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Write great introductory paragraph essay

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Build Your International CV/Resume. Resources for career growth and CV building in international development, justice and peace. Describing your professional experience. Write Great Introductory Paragraph? Try grouping, or 'clustering', your achievements under keyword headings - transferable skills and french competencies - which are used in the target job or field. Introductory? Avoid long lists of unconnected achievements - find a way to connect them to essay on sport well known and widely used competencies or areas of write great introductory expertise. There is nothing more off-putting then a random list of bullet points. There are also personal advantages in having a 'long CV' which is for your eyes only.

It gives you an activities, opportunity to find out write great essay, who you are professionally without the pressure of completing an application. What have you done? What have you achieved? What have you learned? What have you contributed to? What are your key skills? What do you want to do next? This preparatory thinking is essential in career planning and pride to alice management. * Many or most applications are 'screened' first for keywords and write great introductory paragraph essay basic qualifications which appear in the job advertisement. Make sure that these words appear in daisy american your application. Write Great Introductory Paragraph? Remember that useful keywords might appear in activities essay the screening questions as well as the vacancy announcement. Before adapting your PHP for an application, study the vacancy announcement and great note the 10-15 most important keywords which should be included in your PHP and cover letter.

If you have any experience working in the field, even for a limited period, make sure this is thesis clearly described in your PHP and cover letter. Such experience is increasingly valued in the UN and related organisation such as UNICEF, who direct over 85% of their resources to field operations. Work in introductory paragraph conflict zones, emergency situations and highly challenged development contexts warrant significant mention in your PHP. Also, indicate if you are currently on to alice connections, any 'stand-by' rosters for rapid deployment such as the Justice Rapid Response (JRR) roster or a national reserve corps. Write Introductory? Mention also any training you have received about working in dream essay the field, such as security training or negotiation skills. Most UN activity takes place through programmes or funds with particular mandates to provide technical assistance, humanitarian relief or specialised aid, or a professional service such as legal advice or capacity building. Project/programme management skills are increasingly valued and sought after.

If you have any experience managing or coordinating a project which involved needs assessment, resource planning, budgeting, implementation, and evaluation, make sure that you describe this experience in your PHP. If you have lots of project experience, choose the ones which are most relevant to introductory essay the target job and which have the clearest outcomes. Essay? Fund-raising is an increasingly valued area of expertise throughout the non-profit and civil affairs sector, but especially at the international level where donors play such a major role. Skills in this area, including bid and proposal writing, are increasingly desirable in vacancy announcements. Look out for keywords in write introductory paragraph essay vacancies such as 'Donor Relations' and conventions essay 'Stakeholder Management' and use them to structure achievements in your PHP if you have the right experience, however small. All organisations place great value on 'communication skills'. But what do these skills actually mean in practice? In each job there will be particular communication demands. Identifying these in each job might give your PHP an edge. All international organisations, from the smallest field office to the largest UN agency, involve teamwork, usually in multi-cultural, multi-faith and often multi-disciplinary teams. Examples of successful teamwork and collaboration can prove to write essay be useful additions to your PHP.

In practically all jobs, there will be required technology. French On Sport In School? This may be a basic set of essay tools such as 'Microsoft Office' or something more technically specific such as analytical or accounting software. Depending on the job, make your IT knowledge clear in essay your PHP and write great introductory avoid general statements such as 'I have good ICT skills' or 'I am able to learn new technology'. Remember that some specialised software and databases may be custom-made for organisations, but in reality are similar to systems available elsewhere. Constitutional Essay? For any jobs involving administration and write great introductory data management, always indicate the software you are familiar with, even if it is not exactly the same as that listed in the vacancy. Consider creating a cluster under certain jobs in your professional history titled 'Technical Knowledge' if the application form does not give you space to describe your IT skills, as with the closing for a cover letter is UN Inspira. If you are just setting out on your career, make good use of your studies and any projects which involved teamwork and collaboration, especially in an international sphere. Give examples of skills which you were able to learn quickly to show your flexibility and ability to adapt.

If you have done an internship, focus on the skills and knowledge you developed through your experience, and write introductory paragraph essay mention any positive feedback from pride to alice connections essay, supervisors or mentors which highlights particular contributions. The UN and great introductory essay other international organisations are popular employers and receive hundreds of thousands of applications for jobs and internships every year. Constitutional Conventions? When considering working at write essay the international level, remember that you will always have rivals, including people who are equally - or better - qualified than you. This is a fact of life. The market for on sport UN and IO jobs is write introductory paragraph potentially the whole world. As the UN and the best closing statement for a cover letter IO job market becomes more mobile and flexible, with regular upsizing and downsizing of operations meaning short-term contracts rather than permanent jobs, international careers will become more fluid and less predictable. Maintaining good links with your 'home' country (or countries) may become essential in developing your career. * Most PHP job history sections include separate boxes for start/end dates (sometimes including months), names of employers and supervisors, official job titles, salaries etc. Make sure that these boxes are filled in and are accurate. Keep a record offline of the data.

Keep your list of references updated (check email addresses and phone numbers regularly) and let your references know that you are applying for jobs.

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1 - L’indetermination des anticipations rationnelles. Lorsqu’on quitte le cadre du modele Arrow-Debreu d’equilibre general et ses hypotheses restrictives pour s’interesser a des economies monetaires ou sequentielles, la maniere dont les acteurs economiques interpretent leur environnement et se projettent dans l’avenir s’impose aux theoriciens comme une question decisive qui ne peut plus etre eludee. Write Great Introductory Essay? Cette prise en compte des anticipations n’est pas sans danger pour le paradigme fondamentaliste dans la mesure ou elle confronte le discours economique a un objet nouveau, la cognition individuelle. Pride And Prejudice To Alice Essay? On doit alors se demander si les outils economiques traditionnels sont capables d’en proposer une analyse pertinente et complete ou s’il faut transformer en profondeur le discours fondamentaliste pour l’ouvrir a de nouveaux principes. Write? La rationalite instrumentale reste-t-elle pertinente ou faut-il admettre l’existence d’une rationalite specifique, qu’on dira « cognitive » ? Pour faire face a ces defis de grande ampleur, la pensee fondamentaliste a elabore une puissante reponse tournant autour des notions d’efficience informationnelle des prix et d’« anticipation rationnelle ». Pride And Letters To Alice? L’idee directrice consiste a montrer que, certes, l’acteur economique reagit a partir d’une representation de l’economie, mais que cette representation est unique, en l’occurrence le « vrai modele », et que, sur la base de ce modele, la connaissance des prix suffit a determiner parfaitement l’action individuelle. Great Paragraph Essay? On trouve une illustration exemplaire de ces theses chez Hayek [1945] qui met l’accent sur la capacite des prix a agreger toute l’information utile et a permettre, en consequence, de coordonner les actions separees des multiples acteurs economiques. And Letters To Alice Connections? Cette analyse accredite l’idee d’un ordre spontane qui, a partir des interets prives, produit des grandeurs sociales, en l’occurrence les prix d’equilibre, sans qu’il y ait besoin de postuler un espace commun de representation autre que celui des prix. Write Introductory? On parlera d’une logique « bottom-up » ou les valeurs d’equilibre resultent de l’agregation mecanique des evaluations privees. Hayek prend comme exemple la maniere dont une economie confrontee soudainement a une rarete accrue de l’etain, evolue et s’adapte. Conventions? L’ajustement efficient a la situation nouvelle ne mobilise aucun representation globale du phenomene, mais une serie d’adaptations locales en fonction des interets prives et des spheres de competence des uns et des autres. Great Introductory Paragraph? En cela, le processus considere est d’une nature fondamentalement decentralisee, a l’oppose de ce que serait une reponse planifiee.

Le modele ainsi construit donne a voir un ensemble de voisinages individuels interconnectes grace au prix et conduisant a une adaptation globale de l’economie bien qu’aucun agent ne possede un savoir global du processus. Activities For Teaching Argumentative Essay? Hayek ecrit : « Cet ensemble joue comme un seul marche non pas parce que chacun de ses membres etudie l’ensemble de l’economie [2] [2] Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue. Write Introductory Essay? , mais parce que les champs de vision individuels se recouvrent suffisamment, de telle sorte qu’a travers de nombreux intermediaires, l’information en cause est communiquee a tous ». Pride To Alice Connections Essay? La seule observation des prix permet a chacun de prendre la bonne decision. Introductory Paragraph Essay? Aussi les prix autorisent-ils une fantastique economie de savoir et d’intelligence. Essay? C’est de cette qualite qu’ils tirent leur qualite regulatrice essentielle. Write Introductory Paragraph? Les prix permettent ce miracle d’agreger des connaissances strictement locales en un prix global, conduisant, qui plus est, a une gestion efficace des ressources. Cette vision de l’adaptation marchande par le jeu de prix informationnellement efficients bute sur une difficulte centrale qui semble avoir totalement echappee a Hayek dans le cadre de son article de 1945 : la difference entre prix relatif et prix monetaire.

Lorsque les individus observent une augmentation du prix de l’etain, ils doivent se demander si cette augmentation observee est ou n’est pas la consequence d’une augmentation generale des prix. Buchanan American? Selon la reponse qu’ils apportent a cette question, ils agiront differemment. Great Paragraph Essay? Pour cette raison, dans une economie monetaire, les prix cessent d’etre, au sens strict, informationnellement efficients [3] [3] Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee. Essay On Sport? : a eux seuls, ils ne permettent plus de prendre la bonne decision. Write Paragraph? Celle-ci va dependre de la maniere dont les acteurs economiques se representent le comportement de la banque centrale. Daisy Buchanan Essay? Ce faisant, est reconnu ce fait fondamental que les prix ne suffisent pas a la determination de l’action efficace et que celle-ci requiert, de la part des agents, un travail d’interpretation quant a la maniere dont l’economie fonctionne.

Comme on write great introductory essay, le sait, ce constat a joue un role central dans l’emergence de la nouvelle macroeconomie. Thesis? En effet, il revient au courant des anticipations rationnelles d’avoir pleinement compris que l’on ne pouvait pas faire d’analyse serieuse sans considerer la maniere dont les agents se representent la politique gouvernementale et le fonctionnement de l’economie. Write Introductory? Il s’agit la d’une transformation considerable en ce qu’elle reconnait pleinement l’importance de l’activite cognitive individuelle, qu’on ne peut plus cantonner a la seule observation des prix. Dream? Le theoricien des anticipations rationnelles ne se situe plus dans le cadre de mediations objectivees, conduisant a une rationalite de type parametrique, indifferente aux autres, comme dans le modele Arrow-Debreu. Introductory Paragraph Essay? Tout au contraire, il reconnait pleinement le role central de « l’interdependance strategique qui fait que la forme de comportement d’une personne depend des formes de comportement de ceux qui forment son environnement » (Sargent [1986], p. Pride And Prejudice Connections? x). Write Paragraph Essay? Par la meme, l’analyse que chaque protagoniste fait des autres devient un element important de la dynamique d’interaction et du modele qui la decrit.

Dans un premier temps, cette revolution conceptuelle n’a pas ete pleinement percue dans la mesure ou les nouveaux classiques raisonnaient dans un cadre fondamentaliste, ce qui les conduisait a penser qu’il n’existait qu’un seul modele de l’economie. Statement For A? Aussi la question du modele de l’economie se trouvait etre resolue en meme temps qu’elle avait ete posee : le modele a prendre en compte etait le « vrai modele » de l’economie, a savoir celui propose par les nouveaux classiques. Great? Dans cette perspective, « les anticipations rationnelles apparaissent comme une (simple) application du principe de comportement rationnel a l’acquisition et au traitement de l’information et a la formation des anticipations » (Maddock et Carter [1998], p. Buchanan American? 68). Great Essay? Autrement dit, la theorie des anticipations rationnelles se presente comme une theorie economique qui prend en compte l’activite cognitive individuelle, mais qui soutient que les seuls criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont suffisants pour en fournir une intelligibilite complete. French? Selon cette perspective, il n’y aurait nul besoin de faire appel a un concept autonome de rationalite cognitive. Tres vite, cette position s’est trouvee critiquee par ceux qui, prenant au serieux l’idee d’une interpretation par les agents de leur environnement economique, ont souligne combien le postulat de l’unicite du modele utilise et son identification au propre modele des nouveaux classiques etaient absurdes. Great Introductory Essay? C’est le cas de David Laidler [1986] analysant une etude empirique que Robert Barro a consacree a l’influence de la monnaie sur le chomage, la production et les prix aux USA durant la periode 1945-76. Activities For Teaching Essay? Il note que « les agents sont traites par Barro comme croyant au modele des nouveaux classiques et l’utilisant pour former leurs anticipations. Write Introductory Paragraph? Cependant, si, sur la periode 1945-76, les agents avaient reellement cru aux idees des nouveaux classiques, alors il n’y aurait pas eu besoin d’une revolution des nouveaux classiques » dans les annees quatre vingt. Activities For Teaching? Il ajoute qu’au milieu des annees soixante dix, les acteurs de l’economie privee comme ceux en charge de la politique economique croyaient fermement aux principes de l’economie keynesienne, en particulier a l’existence d’un arbitrage possible entre inflation et chomage.

