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Keeping Your Resume Out Of Online 'Oblivion' Many mid- and large-sized companies rely on computerized systems to scan resumes and narrow the field of job candidates. Reference. Some tracking software may overlook qualified applicants who haven't used the right keywords. Writing Methodology Masters Dissertation. The Wall Street Journal's Lauren Weber explains what it takes to get noticed. Read Lauren Weber's Wall Street Journal piece Your Resume vs.
Oblivion LYNN NEARY, HOST: If you're one of millions of Americans looking for a job, you've probably wondered more than once what happens to all those resumes you've sent to potential employers. You may suspect that a hiring manager or a recruiter never even glanced at your job qualifications, and you might be right. Many mid- and reference large-sized companies now rely on software known as applicant tracking systems to narrow the design field of potential candidates. Phd Thesis. That's because they're getting so many resumes. But what can an applicant do to prevent his or her resume from getting sucked into a vortex from which there is no return? What did you do to get noticed by an employer? Give us a call, 800-989-8255. Problems Teenagers Today Essay. And our email address is [email protected]
You can join the conversation at reference phd thesis our website, go to case method npr.org and click on phd thesis bibtex TALK OF THE NATION. Restaurants. Lauren Weber joins us now from our bureau in New York. She's a reporter who covers careers for reference phd thesis bibtex, The Wall Street Journal. Good to have you with us, Lauren. LAUREN WEBER: Hi, Lynn. Thanks for problems today, having me. NEARY: So explain to us how this system, this applicant tracking system works. What happens exactly? WEBER: This is software that companies can buy - generally, companies that do a fair amount of hiring because they can be quite a big investment.
And they are then programmed for reference bibtex, every job description that the company posts. Fashion Paper. So they're programmed with, for instance, keywords that they will scan for. They can look for - they can try to calculate years of experience based on what you have on your resume. They can look for the names of schools you attended, things like that. Now, based on the information that the system picks up, it will then score and rank the candidates so that the recruiter can then go into the system, open up, you know, a particular job opening, and they'll see, you know, maybe the 200 applications that they've received for that job, but they're scored and phd thesis ranked, and they can look at, you know, the working mechanical homework help top 25, the top 50, however many resumes they want to look at. NEARY: So why do they need to do this? I mean, how many applicants are these companies getting? (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) WEBER: Even relatively small companies that I spoke to that, you know, post a job on Monster, they might get 400 resumes for reference phd thesis, a single opening.
And I spoke to Starbucks, and they get 7.6 million job applications every year for about 65,000 openings. So as you can see, the numbers are enormous, and it's because of how technology has changed job searching. People now can go to the big job boards, like CareerBuilder or Monster, find thousands of fashion research paper listings, or they can go directly to a company's website. Often, the company has its own careers page, and people can apply through that. NEARY: Yeah. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex. Now, you mentioned that there are some keywords, for today, instance, that they would look for. Reference Phd Thesis. What - do you know what they are, like what are some of these keywords? WEBER: Well, they're not standardized for every job. You know, it depends on the job that you're looking for. So if you're applying to problems face essay be a sales manager, the system is going to look for words like sales and manage.
If you're applying to be a statistician, it will have that word, although one expert I spoke to said there's a good chance that if you call yourself a numerical modeler on your resume, it is not going to pick that up even if that is basically being a statistician. So, you know, the system - the point that was made to bibtex me over methodology masters dissertation and over again are that the systems are only as good as the people who programmed them. So a company needs to do a very good job of making the keywords that they enter narrow enough to make the recruiters' job easier but also broad enough to capture the reference phd thesis bibtex qualified candidates. NEARY: So does it sometimes miss qualified candidates? WEBER: I'm sure it does. Working Mechanical Homework. And all the H.R. people and phd thesis recruiters I spoke to said that, you know, they're sure that they do as well. Law Study. It's because, you know, people who were trained on how to write a resume may be 10 years ago. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex. We're often told to use creative descriptions, use active verbs. Problems Teenagers Face Today. You know, they were told to kind of reference stand out in that way with the law study assumption that a human being was going to be the phd thesis bibtex first - yeah - the frontline of looking at your resume.
They weren't trained to write a resume that a machine was going to be looking at first. And so, you know, unless you sort of writing methodology masters game the system to reference a certain extend by basically mimicking the political persuasion essay job descriptions very closely. And then there are few other things that you might be able to do to, sort of, increase your chances of getting through the machine. You know, there are a lot of people who are probably getting kicked out of these systems who are very qualified. I mean, I spoke to a number of job seekers who said, I don't even know if these jobs exists, you know, where they spend an hour, really, customizing their resume for reference phd thesis, a job, and then they never hear a word back. And they, you know, feel that they were a perfect candidate for it. NEARY: We're talking with Lauren Weber of The Wall Street Journal about resumes and software that can send your resumes straight into a black hole from which it will never return.
And we're wondering, what people have done to law study get around this kind of thing, what they've done to get noticed by employers, knowing that there are so many people out there looking for reference, jobs. So give us a call. We're at 800-989-8255, if you would like to join the conversation. I'm wondering, you mentioned in fashion design paper an article you wrote about reference phd thesis this, Lauren, that even the political order of the words or the order in which you put down information can have an reference bibtex affect on whether it gets bumped out or whether they'll take a look at it. WEBER: Yeah.
Again, it really depends on how the system has been programmed. One expert I spoke to said, sometimes these systems are just too stupid to catch everything. In other words, if they have been programmed to only look for a certain order of political things, like first you name the company, then you have the years that you work there, and then you have your title. If it's not programmed broadly enough to be able to bibtex pull out law study method that information, no matter where it is on the resume or how it's presented or formatted, then, you know, again, you might be end up in reference phd thesis bibtex the black hole or end at the bottom of the ranking system. And so some of the advice that people gave was, you know, make your formatting as simple as possible, as clean as possible. You don't want to get cute with graphics or anything like that could confuse the thesis system. NEARY: Now, we've been asking people to call in and tell us what they have done to get noticed, or how they've gotten a company to give an interview, for reference phd thesis bibtex, instance. Again, you can call 800-989-8255.
But we have an writing masters email here from reference phd thesis, Daniel(ph) in Georgia, who says: I use words from the job description and requirement. So he goes to the job description and case law study method deliberately takes out words that he sees there, figuring that that would, you know, that would work with this. WEBER: Yeah. That is reference phd thesis bibtex, really the trick. Thesis Food Restaurants. I mean, unfortunately, again, you just want to not try to be creative at all. You want to mimic the job description pretty closely. But actually, the key words that can work might even go beyond that. For instance, if a company has a very strong culture, let's say it's a company with a professed commitment to environmental values or something like that, that might not be part of the job description for what you're applying for, but it might - they might have programmed key words like. NEARY: I care about the environment?
(SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) WEBER: . Reference Bibtex. yeah, or natural resources or something like that into the system. And so, you know, what you write down in your - under your volunteer activities or memberships and things like that might make a difference. Writing Methodology Masters. You know, want to - you do want to try to get a sense of what the company culture is and try to customize your resume to a certain extend to fit that company. I mean, not every company will do that. Reference Phd Thesis. You don't know - many people don't even realize that these programs and systems exists, so, you know, but you can try to thesis still make it clear to the company that you are a good fit, not just for reference, the job, but for the entire company. NEARY: OK.
Let's go to Kenneth, who is calling from Houston, Texas. Hi, Kenneth. KENNETH: Hi there. KENNETH: Well, what I found - I was out of political persuasion essay work for about two and a half years, partly by reference bibtex, my own doing. I chose to leave a very good job right about writing October of 2008, which was a really bad decision, looking back. And then I had a really kind of lengthy, wordy resume.
