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Annotated Bibliography: Arts Education. Arts Education in essay, America: An Annotated Bibliography Statement of Scope: The purpose of this bibliography is to attain information from essay on good habits with good friends, credible sources on arts programs in schools. The goal is to provide enough information so that the reader is then able to ts eliot prufrock, form their own opinions on papers cloning ethical issues, the benefits, problems, and policies on arts programs at varying levels of education. Those looking to ts eliot prufrock, find detailed information will find this bibliography to be a good starting point. Parsad, B. , and Spiegelman, M. Resume. 2012. Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1999–2000 and 2009–10 (NCES 2012–014). Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Web. 24 Jan. 2013 This source is a presentation of unbiased information about both the overall arts education programs and specific sections including: visual arts, music, dance, and theater/drama.
The report utilizes a plethora of charts, graphs, and other visual aids to help organize and present the essay, information. Parsad and Spiegelman first present their findings on overall arts education programs including the percentages of essay picture schools offering visual arts, music, dance and theater classes. They then dedicate ten to fifteen pages discussing the particulars of each section of the arts listed above. There is so much information in this article that it would be great for someone looking for a broad spectrum understanding of arts education programs. The visual aids complement the information presented and would be easy to incorporate into a variety of works. They earn better grades and demonstrate higher rates of college enrollment and attainment. ” (12) Most of the ts eliot prufrock essay, graphs simply relate percentages of students with low and high levels of art engagement to achieve certain things like high school graduation, entering a bachelors program, and attaining a steady professional level career. For every study and graph presented or reviewed there is clearly cited sources, if any confusion remains the appendix and cited pages are very clear about how to find more information.
Being that this is a report of findings from creative essay prompts, a national organization it is not biased to or for support of arts programs. For anyone looking for specific statistics to use in a presentation or report of their own, this research report could be very helpful. As previously stated the bulk of the information is presented through graphs and charts that utilize percentages, and is therefore very easy to take and use in a presentation without having to do much work yourself. For someone looking for a more scholarly breakdown of the benefits of arts education on high-risk students this report will not be as helpful, as it would be time consuming to trace the information presented back to prufrock, the original sources. Dwyer, M. Christine. 2011. Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America#8217;s Future through Creative Schools.
President#8217;s Committee on reflexive essay, the Arts and the Humanities. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. Ts Eliot. The reports emphasizes the essay picture, essential role that arts education programs play in improving student engagement and prufrock essay building creativity. Dwyer discusses, in a lengthy and wordy overview, the current Arts Education programs and policies shortcomings. “It is college graduation day essay widely agreed that the U. S. Essay. public education system is not adequately serving a significant portion of our nation’s children and that public K-12 schools must change dramatically o achieve the Administration’s goal that the United States become a global leader in postsecondary attainment by 2020#8230; School leaders and teachers will need to college graduation day essay, step up to the challenge of finding new ways to engage many more students in meaningful learning#8230; ” (27) More importantly, this report discusses possible solutions such as reinvesting in arts education, and argues for creating arts-rich schools that can engage students in ts eliot prufrock essay, ways that complement the study of the ebook, arts and other traditional subjects such as literature, history, science, and prufrock mathematics. Another key takeaway from this report is good friends it shows readers the link between arts education and achievement in prufrock, other subjects. Being that this source is a report by the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, it attempts to reflexive, present evidence to support the essay, positions of the president and his corresponding political party. As political and wordy as this report is it would most likely benefit someone looking into the politics side of arts education, it would not be as helpful for someone looking for developmental and long term benefits of art involvement in schools. Rabkin, Hedberg. 2011.
Arts Education in America: What the Declines Mean for Arts Participation. Based on the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. National Endowment for the Arts. (Research Report #52). Web. 24 Jan. 2013. This report presents its findings after researching important question related to arts education in America. Application. Questions like: Has participation in arts programs declined? What does it mean for teachers and ts eliot prufrock students? How has this affected participation in other extracurricular activities? How does this affect support for programs?
The article presents the questions to the reader and then follows up with information that supports both positive and negative claims about the answer. Charts are used when needed to simplify information into resume, an easily digestible visual aid. There are numerous sources used as evidence for the information presented, as well as suggestions for further investigation into the questions presented. This report has a very neutral stance towards the information presented. There is good information presented for varying arguments and the ultimate decision is left to the reader. Ts Eliot. This source would be a fair report to use in with good friends, a work, especially if in an argumentative essay you need information for the view that opposes yours. However for ts eliot essay someone looking for highly specific information this report will only be useful for an introduction into the questions being asked about the national education programs. Oxtoby, David W. 2012. The Place of Arts in Liberal Education.
Liberal Education, v98 n2 p36-41 Spr 2012. Oxtoby uses a great deal of logic to explain his opinion on the place of arts in essay on good habits with good friends, liberal education and he uses statistics to support his views. In his article, he states that diversity in ts eliot prufrock essay, the curriculum is a keystone to success in any liberal education program. He also claims that part of that diversity needs to include a program where students can express their creativity. Being able to express their creativity and the stimulation provided by on good habits with good friends, arts programs lead to more successful students, both in academics, community involvement, and professional work environments. This article is a good source of simple and sound logic in support of arts programs being included in all liberal education. Oxtoby’s statements and presentation of the information is biased towards supports arts programs, but he always includes evidence to ts eliot prufrock essay, support his ideas.
Also, while he does not approve of excluding arts in liberal education there is never any negativity in his statements, only more supporting evidence for his ideas. Some readers will find this article to be dry and uninteresting unless they already have some knowledge and opinions on the place of arts in education programs. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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Kids Doing Chores Essays and ts eliot prufrock essay, Research Papers. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Topic: Children should be paid for doing chores It is common knowledge that household . chores such as doing the research on human cloning ethical issues, dishes, cleaning rooms, throwing the garbage are not really entertaining activities to the majority of people, especially to children. Prufrock. That is why some parents who are totally aware of the power of the influence of research papers money, expect that allowance relied to chores can be a productive way not only to ts eliot prufrock incite children to do the chores but also to teach them the value of money and. Cleaning , Home , Homemaker 950 Words | 3 Pages. Should Kids get paid to do chores.
Kids should get paid to do chores Sophie Rose COMM/215 October 28, 2013 Annie T. Oakes Kids should get . paid to do chores Growing kids are in need to creative picture prompts be direct in the right direction when start asking for big items as I-pods, personal computers, phones, and more. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Paying for those items can be expensive and give it to them will be financial economic expensive for parents, paying to do chores will help kids in the mentality of earning money and save for things their want, and teaching. Family , Future , Money 751 Words | 3 Pages. no money. Many kids , like the one above have to essay good do chores around the ts eliot prufrock essay, house and don’t get an allowance because their parents . think these chores should be mandatory. Having to do chores for no reward does not motivate the creative essay picture, child to the work they have to essay do. If the child was paid a few bucks a week, the child would be more motivated to take on the responsibility of doing chores that he/she will get paid a couple of bucks for. A small cash allowance for doing a certain amount of chores would also teach. Cookware and day essay, bakeware , Dish Network , Dishware 987 Words | 3 Pages. THE CASE AGAINST CHORES ENGL 102 January 26, 2014 Turabian Style THE CASE AGAINST CHORES Do . children, at ts eliot essay some point, need to application essay be introduced to chores ? This question has haunted parents for prufrock essay, many generations. The burden to college cohere children into working is one that the majority of American families wrestle with on a daily basis.
Regardless of the ts eliot prufrock, negative results: can affect the way children feel about education, can cause bitterness, anger, and discord between. Cleaning , Family , Home 1481 Words | 4 Pages. ?Running Head: COMMUNICATION VIA “THE KID ” 1 Interpersonal Communication as lost . Essay With Good. from the ts eliot essay, movie “The Kid ” COMMUNICATION VIA “THE KID ” 2 The interpersonal communication in the movie “The Kid ” is graduation day essay unique in some aspects. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Russ, the middle aged character, has an indifference to everyone he communicates with at the beginning of the movie. As the movie progresses, you can see how Russ’s interpersonal communication. Communication , Graphic communication , Interpersonal communication 809 Words | 3 Pages. Duritz hides from his hurt and loneliness by working all the time, being thoughtless and insensitive to everyone he meets, and forgetting his feelings and . that he ever had them.
But he can't escape his feelings. Graduation. Duritz meets a pudgy, unhappy little kid named Rusty (Spencer Breslin) who turns out to be none other than Duritz himself, circa 1968. At first, Duritz is embarrassed by his younger self. Ts Eliot Prufrock. He says, I look at him and all I see is awful memories -- memories I've been spending most of my life. Amy Tong , Dog , Marriage 891 Words | 3 Pages. Adults feel less happy compared to kids A really enjoyable time for kids are when they are with their friends playing outside . getting exercise rather than sitting down like an adult. Another enjoyable time that makes kids really happy is on essay, rides or exploring where they see a world on a whole new perspective while adults do the same thing over and over ts eliot prufrock again.
Everyone must act more a like kid to have more enjoyable time. Kids seem much happier than adults do. Kids are so much more in happier when. Force , Happiness , Personal life 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Chores Working moms are getting more common in the modern society. College Graduation Day Essay. They have to prufrock work hard and do a lot of research on human cloning issues chores at home at ts eliot prufrock essay the . same time.
In that case, other family members, especially children should be of some help. By helping parents with the the college essay ebook, chores , they will learn about house upkeep and grow a sense of responsibility and belonging to the family. Firstly, too much work will make moms stressful and exhausted. They have to raise the kids , keep the house tidy and nice; they also have to work. Family , Happiness , Harry Potter 800 Words | 3 Pages. Kids or No Kids Candance Bacco March 3, 2013 The title of my paper is called Kids or No Kids . . Today married couples have a big decision on prufrock essay, whether or not they want kids . I start out my paper by talking about how important this decision is and how it effects other people. Then I start to talk about graduation day essay all the pros of having kids . After that I point out ts eliot prufrock all the reflexive, cons of having children. The next part of the paper is all about the pros and cons of not having kids . Prufrock Essay. As you will see there are a lot.
Child , Debut albums , Form of the Good 1027 Words | 3 Pages. cast your mind back to the last time you stood your ground as your nine-year-old begged for yet another pair of trainers, or your 14-year-old threatened to application essay ebook . fail his exams unless he could go out with his friends midweek ? bankrolled by you? Pampered kids can grow up to be dysfunctional within society Can you, hand on heart, say that you have never once given in to ts eliot essay the petulant insistence that everyone else I know has one, even when you knew, deep down, that you shouldn't? We all love our children. Child , Child discipline , CHILD syndrome 3138 Words | 6 Pages. How Television and Computers Affect Kids.
Affect Kids Have you ever felt hypnotized, entranced or transfixed? Television (TV) and creative prompts, computer consumption by children in essay, today's . society is felt in this way by creative picture prompts an overwhelming majority. Many people get many different kinds of things from watching television and using computers including education, violence, world issues, and child development. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Television has become a replacement for family interaction. Family dynamics could be suffering from these programs.
The negatives of essay with good friends kids watching. Cathode ray tube , Computer , Media violence research 2521 Words | 7 Pages. act, speak and look a certain way. You are to be exactly like your parents, to say the least, holy like. “It is ok for prufrock essay, the members kids to act . a certain way yet if the preachers kids act like that then suddenly the parents are horrible people. Bpa Qualcomm. How many times has a preachers kid been told no you can't do that because people won't like it. Ts Eliot Essay. How many preachers kids have missed out on a normal childhood because the parents wouldn't let them enjoy anything because people might talk. You can't go. Christian terms , English-language films , Father 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Swing Kids 1. Creative Essay Picture. Hamburg, Germany. 1939.
The main character, a young, German man named Peter Muller, was very traumatized by what the Nazi's . and Gestapo (the terrorist political police of the Nazi regime founded by Hermann Goring, whose purpose was to persecute all political opponents of the Nazi regime) did to prufrock essay his father. Over the on writing the college essay, course of the ts eliot essay, movie, Peter went through a change; he saw his father in self, a new light, and realized what really mattered in the world around him. Peter's father was a. Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 2759 Words | 7 Pages. No matter what children are doing , they are always surrounded by advertisements. Whether it is watching television, Reading a book/magazine, or . browsing the internet; advertisements are everywhere.
Eric Schlosser has a good point when he argues in his essay “ Kid Kustomers” that more advertisements are being directed towards children each day. Ts Eliot. It is not only bpa qualcomm directed toward children, but influencing children to beg their parents for products they do not need or even want. As in, the stuff they see. Advertising , Burbank, California , Disney Channel 1468 Words | 4 Pages. Billy the Kid New Mexico has had many well-known legends throughout its history. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Billy the on good habits with, Kid was arguably one of most . famous legends that New Mexico has ever had. Also known as William H. Bonney, Billy the Kid became a prominent and ts eliot prufrock essay, feared outlaw due to his violent nature. His life is still a heated topic throughout America, due to graduation his unnatural cruelness and pain. His disturbing acts of cruelty caused many tragedies captured many lives, including his own, making his life one to essay remember. Alexander McSween , Billy the Kid , Boy 2295 Words | 6 Pages. Chores of Childhood: Building Strong Character.
? Chores of Childhood Building Strong Character Name Liberty University Abstract . Chores as all things have a place in our society and in our homes. The very things we fight against often strengthen us. Creative Essay Picture. Building strong, moral, Christian character starts at the very essence of ts eliot essay our being. Bpa Qualcomm. Being dedicated, determined, focused, goal orientated, adaptable, loyal, and multitasking are all skills we each need at ts eliot prufrock essay some point in our lifetime. Whether it is self essay raising. Family , Home , Homemaker 1224 Words | 6 Pages. more and forced into doing more chores than you have to. What you need to ts eliot prufrock learn is to suck it up and get done with the task at day essay . hand. Prufrock. Household chores are training exercises for real life. For kids , chores are more than helping out; they are lessons in basic life skills.
By loading the dishwasher, mowing the grass, or doing their laundry, kids learn how the world works. When kids do chores , they are learning responsibility. They are learning that life requires work. Chores not only teach children. A Great Way to Care , Cleaning , Home 511 Words | 2 Pages. “ Kid Kustomers” No matter where children are or what they are doing they’ll always find some sort of advertisements. It can be . when their casually watching television, reading a magazine or just playing games on their computer. Advertisements are different forms of communication whose purpose is to with make their product known to the public.
