals! The authors further suggested that “Evidence for PPNA (Pre-Pottery Neolithic Age) food storage illustrates a major transition in the economic and social organization of english essay human communities.
The transition from economic systems based on collecting and foraging of wild food resources before this point to case study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals cultivation and foraging of mixed wild and managed resources in the PPNA illustrates a major intensification of human-plant relationships.” Today, the tortilla curtain survival of civilization depends on a handful of domesticated crops. Gsk A Case Of Equals In Ethical! Of the roughly 400000 plant species existing today (Pitman and Jorgensen 2002), fewer than 500 are considered to be domesticated. Selecting for desirable crop traits. The primary force in crop domestication and anleitung, subsequent breeding is selection, both artificial and natural, described below. Charles Darwin, in developing the theory of natural selection, relied heavily on the knowledge and study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, experiences of plant and animal breeders (Darwin 1859). Crops were domesticated from wild ancestors’ gene pools that had been altered by selection imposed by early agriculturalists and by for summer, natural selection imposed by biotic and abiotic environmental factors (Harlan and others 1973; Purugganan and gsk a case strategy of merger, Fuller 2010). Selection changes gene pools by increasing the frequency of alleles (genes encoded by essays, a place in the genome and that may vary between individuals and mutant/parent strains) that cause desirable traits and decreasing the frequency of alleles that cause undesirable traits. Modern crop varieties are still shaped by the same forces. The causes of the bursts of domestication activity have been the subject of much speculation (Smith 1998), but the changes symptomatic of gsk a case study on the strategy pharmaceuticals domestication are well established for many species (Harlan and letter for summer, others 1973; Doebley and others 2006).
Legumes and the large-seeded grasses collectively known as cereals (for example, maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum) contribute most of the calories and on the strategy of equals, plant protein in for summer the human diet. For these and other annual crops such as sunflower and squash, the gsk a case study on the strategy of merger of equals initial changes during domestication involved ease of harvesting and the ability to compete with weeds. Initially, selection for these traits was most likely not planned but serendipitous and more a matter of chance by random mutations. The most significant problem confronting most agriculturalists, both early and dissertation, modern, is weed competition. Early agriculturalists scattered seeds on of merger of equals, ground that had been prepared, most likely by burning or some other disruption of the soil surface. Those seeds that passed their genes onto the next generation (natural selection) were those that best competed with weeds. Selection pressure due to weed competition results in a number of changes, including the cover letter for summer employment reduction or elimination of seed dormancy and gsk a study strategy of equals in ethical, larger seeds (Harlan and others 1973; Smith 1998). Dormancy is oxbridge, very undesirable in annual crops, and on the strategy of equals, most domesticated species germinate rapidly upon planting. Selection against dormancy has been so extreme, however, that under certain weather conditions, seeds of modern wheat varieties ( Triticum aestivum ) and how to write, barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) sprout while still in the seed head, destroying the value of the grain crop. Larger seeds generally give rise to larger and more vigorous seedlings that compete better with weeds (Purugganan and Fuller 2010). In the grasses, selection for larger seed size is associated with increased starch and decreased protein in the endosperm.
For example, the protein content of teosinte ( Zea mays parviglumis )the wild ancestor of maize ( Zea mays mays ), which is referred to as corn in North Americais approximately 30%, while the gsk a study strategy in ethical protein content of modern maize is 11% (Flint-Garcia and others 2009). While the goal of selection is to alter the targeted trait (appearance and/or performance) and the genetic variation underlying the selected trait will be reduced over about music, time, unselected traits will also often change, and these changes may be negative (for example, reduced endosperm protein in grasses that have been selected for larger seeds). For example, in gsk a strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals the United States, the major selection criterion for maize is increased grain yield (Tracy and others 2004), and english essay anleitung, strong selection pressure for increased grain yield leads to increased starch content and decreased protein content (Dudley and gsk a case study, others 2007). Critics focus on such changes as evidence that the quality of our food supply has been “damaged” by modern plant breeding and agricultural practices. But has it? In United States agriculture, maize is grown for its prodigious ability to convert the sun's energy into chemical energy (carbohydrates), while we have abundant sources of plant and animal protein. In other parts of the world, maize is a staple crop, and diets of many people are deficient in protein.
To improve the research about music nutrition of the poor whose staple is maize, plant breeders at the Intl. Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement ( Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo , CIMMYT) developed quality protein maize (QPM) that has an improved protein content and amino acid profile (Prasanna and others 2001). It is the selection of the gsk a on the strategy of equals in ethical breeding objective that determines the outcome. Personal Statement Oxbridge! Clearly, different populations and cultures have differing food needs and gsk a strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, require different breeding objectives. But, to be sustainable, all cultures need a nutritionally well-balanced diet. Changes in food animal agriculture and fisheries. Animal food products are good sources of high-quality protein, minerals (for example, iron), and vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, which is not available in chemistry plant materials. Livestock production is a dynamic and study of merger of equals, integral part of the how to long in essays food system today, contributing 40% of the global value of agricultural output, 15% of total food energy, and 25% of dietary protein and supporting the livelihoods and food security of case study on the of equals pharmaceuticals almost a billion people (FAO 2009b). Seafood, including products from a growing aquaculture segment, provides at least 15% of the average animal protein consumption to dissertation 2.9 billion people, with consumption higher in developed and case study on the of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, island countries than in chemistry statement oxbridge some developing countries (Smith and on the in ethical pharmaceuticals, others 2010).
Except for most of employment sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia, production and consumption of meat, milk, and on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals, eggs is increasing around the world, driven by population and income growth and urbanization (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The rapidly increasing demand for meat and for summer, dairy products has led during the past 50 y to an approximately 1.5-fold increase in the global numbers of gsk a case study of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals cattle, sheep, and goats; 2.5-fold increase in pigs; and 4.5-fold increase in chickens (Godfray and others 2010). The nutritional impact of animal products varies tremendously around the cover letter for summer employment world (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The structure of the gsk a of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals livestock sector is complex, differs by location and species, and is being transformed by globalization of supply chains for feed, genetic stock, and other technologies (FAO 2009b). The current livestock sector has shifted from pasture-based ruminant species (cattle, sheep, goats, and others having a multichamber stomach, one of which is the rumen) to research papers feed-dependent monogastric species (for example, poultry) and is marked by gsk a case, intensification and increasing globalization (Steinfeld and others 2010). A substantial proportion of livestock, however, is dissertation, grass-fed (Godfray and others 2010) and small-holder farmers and gsk a case study on the strategy of merger of equals, herders feed 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day (Herrero and others 2010). The rates of conversion of grains to meat, milk, and eggs from food animals have improved significantly in developed and papers, developing countries (CAST 1999).
Technological improvements have taken place most rapidly and effectively in poultry production, with broiler growth rates nearly doubled and feed conversion ratios halved since the early 1960s. In addition to gsk a on the strategy pharmaceuticals these productivity gains, bird health and product quality and safety have improved through applications of english anleitung breeding, feeding, disease control, housing, and processing technologies (FAO 2009b). In addition, transgenic technology is used to produce fish with faster, more efficient growth rates. Meeting the needs of a growing population. As a result of improved public health measures and modern medicine, the population has mushroomed from an estimated 1 to 10 million in gsk a case study on the strategy in ethical 10000 BC to my phd an estimated 600 to 900 million in AD 1750 and gsk a case study strategy in ethical, an estimated 6.8 billion today. Thomas Malthus (1803) predicted that population growth would inevitably outpace resource production, and about music, therefore that misery (hunger and starvation) would endure. Undoubtedly, application of science and gsk a case study of merger, technology in agriculture and tortilla, food and beverage manufacturing has negated these predictions and fed population growth (Figure 1).
From Foraging and Farming to gsk a case study strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Food Science and Engineering. Adapted from Henry (1997) Nutrition Society 1997. Reprinted with the statement oxbridge permission of Cambridge University Press. The application of science to agriculture has dramatically increased productivity, but until the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, productivity was not keeping pace with population growth. Large areas of the world, including the gsk a on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals 2 most populous nations, China and India, were experiencing severe food shortages and anticipating worse. The improved plant breeding techniques of the Green Revolution have dramatically improved that situation.
However, the Green Revolution's remarkable advances have been acquired at substantial cost. The vastly improved varieties resulting from improved plant-breeding techniques require much larger inputs of fertilizer and water. Poor farmers often cannot afford the fertilizer, and adequate water supplies are becoming an increasing problem in many areas. Dissertation! Thus, the Green Revolution, for all its enormous benefits, has primarily helped larger farmers much more than smaller, poorer ones. In addition, pesticide applications in the developing world are too often inappropriate or excessivein some cases because the farmer is of equals in ethical, unable to chemistry read the labeland there is no structure (for example, a regulatory agency such as the Environmental Protection Agency) to regulate their use. Problems are not, however, confined to gsk a case study on the strategy of equals in ethical the developing world. Nutrient run off in personal statement the United States and gsk a study on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, other countries leads to algal blooms in how to write long quotes lakes and estuaries and to “dead zones” completely lacking in oxygen in gsk a on the in ethical lakes and oceans. Soil erosion by wind and water continues to be a problem in many producing areas. Soil quality thus suffers. The world's known resources of high-grade phosphate ore are limited, and the essential plant nutrient phosphorus will consequently become more expensive (Vaccari 2009). These problems are certainly capable of solution, through a number of how to practices.
Beneficial options include “no-till” agriculture (which leaves the root systems of previous crops undisturbed, thereby retaining organic matter and case strategy in ethical, greatly discouraging erosion), integrated pest management, IPM (which focuses pesticide use where needed, substantially decreasing the amount used), precision agriculture (which site-specifically targets production inputs such as seed, fertilizer, and pesticides where and when needed), drip irrigation (controlled trickling of water), and use of letter new technology for recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from processing wastewater for use as fertilizer (Bongiovanni and Lowenberg-Deboer 2004; Frog Capital 2009; Gebbers and Adamchuk 2010). Measures such as those just discussed are useful primarily in the economically more developed areas. Developing countries require other steps adapted to their local areas and focused particularly on improvements for the many millions of small, poor farmers. Improved plant varieties, produced both by conventional breeding and gsk a case strategy of merger pharmaceuticals, through biotechnology are necessary, as are improved varieties of fish and livestock. There is little doubt that improvements in plant breeding, both conventional and my phd dissertation, transgenic, can significantly improve productivity. Technological improvements, such as automated plant monitoring via robotics, are “helping plant breeders trim years off the in ethical pharmaceuticals process of developing crop varieties tailored to local conditions” (Pennisi 2010). The list of english anleitung such needs is far too long to explore here, but it also must include public health measures. A major problem yet to gsk a study of merger of equals pharmaceuticals be addressed is the subsidization of agricultural products in developed nations. Products from small, unsubsidized farmers in developing nations cannot compete in the world market with subsidized products from advanced nations.
This problem was the cause of a recent breakdown in World Trade Organization talks. Some see organic agriculture as an answer to these problems. My Phd! Organic farming has some clear merits, particularly those practices, such as crop rotation and the use of green or natural biocontrol agents and animal manure, which have been used by gsk a study of merger pharmaceuticals, farmers for millennia (King 1949). About! The use of degraded plant and study on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, animal residues increases the friability (tendency to crumble, as opposed to caking) and water-holding capacity of soil, and nutrients from decaying plants and animal manure are more slowly available than those from most commercial fertilizers. Both of these factorsfriability and slow nutrient availabilitydiminish nutrient runoff. While organic agriculture continues to grow in english essay response to consumer preferences in gsk a study strategy of merger of equals the developed world, there are limitations to widespread use of organic practices. Organic agriculture requires substantially more land and labor than conventional practices to produce food, and the resulting yields are not great enough and too expensive to address the needs of the growing population. How To Write In Essays! The supply of composted animal manure is gsk a on the strategy of equals, limited and write quotes in essays, relatively expensive compared to commercial fertilizers.
Organic agriculture excludes the use of synthetic pesticides, and the few “natural” ones that are permitted are seldom used (Lotter 2003). Herbicides are not permitted in case of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals organic agriculture, even though some, such as glyphosate, are rapidly degraded in the soil. These exclusions require more manual labor for weed and pest control. Tortilla Curtain! All of these factors result in higher costs and higher prices for organic foods. Reports on productivity vary widely, but some credible sources place organic food production as low as 50% of that of conventional agriculture (Bichel Committee 1999). Yield differences may be attributable to a number of gsk a case on the of merger of equals in ethical factors such as agro-ecological zone (for example, temperate and irrigated compared with humid and perhumid), crop type, high-input compared with low-input level of comparable conventional crop, and essays, management experience (Zundel and gsk a case study on the strategy of merger in ethical, Kilcher 2007). In addition, current organic methods exclude the use of the products of modern biotechnologyrecombinant DNA technologyessential to future increases in agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, the more useful practices of organic agriculture must be part of the dissertation agriculture of the future.
Although poverty and malnutrition exist in all countries, by pharmaceuticals, far the most severe problems in achieving availability, safety, and nutritive value of food and beverages occur in the developing world (IFPRI 2009). Employment! Water shortages and contaminated water, poor soil, destruction of forest for fuel, use of animal manure for fuel, the spread of plant and animal diseases, and the complete lack of a sound food safety infrastructure are among the most vexing problems. Continued food scarcity invites chaos, disease, and case study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, terrorism (Brown 2009). The gap between developing and developed nations is music, not only in economics but also in science, governance, and public information. Thus, to address these issues, the food system must be considered in gsk a case study on the of merger its totality. Eighty percent of agricultural land is used for essay grain fed to meat animals and yields only 15% of our calorie intake. Many have suggested that world food shortages could be greatly alleviated by gsk a study strategy of merger pharmaceuticals, consuming less meat and using the grain supplies now consumed by animals more directly. Reduction in meat intake, particularly red meats, would confer some health benefits, but the potential effects on research, world food supplies are less clear and quite possibly much less than many presume. If developed nations consume much less meat, the price of meat will fall and poorer nations will consume more.
If more grain is consumed, grain prices will rise, to the detriment of populations that already rely heavily on grain. Case Study Of Merger In Ethical! The global food system is extremely complex, and any single change causes many others, often in unexpected ways (Stokstad 2010). Clearly, the solution to the challenge of meeting the food demands of our future world population lies in these principal thrusts: • Increased agricultural productivity everywhere, but particularly among poor farmers, of whom there are hundreds of millions. • Increased economic development and education, both for their own merits and because they will promote infrastructure gains in transportation and water management. • Much-increased efforts in environmental and personal statement oxbridge, water conservation and gsk a case on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, improvement. Cover Letter For Summer! • Continued improvements in food and beverage processing and packaging to deliver safe, nutritious, and affordable food. • Reduction of postharvest losses, particularly in gsk a study on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals developing countries. We must achieve all of these goals. To maintain, as some do, that we cannot have both vastly increased productivity and good environmental practices is a “false choice” (Gates 2009). Meeting these goals will require the effective use of scienceboth the science now within reach and that still to be developed. Postharvest losses occur between harvest and consumption as a result of spoilage of raw agricultural commodities, primarily during storage and transportation, before they can be stabilized for longer-term storage. The granaries mentioned earlier were the write in essays first crude efforts to attack this problem, but it still persists. Postharvest losses due to rodents, insects, and microbial spoilage in some areas amount to 30% or more of the harvested crop. This results in wasted seed, water, fertilizer, and labor.
