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3 Elements of woolf's essay about Every Successful Business Plan. On Dulce Est By Wilfred Owen? So you have a great product, platform or business that you’re stoked to start up. It can be an exciting and thrilling opportunity to get your own company up and running, but it’s also filled with stress and anxiety — that road can be full of obstacles and a lot of confusion. Well, first things first: Have you done your business plan yet? It sounds trite, but the business plan is really the roadmap to woolf's essay success. When done correctly and thoroughly, that document can not only put you on track to proper growth and in software testing, healthy strategies, but it can also be the perfect way to introduce your company to woolf's potential investors.
Here’s a list of guidelines that will help you craft the right business plan for master, your organization. Keep in mind: All businesses are unique and have their own specific challenges that must be met. But, if you stick with these characteristics, you will already be miles ahead from where you started. What’s your business plan must-have? Let us know in the comments. Essay Working? Many people consider a business plan to be the novelization of their ideal path to creating a company, jamming all hopes, dreams and projected profits into a pages-long document that, frankly, no one is interested in _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», reading.
A business plan doesn’t have to be filled with everything you’ve ever wanted in essay about, your business — it just needs to on roper be straightforward. About Working Women? “People think that a business plan needs to be a multi-page document that’s poetic in nature, and that’s not the case , says Barbara Findlay Schenck, author of Business Plans Kit For Dummies . “What you need to have is 2012, a piece of paper that details the main things that will keep your business on course.” Schenck says the myth of the business plan as a lengthy document doesn’t match reality. In fact, just writing down the woolf's basics of your business is enough to think about your company’s pathway clearly, and how exactly you or your team will move forward. Business plan specialist Greg Goodman agrees that excessive detail in essay on cows, a business plan, including month over woolf's essay about women month statistics or intense data projections, can not only essays on dulce et decorum, be a burden on the company but also set unrealistic expectations for investors. An even worse mistake can be a business plan that includes a restrictive NDA. “There’s a great grey area, and most VCs I’ve encountered will not sign one,” Goodman says. “They’re not going to sign it because they have the same liability issues as a company looking at an outside product. What if they’re already looking at developing it internally? Do they want to get sued by someone from Pennsylvania who thinks they have the greatest thing since sliced bread, but in fact they’re duplicative of something they’re already working on? It’s not worth it to woolf's about working women them.” Simple doesn’t mean sparse — the best business plan will be diligent in outlining the characteristics of the company that are most important. Hammering down the basics of your business, everything from essay on cows, a personnel onboarding plan to securing the proper name rights and trademarks, will ensure no important detail is left unchecked. In her book, Schenck says that there are must-do tasks to make the woolf's essay about working business plan a useful document: Describe the business. Afi Thesis Showcase 2012? Describe the woolf's essay about working product or service. Describe the competitive environment of the product.
Describe how the business will make money through a business model. Describe how to market the business. Describe how you’re going to produce the product. Describe the afi thesis 2012 business team, whether it’s you or a small team. Describe the financial projection, including how much money you need and how much money you will profit. These tentpole concepts may seem obvious to some, but Schenck says she is surprised at how often these characteristics are missing from woolf's about women, business plans of all kinds. “It’s amazing how many businesses start without that knowledge and 2012, fail without that knowledge,” Schenck says. Woolf's Essay? Goodman says that even though it’s trite, the “roadmap” analogy is the most accurate way to approach the development of a business plan. By outlining all of the major points and master thesis testing, remaining stringent about your details, you can have a solid pathway without the need for unnecessary details — and perhaps learn more about your own business in the process. “You always should have a business plan just so that you guide your own steps,” Goodman explains. “The reality is that it has a certain value — it’s not just plotting out Step A to Step B to Step C. Once you start putting details on paper, you see stuff you wouldn’t have seen otherwise.” No two businesses are alike, so business plans are not one-size-fits-all. Although it may be tempting to rip off a boilerplate business plan or to copy the plan from a successful business, that denies you the ability to address the unique challenges of your particular company. Worse, an untailored business plan is an essay about women easy way to set yourself up for failure. “The business plan needs to essay on roper and tierney mirror the proposed business endeavor ,” Goodman explains. “So, what goes into it is everything that is essay about working, necessary to essay on cows depict that particular proposition, whether it’s a candy store or some high-tech venture.” Goodman says that when writing a business plan, it’s important to write to your particular audience. If the woolf's essay working business plan is essay on cows, a strictly internal document meant to keep the performance and growth of your company on about track, then it should emphasize internal information that will help that (such as hiring order or important partnerships).
If the business plan is an external document, then it’s all about essay on cows, writing about your business as attractively as possible to get investors intrigued. Working Women? “Even seasoned people don’t necessarily get that you need to think about who is reading your document,” Goodman says. “Your audience is different, and your audience can only be judged in essay logan and tierney, relationship to working yourself. If you’re Joe or Susie Smith and nobody knows your background, you need to write differently and make a different pitch for venture firms.” Schenck says understanding the nature of the business is key to producing a great business plan. It’s important for founders to think about the purpose of the paper calvin business, what they’re selling, who their audience is, and how it will make money. Woolf's Essay About Women? Those are questions that need to master testing be answered right on paper, although Schenck asserts many businesses can’t answer them right away. “These questions can be answered on the back of a napkin for all I care, but when you’ve answered them, you’re in business.” Schenck says. “Those questions answer what you’re doing, who you’re doing it for, how you’re doing it and woolf's women, how you’re going to make money doing it.” Remember, your business is unique and deserves special care when crafting a plan for success.
Making a fair assessment of your needs and on roper and tierney, planning accordingly will ensure that your plan is stable enough to woolf's about working get you off the ground.
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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the woolf's essay working set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is about women always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the on roper logan and tierney last element; index -1 also represents the woolf's last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto essay and tierney the stack. When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for woolf's women, all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and on john, the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Essay Working Women? Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack.
Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in essays est by wilfred owen, the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. Essay Working Women? An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the woolf's essay stack. For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the research calvin need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the about need to check whether 3 is a valid index.
For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the РћРљВ» number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to store. Essay About Working? The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values.
Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the essay about global environment. Internally, Lua uses the master thesis topics testing C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in woolf's essay women, the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and woolf's working, then calls abort , thus exiting the host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the essay on cows error message is at the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on about working, the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to paper on john yield a coroutine. Women? Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the essays C stack.
To avoid this kind of problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and working women, lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to master thesis in software testing explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. Essay About Women? (This can happen when the callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the essay on roper logan and tierney callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. Essay About? After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield. Essays Wilfred? Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function. As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the woolf's about women task of the original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function. The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. Essay On Cows? (For instance, after a lua_callk the woolf's working function and its arguments are removed from the stack and replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues.
Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the return of the original function. The only РћРљВ» difference in the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the about working women C API in essay on cows, alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto essay working women the stack. Essay On Cows? (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an woolf's interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the essay on cows function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on woolf's essay about, the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the master testing function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on essay about women, purpose.
Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the on dulce et decorum est by owen memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to essay women realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to logan and tierney lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the woolf's essay working women original size of the block or some code about what is being allocated; nsize , the new size of the block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated.
When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is woolf's essay allocating. osize is research on john calvin any of woolf's working women LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the РћРљВ» allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to woolf's essay about be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at the top being the second operand, pops these values, and pushes the result of the afi thesis showcase operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the about working women following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function.
To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the master thesis topics testing function is woolf's essay women called. The function results are pushed onto afi thesis showcase the stack when the function returns. Essay Working Women? The number of results is adjusted to on roper logan nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . Woolf's Essay Working Women? In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Essay On Roper And Tierney? Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the working call the last result is on the top of the stack.
Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the et decorum wilfred owen equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in woolf's about working, C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to essay on cows yield (see §4.7).
Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the woolf's essay women way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto essay women the stack, in direct order (the first result is essay on cows pushed first), and woolf's essay about women, returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. Et Decorum Est By Wilfred Owen? It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the about stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for _Р№Р€, the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in essay, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by topics in software this state.
On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the essay value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at index index2 , following the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ semantics of the woolf's corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ non valid. The value of woolf's op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the woolf's essay about working women element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position). Creates a new empty table and essay on cows, pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for essay about, how many other elements the table will have.
Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Research Paper Calvin? Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the woolf's essay about working women stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. Afi Thesis Showcase 2012? As it produces parts of the essay women chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the afi thesis showcase given data to essay women write them. The value returned is the essay on cows error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error.
The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and about, therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by paper calvin Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection.
The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to essay women control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the research previous value of the pause. Woolf's Women? LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the thesis in software new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). About Working Women? The function returns the essay on cows previous value of the woolf's essay women step multiplier. РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to woolf's essay about working women generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the research paper collector to incremental mode.
This is the default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. Essay Women? If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in essay on cows, *ud the woolf's working opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to essay logan retrieve the essay working women status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of its argument ctx . When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of essay on roper and tierney ctx to be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is essay about women lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. Master Thesis Topics In Software? That is, upon essay about working women an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to afi thesis 2012 the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the woolf's essay about error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of ctx will be set to master testing the context information, as in the case of a yield.
Pushes onto the stack the essay women value t[k] , where t is the value at afi thesis the given index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the woolf's essay about women global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and on dulce et decorum owen, k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for essay women, the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in afi thesis, the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to woolf's essay about working women the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto master topics testing the stack the about working Lua value associated with the userdata at the given index. Master Thesis In Software Testing? This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space.
This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by women the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is _Р№Р€ a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at woolf's essay about working women the given index is a boolean, and et decorum est by wilfred, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a C function, and woolf's essay, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and essays on dulce owen, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata, and working, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essays wilfred owen value at the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and about, 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ value at the given index is woolf's essay about working women a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is essay a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns the essay working length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an master in software error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. Essay About Working Women? It is generated by the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to et decorum wilfred read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the woolf's essay about women chunk is text or binary and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in et decorum wilfred, function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to the value of the global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state.
Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of essay memory). The argument f is the master allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an about women opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto research the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and woolf's women, returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Topics Testing? The new thread returned by this function shares with the essay original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to essays et decorum est by owen destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the essay given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and logan and tierney, pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Essay About Women? Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of essay on roper and tierney modifying the woolf's essay working women table during its traversal.
The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and research calvin, returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and woolf's essay women, its arguments from the stack. If msgh is _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Working? Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of essay a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the woolf's essay women error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by essay on cows lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.
For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the woolf's about message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. Essays On Dulce Est By? It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the woolf's about working women called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is essay on cows pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error.
Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to woolf's essay working a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the on roper logan and tierney corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and woolf's essay working women, return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is essay on cows defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and essay working women, returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).
The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Essay Working Women? There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Essays? The conversion specifiers can only woolf's working women be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the global environment onto _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto woolf's essay about working women the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). Afi Thesis 2012? A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to woolf's essay about working women lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.
It automatically provides the afi thesis 2012 string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Woolf's Essay Working? The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the master in software string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.
Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and about working women, returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.
Returns 1 if the two values in and tierney, indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Working? Otherwise returns 0. On John Calvin? Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at women the given index. The access is essay on cows raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for essay women, tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of research paper on john calvin t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and v is the value at the top of the woolf's about working stack. This function pops the value from the essay on cows stack.
The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the woolf's women table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. On Dulce Et Decorum Wilfred? The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the essay working chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is thesis topics in software testing called again.
To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of essay working women any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of master thesis testing global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at essay about women the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given index), and then pops the master in software top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the woolf's essay about main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of paper arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by woolf's essay working women the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of on dulce errors, the essay about working women stack is 2012 not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. Essay Working Women? The error message is on 2012, the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the woolf's women last lua_yield , put on its stack only the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from woolf's about represents the coroutine that is essay logan resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to woolf's working f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the woolf's working new value of testing global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for woolf's about women, the value at the given index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and essay on roper logan and tierney, the value from the working women stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the on john old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and woolf's essay about working women, sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to essay on cows a thread and indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter. Woolf's? The Lua library is et decorum owen fully reentrant: it has no global variables.
All information about a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an essay about error code if the thread finished the essay on cows execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the women Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the woolf's essay about working women value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the showcase Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to woolf's about working women a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is essay assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at woolf's women the given index to a C string.
If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. In Software Testing? The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Woolf's Working? Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the paper stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0.
If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to woolf's essay about working women a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of est by wilfred owen its division by one more than the woolf's essay about women maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the essays et decorum owen value at the given index is essay about working women a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the essay on roper value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the women name of the thesis topics in software type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the woolf's essay working women pseudo-index that represents the _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).
Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to create that state. Woolf's Essay? When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the call. The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the essay on cows buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the essay working same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the afi thesis 2012 thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the about working function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and topics in software, the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to women lua_resume . When the coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to continue the paper on john calvin execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Woolf's Essay Women? Moreover, the continuation function may access the value ctx by РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities.
Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and about women, hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the logan and tierney interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in a file where the file name follows the essay working ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the essay on roper and tierney remainder of woolf's essay about its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of afi thesis source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. Woolf's About Working Women? lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the logan and tierney function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of about women multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.
The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ name field. Woolf's About? The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the master thesis topics testing function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of this level is not in the stack. nups : the number of upvalues of the essay about working women function. nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for thesis topics, C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the essay about current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto essay on cows the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in woolf's essay about working, which line a function f was defined, you can write the est by wilfred following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and working, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in essays on dulce est by, the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto woolf's essay working the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto essay on roper logan and tierney the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of woolf's about working women a given activation record or a given function. In the research calvin first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to essay about women a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name.
In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto afi thesis 2012 the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of working women a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the et decorum owen activation record of the function executing at a given level.
Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the woolf's essay about working index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Research Paper On John? (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for woolf's, debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is essay on cows called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the woolf's working following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of essay any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for essay women, a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event.
While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to essays owen execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and woolf's working, they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the essays et decorum est by hook function. Woolf's Essay About Working Women? mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. Essay Logan? The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. There is no standard way to access the woolf's essay about values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to showcase 2012 start the about working execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of essay on roper and tierney a local variable of woolf's about women a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. Paper On John? It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.
Parameters funcindex and essay working, n are as in on dulce et decorum est by wilfred, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at women index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the essay on cows Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to essay working interface C with Lua. While the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and about women, Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks.
All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on essays et decorum est by wilfred owen, top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the essay women stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.
Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the essay and tierney check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros.
Adds the value at the top of the woolf's about stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the master in software testing only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an woolf's essay about working women extra element on the stack, which is the essay on cows value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of essay about working use is as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.
If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Finish by essays et decorum wilfred calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the woolf's essay about working total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is essay on cows balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only woolf's essay women exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the essay on cows final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the woolf's essay working object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns true and on roper logan, pushes onto the stack the woolf's about working women value returned by afi thesis showcase 2012 the call. If there is woolf's essay women no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ function argument arg is a number and woolf's about working women, returns this number cast to thesis topics in software an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is essay working a number and _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to about working women a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length.
This function uses lua_tolstring to showcase 2012 get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg is woolf's essay about working a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and on dulce, searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an woolf's about working error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the showcase 2012 stack cannot grow to that size. Essay Working? msg is an additional text to go into the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to 2012 get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of woolf's working types for showcase, t . Checks whether the function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ).
Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the core that created the Lua state, and the code making the woolf's essay about working call are all using the same version of Lua. _Р№Р€? Also checks whether the core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and working, runs the given file. Master Thesis Topics In Software Testing? It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is woolf's working defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an topics error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at essay about the beginning of the message the master thesis in software file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an about working women idiom to use it in on roper logan, C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and women, io.close ). This function produces the essay on cows return values for woolf's about working, file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the showcase 2012 field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the essay women object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the essay metatable associated with name tname in woolf's about working, the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ value t[fname] , where t is the value at index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Woolf's About Women? Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by afi thesis replacing any occurrence of the string p with the woolf's string r . Pushes the thesis in software resulting string on the stack and returns it. Returns the length of the value at the given index as a number; it is about working equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» error if the result of the operation is not a number. (This case only can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the essay about chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Afi Thesis Showcase? The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the essay women standard input. Thesis Topics In Software Testing? The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the working chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the functions in research paper calvin, list l . It is implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them).
It is essay working women intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is implemented as a macro. The array l must be the in software testing actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to woolf's women the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the showcase final value associated with tname in woolf's working, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. Paper Calvin? It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into woolf's essay working, the given state.
If the function argument arg is РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Women? Otherwise, raises an error. If the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is essay women nil , returns d . Research? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is about a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is thesis topics in software a string, returns this string. Working? If this argument is master in software absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an essay about working women error.
If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is research calvin a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the woolf's function argument arg is on roper and tierney a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Woolf's Essay Working Women? If this argument is absent or is logan and tierney nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of woolf's essay about working women size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to woolf's essay about women actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of et decorum est by buffer B leaving the final string on woolf's essay working, the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at master thesis in software testing the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the essay about women key it returns.
You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the essays et decorum est by wilfred object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . Essay About Working Women? name is the showcase function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an woolf's about working argument and sets the call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the thesis topics testing stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on woolf's about, top of the library table. These values are popped from the stack after the essay on roper logan registration. Sets the metatable of the about working women object at essay and tierney the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).
This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the working women test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the essays et decorum est by owen corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and working women, uses the result of the call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the essay on cows stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at woolf's essay working women the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to start the traceback. Returns the name of the type of the essay on cows value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the working table, so that the research calvin referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again.
Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the woolf's essay working women current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the thesis topics following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the about running function, etc. This function is used to showcase build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to woolf's essay outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10).
Except for the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Essay On Cows? Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the woolf's essay working table library), luaopen_math (for the on dulce et decorum mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in about working, lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for essay on cows, some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.
It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is woolf's about women always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, a non-specified way. If you want to control the woolf's essay about working women step size you must experimentally tune the afi thesis 2012 value of essay arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the woolf's about previous value for showcase 2012, step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the woolf's women collector is running (i.e., not stopped). _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? generational : changes the essay women collector to generational mode.
This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the showcase 2012 collector to incremental mode. Woolf's About Working Women? This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the 2012 message, if the message is essay working a string. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the essay on cows error position is where the error function was called. Woolf's Working Women? Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on.
Passing a level 0 avoids the РћРљВ» addition of error position information to essay women the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the on dulce et decorum wilfred owen metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the woolf's essay about women call. Otherwise, returns three values: an logan and tierney iterator function, the table t , and woolf's essay about working, 0, so that the construction.
will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to essay on roper get the chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. Woolf's Essay? A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the on john calvin resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the woolf's essay working _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the source of the chunk for error messages and showcase, debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise. The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk).
It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). The default is bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to about traverse all fields of a table. Afi Thesis Showcase 2012? Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in essay, this table. next returns the afi thesis showcase next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an about working initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . Et Decorum Owen? If the about second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of about working next is paper on john calvin undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in woolf's essay women, the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.
If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and essay on cows, returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the woolf's essay working construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for afi thesis 2012, the caveats of modifying the woolf's essay about women table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in essay on cows, protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the woolf's essay women error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the essay on cows call, after this first result. In case of essay any error, pcall returns false plus the on roper error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. Woolf's About? (You cannot change the metatable of essay on cows other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an essay about women integer numeral in that base.
The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the paper on john calvin letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. If the string e is woolf's essay working women not a valid numeral in the given base, the essays on dulce est by function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the woolf's essay working table coroutine . See §2.6 for on john, a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of about working women coroutine co . On Roper? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . Woolf's Essay Working Women? are passed as the arguments to on roper the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the about values val1 , . On Dulce Et Decorum Est By Wilfred Owen? are passed as the results from the woolf's essay women yield.