I had sort of a varied background, and I just did not get hit. I couldn't get any hits. And suddenly, one day, I just said, you know what? I'm going to reference phd thesis sit down. I'm going to simplify this. I'm going to really trim on it. And I sent it out to a job listing, and I got a call that, and I've been working at that job now for design paper, two years. So my advice is to keep it simple. NEARY: That's interesting. Would that - I mean, Lauren, would that help with the systems that are in place if it is phd thesis, a simpler resume? WEBER: Absolutely.
You know, again, like I said, it's not just about the words themselves. It's also about the thesis food formatting, just very streamline and reference simple. And I also want to make the point that there - this is, you know, this is not companies trying to keep people out of their program or trying not to find good people. Paper. Part of the problem here is that HR staffs have been cut a lot in this recession. Phd Thesis. You know, a company that makes microchips can cut its number of recruiters down from 100 to 80 without really hurting the core business. Fashion Research Paper. So what's happened is phd thesis bibtex, that these recruiters are squeezed from methodology masters, both ends, and they are both being inundated with resumes because of technology making it so easy to apply.
And on the other hand, there's fewer of them to reference phd thesis bibtex try to go through them. So, you know, I want to fashion research say there are very valid reasons why companies are using these. NEARY: Well, thanks for your call, Kenneth. KENNETH: Thank you. Phd Thesis Bibtex. Have a great day. NEARY: Yeah. But, Lauren, is problems teenagers today essay, there a way for phd thesis bibtex, people to get human contact without going through this resume process? I mean, ultimately, it seems like you really have to have a face-to-face in order to problems teenagers essay get a job. Do you have to go through the resume - putting the resume into the system? WEBER: Different companies have different policies. Reference Phd Thesis. I mean, you know, every one will tell you the number way to get a job is through an employee referral.
You really do want that personal touch if you know somebody at fashion research paper a company and they can put you in touch directly with a recruiter. But even then, sometimes, the recruiters will say, well, you still have to go through our computerized system. Bibtex. Because not only case law study method do these systems get used for reference, weeding out applicants, they're also used to, basically, track you through the interview process if you get in help and then also through the hiring process. So if you do get hired, these system will make sure that you filled out your tax forms and things like that. So they really want you inside their computer database. But that being said, you can, you know, always, as much as possible, make contact with somebody. Use your social networks, use LinkedIn, use whatever.
And then even if they direct you to their website, often there'll be a spot when you're on bibtex the online application that will say, are you in - are you referred by fast, an employee? And there you can put in reference phd thesis bibtex that you are. Thesis Fast. And some companies, more and more, are actually, sort of, fast-tracking employee referrals. NEARY: My guest is Lauren Weber of phd thesis bibtex The Wall Street Journal. And you are listening to TALK OF THE NATION from NPR News. Working Mechanical Engineering Homework Help. All right. We're going to reference bibtex go to Ken, calling from methodology dissertation, Holland, Michigan. Hi, Ken. KEN: Hi. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex. How are you?
NEARY: Good. Thanks. KEN: Great. Fashion Design Research Paper. Hey, I just want to let you know, I was unemployed for 11 months. I did the resumes electronically. I was aware that the phd thesis bibtex key words were being scanned, so I tried to be cognizant of that. Help. But seriously, it came down to the fact that my wife and I actually knew somebody that work at reference bibtex a different branch of that corporation. Teenagers Face. A quick phone call to him. He sent an email off.
And within two days, I had a phone call asking for the interview and, of which, I did get the job. NEARY: Yeah. Well, there you go. Exactly what Lauren was just saying, that - right, you just said that, Lauren, that that's the way to get a job, ultimately, is knowing somebody. KEN: It's not what you know. It's who you know. NEARY: It's now what you know.
It's who you know. Reference. And also - thanks so much for calling, Ken. And also, Lauren, I was wondering, you know, if you do know somebody at a company, you put that reference down on the resume, will the software pick that up? WEBER: Yeah. Different companies do this differently and - but many firms that I've spoken to are really trying to increase the number of employee referrals that they get.
So they're especially interested in homework those candidates. And, you know, it will - sometimes it'll - those applications, even when they're submitted online, will kind of go through a different route in the system and get in front of a recruiter much more quickly, you know. And it's always - recruiters will, you know, always say that smart people know smart people. Good people know good people. They'll always pay more attention to somebody who came in reference phd thesis through an employee.
NEARY: All right. Let's take a call from Brennan. And Brennan is calling from Grand Rapids, Michigan. Hi, Brennan. BRENNAN: Hi. How are you? NEARY: Good. Thanks. BRENNAN: I'm a first time caller. I just want to share a little trick that I use for applications that's worked a couple of times for political essay, me. I know everyone uses, you know, resumes electronically and they type 'em out and stuff.
But for jobs that you have to actually write in the applications and, you know, send it in handwritten, I'll actually take the reference paper and then scan it into my computer. Case Law Study. And then on phd thesis my computer, I'll actually type into the spaces in methodology masters a different color in bibtex a very clean font, and usually that stands out more than the fashion design research handwritten one, and they'll read those first. It's worked a couple of time for me, like I said, so. NEARY: Good idea. Is that a good idea, Lauren? WEBER: I'm not sure I totally understand it, but I have heard - I assumed that you're talking about key words where you actually have those particular skills or qualifications. I've heard about phd thesis certain tricks where people will put on a resume key words, but then they'll put them in white font so that it doesn't show up when a recruiter clicks on that resume in their system. However, recruiters are getting more and more smart about the ways that people are trying to - about the working homework help tricks that people are trying to pull.
And so if the reference phd thesis bibtex system is telling them, well, this person said they had X, Y and methodology dissertation Z key words, and the recruiters doesn't see those, they can highlight the bibtex whole resume. And if you're written something in white text, it will come out that way. Methodology. And that is a terrible way to find a job, and reference phd thesis bibtex a very good way to burn a bridge, so, you know, I don't recommend that. And all the experts I spoke to do not recommend that. Case Law Study Method. It can be a really bad idea. NEARY: All right.
Thanks for your call. BRENNAN: Thank you. NEARY: All right. Here's a question from Julie in St. Louis: I'm wondering what this offer means for the cover letter.
Traditionally, I've thought of phd thesis bibtex them as my best choice - chance of standing out. Are they now obsolete? WEBER: I think fewer and fewer companies are looking for cover letters. Writing Methodology Masters Dissertation. You know, it always depends on what jobs you're talking about. If you're applying to be a sales associate at a Wal-Mart or a Target, you're not going to reference phd thesis need a cover letter to apply through their website. If you're applying for engineering homework, a higher-skilled job where that still makes a difference, whether you're applying online or, you know, coming - they want you to come in for reference bibtex, an interview and you can bring in a cover letter and a resume that way, or you get the name of somebody and can send them a cover letter.
You know, there it's still really does matter. NEARY: All right. Paper. Let's take a call from Angela in bibtex San Antonio, Texas. Hi, Angela. ANGELA: I'm just calling from an employer's perspective. We use a recruiting firm. Case Method. And a couple of times in the last two years, we've hired people that we never got their resumes from the reference bibtex recruiting firm. They were just, as I would call them, squeaky wheels. They just kept calling me and calling me and calling me until they drove me crazy. (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER)
ANGELA: And I called them back, annoyed, to make them stop calling me, and we ended up hiring them. (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) NEARY: That's funny. So persistence actually does work. Writing Masters. Is that what you're telling us? ANGELA: I, honestly, am starting to think it does, you know. Before we started doing the recruiting firm, I didn't believe that. But now, I'm starting to see that we are missing some very quality people that aren't getting through that recruiting process, and reference bibtex I'm actually quite glad that they were persistent. NEARY: All right. Thanks so much for calling, Angela. Law Study. You know, Lauren, I'm thinking, listening to Angela and the question about the cover letter, it seems to me you really still have to do pretty much everything, right?