Postharvest losses must be attacked with locally appropriate improvements in available technology (Normile 2010). It is not enough merely to increase and gsk a case strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, conserve the supply of raw food; it must be conserved against further loss by processing and be packaged, distributed to where it is needed, and statement, guaranteed in its safety, nutritional value, and cultural relevance. Study On The Of Merger! That is the role of science and papers music, technology and engineering applied to the processing of foods and beverages. A widely understood and gsk a study on the of merger pharmaceuticals, accepted definition of food processing does not exist, and perceptions of how to in essays “processed foods” vary widely. From the broadest perspective, food processing may be considered to include any deliberate change in a food occurring between the point of origin and availability for consumption. The change could be as simple as rinsing and packaging by a food manufacturer to ensure that the food is not damaged before consumer accessibility, or as complex as formulating the product with specific additives for gsk a strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals controlling microorganisms, maintaining desired quality attributes, or providing a specific health benefit, followed by packaging that may itself play a role in microbial control or quality preservation.
Some people process their own foods in research about the home, by gsk a of equals pharmaceuticals, canning produce from a garden, microwave cooking, or dehydrating food, for example. Following recipes to english essay bake cakes, cookies, and gsk a case study on the strategy of merger pharmaceuticals, casseroles or to make chili are examples of formulating foods in papers music the home (Shewfelt 2009). In general, food processing is applied for gsk a on the strategy in ethical one or more of the following reasons: preservation, extending the harvest in a safe and stable form; safety; quality; availability; convenience; innovation; health and wellness; and sustainability. Although the private sector carries out these processes and delivers the final product to the consumer, public investment in generating the science and engineering base necessary to continue the curtain essays creativity and ultimate application of new technologies is clearly warranted. Many writings from antiquity refer to food and its preservation and preparation. Major advances in food preservation accelerated with the development of canning, which proceeded from the investigations of Nicolas Appert in France and case strategy of merger, the subsequent activities of Peter Durand in England in the early 19th century. Appert used corked glass bottles to preserve food, and Durand introduced the concept of metal cans. This led to increased emphasis from scientists on the quantity and essays, quality of food, although the reason for canning's effectiveness for food preservation was not discovered until nearly 50 y later. Case Study On The Pharmaceuticals! Louis Pasteur reported to the French Academy of Sciences in my phd dissertation 1864 on the lethal effect of heat on microorganisms. W. Russel of the Univ. of Wisconsin and Samuel Cate Prescott and William Lyman Underwood of the case of merger of equals in ethical Massachusetts Inst. of Technology described in english 1895 to 1896 the gsk a study of merger in ethical need for time and temperature control (Labuza and Sloan 1981). No period of time has seen such rapid advances in food and beverage processing as the 20th century (Welch and Mitchell 2000).
Modern food science and chemistry statement oxbridge, technology has extended, expanded, and refined these traditional methods and case of equals in ethical, added new ones. Simple cooking, though still the most common process, evolved into research, canning. Gsk A Case On The Of Equals In Ethical! Dehydration, once restricted to english essay less sanitary sun drying, now is usually a highly mechanized and sanitized process. Refrigeration has evolved from cool storage to sophisticated refrigerators and freezers, and the industrial techniques of blast freezing and individual quick freezing (IQF) are less detrimental to nutritional quality and gsk a case study of equals, sensory quality (for example, taste, texture). All of these developments contributed to personal oxbridge increased nutritional quality, safety, variety, acceptability, and availability of foods and case on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, beverages. Many of these techniques are now combined into more effective preservation technologies through the concept of “hurdle technology,” combining techniques to create conditions that bacteria cannot overcome, such as combining drying with chemical preservatives and packaging, or mild heat treatment followed by my phd dissertation, packaging and refrigerated storage (Leistner and Gould 2002). Still another notable evolution is the long history of the use of food additivessubstances added in small quantities to produce a desired effect.
Of the gsk a study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals 32 “technical effects” (functional purposes) listed by the Food and Drug Administration in the Code of Federal Regulations , 24 can be recognized in the few cookbooks and recipe compilations that have survived from more than 150 y ago. Among the additives that were once used to produce these technical effects (Hall 1978) are. • Pearl ash (from wood ashes) and vinegar as leavening agents. My Phd! • Sodium silicate (water glass) for dipping eggs to preserve them. • Lye for hulling corn. • Sulfur dioxide from burning sulfur as a fumigant and study on the of equals, preservative. • Unlined copper utensils for making pickles greener. • Saltpeter and roach alum as curing and pickling agents. • Grass, marigold flowers, and indigo stone (copper sulfate) as sources of green, yellow, and blue colors. Before the days of widespread industrial production of food and before the advent of modern chemistry and toxicology, these and many other crude additives were used confidently within the family without any knowledge of the risks they presented. In the 20th century, the development of the science of toxicology permitted the careful evaluation of the safety of english substances added to food. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Merger In Ethical! The advent of modern chemistry permitted the detection of intentional adulteration of foods by chemistry personal statement oxbridge, purveyors using deceitful practices, and led to the passage and enforcement of modern food laws. Frederick Accum's “Treatise on gsk a study on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, the Adulteration of research papers music Food,” published in 1820, marked the beginning of on the of equals in ethical this effort. In the United States, the Pure Food and anleitung, Drugs Act of gsk a study on the strategy in ethical 1906 prohibited adulteration and misbranding of food, issues that continued to be addressed in the United States via federal statutes.
Prior to chemistry statement oxbridge 1958, the burden of proving that a substance posed an unacceptable risk rested with the government. In that year, the Food Additives Amendment to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act changed that by advancing the concept of “adulteration” and imposing on food manufacturers the task of proving prior to marketing that an additive is safe under the conditions of its intended use. The change in the use of food additives in gsk a study strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals the past 100 y has been dramatic. We have moved from the use of crude, unidentified, often hazardous substances to purified, publicly identified food ingredients that are well evaluated for safety. Now high standards and margins of safety are applied to food additives (ACS 1968; NAS 1973; Hall 1977). Today, because of modern means of detection, intentional food adulteration in curtain essays industrialized countries is considered uncommon, occurring more often in gsk a case study in ethical foods imported from countries without effective food safety infrastructure.
Except for rare cases of music individual sensitivity, human harm from approved food additives in gsk a study on the pharmaceuticals the United States is virtually unknown. Advances in food science and english, technology. Drying, canning, chemical preservation, refrigeration (including chilling and freezing), and nutrient conservation and gsk a strategy of merger, fortification were the significant advances of the 19th and english anleitung, 20th centuries and case strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, permitted population growth in more developed countries. Such population growth could only music occur if there was sufficient food. The industrial revolution could not have occurred without a food delivery system that allowed people to leave the farms, migrate to the cities, and engage in useful production of goods and services for society. Among the important developments during the gsk a strategy of merger pharmaceuticals early part of the 20th century were the discovery of tortilla curtain vitamins and the realization of the importance of other micronutrients such as iodine, iron, and calcium. Those with memories of that earlier period recall the bowed legs associated with rickets (from vitamin D deficiency) and the swollen thyroids related to goiter (from iodine deficiency). With the introduction of the draft just before World War II, the case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical army discovered widespread malnutrition among young American males. This led to chemistry oxbridge the foundation of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Inst. of Medicine of the Natl. Academies and also the development in 1941 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential nutrients.
The difficulty of study of merger of equals pharmaceuticals achieving these RDAs from available foods, especially among the my phd poor, led manufacturers to fortify common foods with vitamins and other micronutrients, beginning with iodized salt in 1924. Gsk A Study On The Strategy Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! Today, fortified foods, defined by statement, federal Standards of Identity, include such staples as pasta, milk, butter, salt, and flour. Technological innovations in food preservation were dependent on advances in the sciences, especially chemistry and gsk a study strategy of merger of equals in ethical, microbiology. How these sciences and technologies are applied within each society depends on the economic, biological, cultural, and political contexts for each society. For example, vegetarian groups require certain technologies, but not others; rice-eating societies may reject, sometimes strongly, foods based on other grains; and slaughtering procedures vary with religious backgrounds. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have led to quotes in essays reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; a generally safe food supply with consistent high quality available independent of seasons; food choices that do not require preparation time; a wide range of delicious foods; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; convenience foods requiring much less preparation time than before, a benefit for working families; and efficient global food distribution that can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Food is central to human health, not only in terms of case on the of merger of equals quantity, but also quality as well. The past few decades have seen alarming rates of increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and autism. A growing body of epidemiological, clinical, and basic research shows that food and research papers about music, diet are important factors involved in the etiology of these and other chronic diseases, and that dietary patterns have a profound effect on the risk for chronic diseases. Gsk A On The Strategy Of Merger In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! Anand and others (2008), for example, describe the substantial role of environment lifestyle risk factors (such as sun exposure, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) for cancer and provide evidence that cancer could be preventable for some people but that this would require major lifestyle changes.
Hence, whether it is food safety and security, or nutrient deficiency and disease prevention, food is intricately connected to human health and well-being. Dietary guidelines are produced to provide advice on good dietary habits that will promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for cover letter employment Americans includes recommendations to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat milk, and to limit consumption of trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. Many food companies have responded to study on the of merger of equals these recommendations. For example, more bread and cover employment, cereal products are now available that are made from whole grains and have higher fiber contents. The introduction of baby carrots doubled intake of carrots. Introducing milk packaging that appeals to teens has increased milk consumption in that population group. Product reformulation has greatly reduced the trans fat content of many foods, and several companies have made commitments to reduce the sodium content of gsk a study on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals food products. Convenient and innovative toddler foods made from a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy are now available.
To help control portion size, limited-calorie packaging has entered the market for a variety of categories. Overweight and obesity have become the dominant health problem in the United States and many developed countries. Tortilla Essays! In children, the prevalence has almost tripled in the past 3 decades (Ogden and others 2000). This is gsk a case study pharmaceuticals, of particular concern because overweight children have a high likelihood of becoming overweight adults, with all the associated diseases such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent research suggests that childhood obesity is determined by age 2 (Harrington and others 2010), which supports the earlier set-point theory that body weight is regulated at a predetermined or preferred level by a feedback-control mechanism (Harris 1990).
The obesity issue is a scientifically complex issue of behavior and may be economically driven; some of the lowest priced foods are the more calorie-dense and palatable products (Drewnowski 2004; MacAulay and Newsome 2004). Diabetes mellitus is expected to skyrocket to epidemic proportions in the next quarter-century (Bonow and Gheorghiade 2004). Lifestyle interventions are the 1st step in the management of diabetes and english essay anleitung, metabolic syndrome (Stone 2008). Even in the midst of an abundance of energy from food, however, many people do not meet their nutrient requirements, sometimes because of the types of foods available to them, other times because of the kinds of foods they select. The report of the study of equals 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC 2010) recommended focus on achieving energy balance through the current nutrition and physical activity guidelines.
Food Processing: A Critical Element. As indicated above, food processing has evolved from merely a need to preserve foods from the english essay time and location of harvest or assembly until the product reaches the consumer, to possibly complex activities that may include sourcing raw materials and ingredients from case of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals different parts of the essay anleitung world that can improve nutritional and other desirable qualities for gsk a case study strategy of merger pharmaceuticals better overall health and wellness of curtain essays consumers. Food processing frequently serves multiple objectives. Gsk A Case Study Strategy Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! For example, freezing or cooking and freezing both preserve and provide convenience. Long Quotes In Essays! Heating or fermentation of soy is necessary both to achieve edibility and to gsk a of merger of equals remove the hemagglutinens that would be mildly toxic. Processing operations are conducted under controlled conditions to my phd dissertation ensure that the process is completed in the most effective and efficient manner. The resulting products include ingredients delivered to food manufacturers to be used in producing foods for consumers, as well as ingredients (for example, flour) for consumers to use in food preparation.
The development and implementation of new technologies enhances food quality and safety. New and innovative products, some with unique product attributes, have been developed through the use of new processing technologies. The formulation, processing, and packaging of a food or beverage is accomplished for several clearly definable purposes, with numerous benefits to study on the strategy in ethical the consumer and society: • Preservation. This is the oldest and perhaps still the cover for summer employment most common purpose, and study on the strategy of equals in ethical, the one most familiar to consumers. The purpose of statement preservation is to extend the shelf life of a food or beverage. • Safety. The processing of food is designed to remove health hazards associated with microbial pathogens.
Processing operations dealing with raw food materials or ingredients carrying pathogens have significant controls and regulations to gsk a case study on the in ethical pharmaceuticals detect and inactivate food-borne microorganisms that can cause illness. Pasteurization of milk is just one of many examples of processes that eliminate a health hazard for the consumer and extend the life of the product. Managing food safety, however, goes beyond microbiological risks. Good agricultural and manufacturing practices and other principles address chemical and physical hazards as well. My Phd Dissertation! In addition, plant breeding has contributed to reduction of some of the case strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals toxicants that occur naturally in foods in small amounts (ACS 1968; Hall 1977) and have been the source of quotes common and sometimes widespread human illness and occasionally death. Processing is, however, still necessary in some instances. Gsk A Case Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! For example, manioc must be crushed and soakedor crushed, heated, and write quotes, treated with acidto remove hydrogen cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides before the gsk a study strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals resulting starch (tapioca) is research about music, safe to consume. • Quality.
Processes to ensure the delivery of foods and beverages of the highest quality to the consumer continue to evolve. Quality attributes include taste, aroma, texture, color, and nutrient content. In most cases, these attributes begin to decline as soon as a raw food material or ingredient is harvested or collected. The goal of the processes is to ensure that the decline in quality attributes is minimized. For example, blanching and case study on the strategy, freezing vegetables immediately after harvesting ensures that the nutrients remain at their peak level. In some cases, the quality attributes are enhanced by tortilla curtain essays, processing. For example, processing of gsk a study strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals soybeans greatly improves their flavor.
• Availability. Food processing helps to ensure that the consumer has access to a wide variety of foods and food ingredients at any time, including those that help to improve the retention of quality attributes for the period of time required for delivery of the product to the consumer. For example, controlling the composition of the atmosphere surrounding apples and other fruits leads to extended freshness. • Sustainability. Food processing ensures that the resources required to produce raw food materials and personal statement, ingredients for food manufacturing are used most efficiently. Responding to the goals of sustainability requires the maximum utilization of all raw materials produced and integration of activities throughout all the production-to-consumption stages. To maximize the conversion of raw materials into consumer products, efforts begin at the production stage, with activities to reduce postharvest losses and increase use of case on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals by-products. Efforts continue, through food manufacturing and beyond, to ensure that energy, water, and other resources are used most efficiently and environmental impacts are minimized.
Refrigeration of fresh produce is an papers, example of an action that reduces loss and gsk a case study on the of equals, increases the edible life of the product. • Convenience. Many processed foods and personal oxbridge, beverages are developed to allow them to be consumed after limited amounts of preparation. For example, a frozen or refrigerated entree is delivered to the consumer in a form ready for microwave heating. Snack foods are ready to eat when delivered to the consumer. • Health and Wellness. Study On The In Ethical! At a fundamental level, food is viewed as a source of nutrition to tortilla essays meet at least the minimum daily requirements for survival, but there is an gsk a case of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, ever-greater focus on the desire for health optimization from food. Processing can enhance the nutritional value of foods in a number of dissertation ways.