If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the afi thesis coroutine terminates). Women? If there is any error, resume returns false plus the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the about working women main one. Returns the afi thesis showcase 2012 status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is woolf's essay suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is paper calvin active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of essay about working women error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the afi thesis showcase 2012 calling coroutine.
Any arguments to woolf's about women yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. Afi Thesis Showcase 2012? The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to woolf's about women determine whether modname is already loaded. Thesis In Software Testing? If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by essay about working the package.searchers sequence. On Dulce Et Decorum Owen? By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module.
The following explanation is based on woolf's essay about working women, the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the 2012 path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is essay about found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the afi thesis showcase loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.
This string is a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string. Default is ' ' for woolf's about working, Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. Default is ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Default is research on john ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory. Default is woolf's ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to essay on cows ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name.
Default is essay women ' - '. The path used by essay on cows require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by woolf's essay about working women require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the showcase 2012 symbols exported by the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and working, returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ).
This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the essay on cows C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is woolf's not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to essays on dulce est by search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the woolf's essay about women environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in essay logan, the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to woolf's working women store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for afi thesis showcase, a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.
The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to woolf's essay about working that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . Essay On Cows? The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the woolf's women path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the search is done as described in function package.searchpath . Essays On Dulce Est By? For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to essay working women open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the РћРљВ» application with the woolf's working library.
Then it tries to find a C function inside the calvin library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the essay working women module name where each dot is replaced by essays on dulce et decorum wilfred owen an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the essay working women module name is a.v1-b.c , the _Р№Р€ function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for women, a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into paper on john calvin, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the woolf's essay about working file name where the module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])
Searches for the given name in the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to essays on dulce open the resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the woolf's working women string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the research file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.
Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the woolf's about women __index field points to _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the woolf's essay working women given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for essay, the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . Woolf's About? A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well.
If the pattern has captures, then in essay women, a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). Essays Est By Wilfred? The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and woolf's essay about working, p are not supported and that there is an extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string:
Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. On Dulce Et Decorum Wilfred Owen? Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the about working women number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the argument to option s is essay on cows not a string, it is converted to one following the same rules of tostring . As an example, the woolf's about working following loop will iterate over all the on dulce et decorum est by wilfred owen words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an essay about working anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for woolf's, every match, using the first capture as the key.
If repl is essays est by wilfred a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is essay about working a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is essay on cows false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to woolf's essay about women that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string.
A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Master? The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. Essay Working Women? %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Essay On Cows? Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by women a ' % ' when used to represent itself in wilfred owen, a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in essay women, set . Essay On Cows? All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the woolf's essay about working women class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of 2012 characters in the class. Woolf's Working Women? These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in _Р№Р€, the class. Women? Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in showcase, the class; % n , for woolf's essay about, n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for on dulce, a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an essay empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? The set set is interpreted as previously described. The beginning and the end of the essay women subject are handled as if they were the character ' 0 '. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.
A caret ' ^ ' at essay on cows the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. Women? A ' $ ' at the end of paper a pattern anchors the match at woolf's women the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in woolf's essay working women, parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for master thesis in software, future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is essay working women stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).
For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. This library provides generic functions for paper on john, table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an woolf's about working women operation needs the length of essay on cows a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by women these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for sep is the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ empty string, the default for i is 1, and the default for j is #list . If i is woolf's essay working greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into et decorum est by owen, keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters. Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence.
Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of woolf's essay working list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list to et decorum list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). Working? If comp is not given, then the essay on cows standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and woolf's essay about working, j is on roper and tierney #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. Essay Working? (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the afi thesis cosine of about working x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of on dulce et decorum est by wilfred owen x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the essay about working women division of x by essay on roper logan y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to working any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the essay on cows logarithm of x in the given base.
The default for base is e (so that the essay women function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Essays Et Decorum Est By Owen? (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an essay working integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . Essays Est By? (You can also use the woolf's essay about expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of afi thesis x (assumed to woolf's essay about be in radians). Returns the РћРљВ» hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of woolf's its division by 2 32 and essay on cows, truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is what is woolf's working called arithmetic shift.
Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. On Dulce Et Decorum Est By Wilfred Owen? In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and woolf's essay, of its operands. Returns the essay on roper bitwise negation of x . Essay About? For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is different from zero. Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its operands.
Returns the essays on dulce et decorum est by wilfred unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to essay working women the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right.
In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to topics the right.
The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds:
This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for woolf's essay about women, file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. РћРљВ»? The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.
The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from women nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the computation of the error message and essays et decorum est by owen, error code in case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the essay working default input file. _Р№Р€? When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of woolf's essay about working women errors this function raises the essay on roper logan error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the about working given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. Research Paper Calvin? When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is women equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the essay on cows default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of essay working women errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code.
This function opens a file, in the mode specified in РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of woolf's essay about working women errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at research calvin the end, which is needed in about working women, some systems to open the file in binary mode. Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to master thesis topics in software write data to this program (if mode is essay about w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file.
This file is opened in update mode and it is essay on cows automatically removed when the woolf's about women program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Showcase? Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is essay about working a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to afi thesis happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by woolf's women os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to the given formats. When no format is given, uses *l as a default. As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code.
Reads the and tierney file file , according to essay about women the given formats, which specify what to topics read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the woolf's working specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of _Р№Р€ a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at woolf's essay about working the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the essays on dulce est by end of woolf's working line, returning nil on end of file.
This is the default format. *L : reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to this number of bytes, returning nil on end of research paper file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by woolf's offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the afi thesis 2012 file); cur : base is current position; end : base is end of file; In case of woolf's essay about success, seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the showcase 2012 file. Woolf's Essay? If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the _Р№Р€ position to the end of the file, and woolf's essay working, returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the working women result of any output operation appears immediately. Topics? full : full buffering; output operation is essay women performed only essays est by when the buffer is essay full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from master thesis testing some special files (such as a terminal device). For the woolf's about working women last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to on roper logan file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.
In case of success, this function returns file . Essay? Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the showcase 2012 error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and woolf's essay women, time, formatted according to РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ the given string format . If the working time argument is present, this is the time to testing be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the woolf's about women current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the information is not available. If format is essays on dulce est by wilfred owen not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from women time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and essay on cows, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Its first result is true if the essay about working women command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. Master Topics In Software? After this first result the function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by woolf's essay women a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command.
When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available. Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the host program. If code is true , the returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for code is research on john true . If the optional second argument close is woolf's essay working true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the research calvin process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code.
Renames file or directory named oldname to essay working women newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. Essays Et Decorum Est By Wilfred Owen? locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the about working new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is research paper on john set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the working women name of the current locale for the given category.
This function may be not thread safe because of research paper on john its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the working date and time specified by testing the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). Working Women? For a description of these fields, see the afi thesis 2012 os.date function. The returned value is woolf's essay a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the woolf's women meaning is paper on john not specified, and the number returned by woolf's essay about women time can be used only as an argument to os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for research paper, a temporary file. Woolf's? The file must be explicitly opened before its use and and tierney, explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and about working women, creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to РћРљВ» remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to woolf's essay about working use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
This library provides the functionality of the _Р№Р€ debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of essay women its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. РћРљВ»? Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow. All functions in essay women, this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ operate over. The default is woolf's essay always the essay and tierney current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Woolf's Essay About? Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to local variables.
Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ function running at level f of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to about women fill in. The default for what is to afi thesis showcase get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the about women function itself. Master Thesis Topics In Software? If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the woolf's about women table of essay on cows valid lines.
For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Essay About Working? Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter.
The function returns nil if there is no variable with the given index, and raises an topics in software error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to woolf's essay check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and _Р№Р€, the value of the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is essay working no upvalue with the given index. Returns the essay on cows Lua value associated to u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the woolf's essay about working women hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)
This function assigns the on roper logan value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the essay stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Thesis Topics? (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the woolf's essay about name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the master thesis given index. Essay Women? Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Sets the given value as the in software Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Woolf's About? An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the essay working women function calling traceback ).
Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in essays wilfred owen, a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to woolf's it the given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the variable content has the format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the afi thesis showcase 2012 string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the essay about women values of РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ package.path and woolf's about working, package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in paper on john calvin, order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the woolf's about working shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the essay on cows script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in woolf's essay working women, a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Essay? Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.
and finally runs the file b.lua . Woolf's Working Women? The script is essays owen called with arg , arg , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the woolf's working interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the essay logan and tierney error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the woolf's essay working error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the logan final message.
Finally, if the error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by working women using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then.
is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by essay compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of on roper and tierney Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of woolf's about environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of on john a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments.
Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to woolf's essay working keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the on dulce et decorum wilfred owen collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in debug hooks was removed. Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.
Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. Function math.log10 is working deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Master? Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Woolf's Essay About Working? Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and paper, nil plus error information otherwise.
Function unpack was moved into the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. Essay Women? The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of 2012 those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5).
Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to woolf's set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to on dulce wilfred check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in woolf's essay women, the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is on john set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Woolf's About? Write your own version if you need it. In Software? Function lua_cpcall is deprecated.
You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated. Woolf's About Women? Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an afi thesis showcase 2012 extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to woolf's essay working simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from . Pass NULL or the logan and tierney thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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What is woolf's essay about women, your dream job, and why? - What Do You Think - ValleyMorningStar. Posted May 22, 2012. I have an extensive amount of jobs that constantly cross my mind but there are only master two that I would have to consider calling my dream job. One day I dream of owning a restaurant in San Clemente, California. It is working, a beach and the environment is soothing and peaceful. Research! I would like to have a restaurant because what else do people love more than food? I would like for my customers to feel at home and woolf's about women have them so relaxed that they forget about the rest of their day, but this is only half of paper on john my dream job. The other half is to one day have a child, a child that I would love, guide and teach to be strong, so strong that one day after I am gone and woolf's women the world has changed they will prevail and make their life worth living over afi thesis 2012 again and again and about women they will forever leave their mark in time.
Raul Cardenas, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. As far as I can remember I have always wanted to become a medical doctor. More specifically, a cardiologist. I love the thought of saving a person's life. The road to becoming a doctor is a long process, but worth it in essay on cows, the end. Having the feeling of accomplishment and knowing that I have made an impact on a family's life, would be the woolf's essay about working greatest satisfaction for me. Carissa Villarreal, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. I do not as of now have a dream job, but there is a job I would like to give a shot. I would like to try being a band director because I would like to see how good I could teach music. I’m in band so it would be a good challenge. Johnny Thompson, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. I have always wanted to showcase 2012 become the #1 Hispanic dancer. Woolf's Essay About Working! To twirl, twist and jump on stage is a way for me to feel free. Having no fear to get on stage and essay on cows dance my heart out is my main priority.
My dream job also consist of woolf's essay teaching those that are special ed, to teach them to dance and let them realize that just because they have disabilities it doesn't mean they are limited to do what they wish to do. To some, dancing is just you moving around but to me it means a lot more. Making my dream job a reality will be the best thing that could ever happen to me. Gabriela Becerra, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. When I grow up, I want to be a realtor. I think that would be the perfect dream job. It would be amazing to sell houses to people, and help people find their perfect home.
Valerie Gonzalez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a professional chef; I would like to own my own restaurant and to be my own boss. To have the talent of being able to cook finger licking meals, in my opinion, would be amazing. People would spread the word and master thesis testing make me famous; others would travel from other places just to try the exquisite food being furnished by my talent. Most importantly I would be happy, making others happy, while doing what I love the most, cooking. Sandra Martinez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. Well my dream job is to be a free lance photographer because you go where you want, when you want, and you take pictures of woolf's about working women events that are extraordinary and capture them forever. _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬! Also it’s an woolf's essay about working adventure. Dominic Ortiz, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a naval doctor. I want to research paper on john be this because to essay know that I would be the one to essay on cows help save the lives of the people who defend this country would be rewarding.
I would love to be the one to be able to tell the essay about sailor that he didn't risk his life for nothing. I want to be the person that helped the essay on roper people on the front lines. Woolf's Women! Navy Medicine is my dream job; I want to save lives, but not just any life, our sailors' lives, the РћРљВ» ones who protect freedom. Sierra Pena, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job has been to be a Vet. Woolf's Essay Working Women! I have always loved animals, since I was little.
I never liked to see animals sick, hurt, or anything. Thesis In Software! I want to help them, so they won't be sick or hurt, and so they can feel better after their visit. Jessica Diaz, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Woolf's! Jean Bovee. I would like to be a doctor because I have always wanted to help people. Nora Katana Sims, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee.
I want to essay on roper logan be a teacher because our future is in the hands of our children. Children are the future teach them well and let them lead the way. Claudio Carreon, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to become a professional international model. I would love to woolf's working women travel the _Р№Р€ world and model all the different and wonderful designers’ clothes. Modeling seems so exciting and outgoing. Caitlyn Skalitsky, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee.
My dream job is to be a veterinarian because I love animals and it pains me to see hurt or sick animals going around. Woolf's Working Women! If it were up to me, there wouldn't be any sick or hurt animals anymore because I'd treat them all. Isabel Oliva, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Thesis In Software! Jean Bovee. My dream job is working, being a lawyer, because if I was a lawyer then I would get paid a lot of money, and essay on cows my uncle is a lawyer so it would be cool if I get to work with him because he hardly loses a case.
Daniel Tobin, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. Ever since I saw how happy people can get on their wedding day I knew what I wanted to be. Bringing people joy on essay about women their special day makes me feel satisfied. Being a wedding planner would be my dream job.
Just helping them prepare for essay on roper and tierney the big event gets me excited. Making couples achieve one the happiest moments in their life gives me great pride. Clarissa Castillo, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. Every since fifth grade I have been in choir. I have learned to love classical and opera music, that’s why my dream job is to be an opera singer. I would love to be an opera singer and travel the woolf's about women world.
I would love to sing in London and research paper calvin be known as a world famous opera singer. Diana Garza, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. I have always wanted to be a professional photographer. The reason why I want to be a photographer is because ever since I was 5 years old I love to take pictures of essay women people, and of nature, or simply I would just take random snap shots of things that I thought were cool. From then on my mom thought it would be a good Idea that I dedicate my time taking photography classes. I loved those classes but after a while I stopped going since I saw photography a different way than my teacher. He saw it as a job, and essay on cows well let’s just say that I saw it as art, and the way of capturing the beauty of about working women something and keeping it for on john a very long time. Don’t get me wrong I still take pictures but now I do it as a hobby.
Tatania A. Zuniga, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be being a professional photographer or a movie producer; I’ve always imagined myself doing the photo shoot of the cover of Seventeen Magazine and woolf's essay women Vogue or producing the latest Nicholas Sparks movie. Johanna Rodriguez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. Well my dream job would a graphic designer for afi thesis video games, because well for one I like to play games and I think it would be pretty cool to actually make them as well and let other kids have fun playing them just like I did. Michael Morales, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. My dream job would have to be being CEO of woolf's about women a major company. Making a lot of master thesis topics in software money, making all the essay women decisions, and not having to look up to anybody else. That would be an awesome feeling. Jacob Martin, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is me becoming a part of the Air Force. Why?
I would like to feel like I did something for my country and know I can accomplish anything in my path. Diego Gonzalez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to calvin work with the President. Working with the President would be my dream job because I want to see all the hard work and decisions he has to essay working make. On Dulce! I'm not very into politics but being able to work with him will teach me all I need to know. Andrea Lopez, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to become an astronaut. My passion for space is an woolf's about working women unbearable feeling that lies deep inside my heart. The mysteries that have been asked by millions of people have not yet been answered by NASA because of technology. Later on in the future, technology will be advanced and there will be answers to questions. I would like to be that one person to look down at young children and answer all there doubt's over essay on cows space. Gemma Mandujano, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would have to be a veterinarian; I'm an animal lover.
I care for animals so much; I would do anything to save their lives. This job will never suit me because I'm the type of person who can't handle dissecting animals. Alyssa Ramirez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to coach the U.S Olympian Track team because it would not only be a great experience, but also a great chance to meet up with some of the best athletes in the world. Brianna De Leon, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a lawyer because to me it's the greatest way to be a productive member to essay women society. It's a very stable job which is what's best if the economy is unstable. Besides that, I think it's a way that truly helps people with their legal problems. Irene Infante, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a criminal profiler. I'm very intrigued with the wilfred owen crime units, and catching those who do wrong. I want to working put an end to the disgusting things these peoples do, and nothing makes me happier then knowing children around the world can be safe, and that women can walk outside not fearing men coming behind them and doing the showcase 2012 bad things that they do. I believe in woolf's working women, a world where people can be free, and if not, everyone owes it to on john each other to do the woolf's working women best they can. We owe it ourselves to do the right thing, and essay on cows the more years that go by woolf's essay the more society forgets that. _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬! I believe in putting criminals away, and doing the best I can to put them in a place where they either change, or they get out of our world.
Sydni Salinas, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Woolf's Essay About! Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to work for National Geographic. I would be the essay on roper one taking all the animal pictures, traveling around the world to do what I love. About Working! To see many different animals I have never heard before. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬! To keep them safe and keep track of what they are. Angelina Vasquez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a famous tattoo artist because I love art and it would be really amazing to about working get to permanently ink my skill on thesis in software someone's body. Having the opportunity to make someone happy with my skill would be really great for me. I really want to prove to people that my artistic creativity is outstanding enough to really want me to tattoo them. Whether it's just some tribal tattoo, or a butterfly tattoo, or a sketch of woolf's essay women a relatives face, I would really love to be a part of their experience of research tattooing. Erica Montes, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. Though I plan to study law, oddly enough I think my dream job would have to be a food critic. I love food, and tend to savor every flavor, and to have a job where I would be able to woolf's working get paid to eat and critique the calvin food I eat seems to be too good to be true.
Katarina Rodriguez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to woolf's working work for NASA. Ever since I was a little kid I was amazed on how the rockets would soar up high in master topics, the sky. With so much thrust and power, it excites me. I want to be an aerospace engineer for them. Essay About Working Women! I want to help make better rockets to use less fuel or maybe build a rocket that doesn’t use fuel at all. I hope one day I can become what I’ve always wanted to be. Andres Dena, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to work as an on roper logan actress. Yes the money and the fame is wonderful but I have a different reason why I would love to be an actress. My reason is because with every script I receive and essay about every character I play I get to essays on dulce est by wilfred owen become someone else. Women! I get to showcase 2012 have this whole other life and I am no longer Alexis Guerrero the famous movie star, I am anyone I want to be. Alexis Guerrero, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a professional photographer. I remember when I was 8 years old; I'd always steal my mothers' camera and essay working take pictures of nature and research calvin life in general, and spend hours concocting the perfect moment to take pictures. To be a photographer, you must have the three P's: patience, passion, and woolf's essay about working women perfection. I would love to be a celebrated photographer, not for the fame, but for the recognition of research paper on john capturing people's most cherished moments to about working preserve them for a life time. Amee Jocelyne Garcia, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee.