Dans ces conditions, « la coherence logique imposait aux nouveaux classiques de modeliser l’histoire de la periode en question en supposant que les agents utilisaient un modele keynesien pour former leurs anticipations ». Paragraph Essay? Autrement dit, des lors qu’on s’interesse a la maniere dont les agents considerent leur environnement et l’analyse, on essay in school, sort de la rationalite instrumentale pure car il faut alors tenir compte du contexte historique et, tout particulierement, de l’etat des savoirs au moment considere. Write Essay? Bien que l’argument de Laidler nous semble parfaitement convaincant, la critique decisive a l’encontre de l’hypothese d’un modele unique est venue d’ailleurs, a savoir des modeles d’anticipations rationnelles eux-memes lorsqu’ils ont montre la possibilite d’autorealisation d’une multiplicite d’anticipations. Constitutional? Pour en comprendre la logique, il faut revenir a l’idee premiere qui fonde la notion meme d’anticipation rationnelle, a savoir une approche strictement instrumentale de la cognition. En effet, l’application de la seule rationalite instrumentale aux representations individuelles conduit a une analyse qui ne retient comme seul critere d’evaluation que le critere consequentialiste de la performance, a savoir la qualite des previsions qu’ont permises ces representations. Write Introductory? Par definition, tout autre consideration est exclue, comme la recherche du « juste » ou du « vrai » (Boudon, ce numero). Daisy Dream Essay? Soulignons que le terme de « representation » est ici utilise dans un sens large qui inclut trois types de contenu : (1) une variable unique, par exemple lorsque les individus anticipent un rendement (Weil [1989]) ou un prix futur ; (2) un veritable modele de l’economie au sens ou sont prises en compte des relations entre variables, par exemple le modele de taches solaires (Chiappori [1994]) ; (3) le comportement d’un autre agent, par exemple dans les conjectures a la Cournot ou a la Bertrand. Write Paragraph Essay? Aussi la representation est-elle rationnelle quand le resultat ex post observe valide la croyance initiale : (1) le rendement ou le prix est egal au rendement ou au prix anticipe ; (2) les liens observes sont conformes a ceux que postulait le modele hypothetique ; (3) l’agent a agi conformement a la conjecture. Daisy? Sans que toujours cela soit dit explicitement, le fait qu’on suppose le plus souvent une situation ou tous les agents partagent la meme representation est compris egalement comme etant une consequence de la rationalite. Introductory Essay? Le resultat etonnant des modeles avec anticipations rationnelles consiste en ce que de tres nombreuses representations peuvent s’autorealiser. Closing Cover? Aussi, obtient-on un tres grand nombre d’equilibres possibles. Write Great? C’est la un resultat troublant pour l’approche fondamentaliste puisqu’il signifie que les croyances ont un impact reel, conformement aux theses developpees par le sociologue americain Robert Merton [1953] qui ecrivait que « les croyances collectives engendraient leur propre realisation » (p.

144). French Essay On Sport? Autrement dit, les contraintes de rarete ne suffisent pas a modeler de maniere univoque l’economie. Paragraph? Celle-ci depend egalement de la maniere dont les agents l’interpretent. Essay? Non seulement l’idee d’un modele unique doit etre abandonnee, mais en fait de tres nombreux modeles sont possibles, bien plus que ce qu’on pouvait imaginer a priori . Essay? Comme l’ecrit Chiappori ([1994], p. Constitutional? 75) : « l’hypothese de rationalite des anticipations est parfaitement compatible avec l’indetermination de l’equilibre ». Ce role essentiel joue par les representations a priori des agents conduit les modeles avec anticipations rationnelles, loin des idees initiales defendues par les nouveaux classiques, a retrouver des resultats keynesiens (Bryant [1983]). Great Introductory Paragraph? Le modele de Philippe Weil [1989] est exemplaire de cet apparent paradoxe. And Prejudice To Alice Connections Essay? Dans un modele a deux periodes, introduisant l’hypothese selon laquelle le rendement de l’epargne depend positivement du montant global d’epargne investi, il demontre qu’existe une multiplicite d’equilibres avec anticipations rationnelles. Write Introductory Paragraph? Confronte a ce resultat qui permet d’expliquer aussi bien des equilibres hauts que des equilibres bas selon que les acteurs economiques forment des anticipations optimistes ou pessimistes quant au rendement attendu du capital, Weil est amene a faire appel aux « esprits animaux » keynesiens, ce qui donne son titre a l’article, pour « determiner » l’equilibre qui sera effectivement obtenu. Constitutional Conventions Essay? Comme dans le texte keynesien, les attitudes psychologiques des individus redeviennent une variable independante dont depend tout le systeme. Essay? Weil ecrit : « les equilibres sont indexes par l’optimisme ou le pessimisme des consommateurs » (p. Ptv Drama? 889).

Cette indetermination massive des anticipations rationnelles est, selon nous, l’expression la plus forte de l’inadequation de la rationalite instrumentale pour penser les representations individuelles et collectives. Great Introductory? Si l’on veut sortir le discours economique de cette situation de crise ou tout est possible ou presque [4] [4] Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite. Essay? , il nous faut aller vers une meilleure comprehension de l’activite cognitive. Introductory Paragraph? Cela devient une tache essentielle pour l’economiste. Ptv Drama? Telle est la finalite du « tournant cognitif ». Write Great Essay? Spontanement, c’est du cote de la psychologie qu’ont cherche le plus souvent les economistes. And Prejudice To Alice Connections Essay? C’est le cas de Keynes ou du courant contemporain dit de la « finance comportementaliste » (Thaler [1993]). Great Paragraph? Pour notre part, nous avons privilegie l’analyse de l’activite cognitive collective. 2 - Pour une theorie de la cognition sociale. Pour commencer, il convient de definir precisement ce qu’on entend par « croyance collective ». And Prejudice And Letters? La theorie economique nous en propose deux definitions, a savoir la « croyance partagee » et la « croyance commune ». Paragraph? Pour clarifier ce point central, introduisons la notation suivante C i Q qui se lit : « l’individu i croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Daisy Dream Essay? On dit alors que Q est de croyance partagee pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a C i Q pour tous les individus i appartenant au groupe G. Introductory Essay? On dit que Q est de croyance commune pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a l’ensemble suivant de propositions : C i Q ; C j C i Q ; C k C j C i , Q… jusqu’a l’infini des croyances croisees, pour tous les i, pour tous les j, pour tous les k du groupe, … La notion de croyance commune est bien plus restrictive que celle de croyance partagee puisqu’elle implique, non seulement que tout le monde croit a Q, comme dans la croyance partagee, mais egalement que tout le monde croit que tout le monde y croit et cela jusqu’a un ordre infini de croyances croisees. Comme on for teaching argumentative, le voit, ces deux notions de croyance collective renvoient strictement a des croyances individuelles. Introductory Paragraph Essay? Elles ne sont collectives qu’au sens ou tous les individus, d’une maniere ou d’une autre, les ont fait leur. Pride And Prejudice And Letters? Aussi, ces notions se differencient-elles d’une autre notion qui peut s’ecrire sous la forme C G Q : « le groupe G croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Write Great Paragraph? Dans ce cas, on daisy buchanan essay, attribue des croyances a une entite abstraite, a savoir le groupe lui-meme.

Cette notation est prima facie absurde puisque a proprement parler, le groupe en tant que tel n’a pas de croyance, n’etant pas un etre humain. Introductory? Pourtant, l’analyse empirique nous revele que, dans de nombreux contextes de coordination, les individus sont amenes a utiliser ce type d’objet cognitif enigmatique, par exemple lorsqu’ils disent : « le marche croit que cette devise est sous-evaluee [5] [5] En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions. Closing For A Letter? ». Write Great Essay? Comment expliquer ce fait etrange ? Repondre a cette question est l’objet de la presente section. French Essay On Sport In School? Plus largement, nous montrerons que les croyances sociales jouent un role central dans les situations de coordination. Write Great Essay? Commencons par expliciter quelle signification l’individu i donne a la proposition C G Q. 2.1 - Definition de la croyance sociale. A priori , on the best for a cover, peut en concevoir deux. Paragraph? Selon la premiere interpretation, notee (i1), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie s’il croit qu’une grande partie [6] [6] Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande. Buchanan Dream Essay? du groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie. Write Great Essay? On est ici proche de la notion de croyance partagee, mais uniquement aux yeux de l’individu i. Essay? Au sens (i1), la « croyance du groupe » n’est qu’une maniere de parler pour dire qu’un grand nombre d’individus du groupe croit a une certaine proposition.

Selon la seconde interpretation, notee (i2), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit a Q pour autant qu’il croit qu’une grande partie du groupe croit egalement que le groupe croit a Q. Write Introductory Paragraph? Cette definition est essentiellement autoreferentielle de telle sorte qu’a la limite, elle laisse indeterminee ce que « croit » veut dire dans l’expression « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Activities For Teaching? Elle suppose simplement que tous les individus du groupe attribuent aux autres individus la capacite d’accepter ou de refuser la proposition selon laquelle « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Write Introductory Paragraph Essay? Il s’ensuit que la proposition Q est l’objet d’une croyance du groupe pour un individu s’il croit qu’un grand nombre d’individus acceptent cette proposition comme reponse a la question : « qu’est-ce que croit le groupe ? ». American Essay? Ou encore, on write paragraph, a C i C G Q si et seulement si C i C j C G Q pour presque tous les individus j du groupe. Buchanan American Dream Essay? Il s’ensuit que C G Q est proche de la notion de croyance commune aux yeux de l’individu i. La difference entre ces deux interpretations est tres importante. Write Great Paragraph Essay? Selon la premiere interpretation, aux yeux de i, c’est la proposition Q elle-meme qui est mise en avant comme croyance partagee ; dans le second cas, aux yeux de i, c’est la « croyance » C G Q, et non pas Q, qui est mise en avant comme croyance commune. Buchanan American Essay? Dans ce dernier cas, la nature precise de ce que veut dire qu’un groupe « croit a quelque chose » reste indeterminee alors que pour (i1), la croyance du groupe se definit aisement comme la croyance d’un grand nombre d’individus de ce groupe. Write Great Introductory Paragraph? Si l’on reprend notre exemple d’un individu i qui croit que le marche croit que telle devise est sous-evaluee, ces deux hypotheses correspondent aux deux interpretations suivantes : (i1) l’individu considere croit que presque tous les autres intervenants sur le marche, pris un a un, croient a la sous-evaluation de la devise ; (i2) l’individu croit que presque tous les intervenants, pris un a un, croient que « le marche croit que la devise est sous-evaluee ». Les deux interpretations (i1) et (i2) nous sont apparues a priori egalement interessantes en ce que toutes deux mettent en scene un travail cognitif particulier qui vise a saisir le groupe dans sa generalite, en lui attribuant une croyance. Essay? C’est la, selon nous, une propriete fondamentale. Write Great Introductory Paragraph? Il nous semble que c’est tres precisement par le biais de cette capacite cognitive a attribuer des croyances au groupe en tant que tel que le collectif acquiert de facto une existence effective : au travers des croyances sociales qu’il suscite, il se montre apte a modeler les conduites individuelles et, de ce fait, s’affirme comme une force autonome dont il faut rendre compte. Argumentative Essay? Autrement dit, conformement a une perspective d’analyse developpee par Mary Douglas [1989] a la suite d’Emile Durkheim, le cognitif est pour nous un lieu privilegie d’expression du social (Orlean [1996]). Introductory Essay? On verra au fil des exemples que c’est l’interpretation (i2) qui doit etre retenue comme la bonne maniere de definir ce qu’est une « croyance sociale », en particulier au regard de l’idee d’autonomie par rapport aux croyances individuelles.

Cette affirmation resultera d’une analyse des jeux de pure coordination [7] [7] Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii. Essay On Sport? , configuration particulierement appropriee pour qui cherche a reflechir aux situations ayant une multiplicite d’equilibres (Orlean [1994]). Write? On commencera par demontrer que ce qu’on appelle « les saillances a la Schelling » constituent un premier exemple de croyance sociale au sens (i2). 2.2 - Un exemple de croyance sociale : les saillances a la Schelling. Thomas Schelling [1960] a consacre une grande partie de son livre a l’analyse des jeux de pure coordination a deux joueurs. American? Si chaque joueur doit choisir sa strategie dans l’ensemble , le gain obtenu par l’un et l’autre des deux joueurs vaut 1 s’ils choisissent tous deux la meme strategie et 0 dans le cas contraire. Introductory Essay? Chaque joueur cherche donc a copier son partenaire de facon a maximiser son gain. For Teaching Essay? Schelling a note que les individus se coordonnent de maniere beaucoup plus efficace que ce que prevoit la theorie standard. Write Great Introductory Essay? En effet, selon celle-ci, s’il existe n strategies possibles, la probabilite de se coordonner est egale a 1/n puisque chaque strategie est parfaitement indistinguable. Argumentative Essay? Or, dans toutes les experimentations qu’il realise, Schelling note que les joueurs se coordonnent de maniere bien plus efficace que 1/n. Great Introductory Paragraph Essay? Il en est ainsi pour une raison tres simple : parce que les joueurs utilisent le libelle des choix qui leur sont proposes.

De cette facon, ils sont capables de reconnaitre des equilibres dits « saillants ». Ptv Drama? On est ainsi confronte a une double etrangete. Write Great Introductory Essay? D’une part, dans les situations classiquement considerees par les theoriciens des jeux, la maniere dont les strategies sont nommees est sans aucune pertinence. Conventions? Cela ne fait pas partie de ce qu’on pourrait appeler la description « fondamentaliste » du jeu. Write Introductory Paragraph? Celle-ci est generalement constituee de la matrice des gains et de l’hypothese de rationalite des deux joueurs, au sens de la connaissance commune. Closing Statement Letter? C’est sur cette seule base que le chercheur s’efforce de caracteriser les equilibres. Great Introductory? Au regard de la rationalite fondamentaliste, le libelle des strategies n’a pas a etre utilise. Pride And Letters? Pour designer cette forme de rationalite qui prend appui sur les contextes au-dela de ce que justifierait l’analyse fondamentaliste, nous proposons le terme de « rationalite situee » (Orlean [1994]).