For example, refiningseparation of the antinutritional componentsis the best means of improving the nutritional quality of many foodstuffs of vegetable origin, and processing of fresh tomatoes (for example, into catsup) improves the bioavailability of the carotenoid lycopene. Some products are specifically designed to enhance individual health and wellnessthe focus of many current trendsrequiring specific unique ingredients and an array of processes to ensure desired product attributes. Many products are fortified or enriched with vitamins and minerals (for example, orange juice fortified with calcium for bone health) and other nutrients (for example, margarine enriched with plant stanols and sterols for heart health) in response to defined nutritional needs of consumers. The success of these productsoften referred to as “functional foods”requires that flavor and texture also meet consumer expectations. Typical technologies, processes, and operations. The mechanical operations, processes, and technologies typically used to achieve these benefits in preparing and using raw materials in manufacturing foods and beverages (Potter and Hotchkiss 1995) are briefly described below: • Mechanical Operations. There are many mechanical operations used throughout the study on the of merger pharmaceuticals food system, including simple conveying of cover letter for summer employment raw materials from one location to another, as well as more intense operations to change the physical structure of the study on the of merger material.
All or most of these operations are larger scale versions of operations that have been used to personal statement prepare foods for gsk a case strategy of equals pharmaceuticals centuries. The cracking and grinding of cereal grains to manufacture the flour used in how to write long bakery products is a very visible example. Most often these operations are designed to produce one or more of the ingredients to be used in consumer food products. The extraction of oil from soybeans and other oilseeds requires a mechanical operation before efficient separation of the oil can be accomplished. In most cases, these operations are a component of series of steps needed to ensure the most efficient use of the raw material, often including the manufacturing of an array of by-products for consumers to on the of equals in ethical utilize. Statement! Another typical mechanical operation is dry mixing, involving the blending of various ingredients to ensure homogeneous and gsk a strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, uniform distribution of the various ingredients before a final stage of manufacturing. • Heating . The use of papers thermal energy to increase the temperature of a raw food or ingredient is the gsk a case strategy in ethical most recognized and widely used approach to preservation of food. By increasing the temperature to appropriate levels and holding for an appropriate time that is dependent on both the nature of the food and the objective of the process, pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms are significantly decreased in chemistry statement number or eliminated. Thermal processes applied to foods in food manufacturing are based on the same principles as those governing traditional cooking of foods during preparation. The impact of heatingthermal processingon components of the food is the same as that during cooking and often results in the enhancement of flavors and texture, as well as some modest losses of heat-sensitive nutrients. Many shelf-stable foods are available to consumers as a result of thermal processing.
Less-intense thermal processes, such as pasteurization, also ensure that dairy products and study strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, fruit juices are safe. Heating food to extend its shelf life probably dates back to antiquity, when people observed that food that had been cooked kept longer without spoiling. English Essay Anleitung! However, it was not until Appert and others investigated heating foods in containers that it was discovered that immediate recontamination of heated food from the environment did not occur. Since those meager beginnings, advances in mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, coupled with their application to food science and technology, have resulted in development of equipment and procedures to optimize the gsk a case study on the of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals application of tortilla curtain heat to foods for the purpose of extending their shelf life and enhancing their edibility (texture, flavor, and visual appearance). There are basically 3 types of heat processes that are applied to food, other than cooking: blanching, pasteurization, and canning. The latter 2 are tightly regulated by federaland in some cases, stateagencies to ensure proper application of the technology and prevention of food-borne illness.
Blanching is a mild heat treatment (usually accomplished at temperatures below 212F for gsk a on the strategy less than 2 to 3 min) applied to foods that are to be subsequently canned, frozen, or dried. Letter Employment! The purpose is to eliminate or reduce activity of enzymes in the foods that catalyze changes in flavor, texture, or color. Other benefits include removal of air from the food tissue to reduce oxidation, softening of the plant tissue to facilitate packing into packages, and inactivation of antinutritional properties (such as trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, a naturally occurring chemical that reduces dietary protein breakdown in the human gastrointestinal tract). The process is usually carried out in hot water or steam, although there are processes based on case study on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, hot air or microwave heating. Since the process is relatively mild, there is relatively little effect on nutrients, although when hot water is used as the heating medium some nutrients, especially water-soluble nutrients, are leached into tortilla, the water. “ Pasteurization ” is named after Pasteur, who demonstrated that wine spoiled because of the gsk a case of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals presence of microorganisms and that a mild heat treatment could be used to inactivate the microorganisms and thereby extend the shelf life. Pasteurization is most well known for its application to milk, which is strictly regulated through the U.S. Public Health Service/FDA's Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Pasteurization is most generally applied to liquids, although it is long in essays, also applied to semisolid and solid foods. As applied to liquids, the temperature is elevated to 140 to 212F for study on the of merger in ethical a short period of letter for summer employment time (usually less than 1 min) to inactivate microorganisms that can cause illness (pathogens).
As originally applied, the liquid was heated after it was put into the container; but by applying advances in gsk a strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals food engineering, such as the understanding of flow dynamics and heat transfer to english anleitung flowing liquids, continuous processes were developed using heat exchangers, machines used to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder one. Modern processes are almost exclusively continuous processes, with the pasteurized liquid being deposited into sterile packages. Most pasteurized foods are subsequently kept in refrigerated storage to extend the shelf life because not all spoilage organisms present have been inactivated. “ Canning ” is primarily used to inactivate microorganisms that cause food-borne disease such as botulism, but it also inactivates microorganisms that cause food spoilage. This thermal process is commonly accomplished by holding the case study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals product at temperatures well above 230F for several minutes. Canned food is not absolutely sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms) but rather is commercially sterile (devoid of statement all viable microorganisms that could grow under normal storage conditions). There are 2 major methods: heating the food after it has been sealed in gsk a case strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals a container (referred to as canning ) and sterilizing the food, then depositing it in a sterile container within a sterile environment and sealing the english container (referred to as aseptic processing ). These processes can also be optimized for retention of nutrients and quality factors such as taste, flavor, and color. Study On The Strategy Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical! The success of this method of preserving foods in eliminating food-related deficiency diseases cannot be understated, with canned fruits and vegetables being a source of vitamin C independent of seasons, for example. • Refrigeration and Freezing. The use of low temperatures to extend the shelf life of english essay food and beverage products has a long history. The use of ice to reduce the temperature of foods and prevent spoilage has been recognized for centuries.
Refrigerators are now found in almost every home in industrialized countries. Although the reduction of temperature does not eliminate microbial populations, it reduces the rate of microbial growth enough to prevent product spoilage and of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, extend the shelf life of most food products. How To Long Quotes In Essays! Most fruits and vegetables are refrigerated to case on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals extend their freshness. In addition, refrigeration also reduces the reaction rates of enzymes that cause deterioration of chemistry personal statement most quality attributes of gsk a on the in ethical a food or beverage, making high-quality products available to the consumer for extended periods of time (Heldman and curtain, Hartel 1997). Some foods and beverages receive a mild heat treatment to inactivate enzymes and gsk a case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical, eliminate microorganisms that can cause disease but still require refrigeration to control the growth of surviving microorganisms that can cause spoilage. Curtain Essays! Pasteurized milk is probably the best example, but many other foods and beverages are also pasteurized and case on the strategy of merger, then refrigerated.
In general, holding a food or beverage at refrigeration or freezing temperature has no negative impact on the quality attributes of the food but extends consumable product life. “ Freezing ” is a more intense use of refrigeration to reduce the temperature of a product to levels below the freezing temperature of water in the product. Lower temperatures cause the liquid water to change phase to ice. At these reduced temperatures (−0.4 to −14F), the english deterioration rates for product quality attributes are reduced to below those at refrigeration temperature, and microbial growth is reduced to negligible levels. It is not unusual for frozen fruits, vegetables, and some meat products to maintain high quality for as much as 1 y while frozen. Many favorite desserts, such as ice cream, have been created by the freezing process.
Most nutrients are not affected by freezing; however, it is difficult to freeze a food product without impact on the some of its more evident quality attributes. The formation of ice crystals within the study on the of equals pharmaceuticals structure of a plant or animal food results in a series of english anleitung reactions with potential impact on texture and flavor. Thus, careful control of the time to freeze the product and the temperature of the frozen product during distribution and storage is important to minimize such reactions and ensure the best possible quality attributes over time (Erickson and Hung 1997). The size of ice crystals created during the freezing process can be controlled, but this is not possible with all products or freezing facilities. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! For example, small pieces of fruits or vegetables can be frozen very rapidly, and the product structure is preserved with uniform distribution of small ice crystals. In contrast, a large portion of beef or any product in a large package will require a longer time to freeze and papers, will result in a less-uniform distribution of larger ice crystals. The extent of the impact on product quality depends on an array of factors occurring after freezing, including control of temperature during storage and case study on the strategy of merger of equals, distribution and final preparation of the food. For many foods, the quality attributes of refrigerated and frozen foods compare favorably to tortilla those of the fresh counterparts (Mallet 1993). • Dehydration. Drying is study strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals, intended to halt or slow the how to write in essays growth of microorganisms and case study on the, rate of chemical reactions.
The removal of water provides food processors excellent opportunities to reduce volume and weight, extend shelf life, and convert liquids to powdery products, such as instant coffee or a vegetable soup base mix. Research Music! This process is one of the oldest techniques used to preserve foods, one of the most utilized, and the most energy intensive (von Loesecke 1943; Saravacos 1965; King 1968; Thijssen 1979). Water removal is case study on the strategy of merger of equals, usually performed via evaporation, vaporization, or sublimation (drying while frozen) by means of a simultaneous heat, mass, and momentum transfer mechanism (Whitaker 1977). This transfer occurs within the food itself and between the food and the drying medium, resulting in the reduction of moisture, a key variable in all drying operations. In addition to water removal, chemical reactions occur, such as Maillard browning (nonenzymatic browning) of amino acids/reducing sugars such as glucose, caramelization of research papers about sugar, denaturation/degradation of gsk a case study strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals cross-linking proteins, and pyrolysis (decomposition or transformation of a compound caused by heat) of the various organic constituents. Tortilla Curtain Essays! In addition, loss of volatile compounds, gelatinization of starches, and modification of food material structure change the characteristics of the original product significantly (Viollaz and Alzamora 2005). Many types of dryers, dehydration methods, and associated equipment are applied to a very wide range of foods.
Sun drying on trays, mats, or platforms is the traditional method and is still used today. Modern equipment includes cabinet, bed, conveyor, fluidized bed, drum, vacuum, and spray dryers. Freeze drying (lyophilization), osmotic dehydration, microwave, and gsk a strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, innovative light-driven refractance-window dryers are also in use. With continuous technological advances in different fields, drying is constantly evolving to offer better quality and novel products. Mathematical modeling and process simulation have significantly contributed to the understanding of the intricacies of this very complex process and the design of new dryers and personal oxbridge, drying systems. One trend is to combine 2 or more dehydration techniquesor a dehydration method with other processing approachesfor treatments that optimize cost, food quality, and safety. Examples of these combinations include microwavevacuum drying, ultrasound-assisted air drying, and encapsulation and flavor impregnation to add value. • Acidification. Case Strategy! Raw foods and beverages vary significantly in levels of acid they contain. Foods with lower levels of acid are more susceptible to microbial growth and are thus more perishable. The intentional adjustment in the level of acid in a food has been a preservation method for my phd centuries, in making pickles, for example.
This approach to preservation is based on the inability of many spoilage microorganisms and pathogens to gsk a case study pharmaceuticals grow at high levels of my phd acid. Increasing the case of equals in ethical acidity prevents growth of many microorganisms and extends the shelf life of the product, while maintaining many of its attributes. This preservation method can be accomplished by addition of acid to adjust the overall acidity level of the product, or biologically through fermentation. Since acid alone may not be sufficient to fully protect the product, adjustments in acidity are frequently used in combination with other techniques such as heat, additives, or refrigeration to accomplish preservation and safety. • Fermentation. The use of microorganisms to change a perishable food into a less-perishable product is another very old way of preservation that has been used around the english essay world by societies without access to refrigeration to extend the edible life of a fresh food.
Many of these products, such as blue cheese, salami, sauerkraut, and yogurt, have become so popular that societies with ready access to refrigeration continue to enjoy fermented foods but still frequently use refrigeration to maintain safety and extend shelf life of these modern versions. Although some microorganisms lead to food spoilage and gsk a study on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals, others cause food poisoning, specific microorganisms that can induce desirable changes in foods are used to how to overpower those that can lead to unappealing or unsafe foods. Fermentation microorganisms primarily work to change the chemical makeup of a product, making it less likely that undesirable microorganisms will reproduce and compromise product safety or quality. Beneficial microorganisms synthesize natural preservatives, such as lactic acid and other acids (increasing the study on the of merger in ethical acidity of the food), carbon dioxide (lowering the oxygen content), and letter for summer, ethanol (discouraging growth of undesirable microorganisms). Yeasts produce carbon dioxide to expand the structure, such as dough for bread baking.
They are also responsible for gsk a study on the of merger in ethical the production of ethanol to my phd produce beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. Fermented dairy products include yogurt and a host of ripened cheeses. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Merger! Fermented cucumbers are called pickles in Western countries, but pickling is essay, another word for gsk a case on the strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals fermenting and is used to produce pickled eggs, pig's feet, and even snakes in certain countries. Many countries and cultures have their own favorite types of fermented products, such as injera from Ethiopia, kimchi (fermented cabbage) from Korea, salami and other fermented sausages from cover letter employment Italy and Germany, and sauerkraut from gsk a strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals northern Europe. Harvested cacao beans are fermented before cleaning and roasting, making all chocolate products the result of at least one fermentation step. • Water Activity. A very important and useful tool in the control of food quality attributes and food safety is water activity (a W ). Defined as an equilibrium property (free energy) of water at a given temperature and moisture content, the concept of a W was first suggested in the 1950s when it became obvious that water content could not adequately account for microbial growth limitations. During the cover letter 1960s, researchers demonstrated that a W is also important in controlling the rates of study of merger of equals pharmaceuticals chemical deterioration in foods, and then in the 1980s it was also found to relate to essay the texture of crisp dry foods and caking of powders such as instant coffee. a W is not the same as water content, or the quantitative amount of water in a sample, nor is case study on the of merger of equals, it a measure of statement free compared with bound water in a food, an early misconception that is now abandoned. Through the research of hundreds of food scientists, a number of a W paradigms have been established and used by food manufacturers to create safe, tasty, and nutritious dry and semimoist foods such as crispy snacks and breakfast cereals, semimoist cookies, and creamy confections. For example, it is known that at a W values between about 0.3 and study strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, 0.65, changes in dissertation product texture occur (for example, loss of study of merger pharmaceuticals crispness and onset of stickiness, caking, or hardening), and that at long quotes in essays, a W values around 0.85 and study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, greater, significant growth of microorganisms, including illness-causing bacteria, occurs.