You want to game the system of reference phd thesis software, but maybe you still want to do some of the old fashion stuff, persistence and cover letters and methodology masters dissertation everything else too. WEBER: Mm-hmm. Yes. And it's really important to know that the - even though online job search techniques have become so prominent and everybody uses them, and companies use them for recruiting, offline jobs search techniques are still really important. It's the networking. It's, you know, those persistent people who made all those phone calls. Very few people want to do that because nobody wants to be seen as a pest. But clearly, it can work.
NEARY: All right. Well, Lauren, thanks so much for phd thesis, being with us. WEBER: Thanks for having me. NEARY: Lauren Weber is a reporter at The Wall Street Journal, where she covers careers. This is TALK OF THE NATION from NPR News.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of reference phd thesis, expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on teenagers essay, law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and reference bibtex romance languages, magna cum laude, from fashion paper Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in phd thesis, Madrid, Spain.
She is a member of the law study method, New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and phd thesis Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to case law study, assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Reference? Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to problems today essay, his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to reference, the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and make every word count.
This is related to Tip #1. You want the thesis food restaurants, most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on reference phd thesis bibtex, your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for food restaurants the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is reference phd thesis bibtex no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about method, every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from phd thesis bibtex college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews.
You also must be prepared to fashion design research paper, talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. Reference Bibtex? And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Masters? Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is phd thesis bibtex more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project?
6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. Food? If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the reference bibtex, verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the fashion design research paper, descriptions of reference bibtex, your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of design paper, mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of reference bibtex, yours and not aspirational hobbies). Problems Teenagers? Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common.
If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for reference phd thesis bibtex a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and masters dissertation not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the reference bibtex, essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in method, your chair and phd thesis bibtex confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question.
Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the writing, most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. Reference Bibtex? In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint.
Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on design research paper, a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10.
Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Reference? Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?.
Here’s a freebie. Case Method? It’s not the phd thesis bibtex, most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in research paper, your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in reference phd thesis bibtex, the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the essay, recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing.
Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about reference bibtex, your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of teenagers face essay, designing a resume. Reference? But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s.
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A Well-Educated Workforce Is Key to State Prosperity. What can state governments do to boost the economic well-being of their people? That is the reference, central question of state economic policy. Incomes and wages can increase across an economy when productivity—production per capita—increases. States have many tools in their arsenal to increase productivity, including investments in public infrastructure, in technological innovation at public universities and other institutions, and in workers through the education and training systems. But many states have been retreating from their responsibility to ensure state economic growth that benefits all residents in favor of case, a short-sighted approach to economic development. In these states, the focus is on luring employers from other states with strategies that do not lead to rising incomes because they do not make the workforce more productive. Even worse, the focus drains resources from the most important, proven, path to reference phd thesis, increasing productivity: investments in education. Major findings of this report include the writing methodology masters dissertation, following:
Overwhelmingly, high-wage states are states with a well-educated workforce. There is a clear and strong correlation between the educational attainment of a state’s workforce and median wages in the state. States can build a strong foundation for economic success and shared prosperity by investing in education. Providing expanded access to reference phd thesis, high quality education will not only fashion research paper expand economic opportunity for residents, but also likely do more to strengthen the overall state economy than anything else a state government can do. Cutting taxes to capture private investment from other states is a race-to-the-bottom state economic development strategy that undermines the ability to invest in phd thesis bibtex, education. States can increase the strength of their economies and their ability to grow and attract high-wage employers by law study method investing in education and reference increasing the number of well-educated workers.
Investing in education is methodology masters, also good for state budgets in the long run, since workers with higher incomes contribute more through taxes over the course of reference bibtex, their lifetimes. Introduction: Education suffers as state economic development wars escalate. Historically, U.S. economic growth and prosperity have been achieved through an implicit partnership of federal, state, and local governments, a partnership that worked astonishingly well for a period after World War II. The federal government provided overall economic stability and sought to ensure that the economy never veered too far from full employment.1 State and local governments assumed primary responsibility for the education system that produced a more skilled and productive workforce. Federal and fashion design research state governments both invested in infrastructure, and in basic research that provided enormous long-term benefits for the private sector. The end result was a long period of postwar productivity growth, the prerequisite for growth in the standard of living. During the 1970s and 1980s, state and local governments across the country became convinced that they should play a more aggressive and reference phd thesis expansive role in writing, economic policy (Fisher and Peters 1998). Economic development became accepted as a major function of state and local government, and reference phd thesis came to mean the direct promotion of private investment within the borders of a state or city.
This led to escalating competition for a limited supply of homework help, private capital investment through increasingly generous incentive packages. While cutting costs to business has become the principal focus of economic development policy in reference phd thesis bibtex, many states, more and more states are cutting programs across the spectrum to persuasion, lower state taxes. Phd Thesis? In many cases these ideas are promoted as a way to attract employers from other states—to steal jobs by teenagers today offering incentives to business leaders. But the preponderance of evidence has shown that in the long run these strategies are inefficient and ineffective (Fisher 2013; Mazerov 2013; Lynch 2004). State and local taxes on business are simply too small a share of total business costs to reference bibtex, play a significant role in location decisions; other factors—labor skills, wages, access to case law study method, inputs and reference bibtex markets—are much more important.
Yet business tax breaks are expensive, and case law study method take money from investments in education and infrastructure that increase productivity and support growth. And as public resources are squandered on reference phd thesis bibtex unproductive state efforts to capture private investment at the expense of other states, it becomes more difficult to fund the kind of education system innovations needed to raise U.S. educational performance up to the levels of other advanced industrial societies. Furthermore, investments in public research universities are important to enhancing the nation’s rate of innovation as basic research is spun off in new private ventures, and to maintaining or recapturing our leadership role in new technologies. Writing Methodology Dissertation? Inadequate investments in education weaken the ability of a state to develop, grow, and reference phd thesis attract businesses that offer high-skilled, high-wage jobs. Strong state education systems are good not just for the national economy; they are good for the citizens of the state. Ultimately, state economic policies seek to improve the lives of the people in the state, which means creating conditions in which people can get jobs that pay enough to support a family and provide economic security. This leads to a virtuous cycle, as working people who can afford to buy goods and services support local businesses and the local economy. The connection between education and income is strong. A high school diploma, technical college certificate, or college degree not only increases one’s skills and productivity, but signals to employers that the individual is motivated and completes tasks.
A more educated individual is problems face today essay, more likely to participate in the job market, to have a job, to work more hours, and to be paid more, and less likely to be unemployed (French and Fisher 2009). But the benefits of education go beyond the economic returns. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex? Higher levels of education also correspond to improved health and lower rates of mortality, and lower rates of writing, crime (Grossman and Kaestner 1997; Lleras-Muney 2005; Lochner and Moretti 2004). Research has also shown that greater parent education correlates positively with children’s health, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement (Wolfe and Zuvekas 1995; Haveman and Wolfe 1995; Smith, Brooks-Gunn, and reference phd thesis bibtex Klebanov 1997). Case Law Study Method? The children of more highly paid workers are also less likely to grow up in poverty, less likely to reference phd thesis, be poor as adults, and more likely to be better educated and paid as adults, and working homework help therefore less likely to rely on food stamps or other public assistance (French and Fisher 2009; Duncan, Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 2008). The benefits of a more educated population accrue not just to phd thesis bibtex, the more educated workers, but to future generations and to the broader society. The best way to measure whether an economy is working is to look at help whether the incomes of average people are increasing. To achieve rising incomes for average people, two things need to happen: productivity needs to increase (creating more income overall), and new income generated from their increased productivity needs to be returned to workers in reference, the form of higher wages. Ensuring the fair distribution of the rewards of productivity growth is working, primarily a federal responsibility, through such things as strong labor laws, fair trade policies, and monetary and fiscal policies that encourage full employment. There are some steps states can take in this area, such as maintaining strong labor standards, including minimum wage laws that protect the lowest paid workers.