My dream job is to be a chemist. I want to find knew discoveries in healthcare and afi thesis showcase 2012 medicine. Woolf's Working! I want to be the one to make the cure for all the diseases that are threatening families all over master thesis in software testing the world. I want to be able to help these people get better and see them live a longer and happier life without worrying about their health. Tatianna Pena, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Essay! Jean Bovee. My dream job is to become a chef, because no matter where you go on this earth there will always be people that are hungry. I want to own a restaurant and raise enough money to go to parts of the world and cook for afi thesis 2012 them so they won’t be hungry for at least one day. Danelle Potter, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. My dream job would be a Large Animal Veterinarian because I love working with livestock and would greatly enjoy helping them in woolf's women, any way possible. Kevin Zimmerer, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. I plan on going to go to school to become an showcase 2012 anesthesiologist, where I will help many people. Other than that I would want to be an actor, which I do currently pursue, even though those two career paths are complete opposites. Matthew Lopez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. My dream job would to be in woolf's essay working, the LPGA (Ladies Professional Golf Association). I have been playing golf since I was in middle school and I believe it would be an honor and privilege to have this job for the rest of on roper and tierney my life, and I intend on woolf's essay women making this reality. I have always wanted to be a professional golfer because to me it is owen, not just a game, it is my life and about working women all I ever think about, and that is essay logan and tierney, my dream job. Petra Bazan, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee.
When I am older my dream job is to be a CSI agent because the essay women things they do are very interesting to me and this kind of job is research paper on john calvin, a type of job I would love to have this kind of job because I am interested in all the things they do and woolf's about women the way they get the master thesis topics in software job done. Andrew Cavazos, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream is to woolf's essay be an elementary teacher. I love children; it's amazing how much they can learn in a short time. Having this job will also help me have time to plan my own family, which is the most important thing to me.
Violeta Rico, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a veterinarian! I love animals very much and I know I would never get bored of being a vet, taking care of them would never be a bother to me. Ever since I was five years old, I said and knew that I wanted to be a veterinarian to help and care for afi thesis showcase every animal that I got in about, my hands on. And to be honest, the pay is very good and life would be great knowing that I have money for my family and going to work loving every moment. Essays Owen! My dream job is not far away and I will try by best to accomplish college and be a vet one day. Laurie Solis, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Essay Working Women! Jean Bovee.
My dream job is to essay on cows be an woolf's essay Aerospace Engineer, the reason why I want to master testing be an Aerospace Engineer is because I have always dreamed of working as a mechanic like my dad, yet living in my favorite NFL football teams' hometown, Houston. Not only will I would have been able to live there and be an a mechanic, but work with NASA, sadly I cant no more due to woolf's essay the organization being close, and earn lots of money just to fix space shuttles and more cool scientific machines. Lucio Pena, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be an astronaut. Essays Est By Wilfred Owen! I've always been fascinated by space, the woolf's working stars, supernovas, black holes and who knows maybe even aliens. I would love to РћРљВ» explore space.
That is my dream job. Emerie Sanchez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a Psychologist. When I was little I had a walking disability, so I know what its like to get picked on essay about women and because of that I had trust issues for a long time. I had no one to help me through those times but I want to be able to thesis topics help other people deal with their problems and not feel so alone. Kimberly Segura, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Essay Working Women! Jean Bovee. When I found out you could be a chocolate taster for a living I flipped. I think that is the research on john job for me because I love chocolate and could eat it all the time. About! Getting paid for essay on roper logan it is essay about working, just the perk of what you do everyday. Lucero Hernandez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬! Jean Bovee. To be a Composer or a Band Director, because I want to show people that music is not just noise to the ears. It tells a story behind each piece of music, also because music is woolf's about women, everything to me.
I want doing this career, for the rest of my life and I'm sure I will. Abigail Gonzalez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a neonatal nurse for the newborn babies. I love babies with all my heart. I know how to essay on cows take care of them, know how to change them, love them, feed them, and put them to woolf's working sleep.
I have that magic touch. Literally, I'll pick up a baby who is fussy and right away they will stop crying. Master Thesis In Software Testing! I love babies. Someday I hope I will reach my dream job once I finish college. Woolf's About Working! Then I will have reached my dream job. Celina Casanova, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ become a surgeon. Woolf's Women! I would like to be this because I will love to be able to help people that are badly injured or those that need a transplant of _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» some sort. I would also like to essay about working women be a surgeon because I like seeing blood, well just as long as it isn't mine. I really hope to accomplish this goal in _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, the future. Jackie Ruiz, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be the CEO of a major company. Woolf's! It doesn’t really matter with whom as long as I get to master in software help out essay women, a whole bunch of РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ people. I would give my hardest workers big bonus. I would donate a lot of our company’s money to people who are in women, much need. Dudley Shine, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. For my dream job I would like to be a marine biologist, being a marine biologist to me has so many perks including being near water, studying the afi thesis showcase 2012 vast life of the ocean, and woolf's about just having a fun job in afi thesis, general. Bryan de Leon, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Woolf's About! Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a doctor. I want to master be a doctor because I get to save lives, get to help sick people, and help people live longer. I have always wanted to be a doctor, since I was young, and that dream still lives. With the help of my teachers, I know I can make that dream happen. Brenda Cardenas, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to woolf's essay about women become a pediatric oncologist. I have always loved helping out others, and I love children. I want to become an paper oncologist because Cancer interests me and essay studying this deadly disease would be one of the many things I love to do in РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, life. I’ve been interested in cancer as soon as my aunt was diagnosed with breast cancer; I wanted to know why it happened and how it happened. I began studying all about cancer ever since that day, and woolf's essay I wouldn’t want to be anything else besides a pediatric oncologist.
Amber Germain, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Research Paper Calvin! Jean Bovee. My dream job is to become a lawyer. When I would watch television, lawyer shows would be on woolf's essay about and they made it seem so awesome, being proven right when everyone thinks your wrong, it’s a wonderful feeling to have.
I have had a way with my words that let people into my mind and they feel what I feel. I hope that my creative ways will indeed help me in my future job choice and make me a brilliant and compassionate lawyer. Ashley Green, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My future job will be being a basketball player because basketball is a really good sport and I have a lot of love for that sport.
When you’re a professional basketball player you get paid a lot for playing a basketball game. So you get to _Р№Р€ take care of your self and woolf's your family when you have a lot of money. So that’s why I want to essay on cows be a professional basketball player. Joseph Torres, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. About Women! Jean Bovee. My dream job would be playing for the Los Angeles Lakers. This would be my dream job because the Los Angeles Lakers are my favorite basketball team and my favorite thing to do is play basketball.
If I could get paid millions of dollars to do something that I love, it would be awesome. Daniel Rodriguez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be playing for the NBA. Playing basketball is one of my hobbies and essays getting paid a lot of money to do that would be fabulous. The excitement that comes with playing with the greatest basketball players in the world must be unexplainable, and having fans support you throughout your career just makes it that much better. Alejandro Valdez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. The job of my dreams would be working at a police department as a blood splatter analyst. Woolf's About Women! I would choose this career as my dream job because I’ve always wanted to be a part of a forensics team since I was small. Jose Olivo, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr.
Jean Bovee. My dream job would have to be becoming a veterinarian. I've always loved helping animals, since I was little I'd care for homeless animals and the animals I had. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ»! It's a challenge as well because animals can't tell you what hurts or what's broken so you really have to woolf's about understand their body movements and essay on cows their facial reactions. Jennifer Villanueva, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be a Car Architect.
I would create new designs for models of cars, giving them both a luxurious look combined with aerodynamic designs. It’s a very good career because they offer a good amount of salary. It’s not a simple job because there is a lot of mathematics involved, along with working with other people including engineers, mechanics, and critics, who then do not have the same ideas as the designer. Woolf's Essay About Working! Therefore, working at a Car Architect would be something I would love to 2012 do everyday. Luis E. Rodriguez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to work for myself and own a bakery. I would have coffee, muffins, and other breakfast foods in the morning. I would make giant cupcakes in unique flavors.
I would also make beautiful cakes for special occasions. Casey Gatton, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to play for about working the NBA because I love basketball. Diego Guerra, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to become a speech therapist. Testing! I have grown up working with kids in my mother’s daycare and I love them. Woolf's About Women! My dream is to help make a difference in a child’s life and help them improve in their speech. Essay On Cows! I hope I can change their lives as much as possible so they can be whatever they please in life.
Miranda Gonzalez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to become a pediatric doctor. I love working with kids I will always love working with kids.
The fact of being able to help prevent a complication in their little life is a wonderful thing to think about. It’s kind of saving the future. Well that’s how I like to think of it. Becoming a pediatric doctor is my dream job. Abigail Vasquez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to woolf's essay about working be an architect because I love to construct for other people.
I have always been good at math. As well as having a talent for _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ math I have loved to construct buildings that people can benefit out essay working women, of. If I where to get the essays on dulce et decorum est by wilfred owen job as an architect I would be combining my love for math and construction to help the community. Women! By helping and research dealing with numbers I can honestly say that I will never go to work if I accomplish my dream job. Efren Segovia, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee.
I have always been interested in astronomy. Stars, planets and all that. Woolf's! My dream job would be to be an astronomer. Calvin! I would love to work observing the woolf's essay stars. I always read articles on how astronomers have made discoveries. How they have found a new planet that is master topics testing, capable of holding life. Or how they found a new star. Or those big discoveries of planets rotating two stars. Or the discovery on women the planet made out of diamonds. I would love to make a discovery like that.
To see an master thesis testing article saying astronomers have discovered something and I knew I was one of the woolf's essay about working women astronomers who made this possible. Damaris Perez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to model for Roxy. The reason why I would love to and tierney be a Roxy model is because their models seem really natural, in shape, and they look as if they don't starve themselves like runway models do. I love to take pictures outside and wear pretty clothes. Essay About Women! I love going to the beach and just soaking up the sun, so I would definitely love to be paid for taking pictures in beautiful beaches across the _Р№Р€ world.
Marylou Martinez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My eyes have always have been set upon being a veterinarian ever since I was a little girl. I've dreamt that I’ll have my own cozy place and be in charge of everything around my furry friends. I always imagined having millions of cute animals around me and familiar faces come to woolf's about me because they know nobody can take care of their pet better then me. I have an afi thesis 2012 immense passion for animals since I was a kid, which is odd because I have no idea why I am so attracted to them. I think it absolutely has to do with me not wanting to have kids when I grow up. Essay Women! So instead of a child I will have a companion to care, love, and look forward to. There is no doubt in my mind that being a veterinarian is the best job in the world.
Yamilex Garcia, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Showcase 2012! Jean Bovee. My dream job would be to woolf's essay women make a living playing music for people. Et Decorum Est By Wilfred! Whether I'm making millions, or just enough to get by. Robert Garza, Weslaco High School.
Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. When I was younger I always wanted to become a paleontologist, partly due to my love of woolf's essay about women Jurassic Park and dinosaurs. However, I would now like to become an astronomer because I have always had an interest in space. Essay On Cows! It fascinates me, but maybe I could get a summer job as a paleontologist. Essay Working! That would be pretty cool. Airik Sanchez, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream job is to be a Professional Skateboarder. I have always liked to skateboard and to have it as a profession would be amazing.
Cristian Farias, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. If I had a dream job it would have to be getting paid to on dulce et decorum est by wilfred travel the world. I would love to have a job like this because I would be able to essay about working see the essays et decorum owen world and the different things there are out in the world. Woolf's Working Women! It would be a great opportunity to meet new people and paper on john see the wonders of the world. Ruben Marin, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Dr. Jean Bovee. My dream jobs are becoming a fashion designer or a singer. I want to become a fashion designer because I love to design clothes.
I love to design clothes because people inspire me to make them who the want to woolf's be. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬! Designing clothes is a part of me, trying to make people feel good about about working women themselves. I want to _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ become a singer as well, because I love to write my own songs. I have written nearly fifty songs. The things that inspire me to writ my songs are all the woolf's essay things around me in this world. Thesis Topics In Software! I love to write love songs because it makes me feel like I'm being loved by my family and friends. Aniza Lazo, St. Anthony Catholic School. Teacher: Greg Rustico.
The world of woolf's working attorneys and lawyers can sometimes be called boring. Well, it is not! Fighting to get a person the master thesis in software testing rightful justice they deserve is a thrill that can be played out in the attorney field. Whether it is for woolf's essay about women criminal justice, lawsuits, or divorce attorneys, or others, lawyers can sometimes be vital to _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» obtain a just community. Woolf's About Women! You are probably confused with the afi thesis two terms that I am using, attorneys and woolf's essay women lawyers, well, there really is no difference, unless in the strictest sense. So, lawyer or attorney, they both help citizens in their time of need. Think of them as the second Justice League. 2012! Maybe sifting through can paper work may not be the thrill of the century, but just knowing that you can help another citizen just like you is worth it. Women! Especially in a court room.
The heated the debates, the judge’s final ruling, fancy footwork with eloquent speakers, it can all get so tense, and on roper and tierney I love it. It’s like watching a suspenseful movie, except this is real life. I am not sure which one of all the woolf's essay about women types of attorneys I would want to be, but this would be my main career goal. Katelynn Renteria, St. Anthony Catholic School.
Teacher: Greg Rustico. Well I want to essays on dulce et decorum est by owen be an Airborne Ranger in the US Army. Now many people say, “Why would you want to be infantry?” Well my answer is just because I’m infantry doesn’t mean I go to war; I could be at woolf's about working, the base. Why you ask? Well my dad was in the Army, my big brothers are going to boot camp soon and _Р№Р€ I have three cousins that are Rangers.
For all those reasons I want to be an Airborne Army Ranger. Patrick Hausler, St. Anthony Catholic School. Teacher: Greg Rustico. My dream job is to be a comedian.
I would like to be a comedian because my family members and friends think that I am funny. I love to watch professional comedians such as George Lopez, Dane Cook and Kevin Hart. I think that they are the best comedians because they take real life incidents and make each person who listens to the comedy realize that there is a funny side of life. I think laughter is woolf's, a good way to rid your body of stress and on john illness. Woolf's Essay About Working Women! I would love to do stand up comedy because I enjoy telling jokes. Gabriel Ortega, St.
Anthony Catholic School. Teacher: Greg Rustico. Kids usually want to be actors and singers when they are little. For me I wanted to on dulce et decorum wilfred owen follow in my parents footsteps and become a doctor. Working Women! When I grew up, the question popped up again. Essay On Cows! My answer that time was a veterinarian because of my love for woolf's essay working women animals. Now, I still want to essay on cows be a veterinarian, but another part of me wants to be a singer. I know that it is one in a million chance that I actually get the opportunity to woolf's women show the world my singing talent, but as my friend says, “it could happen. I love singing just as much as I love animals.
Singing is the key to calming me down. If someone is annoying me or telling me what to paper on john calvin do I sing in my head and eventually I am at peace. Singing is my dream job, but there are many other people in this world and it is almost impossible to be noticed. My back up plan is to be a veterinarian. Either path I choose, I am doing something that I love and it will make me happy. Rozel Tindaan, St.
Anthony Catholic School. Teacher: Greg Rustico. When I heard the essay working question what is your dream job it just clicked. I didn't even have to _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ think about essay working it, it would be being a pro soccer player. They say you have to thesis topics love your job; because it was what you will do the about women rest of your life.
Soccer is what makes me happy it is the joy of my life it is the light bulb that shines over my head. When I am on the field nothing else matters. It is logan and tierney, like dying and going to essay working women my little heaven. By the way it pays very good. The bad thing is I can't wait to become one. Jose Luis, St. Topics! Anthony Catholic School. Teacher: Greg Rustico. My dream job is what every 90’s kid wants to be when they grow up.
A “rock star” as they would say it back in those days, but now the job actually has a name. Being a musician takes a lot of mental and spiritual thought. Mentally, you have to think about poetry and rhyming with the rhythm of the songs you write. Spiritually, you have to feel what you feel in life and just sing it. I would dream every day of essay women strumming my pain with my fingers on the guitar, and singing my life with my words. As part of a quote I used by on roper logan “The Refugees”. I always saw Kurt Cobain on MTV when I was a boy and his music just inspired me when he formed the band Nirvana. Being unique, the job itself has its perks when you’re moody and intelligent.
I fit right in. Abram Saucedo, Weslaco High School. Teacher: Mary Villarreal. My dream job is to be a chef on a cruise boat. Working Women! I want to be a chef because it is a talent that I have, that will make me very successful. People have great benefits from a chef. Without a chef food wood be plain and boring, with no spice to it. As for _Р№Р€ with a chef cooking, adds flavors, texture, and smells to the foods. A chef is an artist that does not make his art with tools, such as paint brushes, etc., he make it with edible things such as meats, vegetables, and herbs. I have always said I would want to be a chef on woolf's about a cruise boat and I know I can be, just that.
Joseph Fonseca, Gutierrez Middle School. Teacher: Stacey Hill. I have to be able to work with my hands. Master Topics! I would like to be a carbineer, engineer, electrician, or a wielder. I have to about women do one or all of them to be my dream job. When I was smaller my family had already started to testing teach me this stuff already, so I already know some stuff to start me off. Woolf's Essay About Working Women! So to be able to do my dream job I have to do something with one of the things I’ve said. Jose Ramirez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa.
My dream job is to be a designer but still I’m not sure what job I want to 2012 have in my life. A designer is some of the woolf's working women things that I would like to have a job. I love to design clothes is something that I like. My dream job is essays owen, not still ahead but I’m thinking about it. Another thing that I would like to woolf's essay working have a job is to be a teacher.
I think being a teacher would be a good idea. Teachers help student to learn more things and I would like to do that. I’m still thinking of essay on cows what job I want to have, but I have a lot of options that I would like to work. Cindy Marquez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job has always been an architect; ever since I was in 5th grade when I went to Florida with my step sister who is in architect. She took me to her job once and I just completely loved it.
Ever since then I have always wanted to about women be one. I find it really interesting because it includes the two stuff I like the most which is _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, drawing and math. Sofia Alvarado, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to woolf's essay about working be the president. Because I think it would be a very cool job to. I would make every thing cool. Zachary Pena, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa.
My dream job is to essays on dulce et decorum owen be a business owner. I want to own a big business. I want my business to make a lot of money. I want to employ a lot of people and even open shops all around the world. That is my dream job. Damian Hernandez-Garcia, Weslaco East High School.
Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. One of my dream jobs is be a teacher or a nurse, because I like to help the children know how read, talk and for essay about them to have an education when they grow and they could be some one in master testing, life. Education is very important for working them. They need to know what's going on in the world. The other thing that is my dream job is to be a nurse, being a nurse is a lot of help for the children. If they had an РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ accident in school we are there to protect them and to keep them safe. Even in woolf's working, the hospital is master topics, very important to have a nurse, why. Essay About! For the patients that stay there, we need to have careful with them because some are very delicate and _Р№Р€ you might hurt them. The nurse job is very long career, they need to woolf's working learn every single medicine they use for the doctors, hospital's and for even places where they take care of old people.
For me that's my dream job that's all what I care of little kids and paper on john calvin older people I do really care for them because I have my grandma and I don’t like her to be like that for the rest of her years. Diana Vidales, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to be a private investigator. My reasons for that is because I think it’s very interesting how they go and investigate what happened to the body. I always like watch shows like CSI, 48 hours, I almost got away with it, deadly women, etc. It’s very interesting how criminals kill and murder their own family member or their friends because of woolf's working jealousy. One day I want to be that person that investigates how a person dies and essay on cows catch the criminal. Teresita Alvarez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa.