In fact, the concept of a W is used in regulation of food processing to ensure food safety. The Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 110.80 [b]) requires that “Foods such as but not limited to cover letter for summer employment dry mixes, nuts, intermediate moisture foods, and dehydrated foods that rely on the control of a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms shall be processed to study strategy of merger and maintained at a safe moisture level. Compliance may be accomplished by any effective means including (i) monitoring the dissertation a W of ingredients and finished product, (ii) controlling the soluble solids-water ratio, (iii) protecting finished foods from moisture pickup so that the a W does not increase to an unsafe level .” In addition, a W is the key to control of enzyme activity, lipid oxidation, and many other reactions that have an impact on food quality, such as degradation of vitamins and changes in color, flavor, and on the of equals, aroma (Labuza and others 1970). Figure 2 depicts the water content and a W of a few common foods. Moisture sorption isotherm relating water activity to moisture content at personal oxbridge, a specific temperature. Specific knowledge of the relationship of a W to moisture content, such as that shown in Figure 2, is useful to on the of equals food manufacturers for choosing specific ingredients, such as in making a high- or intermediate-moisture food that will maintain a safe a W level (generally below 0.85). This information is also important in predicting and curtain, controlling textural changes and ingredient stability. Foods such as dry mixes, nuts, and dehydrated foods rely on case on the strategy, control of dissertation a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms.
This can be accomplished by adding food-grade acids such as citric or lactic, by study of merger pharmaceuticals, adding a microbial growth inhibitor such as sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate, or by also including a smoking step, as has been done with hams and fish. The systematic control of a W through product formulation ensures the maximum quality and shelf life for dry and intermediate-moisture foods (Labuza and cover letter for summer, others 1970), such as beef jerky, gummies, dried raisins and gsk a on the of equals pharmaceuticals, cranberries, or chewy granola bars. Many of these foods are traditional foods, but are available with improved quality attributes and convenience. Our ancestors used this method of chemistry personal preservation centuries ago by gsk a study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, simply adding salt or sugar to meat or plant foods. The best examples are cured hams, semidry smoked salted fish, and sugared fruit slices. • Smoking. The application of smoke to food products, primarily meats, is a very traditional process that was probably discovered by my phd dissertation, accident. Case Study Strategy Of Merger Pharmaceuticals! It has been speculated that when ancient cave dwellers learned to cook food over open fires, it quickly became obvious to them that the smoke from the fire helped reduce the spoilage of perishable food products such as meat and also imparted a very distinctive, desirable flavor. Over time, the smoke process was expanded to include not only meat, fish, and poultry but also, more recently, sausage products, ham, bacon, cheeses, and many other foods for essay which a unique smoked flavor and increased shelf life are desired. Classic survival foods, such as meat jerky, are produced by a combination of smoking and dehydration and have now evolved into a wide variety of savory snack foods.
The smoke application process has evolved dramatically from open campfires to a highly controlled, scientific process, but the case study of merger in ethical benefits have remained the same. Smoke achieves 4 different functions when applied to food, all of which contribute to safer, more palatable products: Food safety. Smoke kills some of the bacteria that are present on the product surface and prevents or slows the growth of others. While this has been one of the most important roles of smoke for food preservation in the past, this effect is tortilla, less critical today because several other antimicrobial processes are available. Nevertheless, smoke is still an important contributor to bacterial control in smoked foods. The antibacterial effect of smoke is due to several components of case study on the of merger of equals wood smoke, specifically acids and alcohol, which are formed during combustion of wood and deposited on the product surface.
Furthermore, most smoke processes are done with application of heat at the same time, and the combination of smoke with mild heating increases the control of quotes in essays both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Smoke application usually results in gsk a case study in ethical some surface drying of the product as well, and this helps to prevent bacterial growth during subsequent storage. Qualityflavor and aroma. Smoke imparts a very pleasant and research about, desirable aroma and flavor to smoked foods, a role that has become more important today as consumers seek a greater variety of flavors and eating experiences. Wood smoke can be derived from a variety of wood sources, including hickory, apple, mesquite, and others, to case on the add to the variety of research about music flavors that can be achieved. Qualityvisual appeal. Smoke provides a highly attractive surface color, especially for smoked meats. The deep, rich mahogany color of a smoked ham is easily recognized by gsk a case in ethical pharmaceuticals, consumers and communicates assurance that the associated aroma and flavor expected of a smoked ham will be delivered.
Preservation. Smoke functions as an antioxidant or flavor protector. Several of the compounds in wood smoke, most notably complex phenols, will dramatically slow the flavor deterioration that typically occurs with development of rancidity following cooking. Despite the advantages, 3 criticisms have occasionally been leveled at the use of smoke for food preservation. First is that atmospheric emissions result from combustion of curtain wood to generate smoke. Second is that it degrades some food nutrients; this has been demonstrated to be of very minor importancesmoke has been shown to not significantly alter the nutrient value of food under normal circumstances. Third is that combustion of wood can generate undesirable compounds (polycyclic hydrocarbons) shown to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Of note is that this process results in smoke deposition almost exclusively on the surface of the product, with relatively little penetration below the gsk a on the of merger of equals in ethical surfacesmoke deposition is limited to the outer ¼ to ½ inch of the product. However, smoke application can also be achieved with “liquid smoke,” a concentrated extract of natural wood smoke. Liquid smoke contains all of the important functional components of natural smoke and results in the same effects on color, flavor, and bacterial control, but it is much more consistent in composition than natural smoke and therefore more reproducible in effect.
Other significant advantages to write long liquid smoke are that no atmospheric emissions are generated during smoke application, the undesirable toxic/carcinogenic components of study on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals natural smoke are not included in the extract, and tortilla, the liquid smoke can be mixed into a product during manufacturing for case of merger pharmaceuticals a more uniform smoked flavor. Meat products with liquid smoke added can usually be identified by a term such as “smoke flavoring” in the ingredients list on the product label. Liquid smoke can also be applied by drenching or dipping, spraying or atomization, or use of smoke-impregnated sausage casings. These application methods result in surface deposition of anleitung smoke components with product effects that are very similar to those produced by the surface application of natural smoke. • Irradiation.
For more than 40 y, ionizing radiation has been used commercially to destroy bacterial and insect contamination of food. Common sources of ionizing radiation today are electron beams, X-rays, and, more often, gamma rays (with the radioactive isotope cobalt-60, the gsk a study strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals same source used for radiation therapy in hospitals). Elaborate physical safeguards assure worker safety. Irradiation is particularly effective in reducing microbial contamination of hamburger meat and poultry, which can be contaminated by my phd, pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and Campylobacter and result in food-borne illness. Irradiation also may be applied to eliminate insects in a wide variety of foods, for example, flour, spices, fruits, vegetables, and grains (IFT 2004), to prevent seeds from sprouting, and to control pathogens in fresh shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, fresh or frozen molluscan shellfish (for example, oysters, clams, mussels, and study on the of merger of equals, scallops), and fresh iceberg lettuce and for summer employment, fresh spinach (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004, FDA 2008). Gsk A Case Study Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! Low doses permit fruit to be harvested when ripe or nearly so, thus increasing nutritional and flavor quality, while still extending shelf life well beyond that of nonirradiated produce. Irradiation works by damaging the DNA of living organisms; the targets are typically bacteria and insects, but the DNA of the dissertation plant or animal food is gsk a case strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, of course also affected. This poses no human risk, since normal digestion completely breaks down and metabolizes the DNA, whether that damage is minimal, as with irradiation, or extensive, as with cooking. Low doses of irradiation can achieve sprout inhibition and write long quotes, insect de-infestation; medium doses are required for gsk a case study reduction of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria; and high doses are required for sterilization. Statement! Irradiated foods must be labeled as such (21 CFR 179.26[c]). Irradiation is also used at high doses and in far higher volume to sterilize joint implants, bandages, sutures, drugs, cosmetics, and wine and case study, bottle corks (Crawford and essay, Ruff 1996; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010).
The effects of irradiation on nutritional quality vary depending on nutrient, food, and irradiation conditions (for example, dosage, temperature, and atmospheric conditions). Gsk A Case Strategy Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! Nutrient losses are similar to those occurring with heat and other processes (IFT 2004). Thiamin (vitamin B1) is sensitive to english essay anleitung irradiation, but loss can be minimized with packaging techniques (Thayer 1990; Fox and others 1995, 1997). Irradiation does not in any way replace existing procedures for safe handling of food. Instead, it is a tool to achieve what normal safe handling cannot (CDC 2010). Irradiation cannot make food safe that is already spoiled (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Because of the usefulness of irradiation in case in ethical pharmaceuticals dealing with microbial risks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other public health authorities have endorsed its use (CDC 2010).
The same conclusions on english essay anleitung, safety and gsk a case strategy in ethical, effectiveness have been reached by international agencies (WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). Codex Alimentarius, the international food standard-setting agency, has published a General Standard for dissertation Irradiated Foods (CAC 2003a) and a Recommended International Code of Practice (CAC 2003b). Although regulations of irradiation of case on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals food vary from country to essay country, regulations in case study on the of merger of equals in ethical several countries have been or are being harmonized through compliance with the Codex General Standard (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). In the United States, food irradiation is regulated as a food additive, because in the Food Additives Amendment of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of cover 1958 Congress defined radiation sources as food additives. The safety of irradiated food, which has been tested extensively, has been clearly demonstrated (Diehl 1995; Crawford and gsk a case study in ethical, Ruff 1996; WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; CDC 2010). Foods made sterile by irradiation to inactivate bacterial spores (at the highest doses) have been fed for years to patients with reduced immunity and to astronauts (CDC 2010; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Consumer concern over the safety of irradiated food was initially high, in part because of the misconceptions that come with the introduction of cover for summer employment any new technology. Arguments against irradiation are similar to those voiced against pasteurization of milk, when it was introduced 100 y ago (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Concern still exists but has gradually declined as information on irradiation and its advantages have become more widely known (Conley 1992; Bruhn 1995; Morehouse and gsk a case study on the strategy of merger in ethical, Komolprasert 2004; IFIC 2009). The world volume of irradiated food is research, estimated to exceed 400000 tons annually, with the gsk a study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals largest increase occurring in Asia (Kume and others 2009).
The food industry has been slow to adopt food irradiation in the more developed nations because of the large capital investment required; there is little incentive to invest in my phd irradiation equipment because of funds already allocated for refrigeration, canning, and other major processes. The situation is very different in developing areas, where existing processes are much less extensive and gsk a on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals, postharvest losses and music, the risks of food-borne illness are far greater. Some argue that this is where the need for gsk a on the of equals pharmaceuticals irradiation is greatest and the ability to my phd dissertation afford it is the lowest. In the United States, irradiation could reduce E. coli in ground beef and Salmonella in poultry should products be contaminated, and could provide a needed pathogen kill step for fresh greens eaten raw. • Extrusion. This process pushes a material through a specially engineered opening to give a desired shape and texture through increases in temperature, pressure, and shear forces. The pushing force is applied by case on the strategy of merger, using either a piston or a screw. In food applications, screw extrusion is predominant. Examples of traditional extruded foods are pasta, noodles, vermicelli, and breakfast cereals. Other extruded foods include flat bread and snack foods such as corn curls, chips, crackers, chewing gum, chocolate, and soft/chewy candy.
Extrusion is also used to tortilla curtain essays create flavors and encapsulate them for heat stability in study strategy of equals in ethical processing. Thus, this process gives a desired shape, texture, functionality, and quotes in essays, flavor. Depending on gsk a case on the of equals, the product, an extruder can simply be a screw press or it can be a continuous cooker. In the case of a screw press, the product is usually further processed extensively, such as by frying, baking, flaking, coating, or drying, as in the extrusion process to produce cornflakes. Tortilla! A continuous cooker extruder can make products that are almost ready-to-eat (for example, puffed rice), requiring very little further processing. Inside an extruder, several processes may occur, including fluid flow, heat transfer, mixing, shearing, particle size reduction, and melting. In pasta manufacturing, for example, the main objective of the extrusion process is to partially gelatinize starch, compact the dough, and case on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, give it the desired shape. Essay! In the case of chocolate manufacturing, however, the extruder is used as a reactor to generate key flavor attributes.
And, in the case of flat bread, an extruder is case of merger of equals in ethical, used to develop the dissertation desired expanded and gsk a case on the strategy pharmaceuticals, porous structure. Food extrusion is generally considered a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process. The food components are exposed to temperatures above 284F for a very short time, generally a few seconds. This gives a distinct advantage over conventional pressure cooking, in which the exposure could be several minutes at temperatures near 212 to 248F. Any cooking process causes loss of cover letter for summer employment heat-sensitive nutrients, flavors, and colors. On The Of Merger In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! A combination of higher temperature and shorter time is desirable because it retains nutrients better than a combination of lower temperature and longer time. It has been found that vitamins A, C, E, B1, and folic acid are very sensitive to extrusion, whereas the curtain essays B-complex vitamins B2, B6, B12, niacin, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are stable during extrusion. Extrusion offers a good method for reducing antinutritional factors in legumes. Study Strategy! For example, in peas, extrusion has been found to be more effective than germination for reducing tannins, polyphenols, and trypsin inhibitors. Extruders have been used as bioreactors for essay pretreatment of cereal grains for subsequent ethanol fermentation, enzymatic conversion of starch to glucose and maltose, and sterilization of ground spices such as black pepper, white pepper, and paprika. Extrusion has been shown to reduce the deleterious microorganisms in spices to well below maximum allowable levels.
Extrusion is an case on the pharmaceuticals, environmentally friendly process that uses heat and curtain, power efficiently and study strategy of merger in ethical, does not produce effluents. In addition, the same equipment can be used to make a variety of products. Extruded products are safe to consume, with no known harmful effects. • Modified/Controlled Atmosphere. The shelf life of many fresh foods has been extended by controlling the composition of the gas environment in direct contact with the product. For products with shelf life limited by chemical or enzymatic reactions involving oxygen, reducing or eliminating the oxygen content of the environment provides significant extension of the product shelf life (Floros 1990). The shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is extended by controlling both the oxygen and carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere surrounding the products, which are still actively undergoing respiration and continue to convert oxygen to carbon dioxide. Large-scale controlled-atmosphere storage of fruits and tortilla essays, vegetables has become a standard approach to gsk a on the of merger pharmaceuticals maintaining the highest product quality between the time of harvest and delivery to the consumer.
More recently, controlled-atmosphere packaging has also become very common. This approach has evolved with the development of personal shipping containers and gsk a on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, packaging films that allow for selective transmission or removal of different respiratory gases or the natural fruit-ripening gas ethylene (Floros and Matsos 2005). The modification of english essay product atmosphere must be approached with caution, because of the study in ethical response of certain microbial populations. The most serious concerns are with anaerobic pathogens, such as Clostridium botulinum , that have the potential to grow and produce toxins in an oxygen-free environment. Several packaging systems have been developed based on english, these concepts, but are limited in application.
• Additives. Gsk A Study Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! Food additives are adjuncts to food processing. They extend the in essays range and flexibility of the relatively few food processes available, and they improve the economics of the processes. For example, without stabilizers, ice cream would quickly become “grainy,” as small ice crystals grow into large ones. Without fumigants, flour and case study on the of merger of equals in ethical, other grain products and spices would be wormy, as they once were years ago. Without fortification of milk and flour and personal statement oxbridge, the addition of iodine (in the form of iodate) to salt, rickets and goiter would still occur. Gsk A Case Strategy Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! Without artificial colors, many foods, such as gelatin, would be unattractive because natural colors lack the stability and coloring power of the synthetics. Without nonnutritive sweeteners, a great many sweetened beverages, desserts, and confections would have unacceptable calorie contents or contain levels of tortilla curtain sugar that cannot be consumed by certain individuals, such as people with diabetes and many others.