Where states have the reference, greatest role to methodology dissertation, play, however, is in making sure that all of their people—and particularly in those from the most disadvantaged backgrounds—have the tools to be highly productive. Education is the key to that, as are other things that make learning possible, such as making sure children have decent health care and sufficient nutrition. Reducing poverty itself has also been shown to improve the ability of children to thrive (Marr, Charite, and Huang 2013). Evidence suggests that states that increase the bibtex, level of education of their workforce see greater productivity. As shown in Figure A , between 1979 and political persuasion essay 2012, states in which the share of adults with at least a college degree experienced greater increases in productivity, measured as gross state product per reference bibtex hour worked. Productivity has grown more in states with greater growth in dissertation, the educational attainment of bibtex, their workforce : Relationship between state productivity growth and increase in college attainment from working mechanical homework, 1979 to 2012. Source: EPI analysis of unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and phd thesis bibtex Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, and college attainment data from the Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Copy the essay, code below to embed this chart on your website. There is also evidence that greater productivity is associated with higher wages. Figure B shows that between 1979 and 2007, states with larger increases in productivity experienced larger increases in median worker compensation.
Worker compensation has increased more in states with greater increases in productivity : Relationship between change in state median worker compensation and productivity from 1979 to 2012. Source: EPI analysis of unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of bibtex, Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, state compensation data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis State/National Income and Product Accounts public data series, and wage data from BLS Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Education, wages, and state economic success. The previous section established the link between education and productivity, and productivity and wages.
We can further test the mechanical engineering help, assumed link between education (and, alternatively, tax rates) and wages by reviewing correlations between certain characteristics and reference bibtex high-wage state economies. We focus on the median wage (which includes hourly wages and design paper salaries converted to reference, an hourly basis) as the most appropriate measure of case law study, state economic success for several reasons. It should be the reference phd thesis, goal of state development policy to raise the standard of living, which requires both improvements in productivity and that the gains from teenagers, productivity (how much output is generated by the economy in bibtex, each hour of work) be shared with workers in the form of higher wages and salaries. Productivity improvements that only enhance profits will benefit only those at the top of the methodology masters dissertation, income and wage distributions. Phd Thesis Bibtex? And average wages, as opposed to median wages, will rise even when all the gains are captured by those at the top. Methodology Masters? Indeed, national data reveal that the increasing concentration of profits and wage growth at reference phd thesis the top is behind the growing “wedge” between productivity growth and median wages in essay, the United States (Mishel et al. 2012). Yet even despite this growing wedge, higher rates of education are strongly predictive of reference, higher median wages across states (as shown below). We use wages rather than income because wages are directly affected by state efforts to increase labor skills while investment income could derive from ownership of assets anywhere in the world. Furthermore, for problems face today essay most of the phd thesis bibtex, population, improvements in wages are the principal, if not the only, path to political essay, improving income.
We do not use growth in reference phd thesis bibtex, jobs or in output (state GDP) because an increase in jobs or in output does not necessarily translate into an improved standard of living; an influx of low-wage jobs can drive down average pay, and an increase in output can occur with little increase in employment or wages if it comes about writing, through substituting capital for phd thesis bibtex labor. Our analyses allow us to answer several important questions. First, “are high-wage economies more common in mechanical homework, low-tax states?” The answer, as shown in Figure C , is “no.” There is no significant correlation between overall tax levels and high-wage economies : Median hourly wage, and state and local taxes as a share of state personal income, by state, 2010. Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata and Tax Policy Center's Tax Facts data. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data underlying the figure.
The figure shows no clear relationship between state taxes (as a share of state personal income) and median wages. Higher-tax states appear to have slightly higher median wages, but that correlation is not significant. One conclusion from reference, this chart could be that it is very unlikely that we would ever see a clear pattern when looking at wages across all 50 states—because states are so different in so many ways. Testing the accuracy of this conclusion leads to our second question: “Is there a factor that does show a strong correlation with high-wage economies?” The answer is “yes.” Overwhelmingly, high-wage states are states that have a well-educated workforce, evident in Figure D . The correlation is very strong and there are very large differences between median hourly wages in states with well-educated workforces and hourly wages in states with less-well-educated workforces (as measured by the share of methodology, workers who have at least a bachelor’s degree). In the 22 states with the least-educated workforces (30 percent or less with a bachelor’s degree or more education), median wages hover around $15 an hour, the only exceptions being Alaska and Wyoming. In the three states where more than 40 percent of the population has a bachelor’s or more education, median wages are $19 to $20 an hour, nearly a third higher. Reference Bibtex? For a full-time, full-year worker, a median wage of $15 versus $20 an hour means the difference between making $30,000 a year and making $40,000 a year. Face Today? For a household with one person working full time and one person working half time, it is the difference between making $45,000 a year and making $60,000 a year. Median wages are substantially higher in phd thesis, states with better-educated workers : Relationship between state median hourly wage and share of state’s workforce with a bachelor’s degree or more education, 2012.
Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) basic monthly and CPS Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to persuasion, embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the code below to reference phd thesis bibtex, embed this chart on your website. The data underlying the figure.
In addition to the magnitude of the persuasion, differences between states there is also a striking consistency: There are no states with a relatively well-educated workforce and relatively low wages and virtually no states with low levels of reference phd thesis bibtex, education and relatively high wages. There are two outliers: Alaska and Wyoming. Their locations on political essay the graph suggest that states with valuable natural resources and reference bibtex a very limited number of people may be able to offer reasonably high wages without a well-educated workforce. In the case of persuasion essay, Alaska, it may also be a matter of being forced to offer high nominal wages to attract workers because of the high cost of living.2 But these are clearly special cases. In some ways, the correlation between wages and education should not be surprising. For an individual, annual earnings rise with increasing education, as shown in Figure E . Higher median annual earnings for those with more education reflect not just higher hourly pay, but more stable employment and fewer periods of unemployment. Wages are higher for better-educated workers : Median annual earnings of U.S. workers, age 25+, by education, 2011. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. The data underlying the figure. Source: Current Population Survey, 2012 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.
Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. It makes sense that if an individual’s wages increase with education, then wages across an phd thesis bibtex, economy likely increase as more people have higher levels of education. Businesses that need well-educated workers, and pay the wages such workers earn, will grow and prosper in states that have such workers and may be forced to case law study, leave states that don’t. While this correlation between education and high-wage jobs is not surprising, what perhaps should be surprising is how often policymakers ignore it and pursue other quick fixes, such as special tax breaks or other subsidies for businesses. Looking at the correlation between education and wages, there is little indication that states have found a way to create a high-wage economy without a well-educated workforce. Interestingly, this was not always the phd thesis bibtex, case. If we turn back the clock to the late 1970s, we see a very different picture, represented in Figure F . Alaska is again an outlier. But behind Alaska, the highest-wage state was Michigan, which didn’t have a particularly well-educated workforce. Ohio and working mechanical engineering help West Virginia also had reasonably high wages but not well-educated workforces.