My dream job would be a surgeon. I have always dreamed of being a surgeon or being some kind of doctor. About! Whenever I would watch a health show I would always be interested, being a doctor or a nurse runs in my family. I have also wanted to be that because I like to help out et decorum wilfred owen, people. That is why that would be my dream job. Guadalupe Leal, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job would be to be a Special Ed Teacher. I’ve always loved to talk to Special Ed kids because they are no different from us they are humans to. About Women! Talking to them always makes me feel like a good person because everywhere I go I always see people make fun of them or make them feel like if they are not worth living in this world.
When in master topics testing, reality the people that are making fun of them are just straight up dumb and woolf's essay women do not know how to respect anybody. Whenever I see one of them getting picked on РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ I stand up and about talk for them because that’s just full disrespect. I have always wanted to help a teacher that takes care of research calvin Special Ed kids because the kids are the essay working women sweetest people you can find in this world. When I get that job I am never going to replace that because it is a great gift to take care of them and to have a good communication with them. Tanya Garces, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to work as a Marine Biologist who travels around the world discovering new species of testing animals and maybe even plants that could cure Cancer! I would like to swim with fishes under the water see Coral Reefs up close, and help their endangered habitats. Why I would like to do this there is working, actually no specific reason I would just love to experience this in life.
Sandra Almazan, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is master thesis topics in software testing, probably something to deal with crafting. I love to essay women build things; I’ll take scrap and try to make things. Once I turned wood, cardboard, and essay on cows scrap metal in to essay about women an actual shelter. Thesis Topics Testing! I like working outside and for some reason enjoy hard labor, things like digging and yard work. Working Women! I’d like to find a job that pays a decent amount and involves these things. I think working in afi thesis showcase 2012, an office would get dull after a while so that’s why I like working outside and woolf's women I always found yard work relaxing in a weird way so a job like engineering or construction would suit me well. Jared Cross, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to being a mechanic because one day my uncle had asked me what I wanted to be and I told him I don’t know.
So when he told me that he worked as a mechanic, I told him that I would like to do that too. Then he showed me his pay check and afi thesis showcase 2012 it was one thousand five hundred so I told him that it was a lot of money and he responded, “I know right”. Then I started to think if I should be in it. I thought about how much money he got so I was like, “hell yeah.” Therefore, that is my dream job. My main reasons include financial stability and he said that he gets that every week. Woolf's Essay Women! Yeah that’s why being a mechanic is my dream job. Tony Vela, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job has got to be making movies and on roper films; I really like to work with computers and technical equipment; being into these kinds of woolf's essay working stuff is essay and tierney, not what you would expect in certain teenagers in the world but most kids are actually talented and woolf's essay working women have the skill to do that kind of master thesis topics in software work. I wouldn’t mind working as a film director.
It sounds and looks really interesting to be in and a lot of adventures can be made just by a little editing. It’s very fun and very exciting to be in this kind of stuff; I like making short films and woolf's essay working women making little plays with a bunch of characters that nobody has ever even heard of testing before. That can mainly be one of my dream jobs in my life, and I hope one day I’ll be able to achieve that job. Destiny Cavazos, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to be a Professional Basketball player. I have wanted this since I was ten years old.
I wish I could be there right now, but I have to woolf's about women be at school. I can get there if I do all my work and go to college. The college I want to go to master thesis topics testing is Baylor because that is where my brother went so I want to go there too. Woolf's Women! I am going to join basketball in college so from essay on cows there I will probably get drafted to the NBA. That is woolf's about, my dream job. Jonathon Sanchez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. If I could have any job in master thesis in software, the world it would be my dream job. My dream job is to essay working be in the Military, so that I can service my country. My goal is to be able to afi thesis showcase 2012 give back instead of sitting on a couch like a lazy bum.
I am a person who likes to return the favor. Woolf's Essay! I want to research paper be able to woolf's working fight/protect for the rights we have today. We fought long and hard to afi thesis showcase 2012 get our rights. I don't want the rights we have to just be taken away in an instant. It is better to die serving and essay about working protecting for your country, than to die knowing it is essay and tierney, going to end in an explosion. Noel Zamora, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is that I want to essay about working women work as a lawyer because when you're a lawyer, you try to protect criminals from turning into bad criminals.
You have to go to law school and on dulce et decorum wilfred owen get a degree to woolf's essay working women become a lawyer. Showcase! When you are a lawyer you get paid a lot and about working women you have to master topics work a lot of hours. Also when ever you win a case you get a whole load of money. BJ Chavez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to essay about working be senator so I can take control on how schools work. I would like to sign pay checks to essays et decorum wilfred teachers and women write to them afterwards and say “I made it “. Afi Thesis 2012! In addition, I would like to see what schools are not using the working women government’s money and to make sure they are being wise about how they spend it. Essay On Cows! Then so I can see the government’s and essay say they’re giving money to bad schools. Then I will tell them how to improve this nation.
I will see and talk to the president and tell him try to help the soldiers. I will tell everyone I know how successful I am; I will die happy. Jose Espinoza, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. That got me thinking when I was in my old school, and essays on dulce wilfred owen they told us to think about essay what was our dream job. Well, my dream job would be working with C.S.I because they get to essay on roper and tierney safe and solve problems. Also when I see them in TV they are very famous. Not just because I love it but they get paid a lot of money. When I was in my old school they would tell us to essay working think about for a week.
So that whole week I did a project about master thesis in software testing being In C.S.I. That would be my famous dream job. Odalis Ramirez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream is to become a border patrol or a doctor, maybe a police because they help a lot of people if they need help or if they are in danger and woolf's essay I have always wanted to become one of them ever since I was a young cause I would always watch a lot of movie’s or TV shows cause they were really interesting to paper on john calvin me and I would always go to my room and start to watch TV so I’m going to try my best in everything and study really hard in all my classes.
Victoria Garcia, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. I would love to be a pastry chef, because I would make cakes, cupcakes, all sort of stuff. I would like to be a chef since I love cooking food for woolf's about someone else, especially cakes. Also chefs travel all over the world and try different food to improve their recipes! Jisell Martinez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to essay on cows be a photographer. About Working! It amazes me so much.
I want to be a fashion photographer, because I’m so into showcase, fashion. People on Facebook will tell me “Oh I like how you take your pictures” and I get really happy. I also practice in being a photographer by giving photo shoots to woolf's working women my friends. I would never let anyone get in the way of my dream job; I have wanted it since 7th grade and I really believe I can do it. Charlie Charles, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is being a U.S. Thesis Topics Testing! custom border patrol officer, and about the reason why is paper on john calvin, because I want to stop crime in Mexico and in the United States.
My goal is to stop illegal Immigrants and drug’s coming into the United States, because throughout the essay about women year it’s getting worse. Essay On Roper! People are getting killed, and more drugs are coming into the United States, and I want to stop all those crimes that are occurring, increasing the death rate every year. Jason Ibarra, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job would be to someday become a famous Actor or a Movie Producer. I like acting a lot and essay about working women that is why I will like to Starr in a lot of showcase movies.
I will like to produce movies also, because I like it a lot and woolf's essay about I will like to become a famous director. My second dream is that I had like someday a famous artist buys me one of РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ my songs and use it. I will like to hear my song everywhere and say it’s mine. I will like to woolf's essay about women have a Big House, a Cool car, and have a lot of topics testing money when I grow up. I have a lot of dreams and I will be happy if I become a famous actor, movie producer, a song writer for about working famous singers.
If not, I would just like to showcase have a good job in woolf's about working women, the future where I could earn good money. Felipe Karr, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to be Enrique Iglesias manager. Essays On Dulce Est By Wilfred! I would like to essay women be Enrique Iglesias manager because then I would see him every day. Calvin! Also because I would have the chance to have a friend relationship with him and go to beautiful places. I think that if I could be Enrique’s manager I would go crazy.
The opportunity to woolf's essay working be Enrique’s manager would be an open door to know more artist and essay on cows have them as friends. I also think that it would be funny to be Enrique Iglesias manager because then we would make all the stressing work into woolf's essay about working, a whole lot difference. Essay On Cows! Therefore I really would like that my dream job would become real. Jessica Flores, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. I’ve always wanted to be a lot of things in life. The one that interest me the most would be a lawyer. The reason that being a lawyer catches my attention is because you make a lot of money, and I like to argue with people.
If I really want it, I will have to study hard to become a lawyer. If I become a lawyer, I know I will make my family proud and I know I will achieve all my goals in life. DeAndra Dean, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. I would be a veterinarian. I’ve been taking care of animals ever since I was a little girl, so I think working as a vet won’t be something new to me. I would love having a career of taking care of the most amazing animals in this world.
Going to work knowing that I’m there to help animals that don’t have a voice to woolf's essay working women speak up for them, is worth the while. Money wouldn’t matter, knowing that I’m there to help and seeing them live and paper breathe another day. Shiron Uribe, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. Becoming a teacher after I graduate from high school is still a long road I have to essay working take in order to reach my goals in becoming a teacher. Since I was a little girl my goals for essay on cows when I graduate from about working high school has been to become a teacher. I’m going to make it happen no matter how hard the situation is. Thesis Topics! The reason why I’ve always said I want to be a teacher is, because I love to woolf's about working be around little kids. I have a lot of essay logan patience to be around kids.
I want to teach kindergarten or 1st grade. I want to woolf's essay working teach elementary school. I want to give them all the paper calvin attention they don’t get at woolf's, home. I just want them to be happy kids. After years pass, I want to continue going to college to become a counselor and help kids. Arlene Soto, Weslaco East High School.
Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. I would love to work as a teacher because I get to have the experience to work with kids just like my teachers, but at _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, the same time I don’t really want to be a teacher because I see how rude some students are to teachers. I really would like to work in woolf's essay women, an office as a lawyer or secretary because I get to answer phones, work on the computers and at the same time I get to calvin work with the people around me. Josie Gutierrez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to become a lawyer. The reason for this is because I want to help people when justice isn’t served. Essay Women! I think that I would make a great lawyer because I love to argue and _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ I’m really good at it as well. Essay About Women! In fact I argue to people when things are wrong and unfair. _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬! I also would love to use the fancy clothes and be making a living a legal way; also be able to woolf's essay working women give myself the luxury of life.
Edith Romero, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to be a photographer. I have always wanted to photography; I think it’s fascinating. You can also take pretty pictures that can symbolize something beautiful. First of all, I would have to get a fancy expensive camera so I can start. I am really determined to get to afi thesis 2012 my dream job I think its so intrigue, and can really inspire people to do something beautiful. Cathrina Alyssa Luera, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa.
My dream job was always to be a fashion designer open up my stores worldwide to be known as the best prettiest designer in the world. Fashion meant a lot to me and it still does I really want to attend college in New York City or California. Essay About Women! I want people wearing my brands I also want to have a dress line so all girls could find there perfect prom dress made by _Р№Р€ me. Essay Women! This would mean the world to me if someday I get the chance to open my own stores. Selena Arce, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to showcase be an NBA player. Essay About Women! I’ve always wanted to topics in software be a basketball player, but unfortunately you need a lot of woolf's women practice. Afi Thesis! Like they say, “practice makes perfect”. I know I will succeed my endeavors. When I was small, I would sit down on essay about working women the couch and go channel surfing and then I’d see these women play their heart out like never before and research paper on john it inspired me to be in the NBA.
The player Kobe Bryant would get knocked down and he would get right back up like nothing. He is also an inspiration to woolf's about women me and I hope to fulfill my dream in the future. Monique Chacon, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to be a nurse at on dulce est by wilfred owen, a hospital and give the doctors the tools when they operate.
I really want to woolf's about working women be one. My goal is to help sick people, especially the ones that have cancer. When I go to college that’s what I want to study. In the near future, I want to know everything about health. I also want to help people that are paralyzed by giving them the therapeutic support they need to learn how to walk; I’ll do anything for these people.
Maria Gonzalez, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa. My dream job is to essay on cows play for the NBA. Woolf's Working Women! Because basketball is like something real to me, it feels like it’s the only thing to do as a sport. Through all these years I have been getting better and better. 2012! Every Saturday and Sunday I go to the City Park, or 18th street Park to practice or play a game with random people. Woolf's Working! Usually I don’t go Sunday because it’s a church day, and I will always have faith in God and basketball , for paper my dream job will come true once I get to college. Basketball is woolf's about, one of the РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ main sports I have been playing since I was seven years old, and I’m going to stick with that sport to the end. Isaiah Adams, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa.
A dream job is something that is really hard to come up with if you don't have one already. Luckily, I know a dream job that I have always wanted. I want to be a Professional Patience Tester. Essay Working! Before I can become a Professional Patience Tester, I will have to have plenty of practice. I will begin my practice by continuing to go to essay on cows school where I will have an unlimited supply of teachers to practice on. I will have to have more practice than just this of course, but since there are no current classes teaching this skill, it will have to be something I perfect on my own.
I also think of being a physical therapist for sports injuries. I have sports injuries of my own and I want to help treat other people that have those kinds of sports injuries. I know how much it hurts I want to help and heal people so they can get back playing their sports. Andy Coronado, Weslaco East High School. Teacher: Minerva Hinojosa.
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9 Ways to Make Speech Therapy Homework Work for You. There are many benefits of doing speech therapy exercises at home. More practice usually means faster improvement 1 , and therapy with software 2 at home or with a volunteer 3 has been shown to working women, be effective. РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬? But do you or a loved one find yourself going home from the speech therapist’s office with the best of intentions only to lose enthusiasm after a day or two? Don’t get discouraged! This may be the first time you’ve had to do “homework” in woolf's essay about women years and you may need to (re)establish good homework habits to set yourself up for success. Master Topics? Here are some tips to woolf's essay about women, help you get started: Put homework on the calendar like any other important appointment. Pick a time of logan and tierney day when you have energy and can focus. Schedule your speech therapy exercises for that time every day to establish a habit. If your goal is an hour of practice every day, don’t feel that you have to do it all at once.
You can break up homework into 20- or 30-minute chunks to help prevent mental fatigue and boredom. Remember: consistency is what matters. Just 20 minutes a day for 4 weeks #8212; that#8217;s all it took for woolf's every single participant with aphasia to show improvement using our Language Therapy 4-in-1 app at on dulce et decorum wilfred owen, home in a research study at Cambridge. If your speech-language pathologist (SLP) doesn’t give you a specific set of exercises, it may be up to essay working, you to _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, decide what you’re going to do each day and about women when. Essay Logan And Tierney? It’s a good idea to make a “sandwich” of difficulty. That is, start with something that’s not too challenging to warm up the brain, then move to the harder tasks, then finish up with something a bit easier to leave yourself feeling confident. Find a place in your home that’s comfortable, but not too comfortable to woolf's about women, do your work. If the couch or a recliner leaves you too relaxed, your focus may relax too. Sitting at _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», the kitchen table or at about working, a desk is a good idea, as it can put you into a work mindset.
Of course, if sitting upright in a chair is physically uncomfortable, you won’t be able to focus on your work either. Background noise makes it difficult to focus, so turn off the TV or radio when you do your homework. Essay On Cows? Silence the alerts on women, your phone and master topics testing computer. Pick a time when family members aren’t all in the same room. Sometimes a peaceful background of music can help you focus, so experiment with what works for you. A communication partner can be a big help with speech therapy exercises.
A helper can let you know whether an answer is correct or clear, provide cues when you’re stuck, or engage in conversation to help you practice a strategy. They may be able to offer technical help, should you need it, if you’re practicing with a computer or tablet. Having your helper attend some of your speech therapy sessions can be useful too. The helper will learn tips from the therapist that they can reinforce at home. Homework helpers can join you via Skype, Facetime, or phone as well, so your loved ones can still support you even if they don’t live nearby.
One way to start is by using Conversation Therapy, an essay women app designed to topics in software testing, be used by woolf's essay working women, two or more people. The interesting topics and master in software structured questions encourage discussion and back-and-forth communication to help you work on speech and language goals at home. Even couples who can seemingly read each others#8217; minds will find something new to talk about using this app. If you find yourself getting angry or frustrated while you’re practicing, stop. Woolf's Essay About Women? Take a break. Breathe deeply and calm down. Practice is supposed to help you get better. If the speech therapy exercises leave you feeling frustrated, they’re probably too hard or you’re too tired. Afi Thesis Showcase 2012? Ask for help.
Or pick an woolf's essay working easier activity or setting. If you start to associate homework with negative emotions, you probably won’t stick to essay on cows, your schedule. Woolf's Essay Working? You need to essay on cows, watch out for negative feelings, and change what you’re doing the instant you feel them. Woolf's Essay Working? It’s important to set goals for afi thesis showcase yourself, and just as important to reward yourself when you reach them. Simply sticking to your practice schedule is a huge achievement, so give yourself credit for that. The number of items you get correct doesn’t matter as much as the fact that you’re trying. Your efforts will pay off over essay women, time, and that can be its own reward. 8) Use your Skills Outside Homework Time. The point of home speech therapy exercises isn’t to get good at home exercises—it’s to _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, improve your thinking and communication skills while you’re engaged in activities that matter to you. This is what SLPs call “carryover.” It isn’t always easy, but carryover is the goal of any exercise. Practice your homework strategies throughout the day.
If you’ve been working on describing words, for example, try to describe the words you can’t think of woolf's essay during dinner conversation. Ask family and friends to encourage you to use your strategies as you go about your day. Nobody likes being corrected all the time, though, so it’s okay to master thesis topics in software testing, set times when you want reminders and times when you just want to be left to speak as you please. Make sure you’re clear with friends and families about which times are which. Try combining these tips with an app that’s specifically designed to help adults recover their language skills after a stroke or some other type of woolf's essay about acquired brain injury.
Tactus Therapy apps are designed by a Speech-Language Pathologist to allow you to _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, practice the same skills you work on in therapy, at home. You can trust that the speech therapy exercises are based on techniques known to help adults with acquired communication disorders. We want you to essay about working, succeed! With a Tactus Therapy app, you can get in more repetitions and _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ practice between therapy sessions—and this can help speed up your progress. Try any or all of our apps for FREE by downloading the woolf's working women Lite versions. Start with Language Therapy Lite, a sample of our best-selling app for aphasia, on the App Store or Google Play. Answer a few simple questions and afi thesis 2012 you#8217;ll be shown the best apps for you with our App Finder wizard. Then you can try them for free!
Do you have clients who would benefit from receiving these homework success tips? Download this handout and share it with them. 1: Bhogal, SanjitK., Robert Teasell, and Mark Speechley. #8220;Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on essay about women, recovery.#8221; Stroke 34.4 (2003): 987-993. Afi Thesis? Full Text. 2: Palmer, Rebecca, et al. #8220;Computer Therapy Compared With Usual Care for People With Long-Standing Aphasia Poststroke A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.#8221; Stroke 43.7 (2012): 1904-1911. Full Text.
3: Brady, Marian C., et al. #8220;Speech and woolf's essay about women language therapy for aphasia following stroke.#8221; Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5 (2012): CD000425. Full PDF. On Dulce Est By Wilfred Owen? Top 10 Dysphagia Education Resources for Clinicians. Best practice in swallowing disorders is changing quickly as the woolf's essay about working women science evolves. Don't let your . read more. 10 Tips for Leading an Aphasia Writing Therapy Group. Learn about essay on cows writing impairments (dysgraphia) in aphasia and how to essay working women, treat them.
Guest SLP Megan . read more. Swallowing disorders are serious business, and the speech-language pathologists who assess and essays on dulce wilfred owen treat them need . read more. Comments are closed. We r so busy this fall! Working on woolf's essay, a new #slpapp, updating older apps w/ cool new features getting ready 4 #ASHA17! What r ur projects?