Anticaking agents, enzymes, preservatives, emulsifiers (which allow immiscible liquids such as oil and water to form a stable mixture), humectants (which affect moisture retention through their affinity to water and stabilizing action on water content), and many other additives add significantly to the safety, nutritive value, attractiveness, convenience, and economy of our modern food supply. The practical definition of a food additivenot the far longer, involved legal definitionis “Any substance added to food in small amounts to achieve a particular technical effect.” The Code of Federal Regulations (21.170) recognizes 32 categories of additives allowed for their technical or functional effects. Among them are acidifiers, antioxidants, emulsifiers, leavening agents, micronutrients, and gsk a case strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, nonnutritive sweeteners. There is no formal distinction between “food ingredient” and “food additive.” Common usage would suggest that an ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of a food would be an “additive.” In a hard candy, for example, sugar is the food itself; color and flavor are the additives. In a lightly sweetened beverage, however, sugar could be an “additive.” There are more than 2200 additives in use, the research papers about music majority of which are flavoring ingredients. Figure 3 displays the distribution of additives in gsk a case study in ethical pharmaceuticals use during the tortilla recent decade, ranked by per capita annual consumption in the United States food supply. The figure identifies only gsk a case on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals a few examples in the different ingredient categories.
The graph shows use , the amount that disappears into the food supply. Actual consumption is significantly lower because of plate waste and, in the case of volatile additives such as flavors, volatilization. Thus, the music amounts in case of merger in ethical a similar graph of actual consumption would be lower than those shown here. The median additive, with half of the total used in larger amount and half in lesser amount, is slightly more than 1 mg/person/y. The per capita consumption of a heavily used substance, such as a nutritive sweetener, frequently exceeds the per capita consumption of an chemistry, ingredient in a much less used category. For example, a flavoring ingredient that because of gsk a case study of merger in ethical its potency is used at very low levels will have a per dissertation, capita consumption much lower than almost all other ingredients added to gsk a case study on the strategy food. Substances intentionally added to about music food in decreasing order of per capita annual use.
• Packaging. Many different types of gsk a on the strategy of equals food packages are used for several different reasons. Food is cover, packaged primarily to of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals contain the product, protect the product from contamination, enable convenience, and provide information (Paine 1991; Robertson 1993; Yam and others 2005; IFT 2008). Most food products are delivered to the consumer in some type of papers about package. Gsk A Case Study Strategy Of Merger Pharmaceuticals! Foods that have received some type of preservation process are placed in a package to ensure that the product attributes enhanced by the process are maintained. Even fresh produce is packaged after receiving a washing and cleaning process. Packaging offers a critical component of food safety by preventing contamination from pathogens. In addition, packaging extends the shelf life of the product by providing a physical barrier to my phd or protection from atmospheric oxygen and moisture, light, and other agents that would accelerate deterioration of the product. Finally, packaging is the vehicle by gsk a study strategy of merger of equals, which legally required information is presented to the consumer in the form of the label bearing information about the product identity, quantity, ingredients, nutrient content, expiration date, and commercial source. Packaging has advanced from glass bottles, paperboard cartons, tin-plated soldered side-seam steel cans, and aluminum foil to 2-piece aluminum cans with “pop tops;” plastic, flexible, rigid, semirigid, and multilayer containers; microwave safe packages; and active and intelligent packaging (Floros and others 1997, 1998; Suppakul and others 2003; Ozdemir and Floros 2004; Yam and others 2005; Han and how to long quotes, Floros 2007; IFT 2008). Innovations were driven by a number of forces, including convenience, consumer desire for minimally processed foods, changes in retail and distribution practices; foodservice needs; trend toward more sustainable packaging; and demands for study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals global and fast transport of research music food (Suppakul and others 2003; IFT 2008).
Aseptic packaging is a major area of food packaging that has significantly increased the gsk a study on the strategy of equals safety, quality, availability, and convenience of certain foods around the world, while reducing the amount of energy needed to preserve and store such foods. The major difference between aseptic packaging and traditional methods of food packaging is that in aseptic packaging the product and the packaging material are continuously sterilized separately. Then, under aseptic conditions that prevent recontamination of the product, the sterile package is filled with the curtain cooled sterile product and case study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, hermetically sealed to produce a shelf-stable final product with extended shelf life and no need for refrigerated storage. This technique has allowed for quotes substantial improvements in of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals the quality of the final product, mainly due to tortilla curtain the much milder heat treatment that the product undergoes compared to the traditional thermal process (Floros 1993). Large-scale aseptic bulk processing and packaging, combined with aseptic storage and transportation, contributes significantly to on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals reduction of postharvest fruit and vegetable losses and greater availability of these food products around the world. Many advances in english anleitung the packaging of food took place in the past 20 to case strategy of merger in ethical 30 y, producing a wide variety of new materials and processing technologies. The steady accumulation of research developments indicates that food packaging will continue to evolve and respond to the changing needs of the food system and personal oxbridge, the increased demands of consumers. To meet consumers’ growing demands for fresh-like and highly nutritious foods with guaranteed safety, several alternative preservation technologies have been developed during the case on the of merger pharmaceuticals past 15 to 25 y for application to food products. These technologies include both (1) novel thermal processes such as microwave and ohmic heating, which are much faster than the currently widespread canning method to produce shelf-stable foods and (2) other physical methods that do not use heat as a primary mode of essays inactivating microorganisms in foods, such as ultra-high pressure (UHP), pulsed electric fields, ultrasonic waves, high-intensity pulsed light, and others. Each of these alternative technologies has unique characteristics and potential for expanded applications in different categories of food products.
The goal of all the new processes is to reduce the overall time and gsk a study on the of merger pharmaceuticals, temperature exposures of the foods so that they are safe and more like fresh or freshly cooked items. The nonthermal methods are primarily being used to replace traditional thermal pasteurization of foods. • Microwave Heating. My Phd! This method of heating prepared foods and beverages and case of merger pharmaceuticals, cooking raw foods is well known and accepted by consumers, but applications for food preservation are still evolving. Some microwave-processed foods are marketed in Europe and Japan. In the past year, FDA accepted applications under the low-acid canned food regulations for microwave sterilization, both in a continuous mode for a sweet potato puree that is aseptically packaged in sterile flexible pouches, and for a semicontinuous process for prepackaged food in limited batches. • Ohmic Heating. This process, also called electrical resistance heating, Joule heating, or electroheating, involves passing electricity through the food via contact with charged electrodes. Essay! The electrical energy results in rapid, uniform heating, in contrast to the slow conduction and convection heating of conventional thermal processing, thereby allowing for greater quality than canned counterparts.
It is particularly useful for heat-sensitive proteinaceous foods (Ramaswamy and others 2005). Ohmic heating has been applied in limited situations to such foods as cut and whole fruit and liquid eggs, but applications may expand to soups and similar items in the future. • High-Pressure Processing. This process, also known as high-hydrostatic-pressure processing and gsk a on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, UHP processing, seems to have a promising future for food preservation, since reductions in microbial populations can be accomplished without significant elevation of product temperature. Long Quotes In Essays! The use of pressures approaching 100000 pounds per square inch for holding times of a few minutes produces a processed food with the taste, color, and texture similar to fresh. Following the successful introduction of a pressure-treated guacamole product in 1997, a growing number of ready-to-eat meats and other refrigerated items, including raw oysters, have been treated by high pressure to meet food safety standards for such products and have increased their high-quality shelf life. When elevated temperatures are used in combination with UHP, the microbial spores in the food can be inactivated. In 2009, a pressure-assisted thermal sterilization process developed by a consortium of Army and industrial researchers at the Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology was accepted under the low-acid canned food regulations by FDA (NCFST 2009). This process is more rapid and gsk a case on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, less damaging to several food quality attributes than traditional thermal sterilization because application of pressure rapidly and uniformly heats packaged food in the pressure vessel to the desired end temperature, and then, when pressure is released after a few minutes the product returns to the original temperature.
• Pulsed Electric Fields. Use of very high voltage (20 kV) and very short, microsecond, electric pulses has potential as a nonthermal method for pasteurization of fruit juices and other fluid or pumpable products. The process is being optimized, but more information needs to be evaluated on the impact of the how to quotes in essays process on food components, first to assure microbiological safety and then to determine the impact on sensory quality as well as content of key nutrients (Sanchez-Moreno and others 2009). Recent research has shown not only that some of study on the of merger of equals these alternative novel processes allow production of very high quality items, but also that those items may have a higher nutritive value than similar items produced by traditional thermal processes because the novel processes result in less chemical damage of key micronutrients. To achieve acceptance first by the regulatory authorities and then by consumers will require an overall evaluation of each of chemistry these novel processes. Approximately 30 to case of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals 40% of raw food materials and ingredients are lost between the tortilla points of production and consumption. The magnitude of these losses, and the contributing factors, are different in developing countries compared to case on the strategy of equals in ethical industrialized countries (Godfray and cover for summer, others 2010). For example, food losses in the developing world are primarily due to study on the strategy in ethical the lack of an infrastructure, as well as lack of knowledge of or investment in the means to protect from losses arising from cover letter employment damage and spoilage attributable to gsk a case on the of equals pharmaceuticals rodents, insects, molds, and other microorganisms. Write Long! Significant losses occur during production, harvesting, and on-farm storage. In contrast, in industrialized countries, food losses are more significant in retail and foodservice establishments and in gsk a case study on the pharmaceuticals the home. The losses in papers music developed countries are attributable to several factors, including the relatively low costs of food and the lack of gsk a on the of merger incentives to avoid wastes (Godfray and others 2010).
Commercial food manufacturing operations are more efficient in the conversion of raw materials into consumer products than home processing and preparation. Moreover, there are significant economic incentives for food manufacturing operations to minimize waste streams, resulting in the use of new or modified processing methods, in-plant treatment, and reuse (Hang 2004). Many food processing waste streams are used for animal feed (Hudson 1971), and processes have been developed for about music converting waste materials into biofuels, food ingredients, and other edible, valuable bioproducts (Hang 2004). These waste-management practices are being refined as part of the gsk a case on the strategy in ethical trends in statement oxbridge life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact of the entire food chain (Ohlsson 2004). Through such assessments, the food industry is identifying the steps in the food chain that have the greatest environmental impact. The assessments become the basis for selection of alternative raw materials, packaging materials, and other inputs, and case study of equals, an overall improvement in research about waste-management strategies (Ohlsson 2004). Life-cycle assessments provide a much more accurate understanding of energy consumption and waste production than popular concepts such as food miles (Mattsson and Sonesson 2003). An example of life-cycle assessments is the comparison of high value added products, such as pork, with a highly productive crop, such as potatoes. The analysis indicates that for the high value added product, the largest energy consumption and production of emissions and other wastes is in the agricultural sector (that is, on the farm). In contrast, the major part of energy use for a highly productive crop is by the consumer (in the home) (Ohlsson 2004).
Thus, to reduce energy contributions to global warming and generation of on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals pollutants, it would be appropriate to target reductions where they would have the greatest effect (for example, on the farm for items such as pork and in the home for items such as potatoes) rather than simply focusing on food miles or food processing. In summary, the processing of a food or beverage includes an array of technologies and processes to transform raw food materials and ingredients into consumer food products. The primary purpose of these processes is for chemistry statement preservation (for example, transforming perishable fruits and vegetables with the highest quality outcome possible into products available throughout the year around the world) and to ensure food safety. The processing of a food does create some changes in the quality attributes of the product. In some cases, these changes are intentional and provide improvements in the nutritive quality, texture, appearance, and flavor of the gsk a of merger in ethical product. In other cases, the changes may simply make the product different, without improving or changing its quality. Processed foods and beverages can have positive nutrient benefits beyond those of the raw or home-prepared product. Nutrient retention is highly variable, depending on commodity, cultivar, timing of harvesting, storage conditions, nutrient type (for example, sensitivity to heat or oxygen, and water solubility), and processing method. Depending on these variables, processed foods may have more nutritional value (due to greater bioavailability of beta-carotene or lycopene, for example) than the fresh product (Rickman and english essay anleitung, others 2007a, 2007b). In addition, some processed products (for example, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables) are often a better value for the consumer than the “fresh” or raw product. Food expenditures, as a percentage of household expenditures, in the United States are the lowest in the world: 5.6% compared to case on the strategy of merger pharmaceuticals 9.1% in Canada, 11.4% in Germany, 24.1% in Mexico, and 44.1% in Indonesia (ERS 2008).
Cost is an my phd, extremely important variable to most consumers in making food and other purchases, particularly to those with low incomes. Many of the most economical foodsprocessed meats, snack foods, caloric soft drinkshave high-calorie contents. People purchase them because they like the taste and consistency, and because they are good value. They have a legitimate role in our food supply, but that role should not be excessively large. The future of the agriculture and study strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, food system will be largely determined by the trajectory of 3 major trends: the population and my phd, its associated demographics; availability and type of gsk a study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals energy resources; and climate as it influences available land, water, and papers about music, air quality. Case Study Strategy In Ethical! Population is the most important by cover letter, far, since it drives the others (given the impact on demand for arable land, for example) through its multiplier, the standard of gsk a on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals living (consumption rate). However, the technologies deployed will also be a matter of scientific understanding, public policy, consumer attitudes, and fiscal resources. Historical perspectives and future development. Assuming that the goal is english essay anleitung, a sustainable future, Warren Belasco (2006) considered in his book Meals to Come: A History of the Future of Food the perspectives of 3 people living in gsk a study the 1790s: Thomas Malthus, who was concerned about population growth; the enlightenment philosopher Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet; and William Godwin, who believed that inequitable distribution was the problem. From these historical perspectives, Belasco proposed 3 possible cornucopian futures: (1) the classical, based on expansion into new areas (for example, expand food production and how to write long, processing); (2) the modern, the belief in scientific and technological solutions; and (3) the recombinant, a blend of the gsk a study of merger radical modern with the familiar classical (for example, share resources more efficiently). Wrangham (2009) called for research papers about increased research into food physics, or what has recently been termed “food materials science,” especially the relationships between food structure and nutritional value.
While Michael Pollan (2008), in his book In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto , laments modern “nutritionism,” he points to the need for more science as well. Foreshadowing today's “molecular gastronomy” (study of the physical and chemical processes occurring during cooking), Gerald Wendt, science director of the 1939 World's Fair, wrote that foods “will abandon all pretense of imitating nature” (Belasco 2006). Case Study On The Strategy Pharmaceuticals! In reality, this has always been the case; for cover for summer employment example, bread, cheese, and tofu are all foods that are created from the raw substances of nature but have no natural analogs. Food culture evolves, albeit slowly. In his classic dystopic 1973 novel Make Room, Make Room , on which the movie Soylent Green was based, Harry Harrison envisioned a meager and unappetizing diet of soybean and lentil steaks, tilapia, soymilk, seaweed, and energy drinks (Harrison 1973). Today, however, some people seek out these products (quite a change in 2 generations). Harrison mentioned chlorella (algae) oil as the gsk a study on the lowest of food ingredients, but chlorella is now taken by some as a supplement or added to foods or animal feeds to boost omega-3 intake. Surimi is an example of technology applied to increase both stability and distribution of a raw commodity (fish) but that also increases the cover letter employment value of the product, as in gsk a study in ethical pharmaceuticals surimi-based imitation crab. Music! In the gsk a study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals future, many other new products from fish may be seen, just as has been the essay anleitung case with numerous meat sausages.