D’autre part, les individus se montrent effectivement capables, a partir des libelles, de, selectionner certains equilibres. Great Paragraph Essay? Examinons cette forme de rationalite doublement enigmatique, a partir des travaux empiriques que Mehta et alii [1994] lui ont consacres. Ces auteurs considerent le jeu de pure coordination particulier consistant a choisir un nombre naturel n ? 1. Essay In School? De maniere plus precise, un groupe G d’individus est constitue au sein duquel sont effectues des appariements aleatoires de telle sorte qu’un individu ne sait rien d’autre sur son partenaire que le fait qu’il soit le resultat d’un tirage au sort dans le groupe G. Introductory? De facon a mieux pouvoir interpreter les resultats obtenus, Mehta et alii ont eu l’idee de commencer par selectionner un premier groupe, note P, auquel il est simplement demander de choisir un entier naturel superieur ou egal a 1, en l’absence de toute situation de coordination. Ptv Drama Thesis? De cette facon, les auteurs obtiennent des informations sur la distribution des « opinions personnelles » au sein de la population testee. Great Introductory Paragraph Essay? Dans le deuxieme groupe, note C, le jeu de coordination est joue selon les regles precisees precedemment. Ptv Drama Thesis? Quels sont les resultats ? Dans le groupe P de controle, viennent en tete les reponses 7 (11,4%), puis 2 (10,2%), puis 10 (5,7%) et 1 (4,5%). Write Great Paragraph Essay? Par contre, dans le groupe C, c’est le nombre 1 qui recoit le plus de suffrages, et cela tres nettement : 1 est choisi dans 40% des cas. Essay On Sport In School? Il est suivi par le nombre 7 dans 14,4%. Write Introductory Essay? Pour les auteurs consideres, le choix du nombre 1 constitue un exemple de ce qu’ils appellent une « saillance a la Schelling », a savoir la capacite a determiner un equilibre singulier, proeminent, susceptible de retenir un grand nombre de suffrages. Pride To Alice Essay? Ils notent que le choix du nombre 1 par le groupe C resulte d’une elaboration cognitive tres specifique et enigmatique en ce qu’elle ne s’interesse pas aux preferences « personnelles » des joueurs en matiere de nombre, ce qui conduirait a selectionner des chiffres comme 7 ou 2, mais cherche a determiner directement ce qui est capable de faire l’unanimite du groupe lorsque chacun analyse le probleme sous le meme angle.

Cela apparait nettement dans le fait que « 1 », le choix final, n’arrive qu’en quatrieme position des choix primaires pour le groupe P de controle. Write Great Introductory Essay? Ce n’est pas en tant que nombre apprecie des joueurs qu’il est retenu. Constitutional Essay? Le raisonnement est tout autre. Write Great Introductory Essay? Si les individus retiennent la regle « choisir le premier nombre », c’est en vertu de la propriete suivante : lorsque cette regle est suivie par tous les joueurs, elle permet de designer sans ambiguite une reponse unique et conduit a une coordination reussie. Buchanan? C’est tres precisement ce que Schelling avait mis en lumiere. Write Great Paragraph? Il parlait a ce propos d’un « principe focal », a savoir un principe qui, utilise par tous, permet de determiner une strategie unique. Activities For Teaching Essay? C’est le cas du principe « retenir le premier nombre », et non du principe « choisir un chiffre qu’on aime ». Great Paragraph Essay? Dans la situation de coordination que connait le groupe C, les individus reflechissent, non pas a partir de leurs croyances individuelles, ni en se demandant ce que sont les croyances personnelles des autres, ce qui aurait conduit au choix du nombre 7, mais, en se placant a un niveau plus general d’abstraction, de facon a determiner un principe capable de faire emerger, aux yeux de tous, un equilibre unique. Ptv Drama? L’activite cognitive est tournee vers le groupe en tant qu’entite separee. Write Great Introductory Paragraph Essay? Elle tente de produire un repere commun sur une base non-cooperative.

On trouve ici un premier exemple de « croyance sociale » au sens (i2). Essay? Rappelons que, par definition, Q est une croyance sociale au sens (i2) pour un individu i s’il pense qu’elle est une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les individus du groupe. Great Introductory Essay? Telle est la nature meme de l’activite cognitive qui conduit certains a retenir le nombre 1 : les joueurs du groupe C choisissent « 1 » parce qu’ils y voient le choix capable de retenir le choix des autres lorsque tous les autres pensent le probleme sous le meme angle. Cover? L’activite cognitive qu’elle mobilise est integralement tournee vers le groupe en tant que tel , et non pas vers les preferences individuelles des joueurs. Introductory? Dans cette derniere hypothese, on activities, obtiendrait ce qu’on a appele une croyance sociale au sens (i1), qui conduit au nombre 7 lorsque tous les joueurs sont bien informes des opinions personnelles des membres du groupe telles que nous les revele le groupe P de controle. Paragraph? La force de la definition (i2) tient au fait qu’elle fait totalement abstraction de la variabilite des preferences intrinseques des individus pour s’attacher a definir une croyance propre au groupe C en tant que groupe . The Best Statement For A Cover Letter? C’est une force car, dans un grand nombre de situations, la croyance sociale au sens (i1) est tres incertaine du fait meme de la variabilite des gouts individuels, donc inoperante.

Lorsque l’individu i s’interroge sur la croyance partagee des autres, un grand nombre de reponses plausibles lui viennent a l’esprit. Write Essay? Dans l’interpretation (i2), ce fait ne joue en rien parce que, par definition, chacun cherche a determiner ce qui est capable d’etre une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les autres. Activities? Cependant, dans ces cas particuliers ou un choix s’affirme comme evidemment majoritaire, la definition (i1) de la croyance sociale permet effectivement une bonne coordination. Introductory? On dira qu’on a affaire a un « stereotype ». Activities Argumentative Essay? Cependant, notons que la preference stereotypique est egalement une croyance sociale au sens (i2) de telle sorte que ce cas particulier n’infirme pas la generalite de l’hypothese selon laquelle il convient de retenir la definition (i2) pour penser les « saillances a la Schelling ». 2.3 - Rationalite situee et role des contextes. Dans sa reflexion, Schelling insiste sur le role que jouent les contextes dans l’elaboration des principes focaux. Great Introductory Paragraph Essay? L’exemple precedent ne permet guere d’aller tres loin dans cette voie dans la mesure ou le contexte s’y limite alors strictement aux seuls libelles des choix puisque le groupe C n’est en rien specifie. The Best Closing For A Letter? L’exemple suivant que l’on doit a David Kreps ([1990], p. Great Paragraph Essay? 120) permet d’aller un peu plus loin en montrant que l’equilibre selectionne depend etroitement de la maniere dont les joueurs analysent l’identite des participants au jeu. Thesis? Selon la maniere dont varie la definition du groupe C, la croyance sociale se modifie. Kreps considere le jeu de coordination [8] [8] Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different. Great Introductory Paragraph? consistant a partager les 10 lettres A, B, C, D, H, L, M, N, P, S en deux sous-ensembles ne devant pas se recouper, ou le moins possible, etant donne que l’equipe [1] doit choisir necessairement la lettre B et l’equipe adverse, notee [2], la lettre S. Essay? Parmi les 256 partitions des 8 lettres restantes qui forment autant d’equilibres possibles de ce jeu, l’equilibre de point focal est selon Kreps, lorsque rien n’est dit de specifique sur le groupe des joueurs [9] [9] En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait. Great Introductory? , celui qui donne a l’equipe [1] les 5 premieres lettres, soit A, B, C, D et H et pour l’equipe [2], les cinq dernieres, soit L, M, N, P et S. Essay In School? Il s’agit la d’une nouvelle illustration de la saillance a la Schelling. Great Paragraph Essay? Kreps ajoute cependant : « Notons que la regle appliquee ici est entierement dependante du contexte ». Constitutional Essay? Pour le voir, il considere le meme jeu dans laquelle l’equipe [1] est constitue d’etudiants de Harvard et l’equipe [2] est constituee d’etudiants de Stanford et ou ce fait est porte a la connaissance des protagonistes.

10 villes leur sont proposees : Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphie et San Francisco. Great Introductory? L’equipe [1] doit necessairement choisir Boston et l’equipe [2] San Francisco. Pride To Alice Connections Essay? Du point de vue de la rationalite fondamentaliste, les deux situations de jeu sont strictement equivalentes. Write Great Introductory Paragraph Essay? Pourtant, dans a peu pres 75 % des situations nous dit Kreps (p. And Letters Connections Essay? 121), les etudiants d’Harvard choisissent Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York et Philadelphie alors que ceux de Stanford retiennent le complement, soit Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles et San Francisco. Write Great Paragraph? Le point focal est ici un partage geographique des USA selon ce qui est a l’est ou a l’ouest du Mississipi. Pride And Prejudice To Alice Essay? Il est different de l’equilibre focal precedent dans lequel les joueurs ne sont pas capables de partitionner le groupe G des joueurs en groupes d’appartenance geographique distincte. On voit ici pleinement l’effet du contexte dans la determination de la croyance sociale. Write Paragraph? Celle-ci depend etroitement du groupe considere, de ce qu’on sait de lui, et non pas seulement du contenu intrinseque de la question prise en elle-meme. American Dream? Ainsi, si cette liste de villes etait donnee a des joueurs non americains, ignorant tout de la geographie des USA, mais connaissant l’alphabet latin, ils reviendraient a la premiere solution car ils ne pourraient faire l’hypothese que chaque joueur connait la geographie americaine.

Dans ces conditions, la prise en compte de la premiere lettre peut emerger comme « principe focal ». Great Essay? Plus paradoxalement, il peut en etre egalement ainsi si, meme si les joueurs sont americains, lorsqu’ils ignorent qu’ils le sont. For Teaching Argumentative Essay? Dans ce cas, chaque joueur ne peut plus faire l’hypothese que le partage geographique prenant pour base le Mississipi est une croyance sociale du groupe. Introductory Paragraph? On voit ici que la maniere dont les protagonistes concoivent « l’identite collective du groupe » apparait comme une donnee essentielle du probleme, determinant la formation des croyances sociales au sens (i2). Daisy Buchanan American Dream? Tout ce qui appartient au passe commun du groupe, qu’il s’agisse de precedents historiques ou de valeurs culturelles, est utilise. Write Great Paragraph? L’exemple considere par Kreps nous donne a voir l’effet d’un contexte culturel, mais le meme resultat pourrait etre obtenu avec un « precedent » historique. Un bon exemple du role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des croyances sociales nous est donne par les marches financiers. Pride And Letters Essay? Plus precisement, par les travaux que Shiller [1991] a consacres a la journee du 19 octobre 1987, journee ou la bourse de New York a connu sa plus grande baisse jamais enregistree, soit une chute vertigineuse de 508 points, representant une baisse de 22,6 %. Great Paragraph Essay? Comment expliquer une baisse de telle ampleur ? Les analystes s’accordent pour penser qu’aucune information fondamentale ne permet de le faire. Essay? Il faut alors chercher ailleurs : dans la dynamique intersubjective et autoreferentielle dont les marches boursiers sont le siege. Introductory Paragraph? Shiller a eu l’idee d’envoyer un questionnaire aux investisseurs individuels et institutionnels pour connaitre leurs motivations.

Les resultats qu’il a obtenus mettent en avant le role qu’a joue la crise de 1929 dans ces evenements, en tant que modele de reference servant aux investisseurs a decrypter les evenements et a s’y adapter. Statement For A Letter? Il note, en effet, que la crise de 1929 etait fortement presente aux esprits des investisseurs au moment ou se declenche le krach d’octobre 1987. Write Great Paragraph Essay? 35 % des investisseurs individuels et 53 % des institutionnels ont repondu oui a la question « Vous souvenez-vous d’avoir pense ou parle des evenements de 1929 durant les quelques jours qui ont precede le 19 octobre 1987 ? ». Closing Statement For A Cover Is? Pour Shiller, la crise de 1929 s’est imposee a tous les esprits comme la saillance pertinente, autrement dit comme le modele permettant de comprendre comment se deroule une crise boursiere. Great? Rappelons que les mercredi 14, jeudi 15 et vendredi 16 octobre de la semaine qui a precede le krach, le marche des actions a deja connu trois baisses importantes. And Prejudice And Letters To Alice Essay? Aussi, durant le week-end et au matin du lundi, les investisseurs sont-ils nerveux. Paragraph Essay? La tres forte baisse de 200 points qui survient le lundi 19 octobre des l’ouverture des bourses plonge les operateurs dans la perplexite devant ces evenements d’un caractere tout a fait inhabituel. French On Sport In School? Comment vont reagir le marche et les autres operateurs ? Dans de telles circonstances, que faut-il attendre du marche ? Les investisseurs ont interprete les evenements de 1987 a la lumiere de ceux survenus en 1929. Write Great Paragraph? Bien evidemment, la comparaison n’avait pas de quoi les rassurer. Constitutional Conventions Essay? Elle a provoque des anticipations fortement baissieres et a alimente puissamment le climat de panique qu’a connu la bourse durant les journees du 19 et 20 octobre 1987. Write Great? Pour Shiller, on french on sport, ne peut comprendre la surreaction du marche sans integrer a l’analyse le role qu’a joue la saillance « crise de 1929 » comme prototype de la crise boursiere. Essay? C’est le recours a ce modele qui permet d’expliquer le caractere excessif des baisses et des ventes.

Cette analyse illustre avec force le role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des anticipations collectives du marche. 2.4 - L’autonomie des croyances sociales. Cette analyse des contextes, historiques ou culturels, dans la production des croyances sociales, nous donne a voir une etrange deconnexion entre celles-ci et les croyances individuelles. Daisy American Essay? Il semble que les individus soient comme impuissants parce que les interpretations legitimes qui modelent l’equilibre de coordination s’imposent a eux independamment de leurs propres opinions. Introductory Essay? Ces croyances sociales ont pour origine les multiples reperes communs, historiques et culturels, qui definissent l’identite du groupe. Ptv Drama? Parce que le passe nous livre des habitudes, des recits, des legitimites, les individus quels que soient par ailleurs leurs opinions ne sont pas libres dans leur capacite a proposer des representations collectives legitimes. Introductory Paragraph? Aussi, vont s’imposer aux acteurs economiques des equilibres qu’ils n’auraient pas necessairement souhaites, comme nous l’a montre l’exemple de la crise de 1987. Cette autonomie des croyances sociales se revele avec force dans le fait que peuvent exister des situations ou, simultanement, tous les individus croient a la proposition P et tous les individus croient que le groupe croit a la proposition Q, differente de la proposition P, alors meme qu’aucune de ces croyances n’est erronee. Constitutional Conventions Essay? Ne reposant sur aucune erreur, ces situations peuvent donc perdurer sans qu’aucune necessite de changer de croyances, a un niveau ou a un autre, se fasse sentir. Paragraph? Autrement dit, cela signifie que l’on peut avoir C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ce que nous avons appele anterieurement « l’effet Reagan » (Orlean [1999], 79-81), sans qu’apparaissent des forces de rappel qui viendraient supprimer l’ecart entre croyances personnelles et croyance sociale.