At the other end of the spectrum, many states with more well-educated workforces didn’t have particularly high-wage economies. We had a very different economy in phd thesis, the 1970s and the wage premium for food restaurants a college degree (the gap between wages of college and high school graduates) was much smaller. It then grew significantly in reference, the 1980s and problems teenagers face today 1990s (Mishel et al. 2012, Figure 4N). There was a much weaker correlation between education and wages as recently as 1979 : Relationship between state median hourly wage and share of state workforce with a bachelor’s degree or more education in 1979. Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) basic monthly and CPS Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.
The data underlying the reference bibtex, figure. Additionally, Figure F shows higher median wages in states with strong labor unions: Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, California, and New Jersey, for mechanical help example. Reference? Historically, there has been a strong correlation between union density—the percent of a state’s workforce represented by a union—and state median wages.3 Today there are no states with the levels of union density that the face essay, high-wage states had in the late 1970s. Not surprisingly, the bibtex, share of fashion design research paper, corporate revenue that is paid in wages rather than distributed in profits has declined significantly (Jacobson and Occhino 2012). Unions now represent a much smaller share of the workforce than they did in the decades immediately following World War II and so are not the reference phd thesis, force that they were for creating middle-class jobs for large numbers of workers with a high school education or less. Education as smart economic development policy. Does the correlation between education and earnings necessarily mean that states can strengthen their economies in the long run by adopting policies that increase the number of well-educated workers? Recent academic work suggests that the answer is, “Yes.” A study by Federal Reserve economists examined the factors contributing to greater state prosperity over a 65-year period and found that a state’s high school and college attainment rates were important factors in explaining its per capita income growth relative to masters, other states between 1939 and bibtex 2004 (Bauer, Schweitzer, and Shane 2006). Increasing educational attainment can be achieved by case a variety of bibtex, policies and programs, including those that increase access to research paper, postsecondary education by restraining tuition growth or increasing financial aid, reduce high-school drop-out rates, move people without high school degrees through GED and associate degree programs, increase the quality of K-12 education to improve success of high school graduates in postsecondary education, and offer preschool programs that lead to long-term improvements in educational outcomes. An evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative education strategies is beyond the scope of this report.
But there is evidence that state expenditures on primary and secondary education improve school performance and raise state per capita income. For example, investments in school facilities led to improvements in student test scores (Cellini, Ferreira, and reference Rothstein 2010). And over a 34-year period, states that improved their position relative to other states on real per-capita education spending improved their relative position in real per-capita income, and the direction of causality was from education spending to income (Bensi, Black, and Dowd 2004). Also, the long-term benefits of early childhood education programs have been well documented (Lynch 2007). Some state officials may be tempted to ask, “What good would it do to produce more college graduates if better-paying jobs for college graduates are not available?” “Shouldn’t the state focus on law study method attracting higher-skilled jobs instead of creating more skilled workers who have to leave the state to find work?” But in this instance, if not in most others in economic policymaking, increased supply can actually help create its own demand. As Bartik has put it, “An increase in the labor supply probably stimulates labor demand by at least two-thirds the supply increase. This is because additional labor attracts employers, and additional higher-skilled labor attracts employers with more skilled jobs” (Bartik 2009). To a degree then, the answer to these concerns is, “If you educate them, jobs will come,” though national strategies to increase the reference phd thesis, demand for skilled workers may also be needed. Education investments are good not only for a state’s economy and residents, but also for a state’s budget in the long run. This may seem counterintuitive since education is a large share of state-financed expenditure—typically over thesis fast restaurants, half if including postsecondary education and state aid to K-12 school systems.4 But education investments can pay off for the state in bibtex, the long run.
The majority of students graduating from state schools will remain in writing masters dissertation, the state over their working lives, and as a result of reference phd thesis bibtex, being better trained, will have better jobs. This means they will earn more and stay employed at a higher rate, paying more income and sales taxes and relying less on state assistance programs. There is evidence that every additional student who gets an associate or bachelor’s degree instead of stopping formal education after graduating from high school will, over his or her lifetime, return to the state, in the form of higher taxes, substantially more than the cost of their education. This means that scholarships or other programs that lead more students to higher education can more than pay for political persuasion essay themselves, even if a third of the graduates leave the state (French and Fisher 2009). The overall returns from bibtex, investments in early childhood education mean that such investments will generally pay for themselves (Lynch 2007). States would do well if they focused their resources on their historic role as the guarantors of high quality education for all, while broadening the scope of that role to include universal preschool and other early childhood education programs, and working mechanical engineering help beginning to view high quality postsecondary education and training as the standard for all students.
In most states that would mean reversing recent cuts to, and phd thesis even elimination of, publicly funded preschool,5 and declines in research, public investments in postsecondary education. From 1990–1991 to 2009–2010, real funding per student at public colleges and reference universities declined 26 percent, and fashion the share of state personal income going to higher education fell 30 percent, while tuition at four-year institutions more than doubled and at reference phd thesis bibtex community colleges rose 71 percent (Quinterno 2012). Design Paper? Instead of improving access to higher education in response to reference bibtex, the needs of a changing economy, most states have restricted it. Ultimately, the working mechanical, wealth of a society can increase only if the economy becomes more productive. A more productive economy can support both higher wages and higher profits, as well as shorter work weeks and a higher quality of life.
So the phd thesis bibtex, question of how to increase productivity needs to research, be at the center of any debate about reference phd thesis bibtex, state economic development. As this paper shows, moving jobs from one state to another state does nothing to increase productivity. Rather, productivity rises with investments in infrastructure and workers, with investments in education that raise educational achievement providing a major boost. Teenagers Face? Thus, investing in education is a core contribution states can make to reference, the well-being of their residents and design research paper the national economy overall. At the same time, increasing productivity does not by itself guarantee that the resulting economic gains will be broadly shared. Phd Thesis? At the law study, national level, productivity and wages grew hand in hand from the end of reference phd thesis bibtex, World War II until the early 1970s (Mishel et al. Thesis Fast? 2012). But since then, wages have largely stagnated while productivity has continued to rise. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex? From 1973 to 2011 productivity increased 80.4 percent while real median hourly compensation (wages and benefits) of production/nonsupervisory workers in the private sector grew just 10.1 percent (Mishel et al. 2012, Figure 4V). The vast majority of the gains from productivity were captured by those at the very top.
While national policies will have to play the major role in creating a national economy in mechanical engineering, which economic growth leads to incomes rising across the income spectrum, there are measures that states can take to reference phd thesis, strengthen the ability of working people to writing methodology, participate fully in the gains from economic growth. These include restoring state minimum wages to the real level that prevailed in the late 1960s, aggressively addressing problems of wage theft and employee misclassification, adopting higher wage standards in economic development programs, and other measures. But most importantly, states can build a strong foundation for economic success and shared prosperity by investing in strategies that make their people more productive, chief among them education. Providing expanded access to high quality education and related supports—particularly for phd thesis bibtex those young people who today lack such access—will not only expand economic opportunity for those individuals, but will also likely do more to masters, strengthen the overall state economy than anything else a state government can do. Noah Berger is president of the Massachusetts Budget and Policy Center, an independent research organization that analyzes state budget and tax policies, as well as economic issues that affect low- and moderate-income people in Massachusetts. Prior to reference bibtex, joining the center, Berger served as counsel and policy director for the Massachusetts Senate Committee on Ways and Means from 1993 to writing dissertation, 1996 and as policy director for Massachusetts Senate President Tom Birmingham from 1996 to 2002. Berger’s leadership extends to phd thesis, the national arena, where he serves on the board of directors for Public Works, on the advisory board of the Tax Policy Center, and on the EARN advisory group. Berger graduated from Harvard College and has a J.D. from Harvard Law School. Peter Fisher is the mechanical engineering, research director at the Iowa Policy Project. Fisher is a national expert on public finance and has served as a consultant to the Iowa Department of Economic Development, the reference phd thesis, State of Ohio, and working engineering help the Iowa Business Council.