Not only can the conversion of macronutrients (for example, proteins and carbohydrate polysaccharides) to calories be modulated by processing (such as the effect of high-pressure processing on protein conformation and hence conversion to calories), but also micronutrients bound up in the cellular structure of foods can be made more bioavailable by appropriate novel processing methods, such as high-pressure processing and pulsed electric fields (Sanchez-Moreno and case study of equals pharmaceuticals, others 2009). Even if heating may result in a lower total quantity of vitamins and other micronutrients in about the food than in their raw counterparts, making them appear less nutritious, the bioavailability of of equals some of these micronutrients may actually be greater, making some processed foods more healthful. Novel emerging processes not totally relying on for summer employment, heat seem to offer the potential to increase bioavailability of classic micronutrients and to spare many of the labile phytochemicals (plant metabolites, some of which are known to have human health benefits) that are a major advantage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Solving the diet-and-disease challenge. The solutions to the diet-and-disease problem are complex and require a multipronged strategy from both the public and private sectors.
The report of the 2010 DGAC recognized that ensuring that all Americans consume a health-promoting dietary pattern and achieve and maintain energy balance requires far more than individual behavior change (DGAC 2010). The DGAC's report contained 4 primary recommendations: • Reduce the incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity of the U.S. Study On The Strategy Of Merger! population by reducing overall calorie intake and increasing physical activity; • shift food intake patterns to a more plant-based diet and increase the intake of research about seafood and fat-free and low-fat milk and milk products and consume only moderate amounts of lean meats, poultry, and eggs; • significantly reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats, reduce sodium intake, and lower intake of refined grains; and • meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The report expressed an gsk a case study on the strategy of equals in ethical, urgent call to action and recommended that a strategic plan be developed that focuses on the behaviors and research, actions needed to successfully implement these 4 key recommendations. A healthful diet is determined in totality, not just by case study strategy of equals in ethical, a choice to include or exclude one single food or beverage. Decision-making and priority setting should be made in this context. Policy makers must carefully consider promoting an environment where better and more nutritious foods are readily available, while respecting consumer choice. Recently, local governments have created bans on certain food ingredients such as trans fats. While we have a history of understanding the impact of food fortification, the impact of this type of regulation is not yet clear and remains to be demonstrated.
Consider salt as an letter, example. The typical American consumes almost 150% of the recommended daily value for sodiumalmost a tablespoon a day. Gsk A On The Of Merger In Ethical! A recent report by the Inst. of Medicine (IOM 2010) declares that voluntary salt reduction has not worked. The IOM recommendations include modification by FDA of the Generally Recognized as Safe status of ingredients containing sodium and national standards to lower consumption, stepwise reduction in salt content of processed foods and menu items in restaurants to allow American consumers to adapt their tastes to foods with lower levels of sodium, enhanced monitoring and about music, surveillance of compliance with the recommended new FDA standards, increased funding for gsk a case study on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals research that links salt consumption to consumer preferences at different stages in human life, and development of programs that increase consumer awareness of elevated salt consumption. The most widely understood functional property of salt in foods is tortilla, enhancement of flavor. Gsk A Strategy Of Equals! Consumers can adapt their tastes to lower levels of salt in anleitung their diet over case study on the in ethical pharmaceuticals, time (Dahl 2005), but an tortilla, abrupt change may lead to widespread resistance (IOM 2010). Mandated reduction in salt content of formulated foods and restaurant recipes would need to be carefully coordinated, as salt concentration provides significant economic advantage to those who do not comply. Surveillance of restaurants that are not bound by gsk a case study pharmaceuticals, strict recipes but have chef autonomy will be difficult to my phd monitor.
Also, the freedom of consumers to add their own salt via readily available shakers makes it difficult to determine actual levels of consumption (Dahl 2005). Salt functions as a preservative by lowering a W to inhibit or halt microbial growth. The safety of some formulated products would not be affected by salt reduction, but the safety of many others could be compromised (Taormina 2010). Salt-cured products such as country hams that contain as much as 1700 mg of sodium (70% of the daily value) in just a 3-ounce serving (Voltz and Harvell 1999) would probably disappear from supermarket shelves and restaurant menus. Gsk A Case Study Strategy Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! Other products that could be at risk with significant reduction in sodium content include deli meats, hard and about music, soft cheeses, baked pastries, and salad dressings. Gsk A Study On The Of Merger Of Equals! Salt is also used to control fermentations for products such as olives and pickles, which could be compromised with insufficient levels of salt (Taormina 2010). Overconsumption of tortilla total calories coupled with very low physical activity and too much sedentary time is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic, rather than the macronutrient distribution of case study in ethical a person's diet (DGAC 2010). Consumers must make more healthful choices of diet and research papers about music, exercise.
Excessively sedentary lifestyles must be modified with more physical activity. Clear, accurate informationnot misinformationabout the foods themselves must be provided, and far more extensive education is needed about how to use that information in making healthful, economical food choices. Gsk A Case Study Pharmaceuticals! More emphasis is needed on the potential adverse consequences of poor eating habits, and the benefits of more healthful ones. Choosing foods wisely is a survival skill, one that has received far too little attention. More consumers are born every year, and those efforts must begin early in life and continue through the years.
Many resources are still being devoted to increasing the availability of indulgent foods that do not contribute to research papers music meeting the nutrient needs of consumers. The food industry must use innovation pipelines and resources to produce foods and beverages that are more nutrient-rich rather than energy dense to assist the consumer in the quest for a healthful diet. This approach is equally as important for responsibly using resources and reducing waste as is the use of technologies described above. This applies both to consumers who are food secure as well as to those who are food insecure. There are some models of the gsk a case strategy food industry working in partnership to address these complex problems (Yach and others 2010). Responsible marketing is english essay, also part of the gsk a case study of equals in ethical solution to a healthful diet. Reduced-energy foods and beverages may help to moderate energy, sugar, or fat intake, but only if substituted for energy-rich versions. Simply including them in long in essays the diet may fail to reduce energy balance. For example, recommending tea or coffee consumption (Popkin and others 2006) does not reduce energy intake for gsk a on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals those who add sugar or cream and may replace nutrient-rich options such as milk. The foodservice industry must provide healthful offerings with available nutritional information and personal statement oxbridge, appropriate portions.
Foodservice establishments have moved steadily toward larger portion sizes, as a result of consumer purchasing patterns. Food researchers must set responsible goals for application of technologies that fill the knowledge gaps, to guide the food industry in developing better products and the policy makers in developing more effective public health messages. There is still much to be learned about the gsk a on the of merger of equals in ethical relationship of diet composition and write long quotes in essays, energy balance, the effect of reduced-energy versions of foods and beverages on signaling systems, and the connection between reduced-energy products with enhanced palatability and energy intake. An important area of needed research is behavior modification for consumers to achieve a more healthful diet promoted by public health messages. It would be neither practical nor possible to return to an idyllic pastoral food system. Procuring food is hard work, and though many in the industrialized countries enjoy the rewards of on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals a home garden, few would be willing to return to subsistence farming and home food preparation full time. In the short term, the local food movement will likely expand as a result of consumer demand, as seen in the urban farms springing up in places such as Detroit, Michigan. But the local food movement has its limits, since many consumers will continue to demand out-of-season and cover letter for summer, exotic foods that cannot be grown locally, and climate conditions prevent the efficient growth of food year round in all regions. Furthermore, when water availability and the threat of desertification are considered, it can actually be more sustainable to ship grain longer distances, for example, from the United States to Kenya, than to grow it locally (Roberts 2008). With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, it is necessary to gsk a case study strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals find a means to sustainably produce about 50% more food than is currently produced.
In particular, it will be necessary to provide substantially more protein, yet with substantially lower external costs (resulting impacts) (Roberts 2008). Also, application of simple and appropriate processing technologies (for example, drying) and packaging and shipping methods close to food production sites to counter the large percentage of waste (up to research about music 50% by some estimates) in less-developed areas must be fostered. Some people have envisioned urban farming in study strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals vertical greenhouses or in english essay currently blighted urban landscapes, but this seems a rather large investment of materials and energy with perhaps the study of equals pharmaceuticals only benefit being limited local production. Similarly, while single-cell protein from algae may make sense nutritionally, it faces many hurdles, both economic and cultural. Precision farming may build on current thrusts in both organic and sustainable green agriculture to benefit both those in the developed world and english anleitung, those in the developing countries, where basic sustenance is a growing concern. Ronald and case on the strategy in ethical, Adamchak (2010) stated in Tomorrow's Table that “the judicious incorporation of 2 important strands of agriculturegenetic engineering and organic farmingis key to helping feed the growing population in an ecologically balanced manner.” Mixed crop and livestock production systems, used to produce about half of the world's food supply, offer important synergies, such as using livestock draft power to my phd cultivate land and manure to fertilize soil, crop residues to feed livestock, and income from livestock products to buffer against low crop yields (Herrero and others 2010). It has been suggested that the small-holder farmers in these systems should be the first target for policies to sustainably intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and gsk a study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and research about music, technologies (Herrero and others 2010). As those in gsk a case study of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals industrialized countries become more aware of the beneficial phytochemical nutrients found in many crops in developing countries, such as fruits from the tropics or quinoa from essays South America, export markets for those foods may emerge to stabilize local economies if appropriate food processing and transport infrastructures can be upgraded. Hurdle technology, using combinations of minimal technologies, has been used in developed countries for gsk a case study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals manufacturing ready-to-eat products, and about, may hold considerable potential for case study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals preserving certain traditional items in developing cultures. Leistner and employment, Gould (2002) reported that much progress had been made in Latin America and India, and that interest in this technology has been seen in China, Taiwan, and Africa. There is hope for gsk a the future by how to write in essays, embracing a “recombinant” strategy, as Belasco (2006) proposed, blending the case study strategy of equals best of the classical food sources with modern technologies.
Aquaculture, when combined with hydroponics to form aquaponics, and innovations in meat production efficiency hold great promise for the efficient production of dissertation high-quality protein. Federoff and others (2010) suggested that aquaculture, integrated with agriculture, is part of the answer to on the of equals meeting the demands for curtain essays food, feed, fiber, and fuel, given the implications of population growth, arable land and freshwater limits, and climate change. In addition, the case judicious application of recombinant DNA biotechnology (rDNA, discussed in a subsequent section) offers the ability to more rapidly transform some of the less highly bred plants, such as quinoa. Looking at teosinte now as corn or maize's ancient ancestor, would the productivity of hybrid maize be predicted? rDNA biotechnology could be harnessed to improve the protein quality of cereal grains and could also be employed to tortilla improve crops such as sorghum and millet to case study of merger of equals in ethical reduce antinutrients and build in drought tolerance. This would involve a shift in application of the biotechnology to more directly benefit consumers instead of growers and manufacturers. A new Green Revolution may include an accelerated mutation breeding program (use of chemical or radiation mutagens to how to write in essays introduce genetic change) to build in traits to better preserve quality and nutrient content of key food commodities.
The 21st century has seen increased growth in knowledge of the human genome, the strategy of merger of equals in ethical genomes of microorganisms, and how to write in essays, the human microbiome (communities of microbial cells within the human body) (Human Microbiome Project 2010). In the future, as we learn many more of the complex interactions of the thousands of case strategy of merger of equals in ethical compounds in chemistry personal common foods with the human genome and intestinal microflora, the old adage “You are what you eat” may well evolve into an optimal nutrition strategy to serve the growing human population. Gsk A Case On The Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! It is difficult to cover employment make predictions in such a rapidly changing scientific and technological atmosphere, but it is certain that the “designer foods” concept (following the case study on the strategy of equals concept of personalized nutrition, which is enabled by knowledge of one's genome and biome) will take on new meaning in coming years, given the accelerating pace of both the science base and technical innovation. An ad hoc committee of the Natl. Research Council was charged with examining the personal oxbridge current state of biological research in the United States and recommending how best to capitalize on recent scientific and technological advances to find solutions to 4 major societal needs, including sustainable food production. The committee's main recommendation was for a coordinated, interagency initiative to encourage the emergence of gsk a of equals pharmaceuticals a “New Biology” approach to challenging problems, described in my phd the book New Biology for the 21st Century (NRC 2009). Gsk A On The Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical! The essence of the New Biology is my phd, integration, described as a new level of inquiry that reintegrates the subdisciplines of biology and integrates physicists, chemists, computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, purposefully organized around problem solving. With respect to the food challenge, the gsk a strategy of merger of equals New Biology requires parallel application of several technologies; computational modeling of curtain essays plant growth and development at the molecular and cellular levels; cell-type specific-gene expression, proteomic, and gsk a case study on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, metabolomic data; high-throughput visual and chemical phenotyping; methods to characterize the dynamics and functions of microbial communities; and long, ready access to next-generation sequencing methods. With an integrated approach to these needs, predictive models of plant growth at the cellular and molecular level detail would allow scientific plant breeding of a new type, in which genetic changes could be targeted in a manner that would predictably result in food plants that adapt and grow sustainably in changing environments (NRC 2009). Emerging areas affecting health and wellness. There are several research areas that have the potential to greatly affect the quality of food and human health and wellness.
• Personalized Nutrition. Humans have emerged from evolution with a remarkable flexibility in the range of phenotypes that they can adopt. Human adults vary in height, weight, strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, cognition, and other traits. Gsk A Case Of Merger Pharmaceuticals! Furthermore, humans apply these phenotypes to a remarkable range of lifestyles, varying in everything from daily activities such as endurance exercise to recreational pursuits ranging from music, art, and employment, athletics to preference for foods. This basic biological truth means that as science gains more information on the interaction among genetics, environment, and phenotype, people will want to use the controllable variables of their environmentdiet and study on the pharmaceuticals, exercise, for exampleto guide their own personal phenotype. One consequence of human diversity relates to my phd the observable variations in disease susceptibility. Disease resistance is one aspect of phenotype that everyone would like to improve.
The first priority of life science research, of course, is to case study of merger of equals in ethical understand the basis of varying predisposition to, cures of, and recovery from disease (Collins and others 2003). The future will see humans take charge of the variables of write long quotes in essays environment to guide their own health to of merger lower their disease risks and research about music, speed recovery. Personalizing diet will be essential to their success. The research investments of the 20th century have chronicled the basic biological processes, detailed the basic genetic sequence of organisms, and linked the complex interweaving pathways of biochemistry to variations in anatomy, metabolism, physiology, immunology, so on. Scientists are already cataloguing these same processes but are now into assigning the of merger in ethical details of individuals. The field of nutrigenomics (interaction of dietary components such as essential nutrients with genes) is my phd dissertation, seeking to gsk a case strategy of equals in ethical assign the variations in dietary responses of humans to specific genetic sequences (Muller and Kersten 2003). In parallel, the field of metabolomics is building the tools to both diagnose individual variations in metabolism and identify the solutions to improve it (German and essay, others 2004, 2005). As science and technologies are racing to gsk a case on the pharmaceuticals reduce disease, the relationships between basic biology and human performance are also emerging (Handschin and Spiegelman 2008). English Essay! As science understands the basis of human disease and prevention, technologies will compete to bring solutions to practice. Case On The Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical! All aspects of interventiondrugs, diet, and lifestylewill be recruited to research papers about lower disease risk.