Marketers aren’t partial to certain people; they target anyone and every age group, but recently there has been an upsurge of advertisements aimed towards children. Advertising , Coca-Cola , Infomercial 1083 Words | 3 Pages. messages parents try to get across to their kids , why people view spanking as abuse, and many more. Participants in this essay are going to be . reporters on this topic all over the US. Parents that have used spanking as discipline will as well be participants.
Methods of prufrock essay spanking will be discussed. Self. I believe that spanking is a good way to show that you care and love your kid (s) and are trying to get them going in the right direction, instead of doing illegal or going against their parents rules. Aggression , Anger , Corporal punishment 1304 Words | 4 Pages. Problem “ Kids will be kids .” Time and prufrock essay, time again, this phrase has been used to on good habits good friends dismiss the prufrock, countless cases of graduation day essay bullying that take . place in schools across the country. Such a carefree attitude towards a violent and brutal problem like bullying is a disturbing trend to see. Every year thousands of kids fall victim to schoolyard and ts eliot essay, online bulling.
A child who has suffered from bullying is with friends “2 to ts eliot essay 9 times more likely to college graduation commit or attempt suicide” (Teen Health) and more often then not, cruelty from peers. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 881 Words | 3 Pages. Allen Eckles Mrs. Konczakowski 12 CP LA period 1 23 August 2012 “Token kid ” In school social circles, I always find myself becoming “The . Token Black kid . Most people just naturally assume by prufrock the tan skin and curly hair that I must be half black. They mistakenly assume that many of the creative, accomplishments I have made are due to the fact that I am mixed. It is true that I am mixed, but not with African American, but with the Latino culture. My mother was born in the Dominican Republic, and my.
African American , Black Hispanic and Latino Americans , Black people 1337 Words | 4 Pages. Chore Wars, written by Ruth Davis Konigsberg shows that, despite the newfound data that males are putting in prufrock, more housework and child care . Prompts. than they have in the past, there still exists an inequality between men and women and their involvement in both the workforce and ts eliot prufrock, the home. The Difference Analysis of creative picture inequality by Saul states that women are discriminated simply due to their sex and its traditional attributed responsibilities of motherhood and home-making. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Moreover, the Dominance Analysis provided. Childcare , Day care , Discrimination 2501 Words | 7 Pages. English 100BL Professor Cutler Rough Draft The Process of Doing the Laundry Several people, including me (and maybe you) procrastinate . Reflexive. until they are down to the last pair of socks or underwear to do their laundry.
Even though the prufrock, process of doing the the college application ebook, laundry is composed of only a few simple steps, many people often avoid doing this task because it is ts eliot too time consuming. Whenever I do the laundry, I would always separate the chore into four main procedures- sorting, washing, drying, and folding. Clothes dryer , Clothing , Fabric softener 983 Words | 3 Pages. Kids Need Sports Kids these days are stuck inside doors just playing video games, doing homework, watching . television, and that’s just wrong. Kids should be outside playing sports, getting some exercise while having fun. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. There are many reasons nowadays why kids aren’t playing or end up quitting sports, such as their parents don’t want them to play and get hurt, kids feel that they can’t do the sport or won’t be any good at prufrock it. Cloning Issues. A other reason kids end up quitting sports because they don’t like to.
A Great Way to Care , Behavior , EBSCO Industries 981 Words | 3 Pages. COnsuming kids comparison and contrast. In the ts eliot essay, film Consuming Kids , it really shows the dark side of essay marketing to kids . Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Marketing to kids gives them bad . study habits because they will always want to play with their cool new toy that they saw on TV instead of doing their schoolwork. Research Papers On Human Ethical. When I was young, I know that’s all I would want to do is essay play with my cool new toy. I would just keep putting off doing my work and I would tell myself that “oh I’ll get to it later” and day essay, later came and ts eliot prufrock, I never ended up getting to doing my work, because why do. Advertising , Anno Domini , Marketing 1177 Words | 3 Pages. Doing Gender At dinner: I was out at college graduation dinner one night and I took sometime to start observing the different ways men and ts eliot, women do . Self Essay. gender. As men and women came into the restaurant I began to essay notice how different we walk, the women seem to walk with their legs much closer together with a dainty tippy-toe gait the essay, men however walk with the legs further apart and much more of a slow dragging stroll. Essay. Watching the creative essay picture prompts, different groups of both sexes eating there were many similarities, the women have. Femininity , Gender , Gender role 1268 Words | 3 Pages.
Spanking Your Kids: A Bad Way to Discipline. Azzarello 1 English 102 Mr. Wilson 28 April 2012 Spanking Your Kids Could Have Serve effects When a child acts out prufrock essay its often that a . parent chooses to hit their kid , which may show results in the short term, but in the long term the parent could be doing more harm than good. Creative Essay Picture. Spanking your kids is a bad way for ts eliot prufrock essay, parents to discipline their children because it may have some psychological effects on the child. Furthermore, reprimanding your child in this manner also causes the child to be more. Caning , Corporal punishment , Corporal punishment in the home 2561 Words | 7 Pages. PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY The most pressing issue facing Casablanca kids is a declining net income which has resulted from supply chain and . Research Papers On Human Ethical Issues. production issues. Namely, manufacturing costs have remained stagnant while retailers such as WalMart have been forcing prices down. Casablanca Kids is ts eliot prufrock essay confronted with the interesting opportunity of redesigning their distribution channels. Effective distribution channel restructuring will allow the company to overcome their issue of creative prompts declining net sales and ts eliot, therefore. Big-box store , Competition , Distribution 1389 Words | 5 Pages.
old-fashioned spanking is still a beneficial form of punishment. What is a spanking? Dictionary.com defines spanking as an essay on good open handed swat to the . buttocks as a form of ts eliot prufrock essay punishment. Many parents are confused by creative prompts the fine line of spanking and abusing their kids . Abuse is when someone’s intent is harmful and injurious. Although I am for corporal punishment, I do not approve of children getting smacked with any foreign object or getting swatted any other place than the ts eliot essay, buttocks. Anything other than a swat. Buttocks , Caning , Corporal punishment 1479 Words | 5 Pages. So Yesterday, I was out on my regular shopping and research papers on human ethical issues, I came across this kid who looked like she was 6 or 7 years old and her mother in the same . Prufrock. aisle. I was looking at stuff and all of a sudden the day essay, kid sees something she likes, and then all of a sudden she says Mommy can I have this?
The mother said no you cannot have that, the kid started to make a huge fuss and ask why? I want it now, and treating the mother terribly, then the mother said no again and the child started to ts eliot cry and scream out, I was. Cellular network , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1014 Words | 3 Pages. was thinking that I was going to have an easy report to write by writing about the way I felt and how society just simply ignored me as I was . doing nothing because they’re use to seeing things like this and they rather not entertain the “weirdness”. Well, I was wrong. After a while people got nosey.
People walked by and asked they’re company “what are they doing ?” (as if their company is supposed to resume know). Ts Eliot. The funniest things I heard that day was “they must be in a cult” and Williams 2 “they‘re possessed. Debut albums , Feeling , New York City 833 Words | 3 Pages. Are Sports Hurting Kids ? Organized sports have a lot of effects on children, whether they be positive or negative. Graduation Day Essay. Children are still . finding out ts eliot prufrock essay who they are and what the world is like.
I chose this topic because I wanted to on writing the college application ebook know childrens’ motives to do organized sports, and what effects the sports have on the them. I wanted to ts eliot essay know the research on human cloning ethical, reasons kids start playing sports and, while it may be different for every child, they all had to have had some say in it. Every sport has skills that benefit. Baseball , Child , Childhood 2477 Words | 6 Pages. Swing Kids Before and during World War II was a tough time to live in ts eliot prufrock essay, Nazi Germany. The new laws and essay habits with good friends, way of life during this period affected . society of all ages in numerous different ways. Essay. New political and social groups were formed both to support and oppose the Nazi and picture prompts, the Gestapo leaders. One of these groups was known as the ts eliot essay, Swing Kids who listened to Jewish and black swing music and danced at illegal clubs against the Nazis. The movie, “Swing Kids ”, explains this group of teenagers. On Writing. The.
Adolf Hitler , Germany , Hitler Youth 1076 Words | 3 Pages. child in America. With more guns showing up in America, the more likely your child will be to find one. While most people think that children will not do . Ts Eliot Prufrock. anything with a gun if they find one, there are still going to be those kids that will play around with it and wind up doing something that they will regret. Gun safety is a bigger issue than most people would like to believe. On Writing Ebook. They usually just turn a blind eye to accidental gun accidents involving children, but what are they going to do when it happens. Accident , Breech-loading weapon , Cannon 1317 Words | 3 Pages. Doing the Right Thing It Is Always Ok To Do The Right Thing Rachel Lake Liberty University Abstract American citizens, whether . children, college students or adults, should not be afraid to stand up for prufrock, what is right.
There are many reasons why a person might feel hesitant to report crimes. One reason is that it is easier to look the other way and to mind one’s own business. The College Ebook. Students and young people should be encouraged to be responsible and report any suspicious behavior. Preventative. Civil and political rights , Civil liberties , Conservatism 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Accounting For Kids AIU Online Abstract Many people hear accounting and think of an prufrock essay office full of file cabinets and bpa qualcomm resume, cubicles, thus its . far more complex. Accounting covers far more ground than the average person may imagine. With a proper accounting process in place, a business will always be well informed of the company’s finances. Accounting is a business aspect that affects numerous corporation and individuals all around the world. In the ts eliot, business world today, companies use the accounting. Accountancy , Accountant , Business 783 Words | 3 Pages.
Psychic Kids : Attention Seeking Children In the graduation day essay, television series, Psychic Kids : Children of the Paranormal, directed by ts eliot . Lisa Miller, psychic and medium Chip Coffey alongside Dr. Lisa Miller, a clinical psychologist, help children and their families understand and on human cloning issues, cope with their child’s psychic abilities. Within this documentary, a group of “psychic children” and their parents come together with Coffey and Miller to prufrock grasp an understanding as to how to handle their psychic abilities. The children. Childhood , Clairvoyance , Family 990 Words | 3 Pages. Kids gain knowledge best by watching conducts of adults and replicating it is a contentious one. Many people think that this is the most . effective for the children to learn. However the research on human issues, opposites are not few in numbers.
In this essay I’ll discuss some argument for and against of the given topic. The behavior of the adults plays a significant role in shaping children’s inclination and prufrock, character. After the baby is born the first and the nearest adults are his/her parents. Then the little baby starts. Childhood , Developmental psychology , Educational psychology 550 Words | 2 Pages. Kids Endorsement in Advertisements.
KIDS ENDORSEMENT IN ADVERTISEMENT : Children are like blooming buds.They are the mirror of essay on good our future. It is the essay, duty of the parents to . guide their kids in every aspect of their lives whether academic or professional. The intense focus on child actors promoting various commercial products, services and ideas through the on good with, media is a modern phenomenon. Ts Eliot Essay. But before hoisting a child into the spotlight, it's best to mull over the pros and essay habits good, cons of child acting first. To begin, we'll start off with.
Acting , Advertising , Childhood 1834 Words | 5 Pages. Happy Marriages, Happy Kids On a sunny day, a father wants his family to essay go mountain climbing, but the bpa qualcomm, mother prefers to go to the . mall to buy shoes for ts eliot essay, the kids . Even though it is a very normal conversation in a family, the research papers ethical issues, way parents solve this conflict could make a big deal to the kids . Essay. Siegel, author of “7 Essential Lessons Your Kids Learn from Your Marriage,” states that “how you and your husband talk to each other, how you listen, and how you work out your differences shape the beliefs. Alimony , Annulment , Divorce 1333 Words | 4 Pages. ? Diary of Wimpy Kid Evaluative Essay San Diego Christian College Children’s Literature Abstract The Diary of a Wimpy . Essay On Good Good Friends. kid is a book about adolescence who have dealt with emotional struggles and social acceptance in middle school. The book highlighted areas of struggle which included: bullies, emotional responses in both positive and negative ways, friendship, and family dynamics. The book was intended was readers of ts eliot essay age seven and older but could be used a discussion book with children. Diary of a Wimpy Kid , Emotion , Friendship 1690 Words | 8 Pages. Billy the Kid is my kind of Cowboy This issue of on human Living in ts eliot, the West explores the on writing essay ebook, love affair we have with the great American Cowboy. Call . Ts Eliot Prufrock. them cowhands, cowpoke, cowpuncher or buckaroos, billions of dollars have been spent chronicling their storied history. With his Stetson hat, sunburned face, weathered dungarees and boots of leather, the essay picture, cowboy has gone from a ranch hand to a blue color icon. In fact, America’s love affair with the cowboy has been around longer than the name “cowboy” itself.
American films , American Old West , Billy the Kid 1021 Words | 3 Pages. on in essay, this child mind that has caused them to act in such a way? Did his or her parents abuse them? Are they acting out for their friends?” The first . On Writing Application Ebook. thing you want to know is, why do kids kill their parents. Well according to USA Today, there is an article from prufrock essay, 2008 titled: “Experts: Abuse often behind kids killing parents” (Amanda Lee Myers, Associated Press Writer). Bpa Qualcomm Resume. More than likely abuse could possibly be the essay, number one reason of this kind of thing happening. The main question now is “why. Bullying , Child abuse , Child sexual abuse 1758 Words | 5 Pages. Nazi Germany declared war on the freedom of its youth in college day essay, Germany.
But a group arose from the battlefields of war. They were called the “Swing . Kids ”. This was a group of ts eliot youth children that rebel toward the Nazi’s with their swing music that originated in America. With this new era of swing music extra punishment was put toward the youth from the Nazi’s. Kids all over the world rebelled against this Nazi stand. In this movie Peter Thomas are two friends whose views of Nazi Germany change. Creative Picture. Before. Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 906 Words | 3 Pages. Cartoons and Kids’ Behavioral Problems. ?Cartoons and Kids ’ Behavioral Problems One of the problems we face today with kids , is ts eliot prufrock essay their hyperactivity, swinging . modes, early maturity, using bad language, being stubborn, aggressive and self, violent.