His reports are regularly published in State Tax Notes and refereed journals. His most recent book is Grading Places: What do the Business Climate Rankings Really Tell Us , 2nd edition, published in 2013 by Good Jobs First. He has authored or co-authored the majority of Iowa Fiscal Partnership reports and guest opinions on state tax policy. Fisher is phd thesis, professor emeritus of Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Iowa. Fisher has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. 1. An economy has reached full-employment when any further increases in case law study method, aggregate demand would fail to bibtex, reduce the unemployment rate. Note that this, of course, does not mean the design research paper, unemployment rate will be zero —some degree of “frictional” unemployment (temporary unemployment as workers move between jobs and move from out of the bibtex, labor force into paid employment) and “structural” unemployment (a mismatch between workers demanded by employers and fashion design research paper those available in any given local labor market) will always persist.
The Employment Act of 1946 called for the federal government to maintain full employment, and fiscal and monetary policy in reference, the ensuing postwar period was used to attain that goal while keeping inflation low. In more recent decades, concern with inflation has often taken precedence over writing methodology masters dissertation, unemployment in Federal Reserve monetary policy, and the effectiveness of fiscal policy to stimulate the reference, economy has been challenged by those who would shrink government at methodology all costs. 2. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Alaska has the ninth highest cost of living (Aten, Figueroa, and Martin 2012). 3. In 1979, for example, the correlation between state union coverage and state median wage was .67. Union coverage by reference state and year comes from the Current Population Survey and can be found at unionstats.com (Hirsch and Macpherson 1979). Median hourly wage data are also from the Current Population Survey as analyzed by the Economic Policy Institute. 4. In 2011, expenditures for education accounted for 36 percent of total state government expenditure in the United States, but 56 percent of state own-source revenue (U.S. Census Bureau Annual Survey of State Government Finances 2011)
5. “Of the 39 states with some form of public pre-K program, about half have cut spending since the start of the thesis food restaurants, recession” (Knafo 2012). Per pupil spending on preschool programs has been on the decline for a decade (Barnett et al. 2011). Aten, Bettina H., Eric B. Figueroa, and Troy M. Martin. 2012. Phd Thesis Bibtex? Regional Price Parities for research paper States and reference phd thesis Metropolitan Areas, 2006–2010 . Bureau of today essay, Economic Analysis, August. Barnett, W.S., M.E. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex? Carolan, J. Fitzgerald, and J.H.
Squires. 2011. The State of Preschool 2011: State Preschool Yearbook . New Brunswick, N.J.: National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org/publications/state-preschool-2011. Bartik, Timothy J. 2009. “What Works in State Economic Development?” In Growing the State Economy: Evidence-Based Policy Options, 1st edition, Stephanie Eddy, and Karen Bogenschneider, eds. Case Method? Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin, 15–29. http://research.upjohn.org/bookchapters/18/
Bauer, Paul W., Mark E. Schweitzer, and Scott Shane. 2006. “State Growth Empirics: The Long-Run Determinants of State Income Growth.” Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Working Paper 06-06. http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/workpaper/2006/wp0606.pdf. Bensi, Michelle, David Black, and phd thesis bibtex Michael Dowd. 2004. “The Education/Growth Relationship: Evidence from Real State Panel Data.” Contemporary Economic Policy , vol. 22, no. Fast Food Restaurants? 2. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/cep/byh020/abstract. Bureau of Economic Analysis. National Income and reference bibtex Product Accounts. Various years. National Income and Product Account Tables [data tables]. Method? http://www.bea.gov/iTable/index_nipa.cfm. Bureau of Economic Analysis.
State/National Income and reference Product Accounts public data series. Various years. Annual State Personal Income and Employment [data tables]. http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=70step=1isuri=1acrdn=1#reqid=70step=1isuri=1. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata.
Various years. Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of working engineering homework help, Labor Statistics [machine-readable microdata file]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.bls.census.gov/ftp/cps_ftp.html#cpsbasic. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex? Various years. Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics [machine-readable microdata file].
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.bls.census.gov/ftp/cps_ftp.html#cpsbasic. Bureau of engineering help, Labor Statistics. Labor Productivity and Costs program. Various years. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex? Major Sector Productivity and Costs and Industry Productivity and Costs [databases]. Teenagers Face Today? http://bls.gov/lpc/#data (unpublished data provided by program staff at EPI’s request) Bureau of Labor Statistics. Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Various years. http://www.bls.gov/lau/ Cellini, Stephanie Riegg, Fernando Ferreira, and Jesse Rothstein. Reference Phd Thesis? 2010. “The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics , vol.
125, no. Case? 1, 215–261. http://qje.oxfordjournals.org/content/125/1/215.short. Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Historical Income Tables [data tables]. Various years. www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/index.html. Duncan, Greg J., Ariel Kalil, and Kathleen Ziol-Guest. 2008. Economic Costs of Early Childhood Poverty.
Washington, D.C.: Partnership for America’s Economic Success. Fisher, Peter. 2013. Corporate Taxes and State Economic Growth . The Iowa Policy Project. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex? http://www.iowafiscal.org/2011docs/110209-IFP-corptaxes.pdf. Fisher, Peter S., and Alan H. Design Research Paper? Peters. 1998. Industrial Incentives: Competition Among American States and phd thesis Cities.
W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, p. 5. http://www.upjohn.org/Publications/Titles/IndustrialIncentivesCompetitionAmongAmericanStatesandCities. French, Lily, and Peter S. Fisher. 2009. Education Pays in Iowa: The State’s Return on Investment in Workforce Education. The Iowa Policy Project. Thesis Food Restaurants? http://www.iowapolicyproject.org/2009docs/090528-ROI-educ.pdf. Grossman, Michael, and Robert Kaestner. 1997. “Effects of Education on Health” in The Social Benefits of Education, eds. J.R. Behrman and S. Nevzer.
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Haveman, Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. 1995. Phd Thesis? “The Determinants of Children’s Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings.” Journal of Economic Literature , vol. 33, no. 4, 1829–1878. Hirsch, Barry, and David Macpherson. Political Persuasion Essay? Various years. Union Membership and Coverage Database . Reference? “All Wage Salary Workers” [excel file]. http://www.unionstats.com/ Jacobson, Margaret, and Filippo Occhino. Paper? 2012. “Labor’s Declining Share of Income and reference phd thesis Rising Inequality.” Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/commentary/2012/2012-13.cfm. Knafo, Saki.
2012. “Smart Start? Will Preschool Budget Cuts Damage A Generation?” Huffington Post . http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/29/smart-start_n_1819501.html. Lleras-Muney, Adriana. Problems Face Today? 2005. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex? “The Relationship Between Education and Adult Mortality in the United States” Review of Economic Studies , vol. 72, no.
1, 189–221. Lochner, Lance, and political persuasion essay Enrico Moretti. 2004. “The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from phd thesis bibtex, Prison Inmates, Arrests, and masters dissertation Self-Reports.” The American Economic Review , vol. 94, no. 1, 155–189.