Notons qu’il en est tout autrement lorsqu’on considere des croyances sociales selon la definition (i1). French Essay On Sport? Dans ce cas, il n’y a pas d’autonomie de la croyance sociale au sens ou l’ecart entre les croyances individuelles et les croyances sociales ne peut pas exister, sauf a supposer des croyances erronees. Introductory Essay? A nouveau, s’affirme le fait que c’est dans la definition (i2) que se trouve la conception la riche et la plus innovante. Argumentative? Grace a la propriete d’autonomie qui la caracterise, se modifie en profondeur notre maniere de comprendre les interactions economiques. Introductory Paragraph Essay? Elle met au jour une logique d’un type nouveau, en rupture avec le modele individualiste classique qui voit la representation collective comme « somme » des opinions individuelles. The Best Statement Cover Is? Desormais, deux niveaux et deux logiques coexistent dont on great introductory, doit analyser l’articulation. L’analyse des jeux de coordination permet de bien comprendre pourquoi il en est ainsi. Thesis? En effet, elle nous a montre qu’il fallait soigneusement distinguer entre ce que l’individu pense vraiment et son choix effectif.

Cela tient a la nature meme de l’interaction consideree qui recompense, non pas ceux qui auraient « raison » et repondraient « correctement » a la question posee, si tant est qu’on puisse donner un sens a cette notion, mais ceux qui reussissent a prevoir au mieux les mouvements de l’opinion majoritaire. Great Essay? Cette distinction appliquee aux marches financiers permet d’eviter les jugements hatifs d’irrationalite qui sont frequemment proferes a rencontre des investisseurs financiers, par exemple lorsqu’on constate une deconnexion importante entre le prix cote et ce que la communaute des economistes considere comme etant l’evaluation fondamentale. For Teaching Essay? Prenons le cas d’une monnaie deja sous-evaluee qui fait neanmoins l’objet d’un important mouvement de ventes sur le marche des changes, conduisant a une sous-evaluation encore plus grande. Write Great Introductory Essay? On reproche alors aux cambistes d’etre irrationnels au sens ou ils evalueraient mal la valeur fondamentale de la devise en question. Buchanan? Une telle hypothese ne tient pas. Write Paragraph? Elle n’est d’ailleurs pas necessaire.

Les cambistes, comme tout un chacun, peuvent parfaitement savoir que la monnaie est sous-evaluee et pourtant continuer a la vendre. Daisy? En effet, ce qui compte pour eux lorsqu’ils interviennent sur le marche n’est pas ce qu’ils pensent etre la vraie valeur de la monnaie, autant qu’ils en peuvent juger, mais ce qu’ils anticipent que le marche va faire. Write Introductory Paragraph? Sur un marche, on buchanan dream essay, fait du profit quand on write great introductory paragraph essay, reussit a prevoir correctement l’evolution de l’opinion du groupe. The Best Closing? Telle est la regle du jeu. Great? On ne demande pas aux agents d’avoir raison et d’estimer au mieux la valeur fondamentale. Constitutional Conventions Essay? De ce point de vue, la declaration qui suit provenant d’un cambiste interroge au moment de la forte baisse de l’euro en septembre 2000 est tout a fait revelatrice de la dichotomie entre evaluation personnelle sur une base fondamentaliste et choix d’investissement. Essay? On y voit un individu intimement persuade du caractere sous-evalue de l’euro, mais expliquant qu’il est neanmoins tenu a vendre s’il ne veut pas perdre de l’argent : « L’operateur que je suis a beau croire a une appreciation de l’euro, il ne fait pas le poids lorsqu’il constate qu’un peu partout les positions des autres intervenants sur le marche des changes sont a la vente de l’euro. Thesis? Du meme coup, meme si j’estime que l’euro merite d’etre plus cher par rapport au dollar, j’hesite toujours a acheter la devise europeenne. Introductory Essay? En effet, si je suis le seul acheteur d’euros face a cinquante intervenants vendeurs, je suis sur d’y laisser des plumes… Je ne fais pas forcement ce que je crois intimement, mais plutot ce que je crois que fera globalement le marche qui in daisy dream fine l’emportera.

Le travail de l’operateur est de tenter d’evaluer au plus juste le sentiment du marche des devises [10] [10] Liberation, 8 septembre 2000, p. Write Great Paragraph Essay? 24. Constitutional? . Write Great Essay? » Malgre sa conviction personnelle d’une sous-evaluation, ce cambiste joue a la baisse et c’est la un comportement parfaitement rationnel : s’il avait achete de l’euro, il aurait fait des pertes ! Une premiere maniere de concevoir cette situation consiste a suivre l’interpretation que nous en propose le cambiste interroge. On Sport In School? Il oppose deux evaluations, l’evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche pensee sous sa forme (i1), i.e . Write Great Paragraph? comme etant la croyance du plus grand nombre des cambistes. French Essay In School? Dans un tel cadre, l’individu interroge justifie son suivisme par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs vendeurs, tres exactement « cinquante intervenants vendeurs » qui determinent la croyance du marche. Great Essay? Selon cette analyse, ces « cinquante intervenants » vendent parce qu’ils pensent que l’euro est surapprecie. Activities For Teaching? C’est donc une conception erronee du point de vue des fondamentaux qui les conduit a vendre. Write Great Essay? Face a ce fait accompli, notre cambiste n’a plus aucun choix. To Alice Connections Essay? Il ne peut que se plier au diktat inadequat de l’opinion majoritaire. Write Paragraph? Si l’on retient cette interpretation, nous n’observons pas ce que nous avons appele « autonomie des croyances sociales », c’est-a-dire une situation ou, pour tous les acteurs, est observe un ecart entre leur opinion personnelle et leur croyance sociale. Daisy Dream Essay? En effet, dans le cadre de l’interpretation proposee par le cambiste interroge, pour les « cinquante vendeurs », croyance personnelle et croyance sociale convergent parfaitement pour prevoir une baisse future de l’euro. Write Introductory? C’est seulement le cambiste interroge qui constate un ecart entre son evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche.

Cette absence d’autonomie n’a rien d’etonnant. The Best Closing Statement Is? Elle est une consequence du fait que nous avons considere l’interpretation du cambiste et que cette interpretation s’appuie sur une interpretation (i1) de la croyance du marche. Cette interpretation n’est pas necessairement fausse. Introductory? Il se peut, dans telle ou telle conjoncture financiere donnee, qu’il existe, en effet, sur le marche des investisseurs naifs, mal informes ou irrationnels. Constitutional Essay? C’est la une question de fait. Write Great Essay? S’il en est ainsi, la bulle baissiere sur l’euro s’interprete aisement par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs ignorants. Activities Essay? Cependant, il faut bien voir que cette interpretation laisse un point central dans l’ombre : pourquoi les cinquante intervenants se trompent-ils ? Quel mecanisme permet-il d’expliquer qu’une meme erreur se soit propagee au sein du marche ? Aussi, est-il interessant de faire valoir une analyse alternative qui abandonne la dissymetrie suspecte entre notre cambiste parfaitement rationnel et un marche constitue d’operateurs obtus.

Selon cette nouvelle interpretation, les cinquante autres intervenants agissent de maniere identique a notre cambiste : comme lui, ils se conduisent de maniere autoreferentielle, a partir de leur propre croyance sociale quant au fonctionnement du marche. Great Paragraph Essay? Mais, conformement a l’analyse precedente, la croyance sociale qu’il faut considerer repond a la definition (i2) et non (i1) : « chacun croit que le marche croit a la baisse de l’euro ». Thesis? Dans une telle perspective, chacun est identiquement rationnel, agissant en fonction d’une meme croyance quant aux comportements des autres. Great Introductory Essay? Il n’y a pas cinquante intervenants « farouchement » vendeurs, mais cinquante cambistes qui, reflechissant a ce que vont faire les autres intervenants, parmi lesquels se trouve le trader interroge par Liberation , anticipent qu’ils vont vendre. Conventions Essay? Si on great paragraph, les interrogeait, ils feraient remarquer a leur tour qu’il ne sert a rien d’aller a contre courant d’un marche aussi determine dans son aveuglement. For Teaching Argumentative Essay? Et ils auraient raison. Great Introductory Essay? La vraie croyance ici ne porte pas sur la valeur de l’euro, mais sur le fait que « chacun croit dans le caractere baissier du marche. Conventions? » On reconnait alors notre situation de deconnexion entre les croyances privees, toutes convaincues du caractere sous-apprecie de l’euro, et la croyance sociale au sens (i2) selon laquelle le marche croit a la baisse. Write Great Introductory? On a C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou P est la proposition « l’euro est sous-apprecie » et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou Q est la proposition « l’euro est surapprecie ». Ptv Drama? Si chacun croit que « chacun croit a la baisse », alors chacun sera vendeur et le marche baissera effectivement en validant ex post la croyance initiale. Write Paragraph Essay? On retrouve le phenomene de prophetie autorealisatrice. Constitutional? Dans une telle situation, une bulle emerge sans qu’il ait ete necessaire de supposer la presence d’acteurs irrationnels. Write Essay? Chacun est parfaitement rationnel, dans ses evaluations privees et dans son evaluation du marche.

Il n’est pas besoin de supposer des evaluations erronees. Thesis? Il suffit que tous les acteurs se referent dans leurs choix a un certain modele de marche, pense comme exprimant une logique separee. Les investisseurs qui n’ont l’impression que de reagir a ce modele de marche, se voient alors tout a fait confirmes dans leur idee d’une autonomie du marche, puisque malgre leur croyance generalisee dans le caractere surapprecie de l’euro, celui-ci continue a baisser. Write Essay? Cette autonomie leur parait d’autant plus indeniable que l’evolution observee ne trouve pas dans l’analyse fondamentaliste une explication coherente. Activities For Teaching Argumentative? Aussi, loin de produire un ajustement de la croyance sociale aux opinions privees, cette situation conduit a renforcer encore la croyance sociale qui s’impose comme seule explication plausible. Write Great Introductory Paragraph? L’experience du marche valide l’hypothese d’une autonomie de l’evaluation collective [11] [11] Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations. Activities For Teaching Essay? . Introductory? A tous les niveaux, les croyances se voient confirmees : en effet, l’evaluation fondamentale de l’euro est sous-appreciee ; en effet, le marche croit a la baisse ; en effet, l’euro baisse ; en effet, le marche se comporte de maniere autonome, c’est-a-dire deconnecte des appreciations fondamentalistes. La notion de rationalite cognitive donne lieu a de nombreuses elaborations, comme le demontre pleinement le present numero de la Revue d’Economie Politique . French Essay In School? Il faut s’en rejouir. Great Paragraph Essay? Le champ est vaste et a trop longtemps ete laisse en friche par la theorie economique traditionnelle. Constitutional Essay? Pour notre part, nous avons voulu montrer en quoi la notion de croyance sociale s’imposait a l’analyse economique pour penser nombre de situations importantes.

Cette perspective de recherche peut servir deux finalites convergentes : d’une part, reequilibrer des approches cognitivistes traditionnellement centrees sur la cognition individuelle au detriment de la cognition sociale ; d’autre part, permettre un dialogue entre l’economie et les autres sciences sociales, telles la sociologie, l’anthropologie et l’histoire, qui ont beaucoup a nous apprendre sur ces sujets. Au moins deux auteurs participant au present numero se referent explicitement a la notion de « rationalite cognitive » et en proposent des definitions precises : Raymond Boudon et Bernard Walliser. Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue Francaise d’Economie , on introductory paragraph essay, trouve ecrit : « etudie son propre environnement » la ou, dans la version anglaise, on activities, trouve « survey the great introductory paragraph whole field ». Statement For A Cover? L’ambiguite est totale et nous avons prefere modifier la traduction en consequence. Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee en partant de la notion d’efficience financiere. Great Introductory Paragraph Essay? On aurait montre (1) que celle-ci est « impossible » pour reprendre le titre d’un article celebre (Grossman et Stiglitz [1980]) et (2) que, dans le cadre de prix informationnellement inefficients, seule modelisation desormais acceptable, les agents pour ne pas commettre d’erreurs d’interpretation doivent pouvoir connaitre l’action d’autres operateurs (Gennotte et Leland [1990]) ; (3) ce qui a conduit a l’etrange notion de « sunshine trading », a savoir l’annonce publique de certains ordres (Admati et Pfleiderer [1991]). Pride And Prejudice Connections? Autrement dit, se trouve reconnue la necessite d’en savoir plus que les prix.

CQFD. Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite est en elle-meme faible » est defendue par Kenneth Arrow ([1987], p. Write Great Introductory? 206). Constitutional Conventions? Le theoreme de Sonnenschein lui fournit une illustration exemplaire de ce point. Paragraph Essay? Mais les exemples ne manquent pas. Essay On Sport In School? On pense a l’article de Boldrin et Montrucchio [1986] ou il est montre que l’optimisation dynamique intertemporelle est compatible avec toute forme de sentier dynamique pour l’economie, sans exception, y compris des chaos. Paragraph Essay? Autrement dit, supposer que les individus sont rationnels ne limitent en rien l’ensemble des cheminements economiques possibles ! En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions dans lesquelles on the best statement for a cover, attribue des qualites a des objets collectifs, par exemple « les voitures allemandes sont meilleures que les voitures francaises » ou « le mark est une monnaie forte ». Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande partie du groupe », ou encore « presque tout le groupe » ou « presque tous les membres du groupe », demandera a etre precise dans des travaux ulterieurs. Great Introductory? Dans le cadre de cet article, nous resterons volontairement flou et imprecis sur ce point. French Essay In School? On peut lire toute la suite de l’article en remplacant « une grande partie du groupe » par « tous les membres du groupe ». Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii [1994].

Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different et notablement plus complique. Write Great Introductory Paragraph? J’en presente une version simplifiee qui conduit aux memes conclusions mais evite une presentation inutilement longue. En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait ou suppose un certain nombre de qualites communes, comme parler la meme langue, celle dans laquelle l’experimentation est faite. Liberation , 8 septembre 2000, p. The Best Statement? 24. Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations privees ne reussissent pas a modifier le choix collectif n’est pas sans equivalent dans la litterature theorique. Introductory Paragraph? Dans les situations de type « electronic mail game » (Rubinstein [1989]), on dream essay, observe des blocages similaires au sens ou l’echange de messages entre deux individus, aussi nombreux soientils, ne reussit pas a engendrer la connaissance commune necessaire a une certaine action des deux joueurs. Write Paragraph? Les cascades informationnelles ont egalement cette propriete.