According to ts eliot prufrock lots of researches and from parental point of view it could be said that one of the main reasons of on writing the college application ebook children’s psychological and misbehavior is prufrock what they watch on TV. TV can glue kids for hours in creative essay picture prompts, front of it, and prufrock essay, it’s usually without supervision. Essay Picture Prompts. Cartoons are the ts eliot, most frequent and. Behavior , Cartoon , Consciousness 1079 Words | 3 Pages. Album Reviews Book Reviews Downloads Features Movie Reviews Music Video Reviews Single Reviews The Karate . Kid : Children’s own self-help Filed under: Movie Reviews — Leave a comment August 15, 2010 Starring Will Smith’s son, Jaden Smith, along Jackie Chan, bring to the big screen the on writing the college application ebook, remake of 1984’s The Karate Kid , a cross cultural adaptation depiction and essay, a vivid stand-up towards school bullying. Dre is on good with good a 12 year old who just moved to China due to his. Bullying , Film , Jackie Chan 561 Words | 4 Pages. Article Review Household Chores for Children – a Guideline for Parents by Fred Provenzano, Ph.D., NCSP University of ts eliot prufrock essay Washington, Seattle . Bpa Qualcomm. http://familyshrink.com/areas-of-focus/parenting/household- chores -for-children/ 2011 For children to prufrock do or not do household chores ? A big problem in many households is children and their household duties.
Most parents don't know whether or not to push their children to do household chores or the bpa qualcomm, positive effects that chores have on children. I thought. Age , Family , Home 727 Words | 2 Pages. S Y M P O S I U M Arts Education from Past to ts eliot essay Present Kant for Kids Editor’s note: This article is the bpa qualcomm resume, ninth in an occasional series . on past treatments of major issues in arts education policy from antiquity through the twentieth century. Future essays will appear as occasion arises. A esthetics, we could say, is the philosophy of art (including poetry and literature), and philosophy can be defined as a way of reflecting and clarifying ordinary, everyday thoughts and feelings that. Aesthetics , Art , Critique of Judgement 2419 Words | 7 Pages. schoolers at stores like HM, Forever21, and PacSun. It has just now become “normal” seeing little kids dress up in clothes that are not age . appropriate.
Sex is an uprising problem we have within the youth today, and how can it not be if it is literally all they are exposed to. It is all over the media, on T.V, in movies, music, magazines, ads, etc. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. We live in graduation, a hypersexualized society that is ts eliot prufrock essay forcing kids to creative essay become older at a younger age. Ts Eliot Prufrock. The media is reflexive play a crucial role in kid’s mental development. Boy , Female , Girl 1721 Words | 4 Pages. My Wife and Kids Television ranks as one of the prufrock essay, most watched entertainment agents of all times throughout the world. It forms one of the most . On Good Habits With. crucial means of communication used in the world today. An average American uses more than 33 percent of his time watching television than any other leisure activity. In most incidences, the television forms an important part of ts eliot prufrock essay Americans’ life. Between the two genders, women form the essay prompts, largest television audience partly because of their affiliated gender roles.
Family , Female , Gender 1777 Words | 5 Pages. Are Parents Really to essay Blame for Their Kids' Behavior? Vanessa Olson Mrs. Novak September 17, 2012 Final Draft Are Parents Really to reflexive Blame for Their Kids ’ Behavior? Watching how children, or . even teenagers my age, act, I wonder how or why their parents let them get away with their behavior. What causes some kids to talk disrespectful to others or throw temper tantrums for ts eliot prufrock, the littlest reasons? My parents would tell me how, when they were my age, no one acted out like how children do today; that parents do not have the morals or values that the.
Child , Childhood , Parent 1366 Words | 4 Pages. school being a smaller learning environment. “I like the reflexive, alternative school. It gives me an opportunity to prufrock pull my grades up,” said one student. Students . that have made poor choices have decided to take advantage of pulling up their grades. Reflexive Essay. Doing an observation at essay an alternative high school has already given me insight on how inclusion works. I have had the opportunity to experience inclusion first hand. This study shows me that there are several observations that can be made. Depending. Education , Educational stages , Gang 2038 Words | 6 Pages. “What’s the Matter with Kids today? Do you think teenagers today always being on the internet will help develop them into becoming deeper . thinkers or better writers later on in life?
According to Amy Goldwasser, author of the article, “What’s the Matter with Kids today?” she states that more teenagers today would rather sit and play around with their electronics than do homework for school and reflexive, that electronics seem to be taking over their lives (667). When teenagers seem to be more interested. Adolescence , Adolf Hitler , Internet 965 Words | 3 Pages. Media's Easy Accessibility to ts eliot prufrock essay Kids. A Bloody Outrage, That’s What” by Katherine Ellison shows growing concern for the youth of today with the wide availability of the resume, media. Essay. Katherine, a . mother of essay on good two boys ages 6 and 9, voices her opinion about media that is to ts eliot prufrock easily accessible to bpa qualcomm resume kids . Prufrock Essay. She recently found her 6-year-old son watching a cartoon on the internet called “Happy Tree Friends”.
She was disgusted by what she saw. What she saw was a cute harmless bear all the creative essay prompts, sudden go berserk and rip off the head of a cougar splattering. Advertising , American football , Football helmet 1277 Words | 3 Pages. VIOLENT MEDIA IS GOOD FOR KIDS By Gerard Jones In our class book Practical Argument, I chose “Violent Media is Good for Kids ” . by Gerard Joneson page 36. In this article Jones states and tries to prove that violent media is ts eliot essay undeniably good for children. He challenges this by saying what he believes also how he grew up too passive because he was sheltered from the media. Upon hearing that the media has lofty messages of on writing pacifism and tolerance (par.2), his mother had borrowed some comics for him. Argument , Domestic violence , Mass media 1070 Words | 3 Pages. WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE Class: VHVH 01 – Group: 4 Name: Le Kim Ha Anh Student ID: 0957010009 Writing Book Reports: DOING ENGLISH – A . GUIDE FOR LITERATURE STUDENTS (Robert Eaglestone) Ranked in the list of more than 700 thousands of the world's best-selling books, Doing English is really a good choice that needed for ts eliot, the study of English college students. College. The author of the book – Robert Eaglestone, a lecturer in English at prufrock Royal Holloway, University of London, and Series Editor of college graduation day essay Routledge. Critical thinking , Elizabeth I of England , English literature 1248 Words | 4 Pages.
Why Kids Turn to Drugs There is no simple answer to why a young person might begin using alcohol or other drugs. Many times, it is ts eliot a . combination of several factors, including society, family and peers. They may turn to drugs to escape stress or loneliness or to overcome shyness in social situations. They may want to habits friends be seen as grown up or as a risk taker. Or, they may simply be curious. Teens often want to be like their role models as well.
So, if their favorite music group, older sibling, parents. Adolescence , Childhood , Drug 1524 Words | 5 Pages. Kids Should Not Be Encouraged to Watch Tv. TV… Television and the media. TV is bad for children. We all seem to know this. Like eating our daily fruits and ts eliot prufrock essay, vegetables, or cutting our sugar intake. On Writing The College Application Ebook. . Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. But why? Can’t kids just learn as much from TV as they do from books? The problem here is not what they watch, (be it good or bad) but it’s what the child is missing.
Did you know that children who interact with parents rather than a TV show have faster learning abilities? In fact, while interacting with parents, the graduation day essay, child encounters words. Posttraumatic stress disorder , Psychology , Radio 904 Words | 3 Pages. amount of ts eliot prufrock footage being played, shots, music, locations, what moments to show, etc. Habits Friends. As a result, the movie comes out ts eliot prufrock shaped, as the director wants it to. . Resume. This allows the director not only to project his opinion, but also who he is as an ts eliot prufrock essay artist. College Day Essay. In “My Kid Could Paint That,” Bar-Lev, the ts eliot essay, director of the college, documentary uses hand-held shots, close-ups, found footage and open ended endings, which causes the viewer to ts eliot prufrock change positively about creative essay Marla, to being more suspicious. This allows the essay, audience to see how. A Great Way to Care , History of painting , My Kid Could Paint That 2062 Words | 5 Pages. Analyzing a short story * Title: Kid Kill * Author: Ed McBain * Year: 1953 * Genre: Short story - crime story * . Description – a summary of the plot: The story takes place…..
At the same time as it is written, It takes place on a very cold day in a smaller town in a police station and in the college ebook, the home of the ts eliot prufrock, family. In the beginning of the story…. We are at the police station where we meet the detective Art Willis and his partner Ed Daley. Then…… The detective arrives. Constable , Criminal Investigation Department , Detective 775 Words | 3 Pages.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of 12 Hour Rostering. 12 Hour Rosters - Advantages and ts eliot prufrock Disadvantages Over an 8 Hour Roster System (Caporale, Peters and Peters) A growing trend especially in recent years has been the introduction of bpa qualcomm a 12-hour work roster replacing the ts eliot prufrock, traditional 8-hour work schedule. The 12-hour rostering schedule is self reflexive, typically arranged as a compressed work week, which includes, an individual working 2 or 3 days in a row with 2 or 3 days off in a row. Several researchers have outlined the reasons why 12-hour rostering has become popular. For example, Williamson, Gower and Clarke (1994) identified that one of the main reasons for prufrock implementing a 12-hour shift is to negate the disruptive effects shiftwork has on an employee's health, wellbeing and lifestyle. Rosa (1991) from the college, National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety in the United States stated that the 12-hour schedules are popular with employees as it allows more time, via extra days off, to recuperate from the nightshift; it increases time spent with family and friends and ts eliot allows more time for other recreational pursuits. One of the main concerns with implementing a 12-hour roster is the effect it has upon creative prompts employee's levels of fatigue which could then lead to health or safety hazards, as well as reduce productivity, and ts eliot prufrock essay increase turnover and absenteeism (Rosa Bonnet, 1993). The aim of this executive review is to examine more closely the research papers ethical issues, advantages and disadvantages of 12-hour rostering especially with regard to health and safety, organisational effectiveness, as well as its impact on family and social life. 1.0 Sleep Disruption and Sleepiness. One of the most common problems experienced as a result of shift work is sleep disruption which may consequently affect sleeping patterns more generally and sleepiness at work.
Rosa (1991) examined sleep disruption in control room operators and found that 12-hour shifts produced a 1 to 3 hour reduction in sleep over a 3.5 year period. Sleepiness increased during both the 8-hour and 12-hour shift but there was a greater increase in sleepiness during the 12-hour shift. However, an important finding was that there was a day-to-day recovery from working the twelve hour shifts, indicating greater recuperation during the worker's days off. Employees also noted that as a consequence of the 12-hour roster, more awakenings during their sleeping period occurred despite more frequent napping. Ts Eliot Prufrock! The 12-hour roster produced longer sleep periods after a day shift or a rest day, but there was a reduction in sleep length following a 12-hour night shift. Despite the prompts, feelings of sleepiness Williamson, Gower and ts eliot prufrock Clarke (1994) state that 12-hour rostering actually reduced feelings of graduation tiredness throughout the ts eliot essay, work week. Other affects of 12-hour rostering in college graduation relation to tiredness included: decreased amount of time the employees woke up feeling tired; decrease in tiredness during their shift at work and decrease in tiredness after a day or a night shift.
Thus, the prufrock, effect of sleep deprivation day to day may have little affect, but longer periods of cloning time may increase sleepiness that may consequently increase levels of fatigue some employee's may feel. It may be expected that since some workers report feeling sleepier after a 12-hour shift there may be an affect on mood, ie they may be somewhat more tense or sullen. However Williamson, Gower and Clarke (1994) examined computer operators after a 12 month period of 12-hour rostering and prufrock essay the employees felt more clear headed, relaxed and refreshed after the shift finished as compared to college, employees who had worked the traditional 8-hour shift. Similarily, Duchon, Keran and Smith (1994) from the essay, US Bureau of Mines found that employees after a 12-hour roster were more agreeable, felt more energetic and actually thought more clearly. A particularly important variable when examining rostering is the level of stress experienced by employees.
The adverse affects of stress at work may influence health, decision making, performance and the college application essay the level of absenteeism or turnover. Rosa (1991) in essay his 3.5 year follow up of control room operators found that stress ratings were lower on 12-hour day shifts, but did increase towards the graduation day essay, end of the essay, working week. Pierce and Dunham (1992) examined police officers using physiological and psychological stress symptom measures as well as self report stress scales and found that individuals had a lower level of stress under the 12-hour roster. It is likely that the reduction in stress may be related to the increase in time the employees had with their family and research papers on human the workers extended periods of ts eliot essay rest. Likewise, Walker and essay prompts Eisenberg (1995) examined patrol officers in Florida and found that officers reported 75% less job stress as a result of a 12-hour shift. It seems conclusive that the 12-hour rostering schedule may reduce job stress. The impact of 12-hour rostering upon other general health variables has been examined by Williamson, Gower and Clarke (1991). The authors used a questionnaire to examine health symptoms as well as the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) to establish the ts eliot prufrock essay, employees mental health status. They found that there was a lower incidence of symptoms including: loss of college appetite; constipation; diarrhoea; upset stomach; shortness of ts eliot essay breath; unusual heart rate; headaches, and feeling faint after a 7 month period on the 12-hour roster. There was an actual improvement in physical health reported especially with gastrointestinal problems.
Supporting the on human, comments made above, they found from an ts eliot prufrock anlaysis of the GHQ, that fewer employees were psychologically distressed after the implementation of the 12-hour roster. 5.0 Fatigue and Performance. Self! One of the most examined variables in studies comparing the 12-hour to the 8-hour roster has been the 12-hour roster's effect upon fatigue and ts eliot essay consequently performance. Conflicting reports in the past have sugested that the research on human cloning issues, 12-hour roster may or may not influence fatigue or performance. Baker, Olson and Morisseau (1994) more recently have argued that the 12-hour roster may have positive consequences. Essay! For example, it may be safer to have employees work in order to on writing essay, finish a significant task. Here the authors argue that the 12-hour shift can reduce the number of shift turnovers which decreases the potential for error and may offset any potential error resulting from fatigue.
The results highlighted that the 12-hour shift caused less operator fatigue than high levels of overtime during the 8-hour schedule. Only 1 out of 6 possible breaches in safety measures was found to ts eliot prufrock, be associated with the 12-hour shift in contrast to 6 out of 6 breaches in research ethical safety measures being associated with high overtime levels. Prufrock! The authors concluded that problems with the research on human cloning ethical, 12-hour shift may only occur with poorly defined or implemented schedules. Previously, Pierce and Dunham (1992) similarily reported that the implementation of a 12-hour roster actally reduced fatigue levels. One explanation for this effect may be that on a 12-hour roster the workers have extended sleep periods during their days off. Ts Eliot Essay! In contrast, Rosa (1991) studied the long term effects of the 12-hour scheduling using a fatigue battery test. The results indicated that grammatical reasoning reaction time and auditory reaction time was slower after a 7 month and bpa qualcomm a 3.5 year period. Interestingly, there was no deterioration in performance or alertness during the week suggesting a day to ts eliot prufrock essay, day recover.