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coffin business plan My Father's Shoes - Our Coffin Story, Pages 1 to 25. Tristram Coffyn was born in 1609 in Brixton Parish, town of Plymouth, Devonshire, England and woolf's working, baptized March 11, 1610. He was the eldest child of Peter and Johanna Coffin. Coffyn's early years in England were during a very eventful time. Intellectual freedom was being claimed as a right for each individual. This period was during the reign of James I. Among the names of the paper on john day were William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon and Oliver Cromwell. It was a period when the Puritans were making large gains in the Parliament. Tristram had one younger brother, John and four sisters, Johanna, Deborah, Eunice and Mary. When Tristram was 19 his father Peter, died. His will was dated December 21, 1627 and was proved by his widow Johanna on March 13, 1628.
In the woolf's essay about working will it was declared that Tristram was to be provided for according to his degree and calling. Tristram was a farmer and therefore most likely took control of his fathers estate near Plymouth. Two years later Tristram courted and wed Dionis Stevens, daughter of Robert Stevens of Brixton. Dionis Stevens was born in 1609 although other accounts say 1613. Shortly after their marriage, their first child Peter was born in 1631 followed by their son Tristram Jr., born in 1632.
During the early 1630's England entered into a storm of research paper calvin conflict with the death of James I and the succession of Charles I. In 1638 the woolf's essay about working Scots took up arms against the King. РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬. The Presbyterians took control of the Commons and this was followed by an all out civil war in working women, 1642. During this period of time Tristram and Dionis had two more children Elizabeth (d.o.b. unknown) and James born August 12, 1639. Dionis was also pregnant with their fifth child. In 1640 Coffyn was selected as a Warden of Brixton Parish. Shortly after in November 1640, he leased his farm that was located at Butlass. Essays On Dulce Owen. With the civil war closing in on his family and the wounding and eventual death eight days later of his brother John at Plymouth Fort, Tristram decided to take his family, including his mother and two unwed sisters to safety in Colonial America. Tristram's friend Robert Clement was leaving for America shortly, aboard a small fleet of essay ships, some of which were owned by master topics in software testing Clement. Woolf's About Working Women. Tristram quickly put his affairs in afi thesis, order and embarked on his journey with his family aboard Clement's ship named Hector Clement in the spring of 1642.
This proved to be the last time Coffyn was to see his home in England. The crossing of the Atlantic took between 60 and 90 days before they arrived in Newburyport Massachusetts, during the summer of 1642. Essay About. It was a mere twenty years since the pilgrims, aboard the Mayflower had landed at Plymouth. Shortly after their arrival, Tristram. secured living quarters for _Р№Р€ his family and started exploring up the Merrimack River with Robert Clement in search of a good location for a more permanent home. He arrived in woolf's essay women, a soon to be called settlement named Pentucket, now known as Haverhill Ma. Thesis Topics In Software. The book The History of Haverhill by George Chase states that Clements son, Job Clements had already settled in the area a year earlier, if so, this could be the woolf's essay working reason that Coffyn and Clements chose this area. They found the area to have fertile soil with the necessary resources to build a farm, however, it was recorded that the large population of wolves were a problem with the flocks of sheep and a guard had to be posted at all times.
In 1641 there were only six homes built in Pentucket. Tristram's group of settlers negotiated with the Indians for the property rights and secured a large area for the sum of three pounds ten shillings. A copy of this deed is still on record and essay, bares witness to the signatures of Robert Clement and Tristram Coffyn, dated November 15, 1642. Not only is this the woolf's working women first record of the first Coffin immigrant in America, but it also indicates how Tristram spelled his surname, Coffyn, with a y instead of an i. It was also during this period that John, their youngest child fell ill and died. Dionis was also pregnant with their sixth child who was later named Deborah. She was born the first Coffin child in America, and the third child born in the tiny settlement but was destined for the same fate as the other newborns and died three weeks later. These deaths give evidence to the harsh conditions that the first immigrants must have encountered upon their arrival in essay on roper and tierney, the new world. The living conditions were primitive and woolf's working, unforgiving and many families suffered greatly. It was noted that Coffyn was the first white settler to plough land in master thesis in software testing, the area, having made his own plough from materials at hand.
A few years after his arrival in Pentucket, his daughter Mary was born, becoming the essay about working women first Coffin child to be born and survive to adulthood in America. Shortly after Coffyn's arrival, the settlement was threatened when Indian war parties decided to target the settlers homes. Paper On John Calvin. They wanted to halt the white invasion however they feared the firepower of the settlers muskets. The Indian plan was to send a small group to each of the settlers homes at the same time and gain entrance to the houses by way of presenting goods for trade. Upon a predetermined signal, the Indians would jump the essay white men, cut their throats and ransack the house looking for on john weapons. What the Indians didn't know was that one of their members was a Colonial informant who revealed the plan to essay about British intelligence and the British soldiers, along with about forty settlers disarmed the Indians before they could set the plan in essays, motion. After only a few years of farming in Pentucket, Tristram embarked on woolf's about working women, a new direction.
It would seem that not only was he a farmer, but he was also interested in expanding his business holdings. When the opportunity arose to operate a ferry back in Newbury, Tristram decided to move his family once again. Essay On Cows. The History of Newbury states that in 1644 Tristram Coffin Sr. is allowed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) which consisted of selling wine and keeping a ferry and Inn on the Newbury side of the Merrimack River. George Carr kept a ferry on the Salisbury side across from Carr Island. Tristram's ferry crossed from about Newbury on the south side of the river, between Carr Island and Ram Island, over to essay on cows the north side to the town of Salisbury. The ferry was most likely a tow ferry with oxen providing the power to pull the craft across the river, with his sons helping to load and disembark the passengers. In the 1650's Tristram's eldest children began to expand their horizons with Peter leaving Newbury to woolf's essay about working women go to Dover, New Hampshire, where he became involved in research calvin, the lumber business along with holding a variety of public office positions. Tristram's daughter Elizabeth wed Stephen Greenleaf in 1651 and resided in Newbury where the couple eventually had ten children before Elizabeth's early death. Tristram Jr. married Judith Somerby in essay about, 1653 and became a weaver/tailor and Deacon of the First Parish of Newbury.
Tristram Jr. is also the person who brought the Coffin name to the old Coffin house in 1654, which still stands in Newbury, after housing over _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, 240 years of Coffin descendants. In 1997, I visited Newbury and the Coffin house which is now a historical site owned by the SPNEA. The Coffin house is one of the earliest homes constructed of wood still standing in New England. It is believed that the father, Tristram Sr., lived here shortly before moving to his new home in Nantucket. The house was originally much smaller than it appears today, with the oldest section being located at the back. In 1735 the first centennial of Newbury was celebrated by the town in the front yard of the Coffin house, under two gigantic elm trees. Inside, one is struck by the large fireplace located in the middle of the woolf's essay working house, in a room referred to as the essay on cows hall.
This is essay about, where the cooking, dining and visiting took place. Research Paper. Above this area was the hall chamber, or sleeping chamber. When I visited the sleeping chamber, a large cradle lay on one side of the room. Essay Working Women. This was not for infants, but was for the elderly family members who were gently rocked to sleep. On some of the beams near the stairs were engravings carved in the beam, these were thought to ward off evil spirits.
Much of the family time in the house was spent reading the bible as this was an era of strong religious beliefs along with the threat of evil coming in the form of witches and afi thesis showcase, devils. The last full time occupant of the Coffin house was Lucy Coffin, who never married and lived to be 101 years old. After she died in 1893, a nephew used the house as a summer place until it was turned over to woolf's essay working women the SPNEA in 1921. A short distance from the Coffin house, stood the et decorum est by Coffyn's Tavern. The Tavern was operated mainly be Dionis, Tristram's wife, and it was called Coffyn's Ordinary. Not only did she serve the patrons but she was also responsible for making the beverages of the woolf's about women day. This.
eventually led the master topics testing Coffyns into confrontation with the law. About Working Women. The laws of 1645 stated clearly that every person licensed to keep an research paper calvin Ordinary (Tavern) shall always be provided with good wholesome beer of four bushels of malt to the hogshead, which he shall not sell above two pence the ale quart, on woolf's essay working women, penalty of forty shillings the first offence and for _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ the second offence shall lose his licence. Dionis' ale was made with six bushels, giving it a kick that kept them coming back for more. For her troubles she increased the price by one pence and in turn had to stand before the court to defend her actions. Eventually the charge was dismissed, but word spread quickly through Newbury as to where to go for a quality ale. According to the book Ould Newbury by about John Currier, the Coffyns owned forty acres across from Carr Island. In later years the road to the Inn was known as Coffin Lane and was on the west side of essay on roper logan and tierney present day Jefferson St. down by the Merrimack River. Toward the mid 1650's the ferry crossings were replaced by a floating bridge leaving Tristram little choice but to sell his property. He moved across the river to Salisbury where records show his name on some documents as Commissioner of Salisbury.
It was during these years in the late 1650's that the first plans to relocate his family to a more desirable location were first laid out. Depending on which source one would believe, there are many arguments that have been brought forward as to why Tristram decided to leave Massachusetts. All would have been valid arguments. It was true that the working women Puritan rule was harsh and prejudice against freedom of choice both religiously and politically. It was also true that the desire to move to an area where fences were not needed for the livestock (that an Island would provide) would be of some benefit, mainly monetary. In the end, Tristram's will to keep his family together around him in on dulce wilfred owen, a community outside of the smothering rules of the Puritans, and guarded by miles of ocean, could have been the driving factor behind his decision to locate to woolf's essay working a new home. Master Thesis Testing. In talking to about working women his friends and neighbours he found he was not alone in his thinking. Others were also anxious to leave, many for the same reasons as Coffyn. Essay On Roper. After a short time their ideas took shape and later after meetings, it was decided to about working form a group of calvin associates to pursue matters further. The idea of common pastures and buildings were appealing to many, especially the farmers who were advancing in age. The back breaking life of maintaining a farm could now be shared among the about group with common mills and labour supplied by the Indians.
How the Island of Nantucket, thirty miles off the south shore of Cape Cod ever came forth as a choice, is research paper, once again debatable. Some point out woolf's about working, that the РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ connection lies with Thomas Mayhew, the owner of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, was a cousin of one of the associates in Tristram's group, a man named Thomas Macy. Others think that Nantucket simply came up in woolf's essay about women, a passing conversation and caught the groups imagination. 2012. At one meeting the decision was made to send Tristram Coffyn, possibly his son James, Edward Starbuck and cabin boy Isaac Coleman on a fact finding mission to woolf's about working meet with Mayhew and view Nantucket to topics in software testing assess its suitability as a home. Early in working women, 1659 the men set out for Edgartown in Martha's Vineyard, the home of Thomas Mayhew. Thomas Mayhew came to _Р№Р€ New England before 1632 from Wiltshire England. By 1637 Mayhew was in essay, the town of Watertown, Massachusetts, where he was operating a grist mill. His. business enterprises were flourishing by the time the family of John Folger arrived in Watertown. Mayhew had a son named Thomas Jr. who was very religious.
Folger's son Peter was close to the same age as Thomas Jr. and on dulce et decorum est by wilfred owen, the two became friends. They both shared an appetite for adventure, so when the opportunity came forth for the Mayhew's to purchase an essay about women Island named Nantucket, from the Earl of thesis Stirling in 1641 for essay about working women forty pounds, the essay on cows adventure began. After seeing the Island it was concluded that Nantucket Island was too far off shore and that Martha's Vineyard would be a more suitable island to inhabit, so shortly after Mayhew also bought Martha's Vineyard. Thomas Mayhew Jr. Woolf's Women. moved quickly to establish his home on Martha's Vineyard bringing Peter Folger along with him. His mission was to teach the Indians that inhabited the Islands' Christianity.
Folger was to be a school master and surveyor. The work was quite successful and essays est by wilfred, the elder Mayhew came to join them in Edgartown. Woolf's Essay About. In 1657 Thomas Jr. Afi Thesis. found it necessary to go to woolf's women England to stimulate more financial support, however, his ship was lost in a gale on the crossing and he was never heard from again. Mayhew was devastated by the loss of his son, however he decided to continue with his son's mission. Folger on the other hand was looking for a change. His chance for change came in the form of a shallop sailing into the harbour at Edgartown with Tristram Coffyn on board.
It's interesting to note that this simple twist of afi thesis fate with Coffyn arriving in Edgartown while Folger was searching for a new adventure, brought about one of the circumstances to which American statesman, scientist and writer, Benjamin Franklin would later be born into. Forty years later, Folger's daughter, Abiah, of working women Nantucket, married Josiah Franklin, where in 1706 shortly after moving from Nantucket, gave birth to Benjamin Franklin. In turn this would make Tristram's new friend, Peter, Ben Franklin's grandfather. Tristram's preliminary discussions with Mayhew were favourable, however, Mayhew insisted that if Coffyn's group wanted to purchase Nantucket, the Indians on the Island would have to be included in the negotiations. It was estimated that Nantucket had about paper calvin, 700 Narragansett Indians living in six villages, mostly on the east shore. Today, there is not a single Indian descendant living on the Island. The last Indian descendant died in the 1850's, wiped out for the most part by white man diseases. Nantucket in essay about, Algonquin is interpreted as far away Island. Coffyn realized that without an interpreter he would have problems communicating with the Indians. To address this problem he enlisted the services of Peter Folger who was also a skilled Surveyor. Shortly thereafter, the group left for the Island.
The Indians greeted them favourably and essay on cows, although their interpretation of purchasing land proved to be different than the white interpretation, they agreed on the idea. In later years the Indians were surprised to learn the woolf's about women meaning of trespassing, for in their culture no one ever owns property but instead they only had rights to live upon it, yet anyone could travel through it. On John. The whites wouldn't allow this for fear of livestock disappearing. Shortly after achieving their goal, Coffyn and the rest headed back to Edgartown for further negotiations with Mayhew. Committed to carrying on with his lost son's mission, Mayhew had no real interest in Nantucket and therefore agreed to very reasonable terms for the purchase of the Island. The sale price of 30 pounds along with two beaver hats, one for him and one for his wife, was a bargain especially if one considers that after owning the Island for close to twenty years Mayhew was selling it for ten pounds less than he bought it for. Woolf's About Working Women. The beaver hats incidently were supposedly made by Tristram Coffyn's son, Tristram Jr. Today one can only research paper, speculate on the mood of the negotiations, but judging by the eventual results, Coffyn and Mayhew must have respected each other a great deal in order for things to have gone so smoothly. Mayhew did decide however to retain a one twentieth share of the venture so he could have a voice in how the Island affairs were being handled.
Coffin returned home to Salisbury to essay women organize the purchase of Nantucket. Once there, his eight partners ratified the agreement with Mayhew and ten new partners and paper, ten tenant inhabitants were admitted into the company. Half Share Owners. Tristram Coffin Jr. #9;The half share partners were tradesmen who were needed to help develop the settlement. Woolf's Working Women. Folger was the interpreter/surveyor who later became the miller. Joseph Gardner was a shoemaker and Nathaniel Holland was a tailor etc.
Some of the other half-share holders listed didn't join the group until the later years. #9;In the fall of thesis in software 1659 before any formal deed was drawn up with the Indian leaders Wanackmamack and Nickanoose, James Coffin, Thomas Macy and family, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman left Salisbury for Nantucket to take up residence. Macy was in trouble with the Puritan judges for woolf's women harbouring Quakers during a short rain storm. Nantucket was out of the Judge's legal realm, so rather than stay and face the charges he decided that the essay on cows sooner he could leave Salisbury the about better it would be. Edward Starbuck was Macy's partner in the company and also his best friend.
He felt compelled to go with Macy and the rest to see them through what was going to be a tough first winter. James Coffin age 19 went to watch over his father's interests and Isaac Coleman age 13 was probably just looking for adventure. The first winter on Nantucket proved to be one full of hardships. The crossing was reported to have been a rough one in which the tiny craft was almost lost. During the first winter the Indians were said to have been most helpful in seeing to the needs of the first white settlers on the Island.
In the spring of 1660 Edward Starbuck returned to Salisbury to master testing update the rest on the progress of woolf's essay about working Nantucket. The reports were favourable and others made preparations to relocate quickly. The freedom enjoyed in Nantucket, by afi thesis 2012 being independent from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was the lure that attracted many from woolf's essay women Salisbury. But along with their freedom certain laws and regulations had to be drawn-up to keep the new settlement from deteriorating. For instance one guideline was that Indian land could not be purchased by any individual except for use by essay on cows all its original purchasers. This would ensure a balanced ownership. The Colony of New York claimed jurisdiction over Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and so it was with the Governor of New York, Francis Lovelace, that the Colony had to deal within terms of being recognized.
By the summer of woolf's about working 1661, records show that the master topics testing meetings were now being held on Nantucket indicating that many of the settlers had made the move to the Island. The first concerns of many were where their house lots would be located. At a town meeting held July 15, 1661 it was agreed upon that each owner would have the freedom to choose his lot within limits not previously occupied. It was also decided that the lot size for each full share holder would be sixty rods square (a rod consisting of 16'6). It was also agreed that Tristram Coffyn would select first, in which he selected a lot on the north western coastline of the Island at working women, a place known as Cappammet Harbour (today known as Capaum Pond). The original Nantucket record states Tristram Coffyn, Sr., had his house lot laid out at Cappammet, by the aforesaid lot layers, at essay and tierney, Cappamet Harbour head, sixty rods square, or thereabouts, the east side line part of it bounded by the highway; the south side by a rock southward of the pond; the north by the harbour head; the woolf's about women west side bounded by _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ the lot of Tristram Coffin Jr.
In the aftermath, once all was said and woolf's essay about, done, Tristram had succeeded with his wish to essay on cows live out his days in a free society surrounded by working his friends and family. To his east side, across Cappamet Harbour was his son Peter, who didn't reside on on dulce et decorum wilfred owen, the Island but was a frequent visitor seeing as he had secured the rights to woolf's about working women supply the settlers with lumber for their homes. To the west was the lot of his son Tristram Jr., again not a full time resident but a frequent visitor. To the paper on john south laid the lots of woolf's his daughter Mary and her husband Nathaniel Starbuck. Mary and Nathaniel were very much a part of the Island's development. Mary owned the first store on the Island as well as being regarded in later life as a. spiritual leader, having embraced Quakerism. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬. Mary and Nathaniel also had the honour of having the first white baby on the Island during the early 1660's. Essay About. Also to the south lay the lot of James Coffin.
After Tristram, James was the head of the Coffin interests on Nantucket. The first years of settlement consisted of building houses along with shelters for their livestock, mainly sheep and oxen, as well as developing pastures and common buildings. The Indians helped to develop the farms and taught the settlers a great deal about living on the Island. In turn they were given employment and some formal education. The first years were often regarded as the best years upon essay on roper logan, Nantucket, in terms of woolf's about working creating a society that flowed in _Р№Р€, harmony, where one could rely on their neighbours as though they were family. Essay About Working. The great grandson of Thomas Macy would later write, The little community was kind and courteous to each other and hospitable to strangers. The prevalence of good feeling was remarked and felt by all who came among them. From the beginning Tristram Coffyn and Thomas Macy were the spokesmen for the settlement. In 1671 they were selected by the group to go to New York and master topics in software, meet with Governor Lovelace and secure their claim to woolf's essay about the Island.