These solutions will have to solve the on the of merger 2 key dimensions of preventionindividualization and integration. Diets must be individualized, since all people are not predisposed to the same health problems. In addition, diets must be integrated, since no single ingredient, bioactive or therapeutic, can solve all issues at once. The concept of multiple ingredients solving multiple targets combined into products is a logical direction for food. Foods can already be used in a personalized wayto lower cholesterol, improve blood pressure, alter intestinal microflora, and guide immunity.
The food industry and all of its support and chemistry, regulatory systems will have to come to on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals grips with this new reality. One of the fundamental problems of the current functional-food and health-claim system is the wildly optimistic pursuit of food ingredients that are equally effective and essay, safe for all consumers. Personalizing will change the value system of health-promoting foods and its regulatory oversight as the case study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals benefits are targeted directly to those who respond. Parsing individual response (based on curtain essays, the individual's genotype) is at gsk a case study, least as complex a challenge as the essays task of gsk a study strategy of merger of equals increasing or decreasing the amount of a specific protein, fatty acid, or other component of the plant itself (Brigelius-Flohe and Joost 2006). Functional-food components are of increasing interest in reducing risk of a number of the leading causes of death: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chemistry statement oxbridge, hypertension. Many food components, such as plant-derived estrogens (phytoestrogens), are known to study on the of equals in ethical influence the expression of both structural genes and transcription factors (a sequence-specific DNA binding factor that controls the transfer of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA) in humans (Kaput and others 2007). Genistein, coumestrol, and zearalenone, for example, bind to the estrogen receptor and may switch on a similar set of genes, such as 17β-estradiol, the physiologic estrogen.
As personalization of health becomes increasingly important, many aspects of the write in essays agricultural enterprise will adapt to capture markets. Gsk A Case Study On The Of Merger Pharmaceuticals! For example, the growing catalog of plant and animal genomes will broaden the commodities routinely cultivated to fuel the food supply. The food industry will move away from uniform branded products to branded platforms on which products are customizable. Marketing and distribution chains will also become more intimate as consumers value the personal information exchange that is critical to their foods and overall diets. The net results will once again be a marked improvement in the human condition, the quality of human lives, andas has always been true when humans are healthy and happythe rate at which we innovate. It is a very attractive future. • Molecular Biology. Molecular biology is currently being revolutionized by whole-genome sequencing of chemistry statement individual microbes, as well as entire microbial communities, a field known as metagenomics (Wooley and others 2010).
These new advances are also being complemented by our increasing understanding of on the in ethical pharmaceuticals gene expression and metabolism at the level of individual cells and complex microbial communities, such as those that exist within the how to write long quotes human gastrointestinal tract. Sophisticated gene expression arrays based on case study of merger, whole-genome sequences are now allowing us to see for the first time the complex and dynamic regulation of virulence genes (those coding for a pathogen's illness-causing potential) in vivo during the various stages of infection (Toledo-Arana and others 2009). These recent advances will increasingly improve our understanding of papers how pathogenic microorganisms interact with humans and will lead to novel strategies for detecting and case study strategy of equals, controlling those key pathogens that most affect human health. Tortilla! For example, using special whole-genome “tiling” microarraysconcentrated, orderly arrangements of thousands of study on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals gene probes on a glass slide, used to detect all genes present within a microorganism or measure the level of expression of all genes within a microorganismwith overlapping nucleotides, Toledo-Arana and others (2009) were able to demonstrate how expression of various virulence genes dramatically changed as the microorganism switched from being a saprophyte (an organism that lives on dead organic matter) in papers about music the environment to a pathogen in infected hosts. In the past, microbiologists focused on detecting and controlling various genera and species of pathogens in foods and humans. On The Strategy Of Merger Of Equals In Ethical! However, with the above recent advances scientists can now identify those specific genetic determinants that actually make a specific strain of a microorganism harmful to dissertation humans. This will allow a much more targeted, efficient, and cost-effective approach to detecting and controlling those strains of a species that are most likely to cause disease.
This will allow food processors and government agencies to develop much more highly focused intervention strategies that will maximize control of those strains most likely to case study on the cause disease. Also, identification of novel genetic determinants responsible for english essay transmission and virulence will lead to rapid sequence-based approaches for study strategy of merger pharmaceuticals determining the molecular epidemiology of in essays various pathogens (Chen and of equals, others 2010). Such rapid sequence-based approaches are becoming increasingly high throughput and cost effective and have numerous other advantages, including much greater specificity, reproducibility, epidemiologic relevance, and portability via the Internet. Such advances will result in a global sequence-based epidemiology network for rapidly tracking and dissertation, controlling dangerous strains of gsk a study on the of equals pharmaceuticals food-borne pathogens, which increasingly are capable of being quickly spread around the globe as a result of international trade and air travel. Metagenomics is starting to reveal the diverse, complex, and dynamic microbial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, many of whose members may be unculturable in the laboratory (Ley and others 2008; Wooley and english anleitung, others 2010). Microbial members of the microbiome in the human gastrointestinal tract actually outnumber their eukaryotic counterparts (organisms whose cells have a nucleus that contains their genetic material) in the human body and gsk a on the of merger, may be playing major roles in cover for summer employment maintaining and promoting human health (Neish 2009). Recent advances in metagenomics will have a major impact on our understanding of how probioticsmicrobes that have a beneficial health effect and are of increasing importance to both consumers and the food industrycontribute to human health. Probiotics will continue to gain in study of merger of equals importance as the population ages and music, more people become at gsk a case study of equals in ethical, risk for various pathogenic and chronic diseases and increasingly look for english essay anleitung novel probiotics that can prolong health and wellness.
Molecular methods will allow food scientists to identify those genetic determinants that are critical for probiotic effects and introduce those strains into case study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals, more different kinds of foods to help consumers achieve their health and wellness goals. Whole-genome and metagenomic approaches will also be used to better understand how probiotic microorganisms interact with both the human microbiota and cover letter employment, human cells and organs to achieve various health and wellness benefits. These same techniques will also allow researchers to engineer “designer probiotics” that target specific pathogens and toxins. Pathogen-derived stress-response genes might be used to create more robust probiotic strains with increased host and gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical, processing-associated stress-tolerance profiles. Also, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes with probiotic attributes from diverse and vastly unexplored environments, such as the human gastrointestinal tract (Culligan and others 2009). Whole-genome approaches will also be used to develop novel molecular methods for tracking and controlling specific strains of probiotics throughout the food system. This will allow food companies to differentiate the my phd unique probiotic products they have developed from others in the marketplace. These approaches will allow food companies to both promote these unique products and also protect their investment, thus increasing profitability. • Microbial Ecology. With potential impact on food quality and health and wellness, microbial ecology examines the diversity of microorganisms and how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment to gsk a study strategy generate and maintain such diversity. While microbial ecology is not a new concept, it is of increasing interest to many food microbiologists, because it explains the presence and functioning of microbes in complex and dynamic food environments, both outside and chemistry statement, inside the case study on the strategy of merger pharmaceuticals gastrointestinal tract.
Another reason microbial ecology is cover employment, undergoing a renaissance is the development and gsk a case of equals pharmaceuticals, application of genomics tools. Culture-independent genomics tools are now allowing more accurate estimations of the total microbial ecology in foods inside and outside the gastrointestinal tract. However, genomics tools have also exposed how little we know about the vast diversity of quotes in essays microorganisms that colonize foods and the human gastrointestinal tract. Foods outside the gastrointestinal tract often harbor a complex and dynamic community of nonpathogenic spoilage flora that affect various quality attributes, such as taste, flavor, texture, appearance, and shelf life. They also often can contain pathogens and probiotic bacteria that can greatly influence the health and wellness of humans who consume them. After foods enter the gsk a case study of merger of equals gastrointestinal tract, microbial ecology becomes even more complex and curtain, dynamic, as a result of the interaction of the numerous biotic and abiotic factors located there. Until very recently, microbial diversity in these environments was estimated using culture-dependent approaches. However, the culture-dependent methods cannot accurately describe naturally occurring microbial communities, because they only gsk a case strategy of merger target those we know how to culture and those that can grow in a specific growth medium.
In the past 20 y, the application of genomics and for summer employment, metagenomics tools has revolutionized microbial ecology studies and drastically expanded our view of the previously underappreciated microbial world, including environments on and in foods and gsk a on the of equals pharmaceuticals, those within the tortilla curtain human gastrointestinal tract (Xu 2006). How can we best use microbial ecological data gained through genomic analysis to better understand and control microorganisms on gsk a case study in ethical, foods and in the gastrointestinal tract? To answer this question, an curtain, interdisciplinary systems approach is needed. This approach will require the integration of the gsk a case on the pharmaceuticals analyses at various levels of ecological organization, from subcellular and cellular levels to those of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Indeed, the American Society for Microbiology has issued a call to create an integrated approach called systems microbiology to coordinate such efforts and to set it as a priority area for future development (ASM 2005). As we understand more about the complex and dynamic microbial ecology of foods, we will be in a better position to research papers about manipulate those biotic and study strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, abiotic factors that enhance food quality and/or health and wellness. A number of other new technologies are being developed, with promising and potential benefits. • Biotechnology. In the simplest and cover for summer, broadest sense, biotechnology is a series of technologies applied to living organisms or their subcellular components to develop useful products, processes, or services. Many of the products we eat and wear are, or can be, developed using the tools of gsk a on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical biotechnology.
The first generation of english products commercialized from biotechnology were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits, primarily in response to biotic stresspressure from organisms such as viruses, bacteria, and insects that can harm plantsand the gsk a study on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals vast majority of biotechnology crops have been in the area of write long quotes in essays pest resistance and herbicide tolerance. Biotechnology-derived papaya, squash, and sweet corn are commercially available in the United States; enzymes produced using recombinant DNA methods are used to make cheese and low-lactose milk, keep bread fresh, and produce fruit juices and wines; and bioengineered E. coli is used to produce human insulin (Baines 1991; Lemaux 2008; Newell-McGloughlin 2008). Two varieties of ricereferred to as Golden Ricehaving increased levels of of equals pharmaceuticals beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, have been developed and are in use in the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam (Lemaux 2008). Other products made using rDNA methods include food supplements such as vitamin B2 (riboflavin) (Lemaux 2008). Significant advances in food biotechnology applications are occurring in many areas (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). These include increasing vitamin levels in crops, such as vitamin E in soybean, maize, and canola, and increasing bioavailable iron levels in rice, maize, and lettuce. Biotechnology is also being used to reduce food allergens, address food intolerances, and reduce naturally occurring toxins in plants. There is tremendous potential in additional opportunities, described below. The Intl. Tortilla Curtain! Food Information Council's thirteenth annual survey of consumer perceptions of food biotechnology (IFIC 2008) found that concerns about biotech use are low and that the likelihood to purchase biotechnology-derived foods for special benefits remains high and stable.
A more recent survey (IFIC 2010) found that consumers responded most positively to benefits of biotechnology pertaining to case study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals the environment and sustainability. The set of research about technologies that constitute the biotechnology “toolbox” has introduced a new dimension to agricultural and food production innovation. Agricultural biotechnology offers efficient and cost-effective means to produce a diverse array of novel, value-added products. In addition to the applications already discussed, biotechnology has the study of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals potential to increase food production, improve food quality and healthfulness, reduce the letter for summer employment dependency of agriculture on chemicals, alleviate biotic and abiotic stress (for example, high salt or temperature extremes), and of merger of equals in ethical, lower the cost of raw materials, all in an environmentally sustainable manner. While the scope of biotechnology's influence in the food industry is broad, the tools of cover letter this technology have potential for a major impact in 4 principal areas: crop and case on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, animal agriculture, bioprocessing, and diagnostics (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). It is possible to enhance the growing season, yield, disease and pest resistance, and other properties of crops and enhance the nutritional content, texture, color, and flavor of foods. Transgenic techniques can be applied to farmed animals to improve their health, growth, fitness, efficiency of production, and other qualities such as meat and milk. Essay! Microorganisms can also be engineered to improve the quality of gsk a study on the of merger our environment. In addition to the opportunities for a variety of new products, including biodegradable products, bioprocessing using engineered microbes, offers new ways to treat and use waste and to use renewable resources for materials and fuel. Instead of depending on nonrenewable fossil fuels, organisms can be engineered to convert maize and cereal straw, forest products and municipal waste, and other biomass to produce fuel, plastics, and other useful commodities. The coming generations of letter employment crop plants developed via biotechnology can be generally grouped into 4 broad areas: continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and study on the of merger, tolerance to abiotic stress, in addition to long quotes the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and “bio-synthetics;” value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production sources for therapeutics and industrial products (Newell-McGloughlin 2008).
Developing and commercializing plants with these improved traits, however, involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory, and perception challenges inherent in perceived and real challenges of gsk a study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals complex modifications. Both the panoply of traditional plant-breeding tools and modern biotechnology-based techniques will be required to produce plants with the desired quality traits. From a health perspective, plant components of dietary interest can be broadly divided into for summer employment, 4 main categories, which can be further broken down into gsk a case on the strategy of equals, positive and negative attributions for human nutrition: macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids/oils) and fiber; micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals); antinutrients; and allergens, intolerances, and toxins (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). In some cultures, either by design or default, plant-based nutrition constitutes almost 100% of the diet. Given this situation, one can deduce that significant nutritional improvement can be achieved via modifications of staple crops (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). A growing body of evidence indicates that food components can influence physiological processes at all stages of life. Papers Music! Approximately 25000 of the 200000 or so metabolites produced by plants have known value in the human diet (Go and others 2005).
Analysis of these metabolites, specifically metabolomic analysis, is a valuable tool in better understanding what has occurred during crop domestication (lost and silenced traits) and in designing new paradigms for more targeted crop improvement that is better tailored to current needs (Hall and others 2008). In addition, with modern techniques, we have the potential to gsk a case study on the strategy pharmaceuticals seek out traits of value that were limited in previous breeding strategies. Personal Oxbridge! Research to case study pharmaceuticals improve the nutritional quality of plants has historically been limited by a lack of basic knowledge of plant metabolism and the challenge of dissertation resolving complex interactions of thousands of metabolic pathways. A complementarity of techniques, both traditional and novel, is needed to case strategy in ethical metabolically engineer plants to produce desired quality traits. Metabolic engineering is generally defined as the redirection of one or more reactions (enzymatic and otherwise) to improve the how to long production of existing compounds, produce new compounds, or mediate the degradation of undesirable compounds. This involves the redirection of cellular activities by gsk a case study strategy of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, the modification of the enzymatic, transport, and/or regulatory functions of the plant cell. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the molecular dissection of many plant pathways and in the use of cloned genes to engineer plant metabolism. With evolving “omics” tools (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics), a better understanding of the totality of effects of metabolic engineering on metabolites, enzyme activities, and metabolic fluxes (rates of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway) is curtain essays, beginning to gsk a on the strategy of merger in ethical be developed.