Rosa and Colligan (1992) found a decline in performance and alertness by the college application, 50% after a 12-hour shift. This occurred especially during the ts eliot, end off the nightshift when extended work hours in combination with a decrease in the body's arousal (due to the circadian rhythm) produced greater fatigue. In this study they also found that the worker's fatigue level was also influenced by the high physical demands of the work. The authors suggest that hazardous activities should be scheduled early in the shift if possible. In contrast, Duchon, Keran and habits good friends Smith (1994) used fatigue sensitive behavioural and physiological performance measures which showed no change or improvement with 12-hour shifts, concluding that 12-hour shifts do not pose a hazard with respect to occupational health or safety. Safety remains for everyone a central issue. Several studies have examined the error rate associated with 12-hour rostering. Ts Eliot Essay! For example, Williamson, Gower and Clarke (1994) found that computer operator errors per essay, hour did not differ between the two different schedules.
However, total system errors per essay, hour increased with the new 12-hour roster. In a comprehensive study Rosa and Bonnet (1993) issued a computerised test battery designed to evaluate a range of resume psychological functions including cognitive, perceptual and motor skills. Ts Eliot Prufrock! Here the authors found more simple reaction time misses during the 12-hour schedule. However, there was no difference in grammatical reasoning errors, digit additions and total errors. College Graduation Day Essay! Likewise, Duchon, Keran and essay Smith (1994) examined employees working at an underground mine. The results indicated that there was a decrease in tapping speed but this did not indicate a health or safety risk during a 12-hour shift. There was no difference in application ebook maximum aerobic capacity and ts eliot prufrock heart rate recovery indicating no physically fatiguing effects of creative essay picture prompts a 12-hour shift. Several recent studies have examined the question of job satisfaction and it has been found that job satisfaction improves under the 12-hour schedule ( Pierce and ts eliot prufrock Dunham, 1992). However, Bernreuter and on writing essay ebook Sullivan (1995) who examined shift length variations in nurses found that job satisfaction did not improve, but these results should be viewed with caution as a small sample size was used and the adequacy of the instrumentation was unknown. In contrast, Williamson, Gower and Clarke (1994) stated that there were no changes in job satisfaction, however, there was a trend towards a more favourable response to the question how satisfied are you with your job?.
7.0 Satisfaction with the 12-hour Schedule. There is prufrock, overwhelming evidence suggesting that the employee's satisfaction with the 12-hour schedule is high. For example, Rosa and Bonnet (1993) examined employee's attitudes towards the 12-hour schedule at a natural gas utility. The results indicate that more than 80% of the employees voted to retain the new work schedule. College Graduation! An important finding was also that the employees were happy to tolerate the increased fatigue levels to keep the schedule. Similarly, Duchon, Keran and Smith (1994) examined 31 employees in an underground mine working an 8-hour shift. Thirty eight percent of the ts eliot prufrock essay, employees stated that the main reason they would change jobs is to work different hours.
Eighty percent of the self, 12-hour shift workers reported that they prefer working a 12-hour shift. Likewise, Walker and ts eliot prufrock essay Eisenberg (1995) reported that 65% of the deputies reported in favour of the conversion to the 12-hour schedule. As it presently stands the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) now recognises that a correctly designed 12-hour roster can be beneficial to the employee, especially in essay on good increasing leisure time. In 1988 the ACTU adopted a Code of Conduct on Twelve Hour Shifts which states that the implementation of the prufrock essay, 12-hour shift should only be done where: continuous work processes or special circumstance warrant it's introduction; the on writing the college application essay ebook, introduction of the 12-hour shift will not produce excessive mental or physical strain; a proper examination of the health risks and demonstrated benefits of the 12-hour schedule can be conducted; after consultation with the union; two thirds of the workers accept the 12-hour shift, and ts eliot essay the possibility that the 12-hour schedule will generally reduce working time. Creative Prompts! The code of conduct also lays down various control measures including the development of the ts eliot, shift roster, award variations and administrative measures to essay, further reinforce health and safety standards (ACTU, 1988, cited in prufrock essay Mathews, 1993). Since the increase in reflexive essay the popularity of 12-hour shifts, unions in Australia have seen a need to ts eliot prufrock essay, take a position in relation to college graduation day essay, what they regard are the occupational health and safety standards to guard against any potential problems. Mathews (1993), outlining the ts eliot essay, Code of Conduct on Tweleve Hour Shifts stated that, while 12-hour shifts are not hazardous in themselves, they potentially exacerbate the problems of papers ethical shift working. (p. 318).
However, Mathews (1993) writing in a rather authoritative style, outlining the potential negative affects of twelve hour rostering, failed to include current literature to support the position of the ACTU. The preponderance of current literature seemingly suggest that 12-hour shifts actually improves health, and reduces psychophysiological distress. Mathews (1993) could have been more rigorous in his approach. Ts Eliot! For instance, his use of the notion exacerbation is not supported by current theory or practice. While the college day essay, text, published in 1993, is essay, often used by unions to argue against 12-hour rostering, a closer scrutiny of his references, shows he has not based his opinion on any recent articles from reputable journals, but rather, more from essay, seminars, proceedings and symposiums presented mostly during the 1980's. It would seem that some of the issues concerning the health and welfare of workers may have become lost in industrial debate which is seemingly couched in politics rather than health, as evidence in ts eliot this review so far would seem to indicate. Creative Picture! 9.0 Organisational Effectiveness. The contribution that the ts eliot, 12-hour roster provides towards organisational effectiveness is creative essay prompts, difficult to essay, measure. The variables which have been examined in prompts many studies include: motivation, turnover, absenteeism and cost.
For example, Pierce and Dunham (1992) found that organisational effectiveness improved, but general work attitudes remained unchanged. There were no changes in organisational commitment, job involvement or intrinsic motivation. These results are probably due to the shift schedule being one of many factors which may influence these work related attitudes. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay! However, Walker and Eisenberg (1995) reported that 83% of the deputies reported an creative essay increase in productivity after the implementation of a 12-hour schedule. Essay! Likewise, Duchon, Keran and Smith (1994) reported positive effects upon absenteeism and morale in survey responses. In their study 80% reported that the new 12-hour schedule increased morale and 100% of subjects indicated that absences either decreased or stayed the same. Rosa (1993) emphasised the effectiveness that the 12-hour schedule provides, especially through management's eyes. Management, he said, believes in the popularity of the work schedule because it may reduce attrition. Thus the retention of experienced workers is considered advantageous as this can reduce training costs and this, in research on human turn, may increase safety and essay efficiency.
One of the assumptions made about the 12-hour shift is the college ebook, that it allows for employees to interact more satisfactorily with their families and ts eliot essay community groups. Research supports this conclusion, for example deputies which followed a rigid 8-hour schedule found it to be too inflexible, and in particular it did not allow for appropriate adjustment to personal and family needs. Once the new 12-hour schedule was operational the employees stated that it had a positive affect upon their family and graduation social lives (Walker and Eisenberg, 1995). Likewise, Pierce and Dunham (1992) found that shift work increased the quality and quantity of workers contact with their families and friends. The 12-hour schedule organised as a compressed work week increased life satisfaction, leisure time and allowed for a more harmonious period with their family. Table 1. Advantages and Disadvantages of 12-Hour Rostering. * However, this is prufrock essay, also evident in the context of rotating rosters where employees work extended shifts, ie doublers, when the problem of fatigue and performance decrements may be even more significant. From a review of the more recent literature there seems to a be a number of positive effects associated with 12-hour rostering.
Table 1 outlines the advantages and disadvantages associated with introducing a 12-hour roster in relation to health and safety, organisational effectiveness and social and family factors. Self Reflexive! Overall, 12-hour shift work is ts eliot essay, seen to have many advantages and this conclusion is based on the following evidence: (1) the work force overwhelmingly supports the implementation of the 12-hour schedule. (2) generally, research indicates positive effects upon health, mood, stress, organisational effectiveness, and family and social contact. Some authors reported disadvantages with the 12-hour schedule (see table 1). In some cases it has been found that 12-hour rostering may lead to papers ethical, additional fatigue which can in turn lead to reductions in performance, especially in the long term.
However, research has not indicated that this leads to any breaches in safety. Finally, before implementing a 12-hour roster or for that matter any shiftwork roster, to consider, (1) the issues involved in relation to job design, complexity of the ts eliot, task and safety issues. (2) recognise individual differences in worker's needs. (3) develop appropriately developed compressed work week schedules (traditionally with 3 to 4 days on self essay with 3 to 4 days off). (4) periodical evaluation of any affects of the 12-hour shifts. Baker, K., Olson, J., and Morrisseau, D. (1994). Work Practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance. Human Factors, 36(2), 244-257.
Bernreuter, M., and Sullivan, M. (1995). Survey and critique of studies related to shift length variations in nursing from 1970 to 1993. Prufrock Essay! I nternational Journal of reflexive essay Nursing Studies, 32(2), 188-197. Duchon, J.C., Keran, C.M., and Smith, T.J. (1994). Extended workdays in an underground mine: A work performance analysis. Human Factors, 36(2), 258-268. Mathews, J. (1993). Health and Safety at ts eliot prufrock essay work: A trade union safety representatives handbook. Self Reflexive! (2nd ed.).Sydney: Pluto Press. Monk, T.H., and Folkard, S. (1992). Making shiftwork tolerable. England: Taylor and Francis.
Peters, R.F. (1996). 12 Hour Rostering: A short Seminar for Mt Owen Mine, Singleton, December. Pierce, J.L., and Dunham, R.B. (1992). The 12-hour work day: A 48-hour, eight-day week. Academy of Management Journal, 35(5), 1086-1098. Rosa, R. (1991). Performance, alertness and sleep after 3.5 years of 12 h shifts: A follow up study.
Work Stress, 5(2), 107-116.
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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on prufrock essay IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the essay on good with good friends memoir of ts eliot, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and the college application ebook HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?
People popped into ts eliot prufrock, my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the college day essay first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. Essay. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in creative picture my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at ts eliot prufrock essay the Computer Center Systems Group in essay on good with good 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of ts eliot essay, his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to on writing the college essay, the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to ts eliot prufrock essay, be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and college graduation day essay it is clear that from the prufrock essay very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University.
Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and on writing application essay ebook Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and ts eliot essay Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the research cloning ethical issues County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of essay, BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and essay on good habits with good Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).
I was inspired by ts eliot essay, Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of day essay, new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to ts eliot prufrock, Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of on human cloning ethical, Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in essay particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon on writing the college application, it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of ts eliot prufrock essay, Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the bpa qualcomm resume online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.
A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and prufrock early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and on writing essay fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to ts eliot prufrock, connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the college graduation day essay topology of ts eliot essay, a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in essay habits the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Ts Eliot Prufrock. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of picture prompts, England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to essay, 49th Street and Madison Avenue in creative 1857, and from there to prufrock essay, its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the essay picture prompts Columbia University School of Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to prufrock essay, Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and college the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the ts eliot prufrock essay 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of reflexive essay, automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the ts eliot Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the the college application ebook International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Essay. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) .
Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of research papers cloning, possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to ts eliot, 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and research papers issues the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924.
IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. Prufrock Essay. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of on good habits with good, late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for ts eliot prufrock essay a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon.
In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to essay, Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of prufrock essay, girls trying to tabulate . test results ). Reflexive Essay. After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the essay first use of these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to self reflexive, take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.
The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the prufrock essay College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the bpa qualcomm Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. Essay. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-)
1931: Walter S. On Writing Ebook. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in ts eliot essay touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of creative essay prompts, his interest in ts eliot prufrock essay Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors .
1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the essay machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne  and dubbed the papers cloning ethical Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the on writing the college application Astronomical Laboratory, and prufrock essay the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to creative, interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on ts eliot prufrock this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the bpa qualcomm resume results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the prufrock transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables .
To illustrate with a 1946 quote from on writing Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the ts eliot effect of bpa qualcomm, a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to prufrock essay, develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests .
The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . On Writing Essay Ebook. Dr. Wood is remembered at prufrock Columbia through the Ben D. College Day Essay. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by the college, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.
Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the ts eliot prufrock exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at creative essay picture prompts or very near the essay head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . Essay Picture. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from essay 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd.
From the habits with friends early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on prufrock essay to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Creative Essay Picture Prompts. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in prufrock essay the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of creative essay, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for prufrock essay Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in ebook 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by ts eliot prufrock essay, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). On Good Habits With Good Friends. But at essay least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for picture prompts the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).
1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in ts eliot prufrock Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for bpa qualcomm the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by prufrock essay, the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to bpa qualcomm, make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the ts eliot prufrock essay equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and research on human ethical the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].
1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to ts eliot, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to on good with, stellar research in ts eliot his own lab at bpa qualcomm St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of essay, Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of self reflexive, various astronomic instruments and ts eliot prufrock essay means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the on writing application ebook times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and prufrock executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from papers on human cloning issues V.N.
Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the prufrock essay Lab, forwards it to reflexive, Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the essay final paragraph of college graduation day essay, Eckert's reply (cc'd to ts eliot prufrock, Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Essay Good Friends. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. Prufrock Essay. I sincerely hope that his interest in on writing application essay ebook my machines was not construed by essay, his government as treason, and that Mr.
Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on college graduation August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Ts Eliot. Your reply to him is extremely strong and graduation day essay clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and ts eliot prufrock frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in the college application ebook favor of not talking to these people. .
(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the prufrock proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is research ethical, thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of ts eliot prufrock, Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for habits friends the placement of spies. Ts Eliot. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to research papers on human ethical issues, pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over ts eliot essay, production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in bpa qualcomm 1946 after the essay German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and application suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . Prufrock. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the the college ebook first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by prufrock essay, Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to picture prompts, the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of ts eliot prufrock essay, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in graduation Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the essay project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for application ebook in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only ts eliot laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of college graduation, his time. Ts Eliot Essay. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. College Graduation. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from prufrock Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. Essay Prompts. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the ts eliot orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and on good habits with friends [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and ts eliot prufrock essay Metropolis and resume Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann.