Upon their return the essay Islanders nominated Coffyn to be Chief Magistrate of Nantucket. Women. The town also selected all other officers except the Chief Military Officer who was to be selected by Governor Lovelace from nominees chosen by the settlement. Essays On Dulce Et Decorum. After a few more years of harmony, or about the early 1670's the first signs of trouble on the Island began to appear. The problems came through the evolution of the two classes of settlers. On one hand they had the full share owners and their partners, who by Nantucket law had two votes each. On the other hand the half share owners only had one vote resulting in less of a say on Island affairs. They viewed themselves just as important as the full share settlers. The only thing missing for woolf's a revolt by the half share members was a leader. That changed in 1673 when it was decided that the calvin community needed to expand their fishing interests by enlisting the services of a skilled tradesman by the name of John Gardner of Salem, Massachusetts. Gardner was the brother of full share owner Joseph Gardner. Right from the start John Gardner challenged the woolf's about working original owners on afi thesis 2012, most issues and from this began the feud between the Gardners group and essay about working, the Coffin group.
Another problem arising on the Island involved the Indians and liquor. Some of the master thesis topics white settlers were taking advantage of the woolf's essay about women Indians' ignorance regarding liquor consumption. Laws had to eventually be implemented prohibiting the sale and consumption of alcohol to Indians. John Gardner often ignored these laws which escalated the tension on the Island. Gardner also attempted to buy land from the Indians, however the final blow most probably resulted from a meeting Gardner set up with Gov. Lovelace's replacement, Governor Francis Andros. Showcase 2012. One of the requirements of the Islanders was to pay taxes to New York. This payment was met by giving the woolf's about government barrels of fish. John Gardner convinced the settlers to let him deliver the payment.
While in New York, he met with Governor Andros and in turn convinced the Governor to name the main town in Nantucket, Sherborne, after his hometown back in England. He then managed. to get himself appointed as Chief Military Officer. This all came about shortly before the Dutch takeover of New York. With the change in governments in New York, Gardners's group declared that past arrangements with the showcase 2012 original settlers was no longer valid. The tension ran high for a short period until the Dutch were run out of New York and the old government was reinstated.
Upon this action, Tristram and woolf's essay about, Mathew Mayhew, grandson of Thomas, once again sailed for New York and had their agreements with the government reinstated. In 1676 Thomas Mayhew became Chief Magistrate on Nantucket with Peter Coffin, a new resident on the Island becoming Assistant Magistrate. Peter and James Coffin had returned to the Island as a result of the paper conflict on the mainland between the Indians and the white settlers known as King Philip's War. This appointment of Macy and the election of Peter Coffin infuriated the woolf's essay about working women Gardner group. Not only was Peter a Coffin he also held government positions back in Dover and was not considered a full time resident of Nantucket. A few years later the tension eased with the elections of James Coffin, John Gardner and Nathaniel Starbuck who would all be elected as Assistant Magistrates. The feud continued toward the late 1670's in a period that would result in _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, Tristram Coffyn being selected as Chief Magistrate by Governor Andros in the hopes of trying to pull the community back together. Woolf's Essay Working. Coffyn was regarded by most of the settlers as the one person who could rectify Nantucket's struggle with growth. Unfortunately, for everyone, a shipwreck on the Nantucket shoals diverted any plans that Tristram had for essay on cows the Islanders. In September 1678 a French ship ran aground during a storm, forcing the crew to working abandon ship. Shortly thereafter the cargo was salvaged by essay on cows certain parties and sold for profit.
This action put Tristram, who was chief magistrate, in violation with maritime law which stated that the cargo should have been secured until claimed by the owner. In failing to woolf's essay about working women do so, Tristram subjected himself to be responsible for essays et decorum est by owen the lost cargo. The courts came down hard on him with a stiff penalty which would ruin him financially. The action cast a dark cloud over Coffyn, who was now in essay about, his early 70's. His family rallied to his side but the strain of the penalty along with the feuding years had worn him down. His son James made financial arrangements to pay the fine.
In the end, surprisingly, it was John Gardner, who had become the essays on dulce est by wilfred new Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, who stood up to the courts with a touching appeal on Coffyn's behalf. Essay Women. He convinced the courts to reduce the penalty substantially. When all was said and done what remained was Coffyn's ill health. The year was 1681, and autumn was closing in. Coffyn had made the arrangements that were to follow his death back in 1678. He made no will but instead disposed of his rather large estate through deeds to his family, mainly his youngest sons John and Stephen. To his numerous grandchildren, 60 in all, he granted 10 acres of land to _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ each one upon the Coffyn's Island of Tuckernuck, off the woolf's working women west coast of Nantucket.
In 1681 Tristram owned two houses on thesis in software testing, his property, the first dwelling house he deeded to Stephen and the new house upon the hill was to go to John. His son Stephen was asked to care for their mother, Dionis up until her death. On October 3, 1681 Tristram Coffyn died, he was 72 years old at the time of woolf's about working women his death. His funeral brought out all the Islanders including the Gardners to mourn his passing. Essay On Roper Logan And Tierney. It has been suggested that his old friend Edward Starbuck read from the bible and then Tristram's body was taken to essay about working women a favourite location on his property and buried.
Through the years the exact site of his grave has wandered from memory, however, the man himself lives on in each one of research on john calvin his descendants. In just forty years after his death his descendants numbered 1,138 born in America. In 1728 the number had increased to 1,582. All of them descendants from one couple, Tristram and about working, Dionis Coffyn. Stephen Coffyn cared for his mother up until her death which occurred on logan, November 6, 1684 in woolf's about, Nantucket.
The Children of master in software Tristram and woolf's essay about working women, Dionis Coffyn: Honorable Peter Coffin was born in England in 1631. He was the first child of Tristram and in software, Dionis. Peter married Abigail Starbuck, daughter of about working Edward Starbuck. He resided in Dover, New Hampshire for a good portion of his life before moving his family to Nantucket. He later moved his family to and tierney Exeter, New Hampshire, where he became Chief Justice of the about working Supreme Court of thesis topics in software testing New Hampshire and a member of the Governor's Council. Woolf's Working Women. The Coffin's had ten children including their son Jethro whose house is master thesis topics in software testing, considered the oldest house still standing on Nantucket having been built in 1686. Tristram Coffin Jr. was born in England in 1632. Essay About Working Women. He married Judith Somerby of Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1652. Tristram was a weaver and filled many notable positions on the Newbury Town Council.
He was named Deacon to the first Parish of Newbury. His house in Newbury is known as the Old Coffin House. Tristram Jr. and his wife Judith's graves are marked in the cemetery of the First Parish of Newbury which is located across the street from the Coffin house. Together they had ten children along with Judith's three children from her first marriage. Elizabeth Coffin was born in England in 1634. She married Stephen Greenleaf in master thesis in software, Newbury, Massachusetts, on woolf's essay about, November 13, 1651.
From this family the Greenleaf's of topics New England have descended. Elizabeth died in 1678 at the age of 44. The Greenleafs had ten children. Hon. James Coffin was born in England in 1639. He married Mary Severance, daughter of John and Abigail Severance of Salisbury, Massachusetts, in woolf's women, 1663. Logan. James was the first settler to settle on about working women, Nantucket after the paper purchase. He later became a leading figure in Nantucket politics.
He served many terms as Chief magistrate on the Island. James and Mary had fourteen children with twelve surviving into adulthood. John Coffin was born in England but died shortly after the crossing on woolf's, October 30, 1642. Deborah Coffin was born two weeks after her brother's death and died three weeks later on. December 8, 1642. Mary Coffin was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1645 and essay on cows, married Nathaniel Starbuck at the age of woolf's about working women 17. РћРљВ». Mary was a most extraordinary woman. Not only did she raise a family of working ten children but she operated the Island's first store. Her open mindedness gained her respect from everyone who knew her.
Later it was her interest in Quakerism that laid the ground work for that particular religion on the Island. Mary and Nathaniel held the distinction of having the first white child born on Nantucket. Mary died on November 13, 1717. Lieut. John Coffin was born in Massachusetts, on РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, October 30, 1647, exactly five years to essay working women the day of the death of his brother John.
John married Deborah Austin daughter of Joseph and Sarah Austin. Shortly after his father's death he moved to Martha's Vineyard, where he found employment as a blacksmith. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬. He died in Edgartown in 1711, where today one can still locate his tombstone. Stephen Coffin was the last child born to Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. Woolf's Essay About Women. He was born in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1652. He married Mary Bunker in 1668 and had ten children with Mary.
Stephen took over his father's estate on Nantucket where he lived out his life as a farm manager. He died on November 14, 1734. HONOURABLE JAMES COFFIN. Pioneer of logan Nantucket Law and Order. James Coffin was born August 12, 1639, in Brixton, Devonshire, England. Woolf's Essay Working Women. He was the fourth child of Tristram and Dionis Stevens Coffin. James was only three years old when his father immigrated to America.
The family first settled in Salisbury before heading down the Merrimac River to Haverhill where after only _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», a short time they relocated once more to the town of Newbury. James' family operated a ferry on the south side of the Merrimac River. They also operated a Tavern/Inn which was located near the woolf's essay working women landing. During the 1650's with the older brothers and sisters going off in their own directions, James took over their responsibilities. Essay On Roper Logan And Tierney. Of the older children, it was James who was showing the most interest in Nantucket. James' brothers had already established enterprises on the mainland and wanted to remain there, however, they were willing to invest in the plan financially. James was only twenty when the plans to investigate the woolf's essay Island came about. Depending on topics testing, whose account of history one would study, James did go with his father on the voyage that took them to Nantucket for the first time. After negotiations with the Indians and Thomas Mayhew, the Island became the property of the Salisbury group, with ten full share members and working, ten partners.
Thomas Macy, James Coffin, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman proceeded quickly to inhabit the _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» Island before the essay next winter. Edward Starbuck was a former resident of Dover N.H.. Paper On John Calvin. His daughter Abigail married Tristram Coffyn's son Peter. Starbuck had lived in Dover since 1643. In the 1640's he refused to join the woolf's working church in the ordinance of baptism so he and the church parted company. In 1648 he was charged for disturbing the peace of the essay on cows church. He apparently disapproved of the submersion of babies during baptism. Others had been tied to ox carts and whipped for similar crimes, however, Starbuck got off with a lighter sentence but never again respected the Puritan rule. In the book Nantucket by W.O. Woolf's Working. Stevens, he states that the first white inhabitants on the Island spent their first winter on afi thesis showcase, the western side of the Island near the area now known as Madaket.
The first few months on Nantucket were harsh ones for the newcomers seeing as they arrived in the fall with barely time to prepare for the winter. Had the woolf's essay about working Indians not been so accommodating the new settlers would have found it hard to survive the _Р№Р€ winter. In the following spring, Starbuck headed back to Salisbury for a meeting with the owners. Soon after, Tristram came to the Island to scout out a good location for a home. After surveying the layout of the land they decided to build on the back side of Capaum Harbour, on the north side of the Island. It's interesting to note why the small Capaum Harbour was more appealing to the settlers than the larger harbour to the east.
One can only speculate but it has been suggested that Capaum might have had fresh water springs running close to it. Tristram sailed back to. Salisbury to woolf's working organize the move while his son James stayed on, and with the help of two Indians, he built their first house overlooking Capaum Pond. During the following years, 1661 to 1664 the afi thesis 2012 flurry of essay about traffic between the mainland and the Island increased as provisions and building materials made their way to their new found home. James on РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, numerous occasions travelled back and forth from about women Nantucket to Salisbury as well as Nantucket to Dover.
James' interest in Salisbury might have laid with his desires to be close to a young woman named Mary Severance, daughter of John and Abigail Severance. Essay On Roper. While in Dover, James held property along the Cochecho River near his brother Peter. It is likely that James was involved with trade back to Nantucket during these years, mainly lumber and livestock. On December 3, 1663, James married Mary and woolf's essay about women, the two moved to Nantucket where their first child James Jr. was born, however, shortly after James and his family moved off the showcase 2012 Island back to Dover, New Hampshire. It was during this period that I feel James along with his brother Peter became interested in studying law. On March 10 1666, James was named as an arbitrator to settle disputes in the settlement along with five other members of the town. Brother Peter was already an woolf's about working women established member of the community who owned large tracts of lands in what is now downtown Dover. Peter's land was on the south side of the Cochecho River, near the falls. Names such as Coffin Woods and Coffin Orchard were common landmarks to the settlers. Peter also owned a mill on the Lamprey River as well as land by the Cochecho Falls. Peter manufactured masts for the British navy and was paid by grants of land in Dover.
Peter was also involved with erecting the meeting house which later became fortified to protect the settlers during the Indian uprisings. Essays Et Decorum Est By Wilfred. The fort was 100' square with a log wall and essay women, gate. It was situated on the mound of earth that is still seen today in an area that was called the neck. 2012. A brief history of Peter taken from the book Historical Memoranda of Ancient Dover states that Peter was a Selectman in 1660, the town treasurer by 1661, a member of the jury of essay working women trials in 1666 and a lieutenant during King Philip's war. In 1666 Peter was on a committee to fortify Portsmouth N.H. James was in Dover in 1668 through 1671, where he appears on logan and tierney, church records and was made a freeman. James also appears on the lists of taxpayers for the Cochecho area as early as 1662. Woolf's Women. He was splitting his tax expenses with Robert Ewen and John Church during these years. Master Thesis In Software. In 1675 a bloody conflict broke out between the about Colonies and paper calvin, the Indians, this was known as King Philip's War. Indians were attacking many settlers throughout the Colonial settlements, including some attacks in essay working women, the Dover area.
It was during this time, that James decided to relocate his family to Nantucket for their safety. His brother Peter was also forced to afi thesis showcase 2012 temporarily relocate his family to the Island after the Indians gave him a close call. In June of 1689, Peter's house was the target of an Indian raid. The Indians first sent a squaw to the locked gate seeking shelter for the night. During the about working women night, while all were sleeping, she opened the gate, letting the waiting war party in and taking Peter's family prisoner. Word had spread in recent days that twenty-three settlers had been massacred by this war party. Once they captured Peter and his family the Indians marched them over to his son Tristram's home and threatened to kill the hostages unless the gates were open there.
Once inside, folklore states, Peter distracted the Indians by throwing handfuls of coins into the dirt and over the gate. The Indians scattered to collect the coins giving the hostages time to escape into the. Back in essay on roper logan and tierney, Nantucket, the Indians were aware of the war being waged on the mainland but despite pressure from other tribes, they decided to stay neutral. This decision was of great relief to the white inhabitants of the Island, seeing as they were badly outnumbered and out gunned. Nantucket only had about forty able bodied white men on the Island during this time, again giving us a clue that relations were good between the two parties on the Island. John Gardner first came to Nantucket around 1673 from Salem Massachusettes.
He was a fisherman/mariner who was invited to essay about working women Nantucket by afi thesis showcase 2012 his brother Richard, to help develop the Islands' fish trade. From the very first meeting Gardner and woolf's essay working, Tristram Coffyn disagreed on most matters. Est By Wilfred Owen. Both being determined and proud men, they would not easily be swayed. Surprisingly, James had some sympathy for Gardners position, whereas his brother, Peter's dislike for the man was as strong as their father's. In the latter part of the 1670's it was often James and his sister Mary who would attempt to smooth over the bad feelings between the women two groups. The tension never really ended until after Tristram Coffyn's death in 1681 and later, the logan and tierney marriage of a Gardner to a Coffin. In September 1678, a French ship's cargo of furs from the Colonial mainland, ran aground on the Nantucket shoals. James Coffin among others made matters worse by innocently asking permission from his father, who at the time was the Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, to remove the cargo of two thousand furs from the shipwreck. Unfortunately for the Coffins the owner later came forward and wanted someone held accountable.
The burden of responsibility fell on Tristram Coffyn's shoulders. He was the Chief Magistrate of the Island and essay, it was his responsibility by law to launch a salvage of any wrecks that ran aground on the Island, and securing the contents until they could be claimed. Having failed to do so, the courts ordered Coffyn to pay the paper penalty of 343 pds., ten shillings. The harsh decision would have ruined Tristram Coffyn financially, and lay a deep financial burden upon the Coffin family. By the year 1681 the Coffins owned approximately one quarter of the Island, including. Tuckernuck Island off the west coast. Peter Coffin was constantly attacked for woolf's being a full share partner allowed to make important decisions, and yet he didn't live there as a full time resident. The bad blood between the Coffins and the Gardners was now really only research, between Peter Coffin and John Gardner, so it must have been a topic of amusement for about women the Islanders when it was learned that Peter's son Jethro had fallen in master thesis, love with Gardner's daughter Mary. To make matters worse for the two fathers, the two later decided to wed and working, reside in Nantucket. It was decided in 1686 that John Gardner would supply the property for the newlywed's house while Peter Coffin was to supply the topics lumber from his mill. During the woolf's essay about working wedding ceremony Peter Coffin realized that the appropriate deed for the property had not been transferred to research on john his son Jethro and woolf's about, so he stood up just prior to the wedding vows and exclaimed in a threatening tone that the wedding be put to a halt right then and there until the appropriate paper work was signed by all parties.
John Gardner assured Coffin that it would be taken care of as soon as possible but Coffin persisted until finally Gardner grudgingly had to get the papers in question and sign them and essay logan, only then did the woolf's about working wedding continue, much to the embarrassment of the bride and groom. On Dulce Est By Wilfred Owen. Jethro Coffin's house was and still is one of the focal points of Nantucket's history. Essay. Not only did it mark the end of the Coffin/ Gardner feud, but it still stands today as the oldest house still standing in Nantucket. Also, of interest, is the brick work on the houses' chimney, it has the pattern of an upside down horse shoe, inlayed into the brick. In the 1600s the settlers believed this would ward off witches and owen, evil spirits from entering the home. It was also about this time in Nantucket's history that the first interest in whale catching was seen on the Island. Apparently one incident in the 1670's captured the working imagination of research paper on john some of the Island's more adventurous souls. Woolf's Essay. One day a stray Scrag whale wandered into РћРљВ», the harbour and stayed there for three days. During this time the Islanders took it upon themselves to devise ways to working capture and kill the whale which led to constructing the Island's first harpoon.
A few of the braver Islanders headed out and proceeded to harpoon the whale and drag it to shore. Although the ease with which the whale was caught stirred much excitement to continue the pursuit, it would be many more years until whaling became a serious industry. During the 1690's James Coffin was appointed by the Islanders as their spokesman. Essay On Cows. He was elected by woolf's working the town of Nantucket to be the РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ first representative to the Great and General Court under the Royal Charter granted by William and woolf's essay, Mary in 1691. He was also the representative sent to thesis negotiate the terms in which Nantucket would fall under the jurisdiction of Massachusettes instead of New York. Besides his political interests, James was also referred to as a successful trader.
To fulfil his trading commitments he had a 25 ton vessel built in Boston in woolf's about, 1696 which he named Dolphin. By the 1690's James and his wife, Mary had a family of paper on john calvin fourteen children, all but two, Benjamin and Experience, lived into adulthood. It is widely accepted that a majority of Coffin descendants in North America can trace their roots through James Coffin. At most of the Coffin Reunions when the guests are asked to stand up to the son of Tristram in which they are descending from, James' representatives always out woolf's essay about working, numbered any of the other sons' descendants. In the early 1690's John Gardner became the first Deputy of Nantucket to logan and tierney sit in the General Court of Massachusettes. After his term the woolf's about women position was held for the next two decades with only essays et decorum, a few exceptions by James Coffin. One of Coffin's first acts was to woolf's essay women request that the taxes of Nantucket be forfeited for one year, so the Island could build proper defences.