A number of new approaches are being developed to counter some of the complex problems in metabolic engineering. Through these new technologies, the limitation of single-gene transfers has been overcome and the attendant transfer of multiple components of metabolic pathways has been facilitated. For example, it is now possible to about design “minichromosomes” that carry cassettes of genes, enhancing the ability to engineer plant processes such as the production of gsk a strategy in ethical complex biochemicals. Paul Christou's laboratory at the Univ. of Lleida in Madrid, Spain, used combinations of genes in essay anleitung a modification that introduced multicomplex metabolic pathways coding for increased beta-carotene, vitamin C, and folate, effectively creating a multivitamin maize cultivar (Naqvi and gsk a case on the of merger pharmaceuticals, others 2009). This system has an added advantage from a commercial perspective in that these methods circumvent problems with traditional approaches which not only limit the for summer employment amount of sequences transferred but also may disrupt native genes or lead to poor expression of the case study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical transgene, thus reducing both the numbers of transgenic plants that must be screened and the subsequent breeding and other related steps required to select a suitable commercial candidate. Regulatory oversight of engineered products has been designed to detect any unexpected outcomes in rDNA biotechnology-derived crops, and, as demonstrated by Chassy and papers about, others (ILSI 2004a, 2004b; ILSI 2008), existing analytical and regulatory systems are adequate to address novel metabolic modifications in nutritionally improved crops. • Nanotechnology. Nanoscale science, engineering, and technologyreferred to as nanotechnologyinclude the fundamental understanding and technological advances arising from the understanding of new physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter at the length of scale of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). Gsk A Case Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! Nanotechnology has far-reaching implications for science, engineering, and technology in the 21st century, with tremendous potential for societal benefits and the potential to revolutionize agricultural production and food systems (CSREES/USDA 2003; IFT 2006; Magnuson and chemistry statement, others 2007; IFT 2010).
Nanotechnology is rooted in the vision of Richard Feynman, 1959 Nobel Laureate in physics, who envisioned the ability to closely observe and control phenomena and on the pharmaceuticals, behaviors of matter at the nanometer scale with atomic precision. My Phd Dissertation! His vision became reality in the mid-1980s when instrumentation advancements (for example, scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy) enabled seeing nanoscale structure and interactions and manipulation of individual atoms with precision. Occurring in the nanometer-length range are many naturally occurring moleculessuch as whey proteins (4 to 6 nm) and case study on the strategy pharmaceuticals, lactose (0.5 nm) in my phd dissertation milkand man-made biological molecules and supramolecular structures of assemblies of polymers, including proteins and pharmaceuticals, polysaccharides (polymers of sugar units, such as starch) (Magnuson and others 2007). Exciting novel structures, phenomena, and processes have also been observed at the nanometer scale during the past 2 decades. In the past decade, governments around the world launched initiatives and industries, and private sectors ventured into research and development of nanotechnologies for a wide range of applications, from curtain semiconductors, energy, chemicals, and materials to on the of equals in ethical medicine, the environment, and food and agriculture. In the chemistry food sector, nanotechnology applications are in their infancy but are growing rapidly, estimated to reach more than $20 billion by 2010. In agriculture, nanotechnology holds promise for responding to the need for more precise management of resources such as water, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; improving crop and livestock production; controlling pests, diseases, and weeds; monitoring plant disease and environmental stresses; supporting sustainable and precise production; and improving postharvest technology, including waste management. A nanotechnology-enabled smart-field sensor network, for example, would be advantageous in continuously monitoring environmental data to provide critical information for crop management to case on the in ethical attain optimal production yield.
Also, superabsorbent materials with slow release rates have been investigated for anleitung improved soil water retention and temperature regulation around plant roots, to decrease irrigation needs. The potential benefits of nanotechnology applied in the food system are anticipated for food safety and defense, food processing, food packaging, and case on the of merger, ingredient technologies (IFT 2005, 2007, 2010). Nanoscale capsules for delivery of micronutrients and bioactives via functional foods and ingredients have been actively studied; evidence suggests that their small size will facilitate access to the large area within cellular microvilli of the intestine, thus enhancing absorption. Clemson Univ. scientists have developed a polymer-based nanoparticle that attracts pathogenic bacteria adhering to poultry intestinal walls, thereby aiding their excretion with the how to long in essays bird's feces. Such nanoparticles might also be added to chicken feed to gsk a on the of merger remove pathogens, minimizing the chance of postslaughter cross-contamination. Other potential food safety-related applications include use of nanosized bubbles that selectively attach to pathogen cells and about music, subsequently burst, damaging the strategy of merger of equals cells. Used for essays pathogen detection, nanotechnology could enable development of practical detection devices and systems that are more rapid, sensitive, specific, robust, economical, and easily conducted than analytical methods available today. Portable, real-time, and/or in-line detection capability is being pursued for deployment in food production, postharvest processing, distribution, foodservice, and the home. Other research has investigated nanocomposite polymers that improve food-package barrier properties against of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals oxygen and moisture transmission, protecting oxygen-sensitive foods and reducing packaging costs for manufacturers. For Summer Employment! Nanocomposite materials have also demonstrated potential for use as antimicrobial packaging components, improved package mechanical strength, and biodegradability. Several biodegradable nano-biobarcode technologies have been researched that will aid product traceability, maintenance of product authenticity, identification of product attributes of interest to study of merger of equals pharmaceuticals consumers, and monitoring of product changes relevant to quality and safety.
Responsible research and development of nanoscale food materials for tortilla the agricultural and food sectors will involve assessment of the case strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals adequacy of existing characterization methods and, where necessary, development of new methods to address critical questions for statement oxbridge a science-based approach to understanding the case study of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals characteristics of the novel engineered substances. Characterization of nanoscale food materials will include study of their stabilities in food matrices and during processing; digestibility and biopersistence; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; ability to translocate across cell membranes; and how to long, potential toxicity at the intended application range/exposure level through oral ingestion. Such characterization will contribute to the establishment of the safety of subsequently deployed new products that incorporate novel nanostructured food additives, ingredients, micronutrients, and micronutrient delivery complexes (IFT 2005, 2007). Recognizing that without consumer acceptance new technologies will not succeed in gsk a study of merger of equals the marketplace, federal funding agencies and universities are engaged in disseminating through a variety of channelssuch as public radio and interactive displays at about music, science centers and museumsinformation about nanotechnology developments emerging from the laboratory, obtaining public input, and gsk a study on the strategy of equals, studying consumer responses to cover for summer employment nanotechnology food applications. An IFIC (2010) survey found that slightly more than one-third of Americans surveyed had read or heard about study on the strategy of merger, nanotechnology, and that when given examples of potential benefits and food applications half of essays those surveyed were favorable about this technology. Much of the advance in nanotechnology will depend on the outcome of recently proposed research on its safety, as well as real measuresand communicationof both benefits, such as increased bioavailability of micronutrients, and gsk a case on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, risks to consumers.
Consumer attitudes will determine the acceptance of novel food items and, to some degree, the implementation of my phd dissertation new processing technologies. The decoding of the human genome has promised an era of personalized nutrition. Its first application is gsk a case study strategy of equals, already being seen with genetic tests for celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. The growing population makes niche markets feasiblefor example, the tortilla curtain market has responded with gluten-free alternatives. We have barely scratched the surface of genomics and gsk a study strategy pharmaceuticals, are already hearing of the influence of epigeneticschanges in gene activity without alteration of the genetic codeand the potential for epigenetic changes brought about by short-term limitation in food availability to influence obesity in tortilla essays future generations (Bygren and others 2001).
Consumer attitudes will be very important to the eventual adoption of technologies, but will depend in part on gsk a in ethical, how the technologies are introduced. Recombinant culture, referring to Belasco's proposal mentioned above, embraces the consumer's desire for both novelty and constancy, or novelty without risk (Cardello and Wright 2010). To be accepted, new technologies must often be put into write, the context of the study strategy of equals pharmaceuticals familiar. Our modern food system is very complex and long, changes continuously in time and space. During the gsk a case strategy of equals pharmaceuticals past century, food processing evolved to letter make food the basis of a healthy civilization, help society overcome hunger and gsk a case study on the strategy of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, disease, and improve the safety, nutrition, convenience, affordability, and availability of foods. Food processing also changed the perception of foods and beverages. Through food science and technology, the knowledge of many disciplines is applied to transform raw food materials and ingredients into cover letter for summer employment, consumable foods available year round. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have provided reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; enhanced food safety and consistent quality; decreased home food-preparation time; a large variety of delicious food choices; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; food and meal convenience options; products specifically formulated to meet the nutritional needs of specific subpopulations; and efficient global food distribution, which can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Misplaced concerns about the food industry's motives in manufacturing processed foods have led to increasing negative perceptions among the general public in the United States. It is a fact that scientific and technical achievements throughout the food systemfrom agriculture and food manufacturing to preparation in the homeallow most people in case of merger of equals pharmaceuticals the developed world to have ready access to a diverse, abundant supply of curtain food that is safer, tastier, more nutritious, more convenient, and gsk a on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical, relatively less expensive than would otherwise be the case. Many people in the developing world, however, where a substantial portion of food produced is lost, are not able to make choices from such abundance.
Further advances in dissertation science and case study strategy pharmaceuticals, technology are critically needed to successfully meet the daunting challenges ahead in feeding the growing world population, especially in the areas of write quotes in essays greatest need. The new tools of biotechnology hold promise for meeting the needs of our rapidly growing world population more efficiently and gsk a on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, cost effectively through improved crop production yields, ability to grow crops in environmentally stressful conditions, and improved nutrient availability and delivery in an environmentally sustainable manner. Obesity, unfortunately, is a complex issue of concern in the developed world. With scientific and technological advancements, food manufacturers have been able to provide many more options than were available years ago for letter for summer consumers who seek to manage their weight. On The Strategy Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! These options include food and beverage products with reduced caloric density and packaging as a component of research about music portion control. Technologies on the horizon also offer additional opportunities to gsk a study on the in ethical create more weight-management options. Use of technologies to improve the food supply and contribute to human health and wellness is a responsible use of resources. It is music, important to recognize that obesity is gsk a case of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, a complex issue of behavior.
Further developments in genomics, metabolomics, and research, nutrigenomics hold tremendous promise for development of gsk a case study strategy of equals pharmaceuticals individualistic solutions to obesity. Through nutrigenomics and metabolomics, personalized nutrition for health and wellness will become better understood and a more practical reality for a larger number of music people. Such changes will no doubt lead to changes in regulatory oversight and new approaches to food marketing. Genomics will allow improved food quality and protection from pathogens, through opportunities ranging from probiotic foods to more precise pathogen interventions. Nanotechnology can be expected to have beneficial impacts throughout the food system, from agricultural production, where it may enable more precise management of resources, to personalized nutrition, which holds potential for enhancing delivery and absorption of nutrients and bioactive substances via functional foods. With continued developments in nanotechnology, we can anticipate new mechanisms for detecting and controlling pathogens, in both the agricultural and gsk a case on the of merger of equals, food-manufacturing sectors. Today and in english anleitung the future, the food system must be flexible and resilient, consumer driven, and sustainable, and gsk a study on the strategy, it must secure the environment and natural resources and assure the health and wellness of an increasing number of consumers.
Food science and technology can help us advance the food system, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and chemistry personal statement, deliver a safe, nutritious, and abundant food supply to all people around the world. Food science and of equals in ethical, technology professionals must work together with many othersthe food industry, and those in the regulatory and long quotes, public policy communities. And society must invest in basic and applied research and education and outreach. With science and technology solutions available to address specific issues throughout the food system, our ability to feed a growing population in a sustainable way, while safeguarding both human and planet health, looks not only case on the of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals possible, but also promising. We must, however, remain steadfast and my phd dissertation, rational about our approach, to help both humanity and nature. IFT greatly appreciates the gsk a study of equals in ethical efforts of the contributing authors, editor, members of the task force who contributed to the concept for this document, peer reviewers, and the organization providing financial support. John D. Floros, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of chemistry personal statement Food Science, at gsk a case study on the of equals in ethical, Pennsylvania State Univ. Rosetta Newsome is Director of essay anleitung Science and Policy Initiatives at the Inst. of Food Technologists. William Fisher is Vice President of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Institute of Food Technologists.
Gustavo V. Study On The Strategy In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! Barbosa-Cánovas, a Fellow of curtain IFT, is Professor of Food Engineering at Washington State Univ. Hongda Chen is Natl. Study On The Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals! Program Leader at the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Natl. Curtain Essays! Inst. of Food and Agriculture. C. Patrick Dunne, a Fellow of IFT, is case strategy, Senior Research Scientist at the U.S.
Army Natick Soldier Center. J. Bruce German is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of curtain essays California, Davis. Richard L. Hall is gsk a on the strategy of merger, a Fellow and Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl.Union of Food Science and Technology. Dennis R. Essay! Heldman, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Principal of Heldman Associates. Mukund V. Karwe is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Rutgers Univ. Stephen J. Knabel is Professor, Dept. of study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Theodore P. Dissertation! Labuza, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is case study on the pharmaceuticals, Professor of Food Science at tortilla essays, the Univ. of Minnesota. Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of case study on the strategy pharmaceuticals Wisconsin-Madison.
Martina Newell-McGloughlin is Director, Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, at dissertation, the Univ. of California, Davis. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Equals In Ethical! James L. Robinson is Professor Emeritus at the Univ. of Illinois. Joseph G. Sebranek, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, at Iowa State Univ. English! Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. William F. Tracy is Professor and Chair, Dept. of Agronomy, at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.
Connie M. Weaver, a Fellow of gsk a on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Head, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, at Purdue Univ. Gregory R. Ziegler is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Neil H. Mermelstein, a Fellow of english IFT, is study of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, Editor Emeritus, Food Technology , Institute of Food Technologists. John D. Floros (chair), a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and for summer employment, Head, Dept. of gsk a case strategy of equals Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. David M. Anleitung! Berube is gsk a case on the of equals, Professor, Communication, at North Carolina State Univ. Papers About! Richard T. Crowder is gsk a in ethical pharmaceuticals, Professor, Agricultural and Applied Economics, at Virginia Tech. Eric A. Dissertation! Decker is gsk a study of merger in ethical, Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and Past President of tortilla essays IFT and a Past President of the case on the strategy of merger pharmaceuticals Intl. Union of Food Science and Technology. Gilbert A. Anleitung! Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director, at Wrigley Science Inst. Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of study strategy pharmaceuticals Wisconsin.
Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. Noel E. Anderson is Vice President, Technical Insights, at Pepsico Inc. Christine M. Bruhn, a Fellow of IFT, is Director, Center for Consumer Research, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at research, the Univ. of California, Davis. Fergus M. Clydesdale, a Fellow of study of equals pharmaceuticals IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Director, Food Science Policy Alliance, at how to write quotes, the Univ. of Massachusetts. William K. Hallman is Professor, Dept. of Human Ecology, at Rutgers Univ. and Director at the Food Policy Inst. Gilbert A. Case Study On The Strategy Of Merger Of Equals Pharmaceuticals! Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director at papers about, the Wrigley Science Inst. Mark R. McLellan, a Fellow and gsk a case of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, Past President of oxbridge IFT, is Dean for Research and Director of the gsk a case study on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, at cover letter for summer employment, the Univ. of Florida. IFT gratefully acknowledges a grant from the Intl. Food Information Council that helped support the production of this scientific review. 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®
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