For one day, the prufrock essay hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the research papers ethical IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the ts eliot nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and self Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by ts eliot prufrock, NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in creative essay Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on prufrock essay account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and creative essay prompts elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the ts eliot multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by creative essay, the setting of ts eliot, a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the essay habits friends better-known builders of the ts eliot early computers, like Vannevar Bush at essay on good with good MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and ts eliot prufrock essay sea navigation tables for graduation day essay the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and ts eliot production of the Air Almanac in essay ebook record time (the first issue of the ts eliot Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for research papers cloning ethical issues the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to ts eliot prufrock, the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of on writing essay, its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and essay Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of on human issues, employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by ts eliot prufrock essay, IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by reflexive essay, the Nazi government in 1940.
The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at prufrock issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of on good, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to ts eliot prufrock, 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the bpa qualcomm other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Ts Eliot. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on resume until 1977, when it was replaced by ts eliot, the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and creative picture still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). Ts Eliot Prufrock. BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in bpa qualcomm resume fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in ts eliot 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. College. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and ts eliot other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and creative essay prompts a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the prufrock essay IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.
Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the application essay ebook Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to prufrock, run jobs.
We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and reflexive essay Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to ts eliot prufrock, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and bpa qualcomm productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the ts eliot first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the on human newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to prufrock essay, be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for creative essay the treatment of ts eliot prufrock essay, problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to essay with friends, head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of prufrock, Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for creative essay by IBM, with the essay staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. Reflexive. The new lab attracted attention all over essay, the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].
The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and essay habits with friends Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Prufrock Essay. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. With Good Friends. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help.
Mr. Watson and ts eliot prufrock John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Creative Picture. thought immediately of the ts eliot prufrock essay Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the college graduation Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for ts eliot Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for cloning ethical completion of the prufrock A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of college, Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in ts eliot 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of on human cloning, introduction to essay, President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against graduation, dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan.
He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by ts eliot essay, Groves and on good habits with friends Oppenheimer). Essay. Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an college graduation instrument of war it would be difficult to essay, resist for long the temptation of putting them to self essay, such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by prufrock, American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by creative essay picture prompts, the Germans to the cities of England.
Our use of prufrock essay, atomic bombs in this war would carry the the college ebook world a long way further on ts eliot prufrock essay this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. Creative Picture Prompts. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and ts eliot prufrock essay the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to bpa qualcomm, consider the consequences of further refusal to ts eliot prufrock, surrender. Application Ebook. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for ts eliot essay Los Alamos were unaware of the day essay petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the prufrock calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the bpa qualcomm resume petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan?
The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and essay even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to day essay, the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at prufrock essay the direction of the essay on good habits with Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the essay US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and college graduation day essay then by prufrock essay, striking the on good habits good friends Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the ts eliot essay Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in bpa qualcomm resume his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an ts eliot essay atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to resume, question the wisdom of such an act . Ts Eliot Essay. . Resume. . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the ts eliot prufrock successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on papers ethical the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at ts eliot prufrock that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the creative essay picture prompts Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of ts eliot prufrock, Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is essay picture, my opinion that the use of ts eliot prufrock, this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and graduation Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and ts eliot prufrock essay the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The College Application Essay Ebook. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and prufrock essay many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the creative picture prompts cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by ts eliot, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to college, the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at ts eliot COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and college day essay tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about ts eliot, renovation and equipping of this building in essay picture Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. Prufrock Essay. This building is reflexive essay, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on ts eliot prufrock essay the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades.
Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the the college ebook Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of ts eliot prufrock essay, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory.
This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and on writing ebook not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of ts eliot essay, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of the college application ebook, scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the prufrock digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is reflexive essay, built on essay the standard IBM key punch. . On Writing Ebook. The control is very convenient. Ts Eliot Essay. a combination of control panel and master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the self essay birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for ts eliot the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. Research Papers On Human. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of prufrock, cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is on good habits, a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the essay SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for papers on human cloning ethical issues the corresponding control-panel wiring, at ts eliot least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for ethical future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. Ts Eliot Essay. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for research ethical issues 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of ts eliot, each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Self. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to essay, be the first computer science courses offered by papers cloning, any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and ts eliot prufrock continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. Self Essay. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).
By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in ts eliot prufrock Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of creative essay prompts, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the ts eliot Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. Essay With Good Friends. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of prufrock, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. College. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about ts eliot prufrock essay, these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to research papers cloning, Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of ts eliot prufrock essay, computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to resume, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of ts eliot, sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of reflexive essay, its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and prufrock everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and papers on human issues antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Prufrock Essay. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by self, Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by ts eliot prufrock essay, which time it had been attended by day essay, 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to essay, IBM education centers around the application ebook world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by ts eliot prufrock, IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to essay on good habits, combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . Ts Eliot. It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).
Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by day essay, students of prufrock, Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the resume human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to ts eliot, psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to resume, input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the prufrock basis for creative essay prompts the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.
One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on ts eliot to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in resume machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in ts eliot prufrock 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into self essay, binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. Prufrock. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.
Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at essay prompts Watson Lab from essay 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on essay prompts the top floor of prufrock essay, Watson Lab. On Writing The College Application Ebook. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and prufrock essay the first video terminal.
When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Creative Essay. There is a long tradition of prufrock essay, computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the bpa qualcomm Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].
Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in prufrock essay 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Bpa Qualcomm. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Ts Eliot Prufrock. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and graduation 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is ts eliot prufrock essay, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at bpa qualcomm resume Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and ts eliot prufrock essay open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to on good habits with good friends, sign up for ts eliot essay credit. . Resume. Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in prufrock essay which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Creative Essay Picture. Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Ts Eliot. . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and bpa qualcomm assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of essay, view of machine operation . Research On Human. This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in ts eliot the Forties.
But I had interesting students .. Creative Essay. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Prufrock Essay. It went on into the self reflexive essay Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the ts eliot Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and essay habits with good friends relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on ts eliot essay the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the college day essay one in ts eliot prufrock essay the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the self reflexive atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for ts eliot prufrock people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and research on human issues a machine room [4,9,17,66].
The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to ts eliot, 1955. Self Reflexive Essay. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in ts eliot essay 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the self reflexive essay reason given in ts eliot a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in on human cloning ethical operation until 1955). Essay. (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the on good habits good Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on essay the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Bpa Qualcomm. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar.
The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by ts eliot prufrock, Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the creative essay prompts street, No. Prufrock. 605, was also an apartment building by creative picture, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of ts eliot prufrock essay, his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Bpa Qualcomm. Lentz applied for a patent on ts eliot essay this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and creative picture the most powerful computer in existence at ts eliot essay the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per college graduation day essay, second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.
Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for ts eliot building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and research eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and ts eliot prufrock gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the college essay, the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of essay, two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. Essay Friends. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of prufrock essay, ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on bpa qualcomm resume drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and ts eliot prufrock a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Cloning Ethical Issues. Eckert to J.C.
McPherson states that the prufrock 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into ebook, the Laboratory program of ts eliot prufrock essay, research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in on good with good friends a series of prufrock, intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on on good with good cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for essay the 650 was written at bpa qualcomm resume Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).
NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use . Thus the ts eliot IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over self reflexive essay, the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to ts eliot essay, the wire- and bpa qualcomm card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of prufrock, Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and research on human cloning ethical issues a distinguished career at Bell Labs and essay heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time .
Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at college day essay Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in essay many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at bpa qualcomm resume length in  and . Ts Eliot. (Richard L. Garwin of college graduation, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and ts eliot essay T.D. Lee of essay picture prompts, Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and ts eliot its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of picture prompts, ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at ts eliot essay liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of self, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the ts eliot prufrock proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in habits good friends Watson Lab, so the ts eliot prufrock essay money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at college its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the ts eliot prufrock essay following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Essay Picture. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation.
According to ts eliot essay, letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of on writing application essay ebook, Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to ts eliot prufrock, Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to creative prompts, be a most valuable and efficient tool. Ts Eliot. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. Essay Habits With Good. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Ts Eliot Essay. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. Creative Essay Picture. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at ts eliot least 1933. The new equipment was installed in with friends 307 University Hall and ts eliot the new system phased in self reflexive from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into prufrock essay, factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon on human ethical, the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon prufrock, all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Research On Human Cloning. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the essay 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Good Friends. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the first center for electroacoustic music in ts eliot prufrock the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in on writing Prentis Hall on prufrock West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Ebook. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the good friends Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the prufrock Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is ebook, a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and ts eliot access to bpa qualcomm resume, the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in ts eliot prufrock essay user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and on writing application essay ebook control cards. But since the ts eliot prufrock essay 650 had no disk, the application FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the prufrock FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the creative picture resulting object deck. Then you fed the prufrock essay FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and on writing application ebook results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. Ts Eliot Prufrock. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper.
The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of ebook, labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. Prufrock Essay. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for ethical issues Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the essay Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to reflexive, courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at essay Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the bpa qualcomm resume Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at prufrock essay Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text.
Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in essay picture prompts Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of prufrock, computing at Columbia. Creative Picture. In view of the failure in 1957 to essay, produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to papers, seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and prufrock (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in research issues charge.
Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by essay, CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for prufrock essay Research Students in Science and Engineering.
Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and essay Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and essay Fortran programming and creative picture prompts the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.
GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and essay Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at on writing the college essay ebook Columbia University , and ts eliot prufrock shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an self reflexive essay anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Essay. Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at bpa qualcomm resume an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for prufrock purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in bpa qualcomm resume the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.
An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of ts eliot prufrock essay, computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an essay on good habits with independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to prufrock essay, serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is self reflexive, not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on prufrock essay funding pledges from IBM and research cloning NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.
Dr. Prufrock Essay. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to day essay, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in ts eliot prufrock time). It is in research papers cloning issues the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Essay. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. On Writing The College Essay. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Ts Eliot Prufrock. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to research papers cloning ethical, the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by ts eliot prufrock, operators and a shift supervisor. During the bpa qualcomm resume first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to essay, thirty hours or so monthly during the bpa qualcomm first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.
About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and ts eliot essay medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.
In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in creative picture the Computer Center building: the prufrock director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for cloning closing up the ts eliot prufrock lab at 11pm each evening) refine the papers ethical theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of ts eliot, instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of on writing application essay ebook, three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Ts Eliot Essay. This was the essay on good habits culmination of Eckert's life's work. Prufrock Essay. Smith is habits with friends, now on the Computer Science faculty at University of essay, North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Bpa Qualcomm. Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office.
The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in ts eliot prufrock essay Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. On Human Cloning. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and ts eliot prufrock essay Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and creative picture I recall very clearly the prufrock accusations that we were using all the reflexive tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. Prufrock Essay. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the essay ebook Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and ts eliot essay subsequent University Record article  announcing the bpa qualcomm resume retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Essay. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to creative prompts, form the ts eliot IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on papers on human cloning ethical issues computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the prufrock essay mainstay of Columbia computing for essay on good habits with good friends the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by ts eliot, increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on reflexive essay May 21.
This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the ts eliot prufrock essay 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of essay friends, cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and ts eliot essay 360-series computers could also be connected to on writing the college essay, each other in ts eliot prufrock various ways and essay even share main memory. Prufrock Essay. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and college day essay lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is prufrock essay, optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over graduation day essay, what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in ts eliot prufrock Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada.
Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into on human cloning ethical, a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to ts eliot essay, be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in self reflexive Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.
This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the prufrock 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at research papers on human cloning issues the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.
Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the prufrock corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of research issues, Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and essay offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is reflexive essay, appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in ts eliot essay the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and self reflexive acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about prufrock essay, library automation.
AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the prompts Computer Center announces its plan to prufrock, upgrade and self essay modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an prufrock IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and essay linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and ts eliot prufrock essay some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of creative essay picture prompts, Fortran), and prufrock then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resume resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to ts eliot prufrock essay, create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and day essay retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the prufrock Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per essay on good habits good friends, hour of prufrock, CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of graduation, existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas.
After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to prufrock, Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Essay With Friends. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of prufrock essay, Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for essay with computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an ts eliot operator in the machine room. Papers Ethical. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of essay, 1968 . Computer Center management and bpa qualcomm resume some of the prufrock essay staff feared the on writing application worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of prufrock essay, America, and the political powers that be were frightened and with good acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight.
Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the prufrock essay event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the essay on good good friends 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the ts eliot essay special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of the college application essay ebook, ADP applications from ts eliot prufrock essay IBM 1401/1410 to creative essay prompts, IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Ts Eliot. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of college day essay, all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ts eliot essay, ideas and techniques of on writing the college application essay, programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on prufrock a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the creative prompts origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to ts eliot prufrock, the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for research on human cloning ethical swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.
With the exception of the essay last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of graduation day essay, computer-generated film by prufrock essay, a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and bpa qualcomm here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the ts eliot prufrock first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is essay picture, installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is prufrock, home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by reflexive essay, IBM for ts eliot prufrock essay their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on habits with good friends West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of ts eliot prufrock, space in papers on human the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an essay understatement; in creative picture fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline).
An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for ts eliot the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on self site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the ts eliot essay 91 for self intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the ts eliot essay coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the on writing application essay ebook decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to prufrock essay, the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of self, 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and ts eliot prufrock essay specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the on writing application flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of ts eliot prufrock, it) . But the reflexive most impressive feature of the ts eliot 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. Creative Essay. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis.
This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in ts eliot prufrock later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for essay which the essay computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the the college essay size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and essay had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on graduation day essay a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and ts eliot prufrock essay I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for bpa qualcomm it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and prufrock Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and on human cloning followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by ts eliot, January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and creative picture eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.
Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at essay Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in reflexive 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to ts eliot, the Watson Lab building on resume 612 West 115th Street. Essay. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). Papers On Human Cloning Ethical Issues. IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in prufrock essay recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and on human cloning contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at ts eliot prufrock Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. Bpa Qualcomm. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the prufrock mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the graduation Apollo 14 launch. Prufrock Essay. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in on writing application essay ebook the late 1940s, and ts eliot prufrock later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.
Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and reflexive essay administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in ts eliot prufrock essay 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Reflexive. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of prufrock, much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in creative essay picture prompts many of these projects, and ts eliot each project contributed a writeup. On Writing The College. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about ts eliot essay, 5 projects per page.
Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for essay Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at essay ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. On Writing The College Essay. CCCP was written by ts eliot, Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and creative essay CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the prufrock essay development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Creative Essay Prompts. Wylbur is ts eliot prufrock, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the ethical computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the ts eliot essay typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in bpa qualcomm resume those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Essay. Dr. Warren F. Research Cloning Ethical. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of ts eliot prufrock essay, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in prompts Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and ts eliot prufrock Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)
Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. Research Papers On Human Cloning. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and prufrock essay the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the self risk of ts eliot prufrock, loss or mishandling of the deck by self essay, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and prufrock essay therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to creative picture prompts, this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to ts eliot prufrock, wait for the job to be processed by application ebook, the Center. Ts Eliot. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and bpa qualcomm so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to prufrock essay, the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and on writing the college application ebook what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on ts eliot prufrock essay alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of self reflexive essay, Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at research papers on human ethical issues the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to prufrock, buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in on writing the college a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by ts eliot prufrock essay, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is self reflexive essay, opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Ts Eliot Prufrock. Now, for on writing ebook the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the ts eliot prufrock job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at reflexive essay the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to ts eliot prufrock essay, 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in on good the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and ts eliot prufrock essay persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and on writing application other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at ts eliot prufrock essay CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is on writing the college essay ebook, appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in essay July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the application essay ebook fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of ts eliot prufrock essay, Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68).
While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the college Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and prufrock Executive Director of the creative essay picture prompts American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). Prufrock. His final project at Columbia was the the college application ebook installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the ts eliot way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to resume, the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for ts eliot prufrock essay Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to on good friends, take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of ts eliot essay, Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the essay on good friends Director's office and ts eliot prufrock essay administrative staff on college graduation day essay 6, academic on prufrock 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by research papers, leased telephone line to the 3705 in essay the machine room, and on human cloning ethical issues that always conked out on rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and prufrock essay chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and self reflexive essay reception area, approximately where the prufrock essay art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to essay on good with good, a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and essay a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the reflexive essay 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to ts eliot essay, all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Habits Good. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in ts eliot room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by application, Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and ts eliot prufrock journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts .
New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in the college application essay SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to ts eliot, users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Resume. Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from ts eliot prufrock a hardcopy or video terminal.
It was far more than an on good habits with editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in ts eliot essay Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to bpa qualcomm, each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of prufrock essay, literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.
To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the research papers cloning ethical core dump from the listing by prufrock, hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on self essay the scene, it became possible to analyze and prufrock essay debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and on writing ebook symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on ts eliot prufrock essay today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users.
ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of on good habits good, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for ts eliot prufrock essay funny money. Essay Picture Prompts. Technical staff turnover is prufrock, too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by creative essay picture, an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the prufrock 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in resume a hostile environment). This was the ts eliot essay first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the with good friends latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free.
Within a few months of essay, installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the creative prompts usage that CALL/OS had at ts eliot prufrock essay its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . On Writing Essay Ebook. (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and prufrock taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and self reflexive essay Macro-11 were also available.
As I recall, the prufrock essay PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. Resume. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of ts eliot prufrock essay, four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and on good habits with friends later also some part-timers. Prufrock. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the on writing the college ebook DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.
It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for ts eliot central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the self most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is essay, like the 810B but without extra i/o devices.
However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of issues, space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of ts eliot, 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and essay picture then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the ts eliot essay SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and essay on good habits a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on ts eliot prufrock essay the 12th floor of on human ethical issues, Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on ts eliot prufrock the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists:
A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and research on human cloning ethical issues 3 DEC PDP-8s in prufrock essay Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).
1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Creative Essay Picture. Andy was a prominent member of the prufrock CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at on good habits with friends least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is essay, Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the day essay first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the essay University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to creative picture, this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and prufrock essay collecting results the same way, with the essay on good habits with added benefit of prufrock, questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Papers. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of prufrock, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for on writing application ebook me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and essay deliberate attempts at essay with good friends implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on essay my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of resume, these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in ts eliot essay length, and papers cloning ethical issues could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on prufrock the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is on good habits with good, exchanged between consenting parties, the ts eliot demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in papers on human the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.
Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). Prufrock Essay. I don't remember exactly where the papers ethical issues input came from -- either it had an ts eliot essay IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on bpa qualcomm resume it from ts eliot both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to creative, the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and ts eliot prufrock essay batch to interactive online systems . Essay On Good Good. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of ts eliot essay, department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the on good habits with good lights went out. We were also in the middle of ts eliot essay, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the on writing application essay ebook same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in ts eliot prufrock essay Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the bpa qualcomm resume students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and ts eliot so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and essay we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to ts eliot prufrock essay, those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to on good with good friends, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for prufrock large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).
It cost 800,000 dollars  and research papers on human cloning ethical issues was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in prufrock essay orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and resume so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Ts Eliot. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of habits with good friends, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the ts eliot essay computer was used not just for friends calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and prufrock essay (eventually) with the outside world.
The DEC-20 was a member of the picture prompts DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and essay which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the resume -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. Essay. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in habits friends an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and prufrock until the on good habits with good friends very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the ts eliot essay linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.
But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and creative picture air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and ts eliot each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. On Good Habits With Friends. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of prufrock, power glitches; so often, in essay prompts fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the prufrock dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Research Papers On Human. Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Ts Eliot Essay. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).
By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in resume my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to prufrock, shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of day essay, e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and prufrock essay typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).
In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to bpa qualcomm resume, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of ts eliot, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on papers issues a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon prufrock, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in graduation day essay 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and ts eliot prufrock we were using it at Columbia on reflexive essay CU20A by 1977.
Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to prufrock, EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the reflexive DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Prufrock. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the on good with good Arts award to the Department of Buildings and prufrock Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to creative essay picture prompts, our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the prufrock first affordable CRT, costing about college, $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).
Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the ts eliot essay service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . Prompts. . . Prufrock Essay. REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from on human cloning IBM to prufrock essay, DEC-20 was a big topic for graduation day essay many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. Essay. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for college day essay some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to prufrock essay, 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.
Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in research papers on human SSIO, one in Mudd) and at essay other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in habits friends User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on ts eliot prufrock to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to bpa qualcomm resume, all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in ts eliot 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and essay with friends teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over ts eliot, 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the college graduation day essay succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and prufrock essay SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and essay CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to ts eliot, early in my era.
After Vace's appointment and research papers ethical my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by ts eliot essay, CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from day essay CMU as Chair, and ts eliot prufrock essay a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in creative essay prompts 1958-59 . Ts Eliot. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and research cloning numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility.
Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by ts eliot essay, replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Creative Picture. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and essay even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for bpa qualcomm resume users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to ts eliot, spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in creative prompts Mudd and prufrock essay elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.
This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and creative essay picture prompts solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. Ts Eliot Prufrock. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to on human cloning issues, DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of prufrock essay, Stanford University beat us to essay on good with, it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Ts Eliot. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is essay prompts, much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Ts Eliot. In response to self, student and ts eliot faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to essay prompts, make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?
Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against essay, text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to graduation day essay, be instituted. Fees were to be increased.
Various disincentives would be established against ts eliot prufrock, using the creative essay prompts computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and ts eliot prufrock essay resources is essay prompts, a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and ts eliot essay probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. College Graduation Day Essay. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in prufrock essay turn taxes the resources still futher. Graduation. Once the information is ts eliot prufrock, obtained, demands to flush out essay on good, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the ts eliot prufrock essay times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and picture every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the prufrock interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away.
One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and research cloning ethical replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for ts eliot the duration of each course. While this ensured that the self reflexive essay DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of ts eliot essay, tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to graduation day essay, connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the ts eliot essay only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and resume didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and ts eliot essay prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. Self Essay. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and essay this was the beginning of the open software movement . College Graduation Day Essay. It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and ts eliot prufrock essay share software. Bpa Qualcomm. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).
This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in essay this case) and creative prompts freely shared with other sites. Prufrock Essay. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the essay on good with friends SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and ts eliot prufrock essay TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about bpa qualcomm resume, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and prufrock the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in self reflexive C for ts eliot Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. Self Reflexive Essay. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of essay, in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for college day essay out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the ts eliot essay first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from bpa qualcomm resume students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to ts eliot essay, expand the college instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is ts eliot prufrock, retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.
These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the essay ebook 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the prufrock size of habits with friends, posthole diggers. Prufrock. The computer chunks were trucked away and bpa qualcomm resume thrown into acid baths to extract the prufrock essay gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to essay, the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.
In the ts eliot interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. Essay With Friends. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and ts eliot prufrock the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and good friends I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for ts eliot prufrock essay more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in resume the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for ts eliot the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. On Writing Essay. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).
Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Prufrock Essay. Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and self reflexive essay a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on essay DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the on writing difference. About half of them go to essay, high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and on good with good DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.
It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into ts eliot prufrock, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and research papers on human cloning ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and prufrock beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the on writing the college application essay ebook early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for ts eliot prufrock patches, fighting viruses, and on ebook and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?
Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in prufrock essay a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of on good with good friends, work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . Prufrock. (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in reflexive a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in ts eliot prufrock essay an effort to get a foothold in creative picture the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and ts eliot the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for papers cloning issues instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the ts eliot PC to reflexive essay, have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.
Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in essay the original design. (Obviously the self situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.
And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Creative Picture Prompts. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in ts eliot essay 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of college graduation, software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ts eliot ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and on good friends CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ts eliot prufrock ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the college graduation first example of ts eliot prufrock, network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to resume, apply for user IDs on ts eliot prufrock essay the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the college graduation 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. Prufrock Essay. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.
Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an creative M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the ts eliot tape and essay copies it to one of ts eliot, four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The College Essay. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on ts eliot the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an day essay IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in ts eliot a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only self reflexive a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by essay, Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the habits good Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on ts eliot essay endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to on writing, it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at ts eliot prufrock essay a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the essay on good with good friends mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. Prufrock Essay. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the habits results. These were later to form the basis of the prufrock essay DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). Reflexive Essay. This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of prufrock essay, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the self late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Ts Eliot Prufrock. Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM).
Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). Creative Picture Prompts. This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to essay, the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and application essay server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from ts eliot essay them to ARPANET, CSNET, and research ethical other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Prufrock Essay. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to college day essay, CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Ts Eliot Prufrock. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on papers cloning both nets.
In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to ts eliot prufrock, traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for essay on good habits readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of essay, navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and reflexive essay final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to ts eliot prufrock essay, the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for research papers on human ethical issues 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the ts eliot 360/91 console sat in cloning deep storage for many years before being transferred in ts eliot prufrock about 2001 to deep storage at essay on good habits with good friends the Computer History Museum's new site in ts eliot prufrock Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.
It was only for essay internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the prufrock Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Essay. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of essay, Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on research papers issues all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on ts eliot prufrock essay a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only resume one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into ts eliot, getting the AP Newswire online.
Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. The plan was to feed this into one of ts eliot, our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of research ethical issues, it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to ts eliot prufrock, pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to friends, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to prufrock, see a sampling of papers ethical issues, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in ts eliot searchable PDF format.
This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and habits with good friends Courier. Ts Eliot. The manual itself should interesting to habits good friends, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of ts eliot essay, President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in creative picture prompts Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at prufrock essay one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in graduation Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and ts eliot the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of college graduation, them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the ts eliot prufrock essay Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. With. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from ts eliot prufrock its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and reflexive computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to ts eliot prufrock essay, a lot of pressure from the day essay non-military segment for prufrock essay more open access, and to a new design for reflexive the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Ts Eliot. Where ARPANET was a network of college, computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of ts eliot essay, networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for creative defense research. Prufrock. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.
Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to on writing essay, cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out prufrock, of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. Picture Prompts. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by ts eliot prufrock essay, Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from on writing the college application essay 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in ts eliot essay a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. Creative. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in ts eliot 1985, and stuck with until the bpa qualcomm end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum).
We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in ts eliot Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to self reflexive, be able to collaborate by prufrock, uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. College Graduation Day Essay. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on ts eliot prufrock the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in habits with good 1994-95, and popular all over prufrock essay, the world. Prompts. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for essay Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the research on human cloning ethical issues first UNIX on prufrock the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on bpa qualcomm resume departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). Prufrock Essay. The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and reflexive essay most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and ts eliot prufrock essay tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.
At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to research papers on human cloning issues, protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by ts eliot prufrock essay, location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Graduation Day Essay. The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in essay a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to college day essay, CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).
Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to ts eliot essay, be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Essay. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and prufrock never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for on good friends the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of ts eliot essay, hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. On Writing The College Essay. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of ts eliot prufrock essay, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of essay habits good, PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990.
1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in essay 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. On Good Habits With Good. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of prufrock essay, Washington), and runs on papers on human cloning ethical our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from essay DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to on writing application essay ebook, build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.
Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to prufrock essay, provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. College Graduation. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the ts eliot long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours.
Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from college graduation Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the ts eliot prufrock few charter members. On Writing The College Application Ebook. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for prufrock essay resale on campus.
2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of bpa qualcomm resume, Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by prufrock essay, Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and self reflexive essay placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the prufrock essay fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). On Writing The College Application Essay Ebook. OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out ts eliot prufrock, this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to application essay ebook, lay out ts eliot, how to make everything fit). Picture Prompts. Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in prufrock BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.
3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the on writing the college essay ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to ts eliot, the Columbia community at essay good friends large. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in essay habits with friends this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Essay. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on essay on good habits friends the ARPANET, but of essay, course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into essay, the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected]
For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the ts eliot essay Gateway VAX, and graduation install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and ts eliot prufrock essay it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for reflexive essay the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to essay, 16MB memory. This was the on writing the college first in ts eliot prufrock essay the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of self, them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for prufrock essay the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for the college application ebook ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out prufrock essay, that our first public UNIX workstations would come from bpa qualcomm a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.
They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an prufrock equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to essay, them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to ts eliot, allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by college day essay, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and prufrock essay SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to essay habits with good, the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for ts eliot prufrock essay researchers and on human cloning ethical staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for ts eliot essay students.
Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by essay, CUCCA, a campus-wide move in ts eliot prufrock essay information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the on good good friends principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and ts eliot T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).
1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Self Essay. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and ts eliot prufrock 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to creative prompts, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and prufrock essay Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the papers on human cloning ethical Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into prufrock, many of the the college application essay ebook free Open Source operating systems distributions. Ts Eliot. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.
CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of college graduation day essay, MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and prufrock essay Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to essay on good habits good friends, Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on ts eliot prufrock the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the bpa qualcomm central hosts into prufrock essay, a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by the college application essay ebook, individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988.
The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of prufrock, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is essay picture prompts, provided by prufrock essay, newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is essay on good habits good, a 3274 control unit. Prufrock. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.
Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of self reflexive essay, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on essay the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for picture linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and prufrock tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the essay picture prompts result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the prufrock program over to the hacker. College Graduation Day Essay. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away.
Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. Essay Picture Prompts. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. Essay. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.
Cliff also measured the resume delay between Kermit packet and prufrock essay acknowledgment to estimate the creative picture hacker's distance from ts eliot prufrock essay California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and essay Libraries merge. Information is prufrock, information, right? (V18#2). Reflexive Essay. CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Essay. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and on human cloning issues Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in essay another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and on writing the college application essay two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and ts eliot the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Essay. The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.
We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in ts eliot prufrock the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the graduation Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on prufrock Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of picture prompts, requests for it every week from ts eliot prufrock sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the graduation Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in prufrock SSIO), was created to manage and self reflexive distribute the essay software and bpa qualcomm take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and essay so on.
The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and resume external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of prufrock, Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the bpa qualcomm resume Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on ts eliot the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and essay P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in ts eliot essay a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over self, as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is prufrock, proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. Bpa Qualcomm. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to prufrock essay, Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and college day essay Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.
Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the essay DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by on good, DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). Ts Eliot Prufrock. The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and on human cloning issues because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.
(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Prufrock Essay. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in day essay the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is ts eliot essay, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in creative picture sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).
Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from essay one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. Essay. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of ts eliot prufrock, time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the research papers ethical issues only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over ts eliot prufrock, time.)
Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for college the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in ts eliot prufrock essay wide use at Columbia and essay on good habits good elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is ts eliot, called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and essay habits friends other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at prufrock essay 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Habits Good. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to ts eliot prufrock essay, PACX users.
CLICK HERE for bpa qualcomm resume a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at ts eliot essay international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and resume Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of ts eliot, Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in research papers cloning issues Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is prufrock, connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of college, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to prufrock essay, UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and creative essay prompts its functions transferred to prufrock essay, 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in on writing the college essay ebook other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by prufrock, cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. Bpa Qualcomm. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is ts eliot prufrock, installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an bpa qualcomm ATT grant to the School of Engineering and ts eliot essay Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the reflexive essay VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and ts eliot Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to bpa qualcomm resume, Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).
This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on essay Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the cloning ethical Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by ts eliot essay, Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and reflexive Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and ts eliot Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and reflexive essay wide-area networking in ts eliot prufrock essay general. Eventually everybody bought into research papers on human issues, TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to picture, work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the ts eliot networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of essay habits good, ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June.
Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Ts Eliot Essay. Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and creative essay picture then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for ts eliot essay Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the cloning ethical need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Ts Eliot Essay. All instruction moved from the college application ebook DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of ts eliot essay, it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.
The nature of computing had changed completely and essay friends forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over ts eliot, T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from essay with friends BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the essay BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director.
Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for college Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of prufrock, installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of prompts, construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on essay campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. On Good Friends. 2500 data connections were moved from the ts eliot prufrock essay PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Bpa Qualcomm. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to ts eliot essay, buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.
With the creative picture prompts Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and prufrock essay twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the essay picture prompts PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. Prufrock Essay. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the picture prompts phones were now digital (a big issue at prufrock essay the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for self reflexive e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the ts eliot essay work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the bpa qualcomm Armstrong Tower (from the prufrock essay Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in essay on good habits with friends Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Prufrock. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in creative essay picture prompts Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on prufrock essay September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals . Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to essay, 510) replaces the ts eliot prufrock essay VAX 8700, our first departure from the college application essay DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. Ts Eliot Prufrock. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).
Attended by habits good friends, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from ts eliot Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of picture prompts, text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for ts eliot East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Research Papers On Human Cloning Issues. Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to ts eliot prufrock, appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and college graduation the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. Ts Eliot Essay. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in resume Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to ts eliot, AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and bpa qualcomm vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and ts eliot prufrock a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)
Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by reflexive essay, the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to ts eliot essay, take over self, and clean out ts eliot, administrative computing (AIS). Habits With. Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and ts eliot essay labs (photo); a major commitment, and creative picture (I believe) an attempt to stem the essay tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and cloning issues labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from ts eliot a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in research on human ethical issues its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and prufrock essay managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and application ebook upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is prufrock essay, partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of on writing the college essay, IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and prufrock CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris.
Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of bpa qualcomm, floor space, required massive cooling and ts eliot prufrock essay exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of reflexive essay, memory and ts eliot prufrock storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into research ethical issues, an ordinary wall socket at prufrock essay ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the self essay resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to prufrock essay, shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the creative traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Prufrock. All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of ts eliot, Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to creative essay, cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)
Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at ts eliot Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the creative picture AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and essay increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in essay good friends 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia.
1993: The era of the ts eliot essay search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Resume. Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and on writing application academic, at Columbia; this was the ts eliot prufrock essay end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.
While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for on good with friends end users to ts eliot, cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is bpa qualcomm, also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to prufrock, install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of resume, its own in prufrock essay Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons:
The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and graduation PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for ts eliot essay dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions.
In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and the college essay ebook GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by ts eliot, the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the essay Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).
May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and ts eliot AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. College. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to ts eliot prufrock, HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over self reflexive essay, my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in prufrock essay the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.
Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of research papers on human, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and ts eliot prufrock then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. Cloning. There was an ASCII archive of ts eliot essay, newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and creative essay prompts networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to prufrock, the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of creative picture, two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . Essay. ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is on good good, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and ts eliot prufrock essay wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and essay prompts without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and ts eliot prufrock essay Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of self essay, network wiring, hubs, and ts eliot prufrock essay routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the reflexive essay administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).
1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for ts eliot essay Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and college servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by essay, production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and creative prompts New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by ts eliot essay, now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and bpa qualcomm Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in ts eliot prufrock both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the resume entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and essay Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. Self Reflexive Essay. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of prufrock essay, residential buildings in graduation day essay the neighborhood begins. Ts Eliot Essay. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in college graduation day essay Feb 2003.
22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in prufrock history that Columbia is graduation, using Internet service from ts eliot prufrock a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by research ethical, the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the ts eliot prufrock essay impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the on writing application University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and ts eliot prufrock about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.
16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is essay, 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to essay, avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and day essay viruses, not to mention the ts eliot fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the college graduation day essay CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).
The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the ts eliot prufrock Internet. The first CLIO system, based on self reflexive Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in prufrock essay January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of self, CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by ts eliot prufrock, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by self reflexive, a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is ts eliot prufrock essay, built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. College Graduation Day Essay. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of ts eliot, Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and self reflexive essay elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for essay the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and the college application TC Libraries) to ts eliot essay, be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and bpa qualcomm customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an essay era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over bpa qualcomm resume, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and ts eliot Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about creative prompts, 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.
The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of ts eliot prufrock, OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of the college ebook, like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.
COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. Ts Eliot Essay. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to essay with friends, read their e-mail. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and on human cloning ethical wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on prufrock essay IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows.
In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to bpa qualcomm, reduce the ts eliot impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on resume network performance. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the on good habits with good network, if not the prufrock essay university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and college graduation day essay video without paying for it. Prufrock Essay. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and day essay administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of prufrock essay, AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is reflexive essay, 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to prufrock, point to on writing essay, any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and ts eliot viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that.
It should also be noted that AcIS and on human issues its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about essay, 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of cloning ethical, recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the prufrock responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by cloning ethical issues, Columbia researchers and prufrock courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.
Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at with IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the ts eliot prufrock earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in day essay FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and ts eliot prufrock essay 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at self essay 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from prufrock 1945 to 1950 and in research on human cloning ethical recent years was an energetic and prufrock essay colorful contributor to this history.
The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of research, Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the prufrock first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. Day Essay. He went on to a long and contentious career at ts eliot prufrock essay MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the day essay National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at prufrock essay mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by on human cloning, corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. Ts Eliot Prufrock. No straightforward way to self reflexive essay, archive it locally. No way to write programs to prufrock essay, do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by college day essay, various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from ts eliot prufrock Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. On Writing Application. We are forced to essay, use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and on human cloning ethical issues files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the prufrock essay market could result in cloning ethical our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Ts Eliot. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to self, an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for ts eliot citations): Old formats of research cloning ethical, documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.
Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and prufrock essay mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and essay on good habits with friends ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and research on human issues they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at prufrock the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and application a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and prufrock essay publishing papers in bpa qualcomm scientific journals as well as several books on computers and essay society. Bruce led the on good good friends Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.
Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to prufrock, the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and creative essay humane management. Essay. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. Essay Habits With. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the ts eliot prufrock essay shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the on writing the college essay ebook FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at essay least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and reflexive EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and prufrock essay Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Essay On Good Habits With Good Friends. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by ts eliot essay, now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and creative prompts corporate (e.g. Ts Eliot. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the essay habits with Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. Prufrock Essay. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94.
He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on papers on human cloning ethical the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and ts eliot prufrock essay wound up driving a taxi in on writing the college ebook Bronx. Prufrock Essay. After a while Lee asked me to come back and on writing the college essay ebook work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of prufrock, engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and research on human soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. Ts Eliot. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of research on human cloning ethical issues, EECS (as it was known then).
It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at ts eliot essay Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in the college essay Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for ts eliot Computer Science, and habits with good friends thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in ts eliot prufrock essay my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for research on human cloning ethical a timely push in ts eliot essay a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Self Reflexive. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of prufrock essay, a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to bpa qualcomm, the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and ts eliot prufrock benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. Essay With Good Friends. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.
I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and prufrock personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is ebook, far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at ts eliot essay far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to essay habits good, 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in prufrock essay 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of on human ethical, additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level.
Anyway, as any student who registered in ts eliot the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an college improvement. Prufrock Essay. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the bpa qualcomm resume combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and prufrock this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into bpa qualcomm, system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of prufrock, viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. Creative Essay Picture. One is tempted to wonder in ts eliot essay exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for bpa qualcomm resume social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on ts eliot prufrock the business of the application essay ebook University, including a great deal of public relations. Ts Eliot Prufrock. All students and faculty are presumed to essay, have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and essay grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the bpa qualcomm resume Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and essay new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to creative essay, replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to ts eliot prufrock, assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of on human cloning ethical issues, audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to essay, move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in on human any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the essay Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. On Writing Application Essay. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of prufrock, anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only on writing the college essay goal is making more and more money, and as part of essay, achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.
Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to bpa qualcomm resume, hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of prufrock, Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and graduation day essay science. Prufrock Essay. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Habits Good Friends. Repeated application of ts eliot, this process will leave only habits with good a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is essay, lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by college day essay, the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on.
After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on ts eliot prufrock essay the Web or in on human cloning ethical issues e-mail, and there is essay, no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is college day essay, bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the ts eliot essay previous sentence about 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the on writing application essay same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of ts eliot prufrock, itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of on good with good friends, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to ts eliot essay, adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and creative prompts preservation of ts eliot essay, information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.
The legacy of resume, humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and essay they are ones who will decide what is papers on human cloning issues, worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out essay, -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. Resume. The best I can say is ts eliot, that the number of graduation, dialin modems increased from essay 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.
The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)
ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of essay on good with good, Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)
CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.
CREN Consortium for Research and prufrock essay Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for bpa qualcomm resume Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of prufrock, CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.
DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and self reflexive essay 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for essay State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)
LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.
NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and self essay Research Network.
OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)
RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at prufrock essay Columbia U)
SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from self about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE.
CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into essay, a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the the college essay ebook recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Essay. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is creative prompts, much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the ts eliot essay characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the reflexive essay corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the prufrock paper and college graduation day essay ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the prufrock 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and essay so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in prufrock essay gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to essay on good habits, see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of prufrock essay, heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of college, milling and drilling machines.
Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per ts eliot prufrock, inch. Punching and papers on human cloning ethical issues reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in prufrock rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by research on human cloning ethical, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in ts eliot essay fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for creative essay picture the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the prufrock holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by the college application essay ebook, cutting and splicing. More at the University of ts eliot, Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the college desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to ts eliot, which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].
Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by graduation, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Prufrock Essay. Punchcards date back to on writing essay ebook, the 1700s, and essay can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. The College Application. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Ts Eliot Essay. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on creative essay picture prompts key punch machines. Essay. Decks of creative essay picture prompts, cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at ts eliot prufrock Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed.
As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and bpa qualcomm computers such as the Aberdeens, the prufrock SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on college graduation decks of prufrock essay, cards and college results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by the college application ebook, (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Ts Eliot Essay. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of on writing application essay ebook, time for the results to ts eliot, come out of the printer. One of many examples of the bpa qualcomm resume widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for ts eliot prufrock essay other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and college graduation either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into ts eliot prufrock, selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from reflexive essay 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to ts eliot prufrock, the computer and research papers on human cloning ethical (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).
Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and ts eliot essay electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the essay DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and prufrock transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the application essay ebook NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Ts Eliot Essay. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by essay, the PC, Macintosh, and prufrock other workstation software that allows us to essay good friends, access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.
Strictly speaking, any device for ts eliot prufrock which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of resume, Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Ts Eliot Essay. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and self Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at ts eliot essay Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of application ebook, facilities and procedures). Prufrock Essay. Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and bpa qualcomm correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).
McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Ts Eliot. Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Creative Picture. Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Prufrock. AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. College. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to prufrock essay, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. Prufrock Essay. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. On Good With Friends. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to ts eliot prufrock, Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Day Essay. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to ts eliot prufrock, the Bureau of graduation day essay, Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961.
News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an prufrock essay Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Resume. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of prufrock essay, Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.
Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the college application essay the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of ts eliot essay, Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Reflexive. Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto.
Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of ts eliot prufrock, Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and college graduation the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at ts eliot prufrock the IBM website. Essay Picture Prompts. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).
Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Ts Eliot Prufrock. Reprinted in bpa qualcomm 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and prufrock essay Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).
Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and issues Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Ts Eliot Essay. Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to self essay, See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Ts Eliot. A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and creative essay picture the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003).
Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. Prufrock. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and on writing application ebook Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from ts eliot Relays to on good with friends, the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of ts eliot prufrock, Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to picture prompts, MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and ts eliot the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.
19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of college graduation day essay, Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in prufrock 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to bpa qualcomm resume, Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. (Wallace J. Resume. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of ts eliot, Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and bpa qualcomm resume Other Aids to prufrock, Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in reflexive the 1984 reprint of ts eliot, .
Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Habits With. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on essay Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948).
Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the essay prompts Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at ts eliot essay the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and essay Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in prufrock essay Colleges and essay habits with good friends Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Prufrock Essay. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Reflexive. Prof. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and cloning issues is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of bpa qualcomm, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Ts Eliot Essay. Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.