This act came about from an incident that happened on essay on cows, the Island at Madaket. A French privateer raided the Island, kidnapping two residents and about working women, attacking seven boats. James was also Judge of Probate from 1706 to 1718 retiring at the age of 78. A large majority of the courts work load dealt with Indian matters. Alcohol was forbidden to essay on cows be sold to essay or consumed by the Indians but this law did little in the way to stop it from happening. Other issues dealt with petty theft and even the occasional murder.
Penalties ranged from fines and lashings for the minor crimes to imprisonment and execution for the more serious matters. The first records of essay on cows Probate Office were made during James Coffin's administration. Essay About Women. Later in 1707 he became a representative in the General Court until 1712. On July 28, 1720 James Coffin died in Nantucket at the age of 80. In 1881, Allen Coffin wrote in 2012, his book entitled The Coffin Family, From James Coffin have descended, perhaps, the women most remarkable representatives of the Coffin family, as doubtless the master in software most numerous and woolf's working, generally scattered. This family furnished the essays on dulce wilfred families of Boston who stayed loyal to the Crown during the Revolution. General John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin as well as the most distinguished woman which America produced, Lucretia Mott, all descend from James Coffin. James was buried in Nantucket, his wife Mary was most certainly buried there also, however her date of death was never recorded. Children of James and essay working women, Mary Coffin:
Mary Coffin was born in 1665 and married Richard Pinkham of Portsmouth and her second marriage was to James Gardner, son of Richard and Sarah. James Coffin was born in Nantucket on July 9, 1664. He married Love Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah. In 1692 he married Ruth Gardner, daughter of John and Priscilla. Nathaniel Coffin was born in Dover, New Hampshire in 1671. 2012. He married Demaris Gayer, daughter of William. Nathaniel was a sea captain and great grandfather to Gen. John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin. Essay Working. Nathaniel died in 1720. John Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Hope Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah.
He died in 1747. Dinah Coffin was born in Nantucket and married her cousin Nathaniel Starbuck Jr. in 1690. She died in 1750. Deborah Coffin was born in Nantucket and research, married George Bunker on October 10, 1695. She died in 1767. Ebenezer Coffin was born March 30, 1678 in Nantucket.
He married Eleanor Barnard on December 12, 1700. He died in 1730. Joseph Coffin was born in Nantucket on February 4, 1679. Woolf's Essay Working. Joseph married Bethiah Macy. Joseph died in 1719. Elizabeth Coffin married Jonathan Bunker and on roper, her second marriage was to Thomas Clark. She died in Nantucket on about women, March 30, 1769. Benjamin Coffin was born in 1683.
He was washed overboard and drowned between Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard when he was young. Ruth Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Jospeh Gardner, son of Richard and Mary. She died in essay on cows, Nantucket in 1748. Abigail Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Nathaniel Gardner, son of Richard and Sarah. She died March 15, 1713 in Nantucket. Her burial was the first in Gardners burial ground. Experience Coffin (yes they were running out of names) was born in woolf's, Nantucket in the early 1690's.
She died in infancy. Jonathan Coffin was born in Nantucket on August 8, 1692. He married Hepzibah Harker in 1711. Jonathan died in 1773. The Early Years of the Whale Trade.
James Coffin was born July 9, 1664, on Nantucket Island. He was the first child of the Hon. James Coffin and Mary Severance. The birth date of James is surrounded by controversy. Most records show his birth to be between 1667 and 1671, while his parents were living in Dover, New Hampshire. However, the Nantucket VR (P.R. 38) shows his birth as 09/05/1664. James grew up in a very large family, that eventually included seven sisters and six brothers, with James being the eldest.
Being of the second generation of settlers to essay on cows the newly established colony, James was exposed to the hardships of developing the first farms on Nantucket. The sandy soil supported little in woolf's essay women, the way of crops. They brought sheep to the Island, in hopes of exporting the wool to the mainland in exchange for provisions needed to support their colony. Although some farmers found some success with livestock, the master topics herds of scrawny sheep were still not enough to support themselves. During these first few years, about 1665, James' father decided to move the family off the Island, to Dover, New Hampshire where he had land holdings from essay about working women earlier years, however, with the Indian uprisings during King Philip's War, in paper, the 1670's, the Coffin's moved back on to Nantucket to stay. They returned during the years of development in woolf's essay about, the fishing industry. John Gardner had been commissioned to develop the fish trade, while the rest were trying their best to develop productive farms. Essay On Cows. Both Peter Folger and Tristram Coffyn, James' grandfather, were said to woolf's essay working have had productive grist mills which indicates that there was some evidence of success with farming, however if the colony was to develop, more would have to be done.
What Nantucket lacked could probably be summed up in a few words; resources and spiritual direction. The initial goodwill was running thin. It was a time of squabbling between settlers. Essay On Cows. The full share holders were quarrelling with the half share holders. The Coffins feuded with the about Gardners and the Indians were becoming disenchanted with the white settlers' rule. Upon Tristram Coffyn's death, the essay on roper feud between Tristram and woolf's essay about women, John Gardner slowly faded. Tristram's grandson, Jethro, married Gardner's daughter, Mary, and now James was showing interest in Love Gardner. In the late 1680's, James was the second Coffin to marry a Gardner. On John. Love Gardner was born May 2, 1672 and was the daughter of woolf's essay Richard Gardner, one of the original settlers. James who was a farmer was thought to have had one child named Benoni with his wife. However, the child died in infancy.
Shortly after James' wife Love also died, although evidence is sketchy as to whether or not she died during child birth. Soon thereafter, James courted Love's cousin, Ruth. The Coffin House, Newbury, Mass. The Jethro Coffin House, Nantucket, Mass. Gardner, daughter of John Gardner.
On May 19, 1692, James and essays owen, Ruth were married. At about the time that James and Ruth were married, a group of Nantucket settlers atop of Folly House Hill were observing whales spouting a short distance off shore. One commented,There is a green pasture, where our children's grandchildren will go for woolf's women bread. This isn't the first time that the Islanders had taken notice of the abundance of whales off their shores, nor was it even the begining of the New England whale trade, for whales had been captured for over fifty years upon the coast of Long Island and Cape Cod. In the 1670's a whale was captured for the first time in Nantucket, and later on master thesis topics testing, the Islanders took it upon themselves to hire a whaler named James Loper from Cape Cod, to come to the Island to teach the ways of whaling.
Up to that time whaling on Nantucket consisted of waiting until a dead whale carcass washed up on shore. All the working women Islanders would rush for their claim including the Indians. Showcase 2012. Other evidence of early whaling could be found in the inventory of the estate of Tristram Coffyn, who had died in 1681. Woolf's Essay About Working Women. It showed 45 lbs. of whale bone, valued at 10d. Essay On Roper Logan. It is also thought that the Indians were the first to show interest in the large mammals. The actual pursuit of whales on the Island was a slow but steady progression taught by the mainlanders and Indians over twenty years. They showed the settlers the ways in which a whale was to be approached to prevent the essay about animal from getting frightened.
Men such as Loper, showed how to extract the oil from the carcass, and where to thrust the harpoon. _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬. In 1690 the Islanders hired a whaler named Ichabod Paddock to help refine their new found trade and from this time on whaling quickly became the trade of choice for the young Island men. It was no accident that the settlers took to essay about working women whaling with such ease. The Colony could not survive without a profitable resource. Farming the sandy soil was not very productive, and their livestock were poor in quality. On the other hand their offshore location placed them close to on dulce et decorum wilfred migrating whales and their harbour at Shelburne offered good protection for their boats from bad weather. In the beginning of shore whaling the Islanders divided the south shore of the Island into four equal parts, each consisting of woolf's essay about women three miles of shoreline. Et Decorum Owen. Each section was equipped with a hut and a mast along with a crew of five to six men. From the mast the signaller would spot the essay about spray from a spouting whale and the chase would begin. The men would rush to calvin the beach and launch their boats into the surf rowing with all their might.
The signaller would stay behind to direct the boat toward their prey using signal flags. As the boat approached the whale the harpooner would drop his oars and ready himself for the kill. Once upon the whale the harpooner would thrust his harpoon into the animal for the capture, meanwhile the rowers would feverishly back paddle to escape any thrashing of the essay about huge tail. Once the kill was completed they had the task of rowing the research on john calvin dead whale back to shore and land it on the beach. The whole hunt start to finish could take hours and needless to say the crew was exhausted by the end of the hunt. Once successfully on shore they would start cutting the whale blubber into cubes and then used a process called trying out. This consisted of erecting large tripod kettle holders on the beach. They would set fires under the woolf's essay working large kettles and _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, boil the chunks of blubber down until the oil separated from the fibres. Then using large ladles they would scoop the oil into essay working, barrels and prepare it for shipment. Whale oil was being used in many places as a luminant and lubricant especially back in Europe.
The British were purchasing much of the Colonial whale oil being shipped from Massachusetts, in turn much of Nantucket's whale oil was shipped off to et decorum est by wilfred Boston. James and Ruth's first child, George, was born in 1693. In 1695 Sarah was born, followed by Nathan in 1696 and Elisha in 1699. Woolf's About Working Women. During these years James was farming and taking care of livestock. РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬. The town meetings of March 19, 1707 recorded that James Jr. was appointed to take account of all fleeces at ye time of sheering. The location of his farm was most probably near Capaum Pond, where his father Hon.
James Coffin had property. Woolf's About Working Women. The sheep grazed on an open range with other farmers livestock, their ears were tagged for identification. During the sheering, the atmosphere was festive and celebrated by most of the Islanders. With regards to the ocean trades the Coffin, Gardner, Starbuck, Hussey, Macy and Paddock families were in the forefront of Nantucket's beginnings with fishing and whaling, James' brothers, Nathaniel, Jonathan and Ebenezer were active in the trade during the 1690's and into on roper logan and tierney, the 1700's. James is essay, not on record as being involved as a mariner, but it is hard to believe that he was not, at least for part of the on roper logan and tierney season, after all he was married to Captain John Gardner's daughter Ruth, whose family were all fishermen. With the whale industry on the rise the town was gradually being shifted from Capaum Harbour to Shelburne. The whale stations along the south coastline were now giving way to whaling sloops anchored in Nantucket harbour. About Women. These boats were relatively small, 20 to 30 tons and their numbers were few in the beginning. They would apply their trade just off the Nantucket coast. In 1702 a Quaker Missionary visited Nantucket from master topics Rhode Island and a meeting for essay about the curious resulted in their first converts. Mary Coffin Starbuck was the 2012 daughter of woolf's essay women Tristram Coffyn and became one of the first Islanders to embrace Quakerism in essay on cows, 1704.
This was significant not only because of her ties with two of the essay Islands leading families, the Coffins and the Starbucks, but also because of her valued opinion by essay on roper and tierney all who knew her. Mary owned the Islands's first store, as a result much of the gossip of the day fell onto her ears. Mary, always seeing the good side helped to woolf's essay working resolve family problems for the various patrons who came to her store, in turn she gained the settlers respect. The significance of master thesis testing these first converts was that they helped to give the community a religious direction as a group. The Quaker faith was a left wing Puritan sect founded by George Fox in England in woolf's about working women, 1650. Fox believed that a Ministry was not necessary in afi thesis, order to spread the essay about women beliefs of the bible. Instead, his followers believed that all men were equal and called themselves friends. At their meetings they would gather in silence until someone in the room felt compelled to РћРљВ» speak.
Their belief in such things as refusing to remove their hats and the refusal to wage war got them into trouble everywhere they went. Many were imprisoned or. whipped and others were hung. The harsh Puritan rule of the Colonies made laws against those who helped the Quakers in essay working, any way. These same laws were what the Islanders were fleeing from when they first came to Nantucket fifty years earlier. Essay On Roper And Tierney. Some had even helped the Quakers, so it isn't hard to understand why the seeds of the working Quaker faith took root in essay on cows, the soil of Nantucket. Most of the Islanders were already Christians of different faiths, mainly Baptists, but the Quaker belief in woolf's, hard work and _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», plain lifestyle seemed to be more suited to the settlers way of life on Nantucket. As mentioned earlier, what the Islanders lacked was resources and woolf's women, direction, now with the ever increasing whale industry turning profitable, along with their Quaker beliefs in hard work, the Island was beginning to pull away from the mainland's whale trade, in terms of productivity. On Roper Logan And Tierney. It was recorded by many visitors that Nantucket was very different from the mainland regarding its flurry of essay activity and plain dress of its people.
It was called a marriage of religion and essays, commerce. In the early 1700's the writer, Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, described how Islanders, the majority being Quakers, methodically trained their young in all aspects of the whale business. The children would enter school to learn to read and write and perfect their calculations. Then at age twelve, they would apprentice in trades such as barrel making and at fourteen they would go off to sea. While working on the sloops, they would be taught the art of navigation, along with the steps involved in whaling start to women finish.
Upon numerous voyages and hunts the young mariners would then be called upon to research calvin fill various jobs in the industry. Woolf's Essay Working Women. And so, in just a short time, Nantucket went from meagre means to prosperity with the best years yet to follow. During these years in the early 1700's, James' father Hon. James Coffin was the essays on dulce est by wilfred owen Chief Magistrate on the Island. It is my belief that James, being the eldest son, must have in some part helped his father manage his land holdings and businesses. It's known that James Sr. had trading sloops going back and forth from the mainland. These sloops would have needed crews of about working women up to ten men, depending on the size.
Wool and whale oil would most likely have been the exports. In 1712 the whaling trade entered a new era, with the historic voyage of Captain Christopher Hussey. Hussey was whaling off the shores of Nantucket when a gale blew him far out to sea. Having survived the gale, Hussey was making his way back when he observed a whale of master thesis topics in software enormous size just off his bow. With a good measure of courage, he attacked the woolf's essay women whale and managed to be successful in master thesis topics testing, killing the animal. The whale was not of the scragg or right species, but was a sperm whale. They found the oil to be of a much better quality, burning cleaner and brighter and so began not only the pursuit of woolf's essay women sperm whales by Nantucket whalemen, but also sea ventures further off shore than ever before. By 1715, Nantucket had six sloops engaged in РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, the whale trade. Two of these vessels were owned by woolf's women Coffins, the thesis topics in software Nonsuch, 25 tons owned by woolf's women James' brother Ebenezer and the Speedwell, 25 tons owned by James' son George. Two other Coffin vessels were the 25 ton Dolphin (possibly a whaling ship) and the large sloop Hope, 40 tons, owned by James' uncle Peter.
The Hope was a trading vessel. By the topics in software 1720's James' sons George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of the whale trade along with his brothers Ebenezer and Jonathan. It was during these years that Nantucket's whale trade suffered its first tragedy with the loss of their first young men. On April 27, 1722, James and Ruth suffered the loss of their sons Elisha and Joshua. Shortly after their boat set out on a whale expedition of six weeks, Captain Elisha Coffin's ship was hit by a fierce gale, and their crew was never heard from again. The loss was devastating for the Islanders, it was Nantucket's first tragedy in the whale trade and it left many widows. Elisha's widow, Dinah, remarried three years later and became Dinah Williams. One other period that whalemen of the New England coast had to deal with, were pirates. Woolf's Working Women. Since the on roper logan and tierney early 1600's pirates had preyed on shipping on the west side of the Atlantic Ocean.
Most pirates were unemployed seamen and woolf's about, ex-navy sailors, who between wars found themselves with little to do with their time. During wars, countries would hire them to attack the enemy, but most times they would wreak havoc on any easy target. Blackbeard, Captain Kidd and master topics in software, Ned Low, were just a few of the thieves of the sea who sailed in woolf's about working, the waters of the essay on cows North Atlantic. Low, was a particularly nasty animal, as Nathan Skiff, a Nantucket whaler could have attested to had he lived to tell his tale. In June of 1723, Skiff was in woolf's essay about working, pursuit of whales about eighty miles off Nantucket, when Ned Low's ship spotted Skiff's sloop.
Low, who was described by his own crew as a maniac and brute, immediately chased down the whaling ship. Luckily for some of the whaling crew they were out in their small whale boats when the attack occurred and managed to escape to a distant ship. Captain Skiff was not so fortunate. Low ordered Skiff stripped and proceeded to whip the young Captain around the deck of the boat with a belt. Bored with this after awhile, Low then cut off Skiff's ears and seasoned them with salt and made Skiff eat them while Low's men were watching and howling with laughter. In the end, Low decided that because the Captain had been a good sport he should have a quick death. Skiff was shot in the head and paper, his boat was sunk. Woolf's. The remaining crew were set adrift in a small boat with no water or food and left to perish. Little did Ned Low realize that the Nantucket boys were taught the art of navigation and shortly after the Pirate ship was out of sight and they simple returned to the Island. A few months later Low's men turned on et decorum est by wilfred owen, him and set him adrift.
He was picked up by a passing naval ship and once recognized was tried and hung. James and woolf's essay working, Ruth had eleven children in _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, all. Their last born was Benjamin born in 1718, Ruth was in essay about women, her mid forties and essay on roper, James would have been in his late fifties. Whether James embraced the woolf's about Quaker faith is a question requiring more research, however, most of his children seem to research paper have had connections to it. In the 1720's there were more than 1400 Coffin descendants from Tristram and Dionis with most living in the vicinity of Nantucket. Essay Working Women. Therefore, the records of who was who becomes somewhat confusing. Their given names give some clue as to their faith.
Names such as Elisha, Rebeka, Seth and РћРљВ», Uriah, are most certainly biblical names and most probably Quaker names, but it is hard to say what faith they were for sure. The 1720's and 1730's saw Nantucket prosper with every year. Essay Working. The whale trade was putting Nantucket at the forefront of whaling in Colonial America. By 1730, Nantucket had a fleet of 25 whaling boats varying in size from 30 to 50 tons. In 1726 records show Jonathan Coffin (James' brother), captured four whales.
James' son George captured one and Bartlett captured four. In all 86 whales were captured by Nantucket boats. Essays Est By. Soon Nantucket could no longer supply the men needed to crew the about working women boats and they recruited whalers from New York and showcase, Cape Cod. The prosperity continued on essay about, during the last years of James' life. James Coffin died August 2, 1741 on the Island. His wife Ruth died in Nantucket in 1748. Thesis. His will was probated on November 6, 1741. The Children of James and Ruth Coffin: Benoni Coffin was the only child born to James and his first wife Love.
Records show he died young. George Coffin was born in 1693. He was the first child born to James and Ruth. George was a whaler upon his own vessel. He married Ruth Swain in 1717. He died in working, 1727 at research on john, the age of 34.
Sarah Coffin was born in 1695, she married John Gardner's son Jeremiah in 1711 at the age of 16. She died December 1, 1739. Nathan Coffin was born in women, 1696. He married Lydia Bunker, daughter of John and Elizabeth. Nathan was a sea captain. He died December 11, 1768. Elisha Coffin was born 1699.
He married Dinah Bunker daughter of Peleg and essay on roper logan, Susanna. Elisha was a sea captain and woolf's about working, a whaler. He was the first Nantucket whaleman to be lost at sea. He died on or about April 27/28, 1722. Joshua Coffin was born in 1701.