Lynch, Robert. 2004. Rethinking Growth Strategies: How State and Local Taxes and Services Affect Economic Development. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/books_rethinking_growth/ Lynch, Robert G. 2007. Enriching Children, Enriching the Nation: Public Investment in High-Quality Prekindergarten . Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/book_enriching/ Marr, Chuck, Jimmy Charite, and Chye-Ching Huang. 2013.
E arned Income Tax Credit Promotes Work, Encourages Children’s Success at School, Research Finds . Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=viewid=3793. Mazerov, Michael. 2013. Reference Phd Thesis? “Academic Research Lacks Consensus on the Impact of State Tax Cuts on Economic Growth: A Reply to the Tax Foundation.” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, June 17. http://www.cbpp.org/files/6-17-13sfp.pdf. Mishel, Lawrence. Persuasion? 2012. “Understanding the Wedge Between Productivity and Median Compensation Growth.” Working Economics (the Economic Policy Institute blog). http://www.epi.org/blog/understanding-wedge-productivity-median-compensation/ Mishel, Lawrence, Josh Bivens, Elise Gould, and Heidi Shierholz. 2012. The State of Working America, 12th Edition. An Economic Policy Institute book. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Quinterno, John.
2012. Phd Thesis Bibtex? The Great Cost Shift: How Higher Education Cuts Undermine the Future Middle Class. Thesis Fast Food? Demos. http://www.demos.org/publication/great-cost-shift-how-higher-education-cuts-undermine-future-middle-class. Smith, Judith R., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela K. Klebanov. 1997. “Consequences of Living in Poverty for Young Children’s Cognitive and Verbal Ability and phd thesis Early School Achievement.” Pages 132–189 in Consequences of Growing up Poor , eds. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Dunn. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Tax Policy Center. Research Paper? Various years. State Tax Facts [data tables]. http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/taxfacts/listdocs.cfm?topic2id=90. U.S. Phd Thesis Bibtex? Census Bureau. Case? Annual Survey of State Government Finances. Public data series. Various years. http://www.census.gov/govs/state/
Wolfe, Barbara, and reference bibtex Samuel Zuvekas. 1995. Nonmarket Outcomes of Schooling. University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty, discussion paper no. 1065-95. EPI is an independent, nonprofit think tank that researches the impact of economic trends and policies on working people in the United States. Problems Teenagers Face Today Essay? EPI’s research helps policymakers, opinion leaders, advocates, journalists, and the public understand the bread-and-butter issues affecting ordinary Americans. 1225 Eye St. NW, Suite 600. Washington, DC 20005.
2016 Economic Policy Institute. The Perkins Project on Worker Rights and Wages. Tracking the wage and employment policies coming out bibtex of the White House, Congress, and the courts. A research and public education initiative to make wage growth an urgent national policy priority. The authoritative analysis of the living standards of case law study method, American workers. Interactive tools and videos bringing clarity to the national dialogue on economic inequality.
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History and available methods in Linux. The history of software suspend in Linux can be traced to Gabor Kuti and Pavel Machek who developed a patch for reference, the 2.2 series known as swsusp . It was probably an abbreviation for swap suspend as the writing dissertation, snapshot image was written to the active swap partition of the system. Gabor used to maintain these patches on his personal page. The code base for this patch became the basis for three different implementations that we have today: swsusp , suspend2 and uswsusp . swsusp was first incorporated in the 2.5.18 kernel. Reference Bibtex! It subsequently became a part of the 2.6 stable release. Later, a fork of swsusp , known as pmdisk evolved.
The difference between swsusp and pmdisk was that the latter’s code was much cleaner and well structured. Moreover, while swsusp used the problems, /proc interface, pmdisk used the phd thesis, /sys interface. Writing Masters! pmdisk cleanups were eventually merged into the swsusp code base. Among all the bibtex, available methods, the one that generates the maximum excitement is research paper suspend2 by reference Nigel Cunningham. Fashion Research Paper! It introduces some important changes in the way the snapshot image is handled and phd thesis bibtex, is also noticeably faster. suspend2 is currently available as a patch for 2.4 and 2.6 kernels and will hopefully be merged into the mainline kernels in future. Also worth mentioning is uswsusp , abbreviation for userland-swsusp . Working Engineering! It is an reference phd thesis implementation of an working engineering homework help interface for software suspend in the user space. All kernels starting from 2.6.17 have uswsusp merged in them. The module gives access to software suspend functionalities by reference exposing common file operation methods that can be used to operate on a character device. This is only useful for developers who would like to write their software suspend applications in user space and hence I won’t delve into fashion design, this topic in detail here.
swsusp works by taking a snapshot of the contents of the RAM. Phd Thesis! This snapshot or suspend image is copied and then saved in an atomic operation fashion to the active swap partition. Upon rebooting, if a valid image signature is found on the active swap, the methodology masters dissertation, image is loaded and the snapshot transferred back to memory. This gets back the saved state to the user. The following illustration shows the sequence in simple terms: User requests for software suspend All the reference phd thesis bibtex, running processes are given the suspend signal The devices are frozen so that they don’t change the system state when the snapshot is taken The memory image is atomically copied with interrupts disabled Frozen devices are awakened so that the image can be written The image is written to swap Devices are suspended and the system powered off. The resume process involves just the inverse of the above steps. Configuring and running swsusp is a breeze since it is a part of the 2.6 vanilla kernel. If swsusp has not been compiled in case, your running kernel, you will have to enable it and recompile your kernel. Phd Thesis! It is always a good idea to compile a fresh stable version instead of tinkering with the running version because that way you always have a backup with you. To enable swsusp , bring up the kernel configuration window:
Enable Software Suspend under Power Management Options as shown in figure 1. Figure 1: Enabling swsusp. You can optionally add your swap partition path in dissertation, Default resume partition . This step appends a resume parameter to the kernel section in grub.conf . You may also enable Encrypt suspend image that would encrypt the image stored in the swap partition. The key that is used for encryption is stored temporarily and phd thesis, deleted after resuming. swsusp will not work with Symmetric Multi Processing (SMP) enabled in your kernel. So, you will have to disable Symmetric Multi Processing_support under _Processor types and political persuasion essay, features to enable the swsusp module as shown in figure 2. Figure 2: Disabling SMP. As swsusp uses the AES module to encrypt the suspend image, you will have to select Cryptographic API and AES cipher algorithms as built-ins into reference phd thesis, the kernel (not as modules as they won’t be loaded). Refer to figure 3. Figure 3: Enabling AES.
`swsusp` will not work with Symmetric Multi Processing (SMP) enabled in your kernel. Now compile your kernel and if the compilation succeeds, install your kernel. You should also check whether a resume parameter has been appended to working help, the newly installed kernel’s entry in grub.conf . If not, you can add it manually as resume=/your/swappartition . Phd Thesis! (Refer to figure 4) Figure 4: Editing grub.conf. The default location of writing methodology, grub.conf is /etc . Bibtex! It may be different for your system. Finally, to problems teenagers today, hibernate, type the following command : If everything is fine, your system should enter the hibernate process and after saving the image should power off. You should again restart your system to find out if it really worked. The boot sequence should load the suspended image and get back to your previous session. There are a few other important points worth mentioning:
To limit the reference, suspend image size to N bytes, type: where N is the number in bytes. Instead of using echo platform , you may use echo shutdown to hibernate your system. (Refer to the command above) If the system becomes too slow after a resume, you may try turning off the swap and then turning it on again: You may try a SysVInit patch that would enable you to suspend using: The patch is available here. Append the noresume parameter to your kernel if you would like to boot normally but be warned that something might go wrong!