Cet article plaide pour la necessaire ouverture de la theorie economique aux representations individuelles et collectives, ce qui est appele « tournant cognitif ». Essay In School? Dans une premiere partie, on write introductory paragraph essay, montre que la rationalite instrumentale ne fournit pas un cadre adequat pour penser cette activite cognitive. Conventions? Il faut alors introduire l’idee d’une rationalite cognitive distincte de la rationalite instrumentale. Great Paragraph Essay? Cette necessite s’impose des lors qu’on remarque que les modeles a anticipations rationnelles conduisent structurellement a des equilibres multiples. Pride And Prejudice Connections Essay? Autrement dit, les criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont trop faibles des lors qu’il s’agit de determiner precisement la maniere dont les agents forment leurs representations. Write? Dans une seconde partie, on the best closing for a, avance la notion de « croyance sociale » pour penser ces representations collectives.

D’une part, on write great introductory essay, montre que leur formation depend etroitement des contextes culturels et historiques. Daisy Buchanan Dream Essay? D’autre part, on write great, etablit que ces croyances sociales ne peuvent pas etre pensees comme la « somme » des croyances privees : celles-la sont dotees d’une forte autonomie par rapport a celles-ci. rationalite cognitive croyance commune jeu de coordination point focal saillance a la Schelling anticipation rationnelle croyance sociale reperes communs. Summary This article argues for constitutional essay, the need to write introductory essay integrate beliefs the thesis individual and write great introductory paragraph essay collective levels in activities argumentative essay economic theory, something which is paragraph referred to constitutional conventions as a cognitive turning point. Great Introductory? In the activities argumentative essay first section of the great essay article, we show that instrumental rationality does not offer an activities, adequate framework for great introductory paragraph, analysing this sort of thesis, cognitive activity.

Rather, what is great paragraph needed is in school a notion of great, cognitive rationality which is constitutional essay distinct from introductory paragraph essay instrumental rationality. For Teaching? This necessity appears clearly when we look at write great paragraph, rational expectations models. Thesis? As a rule, these models have multiple equilibria. Great Paragraph Essay? This implies that the buchanan essay criteria of write great essay, instrumental rationality is for teaching argumentative too weak to write great specify the ptv drama thesis way people forms their representations of the write great introductory world. Daisy Buchanan American Dream? In the write great introductory paragraph second section, we introduce the ptv drama concept of great, social belief. Pride And Prejudice And Letters To Alice? We show that the write introductory formation of thesis, social beliefs is write great introductory paragraph essay closely related to and prejudice to alice connections the cultural and write introductory paragraph essay historic context. Closing Statement Cover Is? We conclude by write essay, demonstrating that social beliefs cannot be thought of constitutional essay, as the write great paragraph direct result of constitutional conventions essay, individual beliefs : there are in write great paragraph part autonomous from the best closing statement individual beliefs. Classification JEL : A1, B5, C7. cognitive rationality common belief coordination game focal point Schelling salience rational expectation social belief common reference.

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The Ultimate List of AP English Literature Tips. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is designed to test your ability to think critically and analyze literary excerpts. The test is three hours long and consists of a multiple-choice portion (worth 45% of your grade) and an essay portion (worth 55% of your grade). Here are some tips to help you get on your way to making a 5 on the AP Literature exam. Before you start studying for introductory, the AP Literature exam at the end of the year, you need some tips on how to survive the course itself. Advance Placement (AP) courses are deliberately designed to be more difficult than the standard high school classes; they are meant to challenge you. AP courses, English Literature included, require a great deal of studying to make good grades throughout the year. The assignments you are graded on throughout the year help you prepare for the AP exam at daisy buchanan american dream, the end of the introductory, year. Here are some helpful hints to getting you through the AP English Literature course. 1. Complete Any and All Summer Work Assigned: AP Literature, as its title indicates, requires a lot of daisy buchanan american essay, reading. Chances are, your teacher will provide you with a reading list and expect the required titles to be read when you walk into your first day of class.

In some cases, you may even be assigned a report or project to be completed before you begin the class. This is more for the teacher to view what literary skills you already possess and what skills will need to be taught to you. Great Introductory Paragraph Essay. However, this doesn’t mean you should take the work assigned lightly. If you take it seriously and complete a proficient assignment, it will show your teacher that you are in the course to constitutional conventions learn. This attitude will make the school year a lot more bearable for both you and paragraph your instructor.

2. Go to buchanan dream Class: Missing class leads to missing material. Write Introductory Paragraph Essay. Missing material leads to lower scores on assignments. Lower scores on assignments lead to lower scores on the exam at the end of the year. The bottom line is: don’t miss class if you can help it. 3. Teach Yourself the Material: AP English Literature instructors don’t have time to teach you everything. Since you are probably only in their presence for an hour or two, they have learned to prioritize the material they have to ptv drama thesis teach. Because of this, you won’t get as in-depth of explanations on some concepts as others. You need to learn how to teach yourself the material to really make the most out of this course. You can really get creative with this. You can teach yourself by conducting good old fashioned research, or just by great paragraph, reading the assigned texts.

Or, you can expand your knowledge a little more. You can look up videos on YouTube concerning the topics you need help understanding. You can also use Albert.io to test yourself on different areas covered in buchanan american dream a typical AP English Literature class. 4. Learn How to Analyze Text: Analyzing literary text is an incredibly large portion of the AP English Literature course. It’s important that you learn how to examine the text as a whole, and in part. Generally speaking, it’s important that you analyze the setting, characters, and plot of the great paragraph, piece. However, it’s also imperative that you understand how to constitutional conventions essay look deeper within the write great paragraph, words. Conventions Essay. Deconstruct the text and examine its theme, look for literary devices, and motives.

5. Read: This is literature! Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of reading done. This does not necessarily mean that you have to aim to read an outrageous number of books or anything. You just need to introductory at least make an attempt to read every day. As you read, try to dissect the depth of the text. After a few days of this, you’ll be surprised at how easy analysis can come to you once you train your mind to for teaching argumentative question everything. 6. Ask Questions: Your teacher is write great introductory there to help; it’s their job. If there’s anything you don’t understand, be sure to ask your instructor. There’s nothing wrong with asking for help, and in the end, you’ll be thankful you did. Understanding a concept you previously had trouble with is sure to be a huge weight off of your shoulders.

7. Form a Study Group: Studying with other people has been proven to help test scores. It provides an opportunity to approach subject matter from different angles. Some people in your group may know certain concepts better than you, and vice versa. Pride And Letters. One of the best ways to make sure you know the material is to teach it to others. 8. Experiment: Everyone has different preferences when it comes to studying. Maybe you’re a visual learner. Perhaps you like to listen to material to really understand it. The best way to find out what form of studying helps you best is to experiment. Try different methods to see what works best for you.

Plus, keeping a variety in your study routine helps keep boredom at bay. Now that you have a grasp on how to great introductory essay get through the actual coursework of your AP English Literature and Composition class, it’s time to pride to alice connections learn how to study for the exam at the end of the write great introductory paragraph essay, year. First, we’ll take a look at some tips that are sure to help you ace the first portion of the AP Literature exam: the multiple-choice section. Letter Is. This portion is worth 45% of your total score and it consists of several passages to write great introductory paragraph read and french on sport in school 55 questions to answer, which you have exactly one hour to complete. Let’s get started.

Start your AP English Literature Prep today. AP English Literature Multiple-Choice Tips. 1. First, Read the Passages: Yes, you read that correctly. It’s a common misconception that you should read the introductory essay, questions before reading the passage, so you can work quickly and daisy american dream essay scan the text for the correct answer. One vital thing to remember is this: quicker isn’t always better. On a timed exam, it is important to work at a brisk pace, but do not move so quickly that you make simple mistakes. It’s best to read the write paragraph, passages before even glancing at the questions because it prevents error. By merely scanning the passage for the best cover letter, the answers, you’re missing out on a plethora of content that could be vital to answering questions correctly later on in the test. 2. Great Essay. Look Deep Within the Text: It’s extremely important that you analyze the passages within the exam very carefully. Chances are, there will be questions on the tone of the passage, or the author’s purpose for writing it.

Was it to inform or persuade the activities for teaching essay, audience? Perhaps the write essay, author used some literary devices like allusions or irony. Closely read the activities, passages and you will have no problem identifying the answers to questions that are specific to the literature side of great introductory paragraph essay, AP English. 3. Carefully Read the Questions: If you don’t understand what the question is french essay in school asking, you can’t possibly expect to know the answer. Take a deep breath and calmly read the questions, dissecting them completely. Essay. This will be easier to do for some questions than for others. Once you understand what it is exactly the activities for teaching, question is asking, try to recall where in the passage the paragraph essay, answer could be located.

Also be sure to for teaching read the question in its entirety. Sometimes, the writers of the test will throw in certain words or phrases that lead the question in a different direction. For example, the words “EXCEPT” and “NOT” are often used at the end of questions, and this can confuse you. If you hadn’t read that one tiny word, all of the answers may seem right and you may waste time stumped on a question. 4. Read Every Answer Choice: Some questions will be more difficult than others. Some questions are even designed to trip you up. Be sure to paragraph read every single word in and prejudice and letters to alice connections every single answer choice; sometimes one word can make all the difference as to great introductory whether or not an answer is thesis correct.

5. Reread Parts of the Passage: If time permits, reread the parts of the text in which answers are located. Be sure the information matches one of the answer choices. You may even want to put a star, dash, or some other marking beside portions of the text that contain answers. That way, if you have extra time at the end of the test, you can go back and check your answers more quickly. 6. Use Your Time Wisely: This is write great essay a timed exam. Daisy American Dream. 60 minutes to complete 55 questions. This allows for an average of a minute per write essay, question, with some leftover time to account for reading passages. You have absolutely no time to sit at your desk staring blankly at questions you don’t quite understand. Luckily, there is no penalty for answers marked wrong—or answers not marked at all—on the AP English Literature exam. For Teaching Essay. This means you should definitely skip the questions you’re unsure of. Mark them in some sort of way so that it is noticeable that you haven’t answered them yet.

Then, if you have some time at the end of the test, you can go back and see if you can come up with the answer. Write Great Paragraph Essay. Alternatively, if you can’t seem to activities for teaching argumentative essay find an answer: guess! Remember, you’re only graded on the number of questions you get right; there’s absolutely no penalty for getting a question wrong. 7. Formulate Summaries: If you are a fast worker, this tip may prove extremely helpful for you. A few of the multiple-choice questions may test your overall comprehension of the write introductory paragraph, passages you read.

In the margins of the page beside the to alice connections, passage, jot down a few bullet points outlining the plot progression. Great Essay. This way you can refer back to your notes when answering questions rather than searching the entire text. 8. Make Flashcards: Flashcards are a great way to study specific terms or brief concepts. Since you will be tested on your understanding of certain terms, it is important that you know them like the back of your hand. Try making flashcards of different literary devices and ptv drama thesis review them periodically throughout the semester. 9. Study Everywhere: This may seem a bit extreme, but it really helps. Take the flashcards you’ve made with you wherever you go. Write Introductory Paragraph Essay. Keep them in your wallet, in your purse, or even in argumentative essay your car.

Whenever you have a moment of free time, instead of scrolling through Twitter or Facebook on your phone, run through a review of your terms. It’ll stick better in your memory and help your AP Literature exam score in the long run. 10. Test Yourself: The most helpful and effective way to prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam is by testing yourself. Prepare early in the semester for the exam. Periodically, take practice multiple-choice tests on the content you’ve learned so far. There are several websites out there dedicated to helping you quiz yourself for great introductory essay, the AP Literature exam.

One of these is Albert.io , which allows you to activities for teaching test your abilities on nearly every concept covered in the AP English Literature course. 11. Don’t Stress It: The AP English Literature exam is one big test. Sure, it affects the amount of college credit you receive coming out of high school. But at the end of the write great introductory paragraph, day, it’s just a test. Anxiety and stress can severely affect your ability to function correctly. Over time, it can even start to have negative effects on your mind and body.

Some people even develop anxiety disorders. Just remember, your mental health is more important than your grades. Take a deep breath periodically throughout the test. Activities. It’ll help calm your body and soothe your mind so you can concentrate better. Now that you have some tips on how to tackle the great introductory paragraph essay, multiple-choice portion of the activities for teaching argumentative essay, AP English Literature exam, it’s time to focus on the most challenging part: the free response portion. Write Great Introductory Paragraph. In this portion, you have two hours to complete three essays.

This section tests your ability to analyze passages and dissect them to form logical interpretations to be illustrated in your essays. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Here are some tips for nailing the free response portion of the AP English Literature and Composition exam: AP English Literature Free Response Portion Tips. 1. Read the Question: The first step towards writing an awesome essay on the AP Literature exam is reading (and understanding) the question. What are the authors of the test asking for specifically?

The answer to this question is the pride essay, key to writing a well-rounded essay. The scorers of the free response portion want essays that are clear and straight to introductory essay the point. Simply restating the prompt will result in a huge deduction of points. French Essay. Regurgitating the question will show the reader that you may not be confident in write paragraph your ability to dissect passages. This is an extremely bad impression to give, since the interpretation of conventions essay, text is the basis of the great, entire course.

2. On Sport. Come Up with a Thesis: A well-written thesis is the basis of all successful essays. As mentioned previously, do NOT restate the great paragraph, question. Come up with your own unique topic sentence to answer the french on sport in school, question. Make it brief and to great introductory paragraph essay the point. You have the rest of the thesis, essay to write introductory paragraph elaborate on your thesis; that will be your body.

3. Stay Organized: Organization is key to american dream essay writing a great essay. Prepare an outline within the write introductory, first few minutes of daisy buchanan dream, writing your essay. Perhaps even use a diagram, if you’re a visual learner. A clear and precise outline can help prevent rambling when answering the question in your essay. 4. Use a High-Level Vocabulary: Since this is an exam for an Advanced Placement English course, it is imperative that you use a vocabulary that reflects a higher level of education. However, be sure that you use your impressive vocabulary in write introductory paragraph context. Nothing looks worse than using a word incorrectly in your essay. Be careful: only use words in which you know the definition. 5. Pride And Letters. Use Your Resources: On the first two essays, you will be asked to read a passage and analyze it according to write paragraph essay the instructions given in the question.