He married Pricilla Bunker daughter of Peleg and Susanna. He was lost at paper, sea with his brother Elisha in about women, 1722. Elizabeth Coffin was born in 1703. She married her cousin Josiah Coffin, son of Jethro and Mary of Jethro Coffin House fame. Essay On Roper Logan. She died in woolf's about, 1774. Pricilla Coffin was born March 3, 1708. She married Abel Gardner, son of Nathaniel and РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬, Abigail. She died April 27, 1792.
Mary Coffin was born May 29, 1710. She married John Bunker son of woolf's about working women George and Deborah in essays owen, 1725. Working Women. She died on July 19, 1775. James Coffin was born April 10, 1713. He married Pricilla Rawson, daughter of master thesis Wilson and Margaret. He died April 11, 1784.
Ruth Coffin was born on January 17, 1716. She married her cousin Cromwell Coffin, son of Ebenezer and Eleanor. She died September 30, 1801. Benjamin Coffin was born November 16, 1718. His first marriage was to his cousin Rebecca Coffin, Daughter of essay women Bartlett and Judith. His second marriage was to Hannah Bunker, daughter of Jabez and Hannah. He died on on roper logan, December 28, 1793. John Richardson's Meeting - Painting by Margaretta S. Hinchman.
from the collection of the Nantucket Historical Assn. There is something extremely painful in the destruction of a whale. yet the object of the adventure, the about working value of the prize, the joy of the capture, cannot be sacrificed to feelings of compassion. Capt. W. Scoresby 1820. Benjamin Coffin was born on Nantucket Island on November 16, 1718. He was the youngest child of James and Ruth (Gardner) Coffin.
Benjamin's early years were during a time of financial and spiritual security on the Island. After years of struggle, the master topics testing small community had found success with the whale trade along with spiritual direction being given by the Quakers. Benjamin's great aunt, Mary Coffin Starbuck, had launched the faith of the Quakers on Nantucket, guiding the Islanders to a frugal, hard working lifestyle. Although the early years of Benjamin's life were good years for the Islanders, they were not without hardships. When he was only four, his family suffered the Island's first loss of life involving the whale trade, with the working women drowning of Benjamin's older brothers, Elisha and Joshua during a violent storm.
Benjamin himself was named in honour of essay on cows another drowning victim, his father's baby brother, who was washed overboard many years earlier, during a crossing from Martha's Vineyard to Nantucket. The Nantucket boys learned early through these losses that the about ocean demanded respect and through this respect came the foundation that eventually made the crews from the logan Island some of the bravest and skilled sailors in the world. Benjamin would have grown up surrounded by the whale trade. His brothers George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of it, as well as many uncles and cousins, too numerous to name. By 1730 Nantucket had a whaling fleet of twenty five boats, all under fifty tons.
The yearly average of whales harvested between 1725 and 1730 was about seventy, with the Coffins accounting for woolf's about a good many of the catch. Many natives were employed by the whale trade, however it is not totally clear if they were treated as equals. On Dulce Et Decorum Wilfred Owen. Judging by reports of unrest among the Indians, it's likely they were not always treated kindly. One report in 1738 tells of fears amongst the whites to leave Nantucket on whaling expeditions due to rumours of the natives who were left behind plotting to kill the settlers and setting fires to their homes. This event never happened, however it gives a picture of bad relations between the two parties. Where Benjamin was living during his early years is about working women, a mystery.
His father James was a farmer, so therefore they wouldn't have been located in 2012, the town of Shelburne, but more likely to the west, back toward Capaum Harbour. During the second half of the 1730's, Benjamin was. courting a lady named Rebecca Coffin, daughter of Captain Bartlett and essay about women, Judith (Bunker) Coffin. Afi Thesis Showcase 2012. Rebecca's father, Bartlett, was a descendant of Hon. James Coffin's brother, Lt. John Coffin. In turn, this made Benjamin and Rebecca, second cousins through their fathers.
Rebecca's father, Captain Bartlett Coffin later commanded the whaling ships, Conway and Alliance, both of Nantucket. If by this time there were any thoughts that the Coffin blood was thinning in woolf's essay about women, this line, due to outside the family marriages, they were put to rest, when on March 22, 1739, Benjamin and Rebecca were married. Rebecca came from a Quaker family, and through Rebecca, came the Quaker roots that would be carried on through this line of the Coffins for the next generations. Quakers were only to marry other Quakers so the question was whether Benjamin was already a Quaker, or did his love for Rebecca convert him into being one. It is on dulce et decorum wilfred, also worth mentioning at this point that Rebecca had two brothers, Uriah and about, Peleg, who would in later years come with our Coffins to Nova Scotia. On March 21, 1740, just one day before their first anniversary, Rebecca gave birth to their son Elisha. The name Elisha derives from the old testament prophet Elisha (850B.C. - 795B.C.), but in this case, the name was almost certainly in honour of Benjamin's older brother, Elisha, who drowned at research paper, the age of twenty three. One year later, on February 21, 1741, their daughter Rebekah was born, followed by Benjamin September 1, 1744, Luranna September 1, 1746, Susanna August 25, 1748, Eliakim 1761, Seth June 25, 1753, followed by woolf's Ruth and Bartlett born in 1755 and 1756. Benjamin worked in the whale trade but on which ship? It is probable that he worked for his father-in-law Captain Bartlett Coffin aboard one of his boats, or possibly he worked with his brothers on calvin, one of woolf's essay their numerous boats. One account has him listed as Captain Benjamin Coffin, however, I haven't been able to confirm this and his name is not listed on the Captain's list in the book The Coffin Family.
By 1740, the Spanish and essays, French privateers were once again attacking British ships, which included the Nantucket whale fleet. At a period of time when the whalers were venturing further and further from Nantucket, in woolf's working women, pursuit of sperm whales, they found themselves increasingly at risk from these hostile forces. The mainlanders in Colonial America preferred to _Р№Р€ РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ whale close to home, whereas the Nantucketers were venturing far north off the Grand Banks and Gulf of St. Lawrence region and south as far as the Bahama Banks. As the distance from home grew, so did the size of the whale ships. As ships got larger, they no longer had to return home once a whale was captured, they began the process of cutting up the huge catch on board the ships and storing the blubber in essay about working, barrels below their decks, returning periodically to extract the oil before the blubber spoiled. The early 1750's marked some important years for the whale trade. The discovery of the spermaceti candle by Benjamin Crabb of Rhode Island put the sperm whale oil in great demand, this along with the introduction of tryworks aboard the whale ships put Nantucket at the forefront of Colonial whaling. The tryworks were brick furnaces placed on the deck of the ships.
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Profession For Women By Virginia Woolf Essay
Custom Community Service and Charity essay paper writing service. Community service in simple terms can be said to be a form of women charity that is _Р№Р€ РћРљВ», offered to the society. Ideally, community service has all to do with being in pursuit of the common good. Actually, the common good has a very rich tradition and culture in the Catholic social and intellectual thought. A service to the common good was core to the normative visualization of the good life through a lot of Western thought, from typical Greek moral way of life. If we can borrow from the example of Boyle (pp.10-20), being human involves following the common good of woolf's about working fellow man. Common good is indeed a difficult theory to understand. It starts with the proposition that each individual is social and sacred and more even stating that human dignity and afi thesis, rights, the human well-being and potential of each individual are attained in a single moral ecology.
The concept of having meaning and purpose in life has commonly been thought by many as being happy with life. Happiness has been defined as the woolf's essay about working women, meaning and research calvin, the purpose of life which actually is the main aim and end of the existence of human beings. Woolf's! Life finds its real purpose and fulfillment in the expansion of contentment and happiness. All human beings born into this world come into it with a specific purpose. Apparently, human beings will not find this purpose until they make a commitment to search for it. This is essay on roper logan and tierney, how human beings should live. It would be very disastrous if there was no purpose for which people live. If human beings could live without a purpose, then there will actually be no difference between them and animals. The most important part of being human is living a meaningful and purposeful life.
Essentially, the meaning of life is acknowledged through the things that we do, the way we do these things and the people to whom the things are done. The lives of human beings apparently mean different to people of different kind and the meaning changes as the about working, humankind improves. Making life meaningful is something which can be easy since it is within us. Thus, people do not need to master thesis testing rely on others to make their life meaningful. Understanding and appreciating the natural world means learning through a first hand experience of what transpires in essay about women the world and taking good thought and care of whatever and nature provides through learning, observing and experience. Having a continuous hands-on experience with the natural world creates a deep instinctive understanding of the afi thesis 2012, natural world that is the basis of sustainable development. The natural world has a lot to teach human beings and people really need it to connect with their purpose in life. Forging a more just society for the common good is an effort of woolf's essay about working working towards the achievement of moral values in the society attaining a point of afi thesis compromise where everybody is treated fairly.
Social justice is the main virtue that familiarizes an individual with moral actions towards this common good. The basis of woolf's about social justice is ideally a moral vision for the entire society since human beings share a universal humanity and freedom. Therefore, each individual and social group will make a commitment to the good of everybody in the society because of the fact they see that they are vitally responsible for the welfare and quality of life of every other person. Boyle narrates his twenty years of working with “homies” in the county of Los Angeles having 1,100 gangs and with a membership of almost 86,000. Boyle has found meaning and purpose in life as he engages in a gang intervention program. As a priest, his Christian beliefs seem to connect so well with Catholic social traditions. He offers tattoo removal, job training and employment to all the members of the foe gangs. This kind of essay on cows charity and community service is very instrumental as it gave Boyles a purpose of living.
Life has its meaning in the engagement of such activities that seek to promote the well-being of everyone in the society (Boyle, pp. 33-67). His efforts were made towards the woolf's women, improvement of the quality of life of the members of these gangs. The charity and community service that Boyle offers is connected to the belief that he has in the social well being of humanity. Essay On Cows! He narrates the despair of looking upon the children we love corporate in working doom upon woolf's working women, their lives. He promotes the aspect of standing in awe to what the vulnerable and poor people have to bear instead of just judging them based on the things that have befallen them. Catholic social traditions teach such values of finding meaning and essay on cows, purpose in life by addressing the problems of others. From stirring vignettes concerning gangsters breaking into many tears or finding themselves candidates of love and affirmation, to times of spiritual likeness and side splittingly humorous banter between him and the homies, Boyle creates a persuading and even blissful treatise on the sacred nature of each and every life. Boyle lives the true meaning of life and having a purpose in the life he leads as embedded in the Catholic social tradition. He shows the essay about working women, way the church is et decorum, supposed to working exist for on roper the non-members.
The purpose and meaning of life in essay the religion is found in such activities that work for the common good of all in the society. Being human is defined through having such a kind of a feeling and logan and tierney, sympathy towards the poor and the vulnerable. Essay About Working Women! His efforts forge towards a just society for the common good of everyone (Pross, Justice and common good). Master Thesis Testing! Boyle has buried many young people from violence that is linked to gangs. This shows how Boyle has understood and the manner in which he appreciates the natural world. He actually appreciates the lives of these gang members by woolf's about working women, making a commitment to help them (pp. 25-89). Charity and community service happens to be one of the core values of Catholic social traditions.
The actions and research paper, decisions of a just individual will habitually develop the good that is concurrently common for all people and the community at woolf's essay about working women large. This is et decorum wilfred, why charity and community service are seen as virtues done to the society. Apparently, Christian moral traditions do not expect a person to look on the plight of an individual without doing anything. Christian moral traditions are characterized with humane actions. To be human is woolf's working women, a concept that is highly valued as a Christian moral sense.
It is very important to develop capabilities for all people through an elimination of everything that causes the lack of freedom (Pross, Justice and common good). _Р№Р€! Creating freedoms can be achieved through charity and community service. Liberating these people in woolf's about working women abject poor or in research calvin dire need is an aspect of Christian moral values and traditions. The decision an individual takes in woolf's essay women helping others shows an understanding of some kind. It is not the responsibility of human beings to pass on judgment to others because that is not human.
We are all similar and face the same things in master thesis topics in software life. Appreciating the lives of others ignites the desire to be involved in community service and in the service of others. Charity and community service seek to woolf's about working eliminate lack of opportunities, social deprivation, overactive repressive regimes and intolerance among other issues. Jewish ethics traditions have also not been left out in contributing towards charity and community service. The teachings of Jewish ethics of tradition are aimed towards healing a fractured world which initially calls for having a responsibility. When we have found a responsibility in life, then life is essay logan and tierney, worth living. Life gets meaning and purpose.
It is human to make commitments to heal a fractured society. The theology of responsibility according to woolf's essay working women Jewish traditions teaches about taking positive reaction towards the evil in the society. Being ready to deal with the forces that go against a just society and the common good for all in the community is a very important aspect that connects Jewish ethics traditions to charity and community service (Sacks, pp.5-17). According to Jewish traditions, following responsibility ethics develops character. This is a very important aspect that is required in charity work and community service. This is a mark of leading a responsible life (Sacks, pp. 15-33). Responsibility brings meaning and purpose in life.
Taking responsibility to take part in essays et decorum societal work shows good understanding of our natural world. It is woolf's, also an indication of appreciation of the things that surround us. The charity work and service given to the community is something that seems to rhyme with the Jewish ethics traditions. For instance, Boyle at the Homeboy Industries ministry makes us forget that the youthful gang strike any fear in many people in America. Afi Thesis Showcase! Branding the essay about working, gang as a reckless group does not help and may actually be working against the development of a just society. This gang is indeed a threat to the society but Boyle goes beyond such experiences and shows everyone that every person deserves the love of God (Boyle, pp. 87-124). Charity and community service as demonstrated by Boyle are fully backed by Catholic social traditions. These young individuals are not actually monsters.
They are sacred people who in РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬ essence are looking for a meaning and woolf's essay working women, purpose in life. When they make a choice of leaving gang life, they come to Homeboy Industries ministry for master topics in software career placement, counseling, job training, education and tattoo removal. Catholic social traditions have thus been useful in solving the evils of guns, poverty and gangs. Essay About Women! Again, it is all about having a Christian moral obligation to live with the poor and the outcasts. While Homeboy Industries ministry has assisted many young individuals to get out of crime and secure jobs, Boyle does not focus on showcase 2012, the outcomes and the success.
He is about working women, just in the jail, the streets, and essay on cows, homes and in the lives of other persons. Just like Boyle, Sacks depicts Jewish ethics traditions as a multifaceted and subtle predisposition that seriously handles responsibility ethics at a time of corporate malfeasance, religious strife, political chicanery and woolf's essay, religious strife. Boyle finds joy from seeing people come and unite together. As earlier aforementioned, happiness and joy defines having a meaningful life. A meaningful life must seek to fulfill a desired end (Sacks, pp. 20-60). Approaching any challenge and difficult with a positive response coupled with a heart full of compassion are key elements in charity and community service.
Boyle is such kind of a person who has demonstrated these elements. Sacks also confirms this from the Jewish ethics traditions that do not seek to pass judgment. The ministry of Boyle is a very good example of the way Christians should live the gospel in essay on roper and tierney their lives. Essay About Working Women! This can only be through reflecting the love and compassion of God. Essays On Dulce Est By Owen! Love and compassion are apparently a direct translation of charity and community service. Sacks presents Jewish ethics tradition in a way that requires people to woolf's about be partners towards the work of creation (pp. 23-89). Essay On Cows! Everybody is called upon to make a difference in the environment and amongst people by forging a more just society for woolf's essay about the common good. This actually is the topics in software, backbone of charity and community service. The truths of religion are highly valued although the duties are very close at hand. We know God more if we are in a position to emulate rather than remaining in woolf's working contemplation.
Emulating God’s work according to the Jewish ethics traditions is emulating the work of creation. Indeed, the difference is between actions and faith. People’s actions express their faith in God. This becomes more real in the lives of others and the humanity general. Jewish ethics is apparently a direct translation of charity and scrumptiously down-to-earth. If an essay on cows, individual is in need, people must be ready to give. This is a human attribute. Essay Working! A lonely person should be given company and the bereaved should be comforted.
Definitely, Jewish ethics act as the basis of community service. Undoubtedly, Jewish ethics teaches the understanding and appreciation of the on roper and tierney, natural world. The human actions of helping one another through charity and community service are defined as the true religion. It is regarded as religion at its most humane and humanizing nature. This is also greater than having a divine presence. What Sacks reiterates in Jewish ethics tradition also identifies with Boyle’ efforts in emulating the work of creation. Charity and community service is working women, founded on Christian moral traditions and essays est by, also on Jewish social ethics and other concepts of love in action, justice, sanctification of the name of woolf's essay working women God, peace ways and mending the places where the world is fractured. It is a collective responsibility in all these faith covenants. It comes out as vital for humanity entirely.
This practice and concept is a part of the monotheistic thought and the challenges that come along with being both good and holy. It is no doubt that Jewish ethics tradition forms a very important aspect in charity and community service. Jewish ethics seek to transform suffering, incarnate dreams, redeem evil and testing, practice virtue. Being kind and doing well are not burdensome. Instead, these actions promote faith and having joy and happiness as well. In fact, Jewish ethics tradition propels the charity and community service engagements. Jewish ethics tradition even go ahead to state that charity is needed even though the greatest act is one that permits an unemployed individual to become self-sufficient (Sacks, pp. 112-27). Religion has a very huge connection to essay about charity and community service. It is undeniably true that the values expressed in catholic social tradition, Christian moral tradition and Jewish ethics tradition contribute a lot in research paper calvin the process of community service and charity. Woolf's Essay About Working! For instance, Jewish ethics assert that we are ambassadors of God on the face of earth.
The manner in which people live affects how others see God. God requires us to carry on the work of creation and this can be realized by helping others realize themselves and make progress through charity and community service (Sacks, pp. 201-215). Understanding and on roper, appreciating the natural world is the first step of moving towards charity and community service. If people do not understand the reason why things are the way they are they may not see the working, need to essay on cows help others. Living well makes a person become a blessing to woolf's essay about working another person according to Jewish traditions and also as evident in Catholic social conventions as propagated by Boyle in his program with the gangs. This is a witnessing fact to the power of on john calvin transformation of the divinity.
In essence, charity and community service was created in human beings. It is therefore human to be involved in woolf's essay about charity work. God has put meaning and purpose of life in people. _Р№Р€ РћРљВ» РЏвЂ В±__в‚¬! This should be realized through charity and community service to others in forging a more just society for the common good of other people. Sacks says that a holy person must translate the word of God into actions in a similar way which waves are converted into sound through radio. As a real image of charity and community service, Sacks strikes very high reflections on redemption of little steps, kindness, faith as being with uncertainty and morality of woolf's working women faith among other concepts.
Sacks also makes reference to the language of tears which is presented as the only universal language. It is a language of compassion leading to charity and offering the community service. In Software Testing! The meaning of life is therefore achieved in leaving an impact in the lives of individuals. What matters in the life of an individual is not what goes in but rather what is felt by others in surrounding. Woolf's Working Women! Charity and community service requires a person to be human. Being human would require a person show love towards other people. Showing this kind of love will require a proper understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Other people are equally important as us.
Charity and community service is therefore at the heart of God and research calvin, we are supposed to execute what God has implanted deep within us. It is woolf's essay about women, very important to know how religion connects to charity and essay on cows, community service. The teachings in Catholic social traditions, Christian moral tradition and Jewish ethics tradition are apparently the backbone of charity and community service. Buy Community Service and Charity essay paper online. Thank you for the superb research proposal. Woolf's About Working! I think EssaysProfessors.com is on john, a wonderful writing company. I will tell all of my classmates about you guys because I know a lot who are struggling and who could benefit from your help. I know you certainly helped me!
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