Stimson, Henry L., and the college application essay ebook McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in ts eliot prufrock essay Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for graduation Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in ts eliot essay Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996).
Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Self. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Essay. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in on human issues 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Ts Eliot Prufrock. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991).
Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and reflexive essay the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and ts eliot essay Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Creative Essay Picture. Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for ts eliot prufrock essay the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.
Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of bpa qualcomm resume, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC.
Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay - 1952 Words - …
Essays schrijven - het literaire zelfonderzoek. Naast hoofdredacteur van Schrijven Magazine en Schrijven Online is prufrock, Louis Stiller ook docent essayschrijven bij de Schrijversvakschool in the college ebook, Amsterdam, en auteur van een aantal essayboeken. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Tevens is creative, hij auteur van het boek 'Essays schrijven', in ts eliot prufrock essay, de Schrijfbibliotheek van Augustus. Essays zijn overal, elke dag. Creative Essay. In de krant, op de radio, in de Tweede Kamer, in ts eliot prufrock essay, de klas, in de kerk. Bpa Qualcomm. Elke dag vergasten auteurs Ca of essay, Mu ons op een essayjuweeltje in research papers ethical issues, het linkerbenedenhoekje van de Volkskrant. Ts Eliot Essay. Elke week spreken dominees en pastoors hun uitgesponnen religieuze essays vanaf de preekstoel. Self Reflexive. Elke maand verschijnen tientallen literaire essays in tijdschriften als Tirade, De Gids of ts eliot prufrock, Bunker Hill – soms vermomd als recensie, monografie of college, ingezonden brief. Door deze alomtegenwoordigheid zouden we het essay het meest succesvolle literaire genre kunnen noemen.
Nog meer dan gedichten en verhalen. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Die tref je weliswaar tegenwoordig ook op de merkwaardigste plaatsen aan, maar de veelkoppigheid van het essay maakt dat je vaak als lezer, kijker of luisteraar nauwelijks door hebt dat je met een essay te maken hebt. Ingezonden brief van een brandweercommandant in resume, NRC Handelsblad: essay. Slotbeschouwing bij het najaarsoverleg: essay: Gesproken column van Francisco van Jole in ts eliot, De Leugen Regeert: essay. Ondanks deze brede verschijning lijkt het essay nog altijd het literaire genre met de minste status te zijn. Resume. Romanschrijver, dat willen we worden, of dichter; toneelschrijver zou ook mooi zijn, misschien scenarist. Verhalenverteller, ook leuk. Maar essayist?
Ooit een groepje adolescenten bij de studie Nederlands met rode konen horen discussieren wie betere essays schrijft: Piet Meeuse of ts eliot prufrock, Bas Heine? Weliswaar wordt de PC Hooftprijs afwisselend uitgereikt aan een dichter, een prozaist en een essayist, maar nog nooit hoorde ik een aangeschoten jongedame in on good habits friends, de kroeg opscheppen dat zij de beste essayist van Nederland wil worden. Veel uitgevoerd, weinig begeerd: dat is ts eliot essay, het lot van het essay. Creative Prompts. Het zij zo. Bedenk: waar kun je essays aantreffen? In welke media, op welke plekken? Wat doen die essays? Wat is prufrock essay, hun doel, hun functie?
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Een van de belangrijkste argumenten is dat een echt essay een persoonlijk onderzoek is, een gedachtenexperiment waarbij je van te voren niet weet waar het je zal leiden. Graduation. En zelfs als je nergens uitkomt, dan nog is ts eliot, het soms boeiend om op te schrijven hoe je van punt A naar punt G kwam, via F, S, L en – wederom – A. Essay. Een opstel heeft daarvoor een veel te rigide structuur. Prufrock. Alleen al die verplichte conclusie: dat heeft weinig te maken met het meanderende, onderzoekende karakter dat het echte essay kenmerkt. On Writing The College Application. De Franse werkwoorden assayer / essaier die ten grondslag liggen aan het genre betekenen dan ook proeven, toetsen of ts eliot prufrock, uitproberen. Reflexive. ‘Essayisten zijn vrijbuiters, ze zijn niemand ook maar een zier verplicht,’ concludeert Tanny Dobbelaar dan ook in haar boek Schrijven met Montaigne (besproken in ts eliot essay, Club Schrijven Magazine 9/5). Wat zijn dan wel ‘echte’ essays, welke horen tot de kerngroep? Een naam werd hiervoor al even genoemd, namelijk de grondlegger van het genre, Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) die zich halverwege zijn leven terugtrok op zijn landgoed om zijn gedachten te ordenen en te scherpen in creative essay, een nieuwe vorm, die hij de naam essai meegaf. Essay. Wie Montaignes drie kloeke delen essays leest (niet te snel, ze zijn voor fijnproevers), ziet al snel wat deze onderscheidt van opstellen, scripties en dissertaties. On Writing Application. Bij een Montaigne-essay ga je namelijk uit van je persoonlijke ervaringen, gedachten en emoties – iets wat je in (semi)wetenschappelijke werk juist te allen tijde probeert te vermijden. Vrijwel alle goede essays geven dan ook inzicht in ts eliot prufrock essay, het persoonlijke leven of in college day essay, de persoonlijke gedachten van de auteur.
Niet omdat die belangrijk zijn (soms gaat het om hele eenvoudige waarnemingen), maar omdat ze een aanleiding kunnen vormen om algemeen geldende ideeen te onderzoeken. Essay. Wanneer kun je zeggen dat iemand een gelukkig leven heeft gehad? Wat betekent het om verbannen te zijn? Mag een arts fouten maken? Wat is creative essay, de waarde van vriendschap? Dat soort kwesties worden door Montaigne en zijn nazaten onderzocht. Uiteindelijk gaat het niet om ‘hoe je ergens over ts eliot prufrock, denkt’, maar ‘hoe je ergens over bpa qualcomm resume, denkt’. Essay. Ofte wel: het gaat niet om je mening, niet eens om je argumenten, maar om de manier waarop je redeneert, voelt, verbanden legt: de logica, evenzeer als de plotselinge invallen.
Als je een goed essay schrijft, geef je de lezer een kijkje in je geest. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in reflexive essay, je hoofd rondwarrelt. Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten. Liever niet. Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of ts eliot prufrock, je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Elke essay begint in wezen met zo’n vraag. The College Application. Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is essay, voor een essay. Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in je hoofd rondwarrelt. Reflexive. Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten.
Liever niet. Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Elke essay begint in self essay, wezen met zo’n vraag. Essay. Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is resume, voor een essay. Essay. Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Een persoonlijke aanleiding, zorg of reflexive, vraag is het beginpunt van een essay, maar daar moet het niet bij blijven. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. Met een essay wil je uiteindelijk proberen uit je persoonlijke ervaringen een algemene kwestie aan te snijden en te onderzoeken, zoals Jorge Luis Borges deed in zijn beroemde mini-essay ‘Argumentum Ornithologicum’ uit het boek De Maker . ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels. Essay Prompts. Het visioen duurt een seconde of misschien korter; ik weet niet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien. Was hun aantal bepaald of onbepaald?
Deze vraag impliceert die naar het bestaan van God. Prufrock Essay. Als God bestaat, is reflexive, het aantal bepaald, want God weet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien. Prufrock. Als God niet bestaat, is resume, het aantal onbepaald, want dan kan niemand de telling verrichten. In dat geval zag ik niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, vier, drie of twee vogles. Prufrock. Ik zag een aantal tussen de tien en een, dat niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, enz., is. Een dergelijk getal is niet voorstelbaar: ergo, God bestaat.’ Slechts tien regels telt het essay, dat begint met de beroemde zin: ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels.’ Hoeveel vogels het zijn weet Borges niet, en juist dat intrigeert hem. Ebook. Als God bestaat, weet hij het juiste aantal en is prufrock, het een bepaald getal. Creative. En als God niet bestaat is het een onbepaald getal, want niemand heeft het aantal vogels geteld: het kunnen er drie, vijf, acht of ts eliot essay, negen zijn.
En dus zag Borges in research papers ethical issues, die flits een getal dat niet twee, drie, vier, etcetera was, en dat kan niet. En dat bewijst dat God bestaat. Van een eenvoudig fantasiebeeld naar een Godsbewijs in ts eliot essay, tien zinnen: dat is het essay ten voeten uit. On Writing The College Application. Wat ook goed te zien is ts eliot prufrock, aan dit voorbeeld is hoe een essay bij de lezer werkt: het biedt geen voordehandliggende conclusie, maar zet aan tot denken, tot redeneren, tot het verzinnen van tegenargumenten. Papers On Human Ethical. Klopt het wel wat Borges beweert? Hoezo is ts eliot prufrock essay, een onbestaand getal een bewijs dat God bestaat? Kun je het bestaan van God wel beredeneren? De lezer maakt als het ware zelf het essay af. Bedenk hoe je zelf een lezer over creative, je onderwerp kan laten nadenken.
Wat prikkelt hem? Hoe kun je hem laten nadenken? Natuurlijk niet door hem alleen maar te overladen met argumenten en voorbeelden. Prufrock Essay. Hoe moet je redeneren, schrijven, om je lezer in ebook, zijn hoofd je essay 'af te maken'? Om een essay goed op te kunnen bouwen, moet je als schrijver eerst vele wegen in essay, je hoofd aflopen. Sommige wegen lopen al snel dood, andere zijn te evident: daarvoor hoeft een lezer je artikel niet te lezen. Bpa Qualcomm. Zoek dus naar de onverwachte sporen, die je een eind verder brengen. Ts Eliot Essay. Doe dit door jezelf voortdurend vragen te stellen, argumenten en voorbeelden te verzinnen, losjes te associeren. Je materiaal mag je overal vandaan halen, van wetenschappelijke rapporten tot songteksten. Juist die vele mogelijke dwarsverbanden onderscheiden een essay van een wetenschappelijke tekst. Stel bijvoorbeeld dat je je al een tijdje ergert aan mensen die trein en tram proberen in te komen voordat iedereen de trein verlaten heeft – een verschijnsel dat de laatste jaren steeds vaker de kop opsteekt.
Als je rechttoe rechtaan je ergernis zou uitschrijven, zou je geen essay hebben, maar een opinierend stuk, een column. Application. Je onderzoekt namelijk niets, poneert alleen maar. Dus: zet je ergernis opzij en probeer onder, achter, in, over het probleem te duiken. Je medepassagiers voor laten gaan is prufrock essay, een kwestie van etiquette, maar wat is resume, de functie van etiquette? Kan die functie veranderen? Ken je nog meer voorbeelden van modern voordringen? Waar doet je die langs elkaar duwende en schuivende massa aan denken, welk beeld komt in je op?
Hoe gaat het in ts eliot prufrock essay, de ons omringende landen? Hebben we eigenlijk al een naam voor de voordringers? En hoe noemen we de mensen die zich laten wegdringen? Probeer in deze fase zoveel mogelijk ideeen en sporen te verzamelen: het bekritiseren en uitwerken ervan komt later. Ga terug naar je basisvraag of bpa qualcomm resume, –kwestie uit oefening Zet deze middenop een vel papier. Ts Eliot Essay. Associeer nu vrijelijk en zet de beelden, woorden, vragen, voorbeelden en argumenten eromheen.
Schets met pijlen welke elementen met elkaar te maken hebben. Doe nu hetzelfde met de beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden: werk ze verder uit door ze op hun beurt weer te omringen met eigen beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden. College. Hoe ga je hier een essay uitschrijven? Bedenk een route, een structuur, een vorm. Na het vrijelijk associeren begint het bekritiseren van je eigen ideeen: welke zijn te evident, welke sporen lopen dood.
Zoek naar de gedachtensporen waarvan je – vaak intuitief – vermoedt dat er veel achter schuilt. In het voorbeeld van de voordringende treinreizigers kun je bijvoorbeeld al snel vermoeden dat de gedachten over etiquette een beetje voor de hand liggen. Ts Eliot Prufrock Essay. En een sociologische verkenning van treingedrag bij onze buurlanden is meer iets voor Elsevier. Graduation Day Essay. Zoek naar een vager, lastiger spoor, zoals de naamgevingskwestie of ts eliot prufrock, een intrigerend beeld dat spontaan bij je opkwam, toen je over college graduation day essay, dit onderwerp nadacht. Ts Eliot Essay. Wat je altijd kunt doen: een paar uur op een groot station doorbrengen en observeren wat er nu precies gebeurt. On Good With Friends. Nogmaals: niet om je te ergeren (probeer die emotie even aan de kant te schuiven), maar om te weten wat dat nu precies inhoudt, dat voordringen, hoe het eruit ziet, wat de geluiden zijn, de geuren, de kleuren. Het gebruik van je zintuigen is essay, sowieso een belangrijk onderzoeksmiddel bij het schrijven van essays. Je bent je eigen controlemiddel, je eigen meetinstrument. Creative Picture Prompts. Een goede essayist is een scepticus, iemand die veel bekritiseert, over prufrock, weinig een pasklaar oordeel klaar heeft, en alles zoveel mogelijk onderzoekt. On Writing Application Essay. De zintuigen spelen daarbij een cruciale rol.
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Een essay is een literaire vorm en probeer daarom zo weinig mogelijk te preken, ook al geloof je zeer sterk in je eigen opvattingen. Wees vooral sceptisch – ook over prufrock essay, je eigen gedachten, waarden en ideeen. Resume. Onderzoek veel, geloof in weinig. Probeer verder algemene uitspraken zoveel mogelijk te concretiseren. Dat de verkeersveiligheid eind jaren ’60 bar en boos was, is prufrock, een algemene uitspraak, dat er toen meer dan drieduizend verkeersdoden per application, jaar waren (nu: om en nabij de 1100) is ts eliot essay, een concreet feit waar je lezers zich iets bij kunnen voorstellen. Een ander iets dat je bij het schrijven in issues, de gaten moet houden is ts eliot essay, dat je natuurlijk met een rationeel betoog bezig bent, met argumenten en redeneringen. Dat kan een gortdroog betoog worden. Presenteer daarom de feiten zo levendig mogelijk. Bpa Qualcomm Resume. Wees evocatief: geef je lezer iets om voor z’n ogen tevoorschijn te toveren.
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Heb je een tip voor een onderwerp van een schrijfoefening? Stuur dan een mailtje hier. Volg onze online cursus voor beginnende schrijvers! Stuur het in ts eliot, voor Tekstuur Proza! Meer informatie vind je in research papers on human ethical, Schrijven Magazine.