Use the passage to your advantage. Frequently refer back to specific parts of the text. This will show the readers that you paid very close attention to detail when reading the passage. The specific references display the ability to constitutional conventions close read, which is a skill covered frequently in write great introductory paragraph an AP English Literature course. 6. Prepare Early: The third free response question on the AP Literature exam is more open ended than the first two. You will be asked a question and you will be given the opportunity to answer it pertaining to a work of literature that you have read in class. Closing Statement Cover. It’s important that you keep this particular essay question in mind as you work throughout the semester.

If a particular work of literature stands out to you, prepare early to choose this as the piece to write about in your third essay. 7. Practice, Practice, Practice: As they say, practice really does make perfect. A good option for practicing free response questions involves searching the Internet for old exam rubrics. These show you exactly what the scorers are looking for in an write great introductory essay. The AP Literature section of AP Central, a website created by the College Board to help with studying for exams, has several practice exams for your use. Take advantage of conventions essay, this and practice writing essays using different prompts from previous exams. 8. Use a Good Writing Utensil: Nothing is worse than getting halfway through an paragraph essay essay and having your pen run out of ink, or your pencil getting smudged. Often, readers prefer the look and clarity of essay, black ink to colored ink or the graphite of pencil. Take that into mind when going into the free response portion of the exam.

9. Great Introductory Paragraph. Pace Yourself: Before the free response portion begins, work out how much time you need to spend on daisy buchanan dream essay each question. It may even be helpful to write paragraph essay bring a watch to time yourself on each essay. You need to give yourself ample time to complete each question. However, you also need to be sure that you are not rushing through the for teaching argumentative essay, questions and leaving vital information out of your essays. 10. Write Neatly: The clarity of your writing is necessary for a good score on your essay. If the reader cannot decipher your chicken scratch, how can they possibly score it? 11. Don’t Leave Questions Blank: Although this may be acceptable for the multiple-choice portion of the exam, it is absolutely inexcusable for your essays. You only introductory paragraph get three chances to prove your competency in the free response portion. Take advantage of this opportunity to show the readers how much you’ve learned from taking this AP course.

12. Understand What the Readers are Looking For: As we said earlier, rubrics are a great resource to use when preparing for the AP Literature exam. They reflect exactly how your essay will be scored. It’s vital to understand exactly what the readers are looking for in a good essay. This includes: a) Plot comprehension: Whether or not you understand what is happening in the passages given to activities you to read. Pay close attention to the plot and how it develops as the story progresses.

b) Theme comprehension: Whether or not you understand the theme of the write great paragraph, passage. The theme is the dominating central idea in a work. It’s vital that you recognize the daisy buchanan american, theme very early on in your essay. c) Plot References: The more references to the plot that you have in your essay, the better. However, this does not mean restate the entire storyline.

This will bore the reader and make it seem like you are dancing around the question. Scorers like for you to be very clear and to the point in your essays. d) Mature Voice: The voice of your essay is an incredibly important characteristic used in scoring. If it is too lighthearted, it may come across that you care little about the paragraph essay, exam. However, if your voice is too serious, your reader may get confused or overwhelmed.

A happy median should be found right away to provide your essay with clarity and maturity. 13. Listen to daisy american dream essay Your Teacher: This is perhaps the great paragraph, most important of all the free response tips. Thesis. Over the course of the semester, your teacher will provide you with ample advice for the exam. Pay close attention to your teacher’s guidance. If the introductory paragraph, information your teacher gives you wasn’t relevant, they wouldn’t waste their time giving it to you. Essay. Your instructor knows the exam; it’s only logical to follow their advice. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is paragraph essay all about analysis of different literary works. Hopefully these tips will help you tackle this massive exam with ease. Tips Submitted by AP English Literature Teachers.

1. Always remember the author’s purpose. Retelling what happened in the story is not an essay analysis. You must understand and relay why the author wrote it the way he/she did and write essay what he/she is trying to tell readers! That’s crucial! Thanks for the tip from thesis Kim F. from Tavares High. 2. Be original. Think about the fact that the AP Test readers have been looking at essays on the same topics for three days. Great Introductory. What will you do to be original and stand out and prejudice and letters to alice connections, that will surprise the reader at 4:30 pm on day three? Brainstorm what everyone else will say before writing. Then, don’t write on those topics. Thanks for the tip from Mike G. from MPS.

3. “Box the but because shift happens.” That way they remember to always look for any kind of shift because that will usually lead to write great introductory essay complexity in meaning. Thanks for the tip from Amber B. at daisy buchanan dream essay, Madison County Schools. 4. Answer the question as it is actually asked. It’s easy to see a title or an author and paragraph essay jump to conclusions, and ptv drama thesis sometimes that means students are writing about what they think the write great introductory essay, question is asking instead of what the question actually is asking. In the pressure to complete three essays in 120 minutes, it’s an easy mistake to make … and a good one to avoid! Thanks for the tip from Heather I. from Niles North. 5. Answer the the best for a letter is, question in write great paragraph essay the introduction. French Essay In School. Thanks for the tip from Rhonda G. from Sante Fe Public Schools. 6. Introductory. Focused writing on two or three aspects of the text (characterization, use of devices, etc) accompanied with analysis will generate a higher score than lightly touching on 5 to 7 aspects. As a reader we are happy that you can identify techniques, but what we are looking for is analysis. The Best Closing For A Cover Letter Is. Thanks for the tip from Matt U. at Liberty High.

7. Always answer the great paragraph, question: “So What?” Yes, the the best for a cover, writer used an extended metaphor, so what? Why did they chose that metaphor? How does that choice reflect the author’s intent? What effect does it create within the text and within the reader? Provide the reader with the “so what” to help drive your analysis deeper. Thanks for the second tip from introductory paragraph essay Matt U. at Liberty High. 8. Brush up on the best for a cover letter your vocabulary – if you don’t understand the vocabulary used in the questions and/or answers, you will not be able to find the great paragraph, correct answer. There are many words with multiple meanings / nuances of meaning that will bring you to pride and prejudice and letters to alice connections the wrong conclusion. Pay attention to the wording of the questions and answers! Thanks for the tip from Susan R. from Palm Beach Gardens High. 9. Students who read widely and regularly are far more prepared to write and great introductory paragraph communicate clearly with a deeper understanding than students who do not read.

Reading expands knowledge, vocabulary usage and comprehension and enables students to closing statement for a make connections within and between content areas which real world applications. Thanks for the tip from Elizabeth B. from Harrison High. 10. Write Great Introductory Paragraph. Don’t worry about writing a fully-developed introduction and ptv drama thesis conclusion. Instead, use your time to focus on meaning.

What important insights do you have to share? Make sure you provide much more analysis than plot summary. Begin with a clear thesis and end with one strong concluding statement. Thanks for the tip from Julie H. from Greenville High. 11. Read Huck Finn and Hamlet (or Othello), plus a modern play (Death of a Salesman works) for your big guns for question 3. Mark your essay questions (circle action verbs and underline focus) and create a quick outline before writing. The time spent will prevent the heartache of not addressing the prompt. Write Great Paragraph. It’d be Peggy C. from for a cover Cherokee County Schools. 12.

Each essay is worth the write great paragraph essay, same amount of points, but one is set for you to shine — know three books really well so that you can rock the free-response essay. On the test – do it first while your mind is still fresh. Thanks for the tip from pride Diane S. from Frederick High School. 13. Go online to the AP test page and check out the various student essays from prior years. What makes an essay a 9? 7? or even a 4? There are usually reader comments at the end of the essay which adds further clarity to how readers score essays. Studying how other students have answered prompts acts as a guide and serves as exemplar models for best writing.

Learning how to write well from write great introductory essay those who have done well is a practice students appreciate. Thanks for the tip from Pam W. from Sandpoint High. 14. The Best Closing Statement For A Cover Letter. Find a good literary timeline to conceptualize what you read in terms of the art movement and historical time period. These can provide insight into the texts as well as help you remember what you have read. Thanks for the tip from Paul H. at Walled Lake Central High. 15. Have four novels of literary quality and one play that the student is introductory essay comfortable analyzing so no question #3 can stump the student. Thanks for the tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 16.

For all poetry: a. analyze the central purpose, b. explain the essay, speaker’s attitude toward the subject, c. Analyze any figurative language. Write Paragraph. Thanks for daisy buchanan american, the second tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 17. Never be unacceptably brief: Even if the selections is difficult there’ll be something in it all students can analyze. Write Great Introductory. Analyze that and then keep writing! Thanks for the third tip from Bill O. from El Molino High.

18. Learn and and prejudice to alice practice using the language and function of literature, poetry, and rhetoric. Plan and execute their usage in your style, syntax, and art, and use the language when critiquing in workshops and discussing classics. Thanks for the tip from Jon A. from write great introductory Arts and Communication Magnet Academy. 19. Do not merely skim to thesis point out literary devices. Write Great Introductory Paragraph Essay. (I used to say — Don’t Where’s Waldo the device” but this may be a copy write issue.) Zoom deep into the text to identify the and letters essay, device, explain in detail how the introductory paragraph, device is functioning and french essay on sport then zoom out to explain how it works to support the passage as a whole and how it connects to the universal human condition.

This means the difference between writing a college level paper and writing a high school level paper. Thanks for the tip from write essay Jodi G. from Saugus High. Thanks for the tip from constitutional Erin M. at write great introductory paragraph, Mercy County Senior High. 20. Thesis. Deconstruct the prompt – make sure you understand exactly what it is write introductory essay asking you to do – then use it as a focus for argumentative, your annotation of the text on Q1 and Q2 and as a launching point for your notes and thesis for Q3. Write Great Essay. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 21. Focus on two primary ideas (literary devices, elements of activities, composition, etc…) for each essay in order to go deeper in analysis of each.

Do not try to say something about everything you see, say everything about one or two somethings! Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 22. Take 10-12 minutes to read and deconstruct the prompt, annotate the poem or passage and develop a thesis before you begin writing the essay. That thinking and planning time will help you remain focused which will ensure that your essay is clear and cohesive. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 23. Watch your time and MAKE SURE to write every essay – a blank essay score is write introductory paragraph essay very difficult to overcome! Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at ptv drama, Mercy County Senior High. 24.

Use something you’ve read in AP Lit for Q3 – you will have spent more time and analytical energy on those books and write paragraph plays than you did in any other English class. Prepare for Q3 before the exam by reviewing everything you’ve read in AP Lit. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 25. Pick two texts, one classic and one modern, get to know them backward and forward as well as the historical context around them. Thanks for the tip from Michelle Y. from Forest Park High. 26. Address all aspects of the prompt! Look for complexity! Thanks for the tip from Lori Mill Creek High School.

27. Audience, Occasion Purpose — Whether you’re speaking, reading or writing, you’re thinking: Audience, Occasion Purpose. French Essay On Sport In School. Thanks for the tip from Mike L at Tilton School. 28. Turn your words into pictures and great paragraph your pictures into words. Ptv Drama Thesis. Meaning: If you have an idea, anchor it to something concrete. If you have something concrete, associate it with an idea. Thanks for the tip from Jeff T at Lynden Christian High School.

29. When writing essays, always tie your thoughts to the text (embed quotes)! Always linking your points back to the text forces you to use evidence for great introductory, each claim you make. 30. Analyze not summarize! Thanks for the tip from Lynne B. at Buchholz High School. 31. Debate the constitutional essay, questions.

Get students to debate the answers to AP multiple choice questions without your help. After they “quiz” on a passage and the questions for it, ask them how they think they did. The answer is always mixed, so give them an option: Keep the score they currently have OR discuss the write essay, answers in a large group without teacher’s help and take that community grade. They always pick the latter. Participating in the discussion helps students practice justifying their answers (tell them you will keep track to make sure that everyone participates as least ___ time(s).) As you observe their process, you will gain all kinds of insight into students’ thinking process, they will learn from the ways their classmates explain their choices, and their scores are almost always 100! Thanks for the tip from Wendy R from activities for teaching argumentative Weslaco East High School.

Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Looking for AP English Literature practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and write great essay ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and buchanan dream writing supplements for school-wide implementations.

NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption. Ahhh….grammatical error in write great introductory essay your text–you need a period or exclamation point after literature. Activities For Teaching Essay. (See below) 5. Read: This is a literature Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of. Thank you for catching that. We have fixed it! These tips will be very helpful for me during this year of AP Lit. I found tip 23 most important because I always take to much time on essay things like the intro that I don’t realize I’m wasting much of my time. Thanks for sharing what you found most helpful, Antonio! *AP® and Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and constitutional essay does not endorse, this product.

SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in great introductory paragraph the production of, and does not endorse this product. ACT® is a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in constitutional the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GRE® is write great paragraph a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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We will ensure that whenever our customers order goods from our online store, they will get it delivered to them within the stipulated time frame. We know that if we are able to put the write great introductory paragraph, above stated in place, we wouldn’t have to struggle to retain our old customers and at the same time win over new customers. One thing is certain about online store, it has a wider reach and with the proper strategy and structure in place, we will be able to get our own share of the available market. We are aware of the power of the internet and french on sport in school we will do all we can to maximize the internet to market our business. Paragraph Essay. In other words, a larger percentage of our marketing effort will be directed to activities internet users since our business is great introductory paragraph essay based on the internet; our website will become our number one marketing tool. In summary, Shannon Shavonne Inc. Online Store will adopt the following sales and marketing strategy; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters to ptv drama thesis residence, business owners and organizations Advertise our business on international magazines, satellite TV stations and radio stations Leverage on online forums to attract customers to our online store List our business on write yellow pages ads Leverage on the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Word of mouth marketing (referrals) e-Commerce Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Shannon Shavonne Inc.

Online Store will leverage on buchanan american essay all available platforms to promote and advertise our business. We know the power publicity which is why we have a rich budget to handle the great paragraph, publicity of our business. In School. We will be very aggressive when it comes to promoting our business especially within the first 12 months of operations. With effective publicity, we are likely going to hit the target that we set for write introductory paragraph essay the business. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and ptv drama advertise Shannon Shavonne Inc. Online Store; Place adverts on both print (international and local newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Google+, Badoo, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Brand our in house delivery bikes and vans.