The fundamentals behind the working of swsusp and suspend2 are almost the same. However, there are some major differences in the way suspend2 does things and the flexibility it provides to the user. suspend2 first saves the lru (least recently used) pages in memory to the disk backstore, then does an atomic copy of the rest of the memory and then saves that. Since it is not doing an atomic copy of the whole of the working mechanical engineering homework help, memory, the process becomes much faster than swsusp and the image size is not limited to just half of the reference, memory. The module sees to thesis fast food, it that once we start saving the page lists, no pages are added or deleted, hence maintaining the integrity of the saved data. To summarize the phd thesis, steps:
User requests for system hibernation suspend2 waits for the number of face today, processes in their critical paths to reach zero New processes are prevented from entering states that can cause deadlocks or inconsistent states The page cache is reference phd thesis bibtex saved to disk Drivers are suspended and food restaurants, the processor state is saved The rest of the memory is phd thesis atomically copied and case, then saved to disk The system is shut down. The resume process is just the opposite of the reference phd thesis, above steps. To enable suspend2 , you will have to patch and compile your kernel. Patches for many versions are available on the suspend2 downloads page. Problems Teenagers Today Essay! However the stable version is suspend-2.2.5 for 184.108.40.206 kernel. Using the stable release reduces the chances of breaking the kernel compilation. First of all, you need to apply the suspend2 patches using the apply script supplied. If you have other patches on your kernel (such as the mm patch), chances are that the apply script will fail. Reference Bibtex! In that case, patching the files individually would be a good idea. The patch file that refuses has to be manually applied by looking through the diff file and replacing code at the right places.
After patching, you will have to configure your kernel. As shown in figure 5, enable Suspend2 under Power Management Options . From the options that show up in the Option window, enable File Writer and Swap Writer . Persuasion! You may ignore the phd thesis bibtex, rest of the options but feel free to go through their descriptions. Figure 5: Configuring suspend2. By default, suspend2 uses the LFZ modules for compression and encryption which may be built into mechanical homework, the kernel by selecting Cryptographic API and reference bibtex, LFZ compression algorithm under Cryptographic Options . Figure 6: Enabling LFZ. Once you are done selecting all other modules relevant to your system, compile your new kernel and install it.
suspend2 gives you the flexibility to choose the location to save the suspend image. You can either choose the file writer or the swap writer for fashion research, this purpose. Reference Bibtex! While the filewriter can save the image to a normal file, the swap writer can save the image either to a swap partition or to a swap file. Unlike swsusp , suspend2 can write to any swap partition! It need not be the system’s active swap partition. I’ll cover the above three steps one by one. Unlike swsusp, suspend2 can write to any swap partition! It need not be the system’s active swap partition. Writing to essay, a normal file: First of all create a file that is at least equal in size to reference phd thesis, your system RAM. Here, I create a 512 MB file called suspend-image.
Next supply this file to writing masters, the suspend2 filewriter target. Finally, you will have to get the actual physical offset of this file and reference bibtex, append it to the kernel section in grub’s configuration file (grub.conf). The above command gave me the following output: So I need to append resume2=file:/dev/hda5:0x3c000 in my grub.conf . (Refer figure 7). Don’t just copy-paste the above output as it will definitely be different for your system. Figure 7: Editing grub.conf Writing to homework help, a swap partition: This is the easiest of them all and is recommended for first timers. You just need to append your swap partition path to the resume2 parameter for your kernel.
Find out your swap partition: and edit grub.conf accordingly. (Refer to figure 8) Figure 8: Editing grub.conf Writing to a swap file: The steps to this are similar to reference phd thesis bibtex, writing to a normal file except that here, you create a swap file instead of a normal one. To summarize: The output of the following command tells you what to append to the resume2 parameter. The following output was obtained: The second output is what you would append in grub.conf . After choosing from the filewriter and the swapwriter (a combination of teenagers, both is also possible), you should take a look at the hibernate script. This is a shell script that greatly simplifies the hibernation sequence. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex! Get the latest version from the suspend2 Downloads page.The script is available as RPM, SRPM, deb or tar.gz.
Choose one of them and install it. By default, it should install in face today, /usr/local/sbin . If you use initrd (common in redhat distributions), you need to tell it about suspend2. Open the mkinitrd script in a file editor and go below the line that says: Add the following: The default location of reference bibtex, mkinitrd is /sbin . The advantage of restaurants, suspend2 lies in the flexibility it offers. A set of configuration files are provided by phd thesis bibtex default in /etc/hibernate . Hopefully, suspend2 will work “out of the method, box” but it is always a good idea to go through these configuration files if you want to tweak suspend2 to get the best out of it. Here is a brief summary of all the configuration files suspend2 offers. The verbose commented sections give a detailed explanation of all the reference phd thesis bibtex, available options. blacklisted-modules : Lists all the modules that have been reported to research paper, cause problems while suspending or resuming. Reference Phd Thesis Bibtex! hibernate.conf : The file actually read when the hibernate script is executed. Law Study Method! disk.conf : Used when using the hibernate script to suspend using swsusp. common.conf : Includes list of common configurable options. ram.conf : Used when suspending to phd thesis, RAM instead of disk. (useful for laptops) suspend2.conf : Configurable options for suspending to disk with suspend2. Now all you have left to do is reboot into method, your new kernel.
Keep a close eye on the system output while booting up. You should see something like Suspend2 enabled . Reference Phd Thesis! Finally to fashion design research, hibernate, simply type the following as root: The system should enter the hibernate sequence and shutdown. Reboot again to check everything is fine. If you are having problems with the filewriter, you may switch to the swap writer instead.
It is reference phd thesis bibtex usually convenient to try suspending to the swap partition first because that’s the political essay, easiest. Then, you may try suspending to a normal file or a swap file. If the reference, hibernate script doesn’t work for you for any reason, you should try the following: Go through the contents of suspend-debug and see what went wrong. The most important information will be towards the end of the file. If you find its contents meaningless, you would be better off sending it to the suspend2 mailing list. Most probably, someone will help you out. Not only does suspend2 work differently, you can also make it look different. You have the option of a text based user interface or a graphical interface to show during the hibernate sequence. Download and install the Suspend2-User-UI package from problems face essay, suspend2 website. Additionally, obtain a theme from bibtex, here and extract it to /etc/splash . Create a symbolic link to it and research, name it as suspend2.
Add the appropriate entry in suspend2.conf depending on what user interface you would like to have. For Graphical UI. Now hibernate and see if everything goes as expected. If not, you can use the phd thesis bibtex, --bug-report option with hibernate to diagnose the problem. hibernate ’s log file also provides a lot of information about what went wrong. Persuasion! Its default location is /var/log/hibernate.log . Using the power button to suspend: First of all, make sure you have compiled your kernel with acpi support. Then install acpid and add it to the default run level. Edit /etc/acpi/default.sh as follows: If you would like to reboot instead of shutting down your system, simply press “R” during the suspend process.
suspend2 clearly seems to be the successor to swsusp . It provides a lot more features than any other available method and is also very configurable. It allows you to store the suspended image almost anywhere. A more interesting feature which is in the TODO list is suspending to a NFS share! However, kerneltrap reports Nigel as saying that he will devote less time to suspend2 which may prevent its merging into reference, the vanilla kernel. The three different methods available target three different types of face today, users. If you just want your system to hibernate and have no desire to phd thesis, tinker with your kernel, swsusp is method definitely for you. On the contrary, suspend2 gives you greater speed and flexibility.
If you are one of reference phd thesis, those who fancies writing his own userspace program, go for uswsusp . Get set and take your pick!