Pricing is great paragraph one of the key factors that gives leverage to online retail stores, it is normal for consumers to french essay in school visit online retail stores where they can goods at write great introductory paragraph essay, cheaper price which is why big player in the ecommerce industry like Amazon will continue to french essay in school attract loads of consumers. Products in their store are tagged with the cheapest price you can get anywhere in paragraph, the world. We know we don’t have the capacity to compete with Amazon or any other big online retail store, but we will ensure that the constitutional essay, prices of all the products that are available in our online store are competitive and affordable. Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. We have designed our system to write introductory essay accept payments via credit cards, debit cards, smart cards, electronic fund transfer via bank#8217;s website and other modes of electronics payment. This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the argumentative essay, Business in Oregon $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits $1,500. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of Shannon Shavonne Inc. Online Store in the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of write paragraph essay $3,580.

Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. Cost for Computer Software (Accounting Software, Payroll Software, CRM Software, Microsoft Office, QuickBooks Pro, drug interaction software, Physician Desk Reference software) $7,000 Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and daisy property casualty) coverage at a total premium $3,400. Cost for payment of great introductory paragraph rent for warehouse facility for constitutional 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of write great introductory paragraph essay bills et al) $100,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of products) $150,000 Storage hardware (rack and essay on sport shelves,) $3,720 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, fax machine, cabins, tables and chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website: $1,500 The cost for the purchase of delivery vans and bikes: $70,000 The cost for branding: $5,000 The cost for our opening party: $7,000 Miscellaneous: $10,000. We would need an estimate of $700,000 to successfully set up our online retail business. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the staff for the first month of operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Shannon Shavonne Inc.

Online Store. Write Great Introductory. Shannon Shavonne Inc. Online Store is owned and financed by group of investors (Shannon Steve, Shavonne McPherson, Lois Gerrard, Emmanuelle Mitchell and David Henry). They have a long term plan of for teaching argumentative selling shares to other investors with similar investment ideology once the need arises. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the write great introductory paragraph, start – up capital from the owners (Shannon Steve, Shavonne McPherson, Lois Gerrard, Emmanuelle Mitchell and David Henry) Apply for loan from buchanan dream essay, my Bank Invite other interested investors (when the need for expansion arises.) N.B: We have been able to generate about $400,000 (from each of the write essay, partners) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $300,000 from the best statement for a cover is, our bank. All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the write introductory paragraph, loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. e-Commerce Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy.

The future of any business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that the business can boast of having, the capacity and competence of the pride connections essay, employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. Write Paragraph Essay. If any of constitutional essay these factors is great paragraph missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. Closing Letter. We are aware of these factors and we have been able to structure our business to. We will ensure that we engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce; we will not relent in write introductory paragraph, training and re – training of ptv drama thesis every of great our employees. Ptv Drama. Also, we will introduce a policy that guarantee our management team to become part owner of the business. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. Shannon Shavonne Inc. will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of. Great Paragraph. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of for teaching argumentative essay Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of warehouse facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating start up capital from partners: Completed Applications for Loan from the great introductory paragraph, bank: In Progress Writing of pride and prejudice to alice Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and introductory essay other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs, branding and Printing of Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances, delivery vans and delivery bikes: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of pride to alice connections essay products that will be available in our online store: Completed Establishing business relationship with manufacturers and wholesale suppliers of products we intend retailing: In Progress.

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essay on optimism In the first year, the write great introductory optimists in daisy buchanan dream essay the regular force outsold the pessimists, but only by 8 percent. In the write great introductory paragraph second year, the optimists sold 31 percent more. As for the special force, it did beautifully. They outsold the pessimists in the regular force by 21 percent during the first year, and by 57 percent in the second year. They even outsold the average of the regular force over the first two years, by 27 percent. In fact, they sold at least as much as the optimists in the regular force.

An optimistic explanatory style had the same effects when examined in educational institutions. 300 freshman in pride and letters the class of 1987 at the University of Pennsylvania were given the ASQ. At the end of the first semester, the students who were more optimistic were doing better. Introductory Paragraph Essay. Kamen and Seligman found that when we look at two people with equal academic abilities, the more optimistic person tends to get better grades. The optimists were those who explained their success in terms of enduring personal characteristics rather than in terms of luck, easy tests, or low grading standards. Similar results were found when Seligman tested twelve hundred plebes entering West Point military school. The school is so tough that a hundred usually dropped out before classes even began.

West Point was concerned about the dropout rate and activities argumentative essay their inability to predict which candidates would be able to stick it out. After following the results for two years, Seligman found that the students who quit were the great introductory paragraph pessimists: those who blamed bad events on themselves, who believed the bad thing would last forever, and that it would undermine everything they did. The linkage of optimism with success has turned up also in studies of on sport, sports. The optimists experienced more motivation to succeed and great introductory were more persistent in their efforts. Seligman and his colleagues analyzed numerous statements by french essay on sport in school members of teams like the Boston Celtics and the New Jersey Nets in 1983-84 to predict their performance in the 1984-85 season.

They found that the Celtic optimistically explained away their losses, while the write essay Nets said things like We are all missing everything, and We botched things up ourselves and blew all our opportunities. The researchers found that the teams#146; explanatory styles strongly predicted their level of essay on sport in school, success the following season. The same results were found in baseball#146;s National League. The degree of optimism predicted success even after allowing for how good the team was, and pessimism predicted failure. Politics provides another arena in which to paragraph essay, test the power of optimism. We see the same results here: One study analyzed the nomination acceptance speeches of Democratic and Republican presidential candidates between 1948 and 1984.

Even after adjusting for the popularity rating of the candidates according to polls, the candidates who concentrated on negative statements about the nation#146;s future almost always lost to those who expressed more optimistic views. The pessimistic candidates lost nine out of ten of the daisy buchanan american essay elections. Adlai Stephenson, unsuccessfully running in introductory paragraph essay 1952, declared, for essay, example: The ordeal of the 20 th century#151;the bloodiest, most turbulent era of the Christian age#151;is far from over. Sacrifice, patience, and implacable purpose may be our lot for years to come. Write Essay. His optimistic and successful opponent, Dwight Eisenhower instead made a clear statement of problem-solving action: I will go to Korea. Not only does an optimistic attitude make us more likely to succeed, believing that you control your life and can better it promotes good health. Optimism benefits health in four ways: First, by replacing a sense of helplessness with a feeling of control, optimism boosts the immune system. This was demonstrated in rat experiments by Madelon Visintainer. The rats who learned helplessness through the experimental setup were more vulnerable to pride and prejudice and letters connections, tumor growth than those who were able to shut off the electric shocks. Second, optimists will seek medical advice and stick to health programs better than pessimists.

The pessimists, telling themselves It doesn#146;t matter what I do will give up easily and introductory paragraph fail to seek information and professional advice. A study of one hundred Harvard graduates showed that the pessimists were less likely to quit smoking cigarettes than were the optimists. Third, the more negative life events a person encounters, the more illness he will probably suffer. If, all in activities argumentative one month, you lose your job, break up with your spouse, and a friend dies, your chances of becoming ill increase considerably. Pessimists experience more of these negative events. They take less action to prevent bad things happening, and when negative events occur they make them seem worse by thinking persistently, negatively, and great paragraph essay helplessly about thesis them.

Fourth, research has shown a clear correlation between resilience against illness and degree of write introductory paragraph essay, social support. Statement Cover Letter Is. Lonely people who have no close friends or who withdraw from social engagement when unhappy have a greater risk of illness and, when ill, are more likely to get worse. Pessimists take less action to great introductory, seek support. Optimism wipes away passivity, leading us to seek out for teaching argumentative other people. The company of others reduces stress, thereby boosting the immune system. Others can also help take care of us and encourage us to take medication, rest, or visit a doctor. One of the first studies of the role of pessimism in causing illness was carried out at write great introductory Virginia Tech in the mid-1980s. On Sport In School. The study, following 150 students, found that the optimists had only great introductory essay, half as many infectious illnesses and visits to the doctor as the pessimists. French In School. A British study followed sixty-nine women with breast cancer for five years. Those who optimistically fought the cancer were less likely to suffer a recurrence and write great paragraph essay more likely to survive than those who responded to their diagnosis with fatalistic passivity.

The rare women who survived long term after two bouts of cancer were those with an optimistic way of thinking. For years it was suspected that the cancer-prone person was inhibited, conforming, and depressive, and suppresses feelings rather than expressing them. Evidence has been accumulating to support this idea. Even more convincingly, the essay on sport in school development of introductory, cancer tends to be faster and more severe in those who are passive than in people who fight the cancer, believing they have some control. Psychiatrist Arthur Schale has found a higher incidence of cancer in those who feel helpless and hopeless. Unsubstantiated and exaggerated claims for the power of the mind to influence the body are easy to find. Yet the evidence now strongly suggests that the way we think and for teaching feel does influence our health to a significant degree. This should not be terribly surprising.

Thoughts take place in brains, and brains are integrated into the hormonal system. Great Introductory Essay. Minds and brains should be seen as aspects of one system, not as two distinct objects. One likely mechanism explaining the link between pessimism, depression and buchanan american susceptibility to disease is this: When we feel pessimistic, depressed, or are grieving over the loss of a loved one#151;a situation likely to induce a sense of introductory essay, lost control#151;a group of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain) becomes depleted. When catecholamines become depleted, another group of neurotransmitters, called endorphins, increase in activity. Ptv Drama. Endorphins are the body#146;s natural opiates. When endorphins increase in activity, the immune system turns itself down. A growing number of studies show that the sense of personal control felt by optimists clearly boosts the immune system. Paragraph Essay. Not only pride and letters connections, does optimism feel good, not only does it make us more successful, it can also save our lives and keep us in write great optimal health. TWELVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DYNAMIC OPTIMIST.

Now we have seen evidence supporting the intuitive view that optimism is good for us, we can examine the twelve characteristics in more detail. INTERPRETING EXPERIENCES POSITIVELY: (1) Selective Focus: Unimaginably vast in scope and complexity, reality cannot be fully recognized at any one time. Even that part of reality I call my life contains so many elements, events, phenomena, causes, consequences, and ptv drama perspectives that I cannot keep every aspect of it in great focus at any particular moment. Activities Essay. No matter how realistic and write essay rational we are, we have no choice but to focus our attention. Dynamic optimists choose to essay on sport, focus primarily on thoughts, events, and great introductory paragraph essay interpretations that induce joy, encouragement, pleasure, and ptv drama constructive activity. Optimists will look at the same world as pessimists but notice different things, and see the same things in different ways. One admires a well-tailored suit, the other cannot see anything but a tiny hole in the jacket. One enjoys the exertion of climbing a hill, the great introductory paragraph other worries about getting sweaty. Optimists spend most of their time focused on ptv drama thesis opportunities, on great introductory essay being with people who they enjoy and thesis benefit from, and on write great paragraph thoughts that energize them.

Dynamic optimists value rationality. So selective focus does not mean avoiding warning signals, or denying unpleasant events, persons, thoughts, or feelings. It does mean dwelling on the constructive and enjoyable and essay de-emphasizing pain, difficulty, and frustration. The negative aspects of life can be acknowledged but not fixated upon: Your lower back is sore and and you will seek to remedy the problem; in the meantime you will enjoy the movie. Disagreeable events can be placed in a context of learning. Optimists attend to the downsides of life only to the extent that this will enable them to move ahead. Preoccupied with encouraging, empowering thoughts, optimists have little time for dwelling on misery. Write Introductory Essay. Optimists can look at the best for a is a frustrating event, fully accepting its reality, then choose to interpret the event in a way that leads to action, growth, and mastery. A child#146;s irresponsible behavior, for great essay, example, can give a parent an opportunity to improve his communication skills. While the pessimist focuses on activities argumentative essay the frustration itself, often excessively and write great introductory pointlessly, the closing for a letter is optimist keeps the event in proportion, enjoys the rest of life, and looks for solutions to great introductory essay, the challenge.

This last word is a key part of the optimist#146;s vocabulary: Where the pessimist sees problems , the optimist sees challenges . If things are going well for an optimist, she often takes that as a sign that things will continue to go well, and that she is therefore capable of making things go well in other areas of life. If I#146;m making strong progress at my exercise routine, I can take it as a sign that I can overcome difficulties with my finances. If something goes badly, the optimist sees it as a useful learning experience and focuses on how she will do better in future. The pessimist thinks through an opposing filter. Some anonymous wit defined a pessimist as one who feels bad when he feels good for fear he#146;ll feel worse when he feels better. Pessimists fixate on everything that could possibly annoy, frustrate, or harm them. They worry unconstructively. If something goes well, they refuse to believe it, or they believe it cannot last. If it goes badly, it shows that everything is connections, getting worse. Pessimists see every option open to them as crowded with waiting traps, whether bankruptcy, betrayal, or bereavement.

The optimist recognizes the traps but has a wider vision open to solutions, possibilities, and assisting forces. By focusing on constructive, joyful, open-ended aspects of life, the write introductory paragraph essay optimist spots more solutions and feels more motivated to overcome obstacles. (2) Refraining from Complaining: Accompanying a positive focus we find the optimist a pleasure to constitutional conventions essay, be near. She sees more good than bad, more to praise than to blame, more open paths than closed roads. Write Introductory. Even when the optimist thinks of some negative event, she either keeps it to herself, or speaks of it only to french essay, help others or to write great introductory, seek solutions. Part of not focusing on the negative is not talking about it pointlessly. The more we complain to others, the closing letter is more we notice annoying, frustrating phenomena.

Whatever we focus on expands. Complaining, whining, moaning all make us fix our attention on our woes. They also make us boring! The less we complain, the more room exists in our minds for the constructive, the creative, the delightful. If life sometimes presents tough obstacles, the optimist recalls the words of Theodore Roosevelt, who said I wish to preach not the doctrine of ignoble ease, but the doctrine of strenuous life. A common form of complaint heard from pessimistically-focused thinkers sounds like this: Life isn#146;t fair.

I don#146;t deserve this. Why me? When something bad befalls us, it may be true that we do not deserve it, or that the world is not fair. But to introductory, whine about it can only be irrational. Yes the constitutional essay world is not fair. Introductory Essay. It just is.

The world was not built for our benefit. Other people are not here to serve us or to pride and letters to alice essay, make us happy. When the pessimist complains of write great, unfairness, they reveal an underlying irrational belief that life ought to be fair. Living effectively includes recognizing that the world will continue just being , rather than being fair . Making ourselves and activities argumentative essay others miserable by carping about it will get us nowhere. Such pointless, irrational moaning can only generate resentment.

Resentment leads to anger, hostility, and write introductory envy. The optimist expects no fairness (though is delighted when she finds it). Optimists search out people, circumstances, and ptv drama events that will assist them in life. When they run into opposing forces, they accept them calmly and with good humor look for ways around the obstacles thrown in their path. (3) Questioning Limits: Iron-clad limits do exist. You cannot jump unaided from here to the moon. You cannot run faster than light. You cannot make a million dollars by saying Shazam! These kinds of limits have little to do with the things we want to accomplish in life. The laws of physics (at least as we currently understand) rule out certain goals but outside that realm we will have to look hard to find many provably impossible goals.

Most of what we might want to achieve in write great paragraph life, whether it is ptv drama thesis, making millions, making major breakthroughs in a field of great paragraph, study, becoming famous, achieving our ideal body, or finding a wonderful life partner, may be difficult yet many people succeed. For almost any improbable goal, we can find those who have made their dream a reality. Optimists nurture a constructive skepticism that challenges the limiting beliefs held by ourselves, our associates, and our society. Optimists display a deep and pervasive creative openness to possibilities. They challenge unquestioned, traditional beliefs about limits where no convincing demonstration of impossibility has been made. Optimists#146; confidence in their ability to achieve their goals cannot easily be shaken. A rational optimist will not persistently attempt the truly impossible.

However, in human affairs we will not often be able to prove an endeavor to be impossible. Even if we can demonstrate some desired goal to be impossible, the optimist will not draw unnecessarily frustrating conclusions. Essay. Many limits are limits only within a specific context. We may be able to change the write introductory paragraph context and ptv drama thesis thereby change what is possible. Perhaps you simply cannot make your fortune in write great introductory paragraph essay that small town, but the same goal can be eminently achievable in a large city.

Some of the essay goals of introductory essay, Life Expansion as I am outlining it in this book have long been considered impossible. Extending the human life span past 120 has been declared impossible. Moving off this planet was considered impossible. Becoming more than human is still believed by many to be impossible or unthinkable. Dynamic optimists are especially suspicious of thesis, supposed limitations that others claim to be sacred, natural, or inherent in great paragraph essay the divine order. Optimists with a sense of history and some understanding of current technological developments see that each of these traditional human limitations may not be invincible after all. Each age, lacking the necessary vision, will, and technology, elevates temporary limits to the achievement of our goals to the status of unalterable facts that must be accepted, even glorified and worshipped. (If life cannot be extended, why then, mortality must be good and natural!) The dynamic optimist challenges personal and socially accepted limits through the directed application of reason, analysis, and creative thinking to a problem. The pessimist accepts limits without question, feeling comfortable with the given, and lacks the drive to conventions, search for solutions. The optimist probes the supposed limits, staying open to new pathways, applying creativity, and determination. Write Paragraph. Actor Christopher Reeve has provided a shining example of a person challenging limits.

Instead of giving up after being severely crippled in ptv drama thesis a horse-riding accident, he has persistently pushed himself to regain strength and control. He had the courage to appear before a billion people at the 1996 Academy Awards. His example has inspired millions to laugh at the relatively trivial obstacles in their own lives. The Wright Brothers, the Apollo rocket launches, and the gerontologists probing at the mechanisms of great introductory paragraph essay, aging all represent the daisy dream essay optimist#146;s unwillingness to acquiesce in what others see as inevitable limitations. (4) Sense of Abundance: Pessimists see the world as full of obstacles and almost empty of options. They feel that someone else#146;s success means their failure. They see life as what economists call a zero-sum game#151;gains by great introductory essay one person must be matched by losses for activities for teaching argumentative, others, so the total gain is zero. Write Great. This belief (often unconscious) in limited rewards, limited successes, and limited options leads to envy and resentment.

The effective optimist, by the best letter contrast, understands that everyone can improve their situation. Another person#146;s success is to be admired, not resented. Introductory. The success of others not only does not keep us down, it can help us: success in conventions others provides a model for us to learn from, and introductory essay concretely shows that success is closing for a cover is, possible. Write Great Paragraph. If my friend writes a best-selling book, why then, perhaps I can too! Dynamic optimists feel free to do what they want to do.

As self-directed persons driven by ptv drama thesis positive values rather than fear or envy, they experience the world as crammed with endless possibilities they can choose from. Typically, they feel no coercion from people or circumstances to do anything. All they do is driven by their passions, not by external pressures. Write Great Introductory Paragraph. They work at what they love, not because it was their parent#146;s profession or because it is respectable. Optimists live with passion, fixing their attention on what they want to achieve and how they can achieve it. They appreciate what they have and love the world for all that it offers. French In School. Rather than complaining about having to make a living, for example, optimists apply their sense of abundance by write introductory paragraph essay fully appreciating the vast range of possible occupations open to them. If they do not possess all the skills needed for a desired occupation, they learn them. Pessimists settle for what they see as the realistic option. Crucial to fostering a sense of abundance is being for things, not against things.

You may be against many things: crime, war, being overweight, the essay budget deficit, intolerance, aging. Optimists restate anything they oppose in positive terms. Rather than being against government, be for liberty and responsibility. Rather than being against your company or office manager, be for making improvements. Instead of saying no to drugs, say yes to healthy pleasures.

I am not merely playing a word game here: Your energy goes wherever you focus your attention. When you are against something you will expend your time and energy attacking it, complaining about it, and great introductory essay reacting to it. When you are for an alternative, you focus on changing it, creating alternatives, exciting others about new options, and feeling productive and cover is creative#151;you will be proactive rather than reactive. Being for things, and a strong sense of abundance creates personal energy. An optimistic sense of abundance encourages cheerfulness and activity. Write Introductory Paragraph. In a high-energy optimistic state you want to constitutional, tackle tasks because you expect to write paragraph essay, enjoy the activity and expect to make progress at the best closing statement for a letter it.

This creates a self-reinforcing cycle: Optimism breeds increased enthusiasm; this leads to effort and introductory progress which validates optimism and generates more of it. The virtuous circle of optimism replaces the vicious circle of pessimism. (5) Humor: Humor acts both as a cause and a consequence of dynamic optimism. Conventions Essay. Not surprisingly, optimists, being cheerful types, will tend to see more humor in everyday events than gloomy pessimists. Feeling good lends itself to spotting funny incongruities and enjoyable oddnesses. Pessimists, if humorous at all, display a more cynical, snide, nasty form of humor. Humor for them provides a way of great, tearing down and deriding the accomplishments and conventions essay character of others. More surprisingly, humor adds to optimism.

Since optimism requires an openness to new possibilities and different perspectives, it helps to be able to write great introductory, laugh at dogmatic thinking in ourselves and others. Daisy Buchanan American. Healthy, good-natured humor can reveal fresh approaches. Paragraph. Humor will be particularly helpful when the rigidity or irrationality is found in ourselves. Without humor, we may lock up emotionally, defending to the death the wisdom of what we are doing and who are. With humor, we can look on our shortcomings with amusement. For A Cover Letter Is. Most humor involves seeing old things from unexpected angles. This explains the power of humor to promote self-transformation: We will find it easier to change ourselves if we can use humor to step aside from who we are right now and see who we could become. Nietzsche told us that laughter means to rejoice at write great introductory paragraph essay another#146;s expense, but with a good conscience. We can laugh at closing statement for a cover letter is our own foibles with a good conscience because humor allows us to separate our core sense of identity from the introductory foolishness we currently see in pride and letters to alice connections essay ourselves. INFLUENCING OUTCOMES POSITIVELY: (6) Rational: Being rational means doing our best to see reality as it is rather than as we want it to write great introductory, be.

Rationality involves apportioning our belief according to the evidence: withholding commitment to unsupported beliefs, even if we want them to be true; not being certain of uncertain ideas; and always being open to revision of beliefs as new evidence and new reasons appear. Buchanan Essay. The dynamic optimist applies reason to find ways of assessing and achieving goals, and does not confuse what he wishes to be true with what is true. Blind, wishful optimism is write, not dynamic optimism, it is an closing for a cover letter irrational optimism or faith in an unreal world. Introductory Essay. The rational optimist#151;the optimist who works with reality rather than against it#151;separates his emotional urges from his understanding as far as possible. The rational optimist thinks critically and ptv drama thesis logically about the world around him. He also turns the bright light of reason on himself, examining the causes and reasons of his motivations and beliefs about write great introductory essay himself. Rational optimism means using reason to discover what truly works. Reason involves learning how to assess evidence for claims, how to analyze arguments, assess motivations, figure out who and what to believe and how far to believe it. Is supplemental vitamin E good for my health?

Should I invest in stocks or bonds? Should I believe the claims of homeopathy? Should I always trust my intuitions? Reason also involves ensuring that that your goals are attainable and that you have chosen effective means to them, and conventions essay making sure your goals are consistent and write paragraph coherent together. (7) Self-Improving: Dynamic optimists see themselves in conventions essay transformational terms#151;they see the great introductory paragraph self as a process , not a static entity. Optimists recognize the possibilities for continuing growth, self-correction, and self-improvement. Rather than seeing their current psychology and personality as the ptv drama ultimate form of themselves, optimists view it as a transition to a better self. If we are to expand our lives, overcoming limits to achievement and happiness, we need to detach ourselves from who we are today.

More fundamentally we need to write great essay, see ourselves as an evolutionary process of ever-improving development. Pride Connections Essay. Our current personalities serve as one link in the chain of write great introductory essay, our being. As Henri Bergson said in Creative Evolution : To exist is to change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on creating oneself endlessly. The powerful drive to improve, to pride and prejudice and letters to alice, overcome existing limitations in the self, in write essay optimists is not pushed by fear or self-dislike. This drive is pulled by french essay on sport in school an inspiring self-image.

Optimists form an image of who they want to become and great essay use it as a guide for action. To Alice Essay. They stride towards their ideals rather than running away from who they are now. They seek to become beautiful, not to cover their ugliness; they patiently strive for calmness rather than berating themselves for their bad temper. Optimists feel a basic sense of happiness, but it is a happiness without self-satisfaction. The drive to self-transformation comes not from a rejection of the great introductory self, but from an identification with the self#146;s continual process of maturation and strengthening. Optimists recognize the natural law: Develop or perish. To remain the same leads to stagnation and to falling behind, especially in the modern world#146;s frantic and and prejudice and letters to alice accelerating rate of change. Dynamic optimists seek to be not masters of the present, but masters of great introductory, transformation. The drive for self-transformation, perpetual self-improvement, distinguishes the dynamic optimist from the passive optimist.

The latter sits back, does nothing, and tells himself that everything will work out fine, and that he need not make any effort to daisy american dream essay, improve his approach to living. The dynamic optimist acts on the recognition that continual transcendence of great paragraph, personal limits fuels success, achievement, and happiness. Essay In School. As Goethe tells us in The Mysteries : All force strives forward to write paragraph, work far and wide. To live and constitutional conventions essay grow and ever to expand; Yet we are checked and essay thwarted on each side. By the world#146;s flux and swept along like sand: In this internal storm and outward tide. We hear a promise, hard to understand: From the compulsion that all creatures binds, Who overcomes himself, his freedom finds. (8) Experimental: Pessimists and daisy dream passive optimists both cling to the old and familiar, the authorized, regulated and approved.

The dynamic optimist will be among the write introductory paragraph first to adopt more effective practices. Effective optimism requires more than a belief that things will improve; it requires actively searching for activities essay, and creating novel approaches. Certainly the optimist eagerly learns from culturally entrenched practices, whether these are ways of great paragraph, organizing a business, principles for a marriage, or methods of boosting athletic performance. Yet he will put no unquestioning faith in ideas simply because they are old and widely accepted. The optimist evaluates each idea, each method on its merits, being quick to essay, try fresh approaches where they appear to write great paragraph, offer advantages. The optimistic personality continually seeks out better ways of doing things, jumps out of ruts before they can wear deep, and questions dogmas and constitutional essay unthinking traditions. Nietzsche expressed this urgent drive to challenge the write great essay old: #133; Not to question , not to tremble with the craving and joy of questioning#133; that is what I feel to be contemptible , and this feeling is the american essay first thing I seek in everyone: some foolishness persuades me ever and again that every human being has this feeling, as a human being.

As Nietzsche recognized with disappointment, many humans do not share this joy of questioning. Pessimists and passive optimists feel comfortable and satisfied with the write paragraph essay accepted and traditional. Only dynamic optimists exhibit a fundamental openness to new and better paths. An optimistic attitude encourages openness to and prejudice and letters connections essay, new sources of information and new methods of improving life. When it forms part of your personality, an actively optimistic attitude programs your brain to apprehend opportunities and possibilities. Write Great Essay. This open, experimental attitude will both see more new approaches and show more willingness to try them out.

By applying his experimental attitude, the dynamic optimist becomes intensely creative. Willingness to experiment implies a tolerance for risk-taking. Remembering the importance of rationality, this does not mean wild, random risk-taking, but a willingness to assume calculated risks for anticipated benefits. We might think that sticking with widely accepted methods is safe, but where improvement is needed, failing to experiment is essay on sport, itself risky. The optimist heeds the advice of Thomas Watson, founder of computer giant IBM, who told us: The way to succeed is to paragraph, double your failure rate. Optimists see the self as a process not a static entity.

This allows them to closing statement for a is, identify with improving their ideas, methods, and great paragraph essay practices, rather than desperately needing to be seen as right . Pride Essay. Optimists, expecting success or at least learning from their experiments, will not be paralyzed by fear of failure. They keep their mind on write great their goals, unlike pessimists who shy away from uncertain attempts because they entertain all the possible undesirable outcomes while feeling that being mistaken means being failures and fools. (9) Self-Confident: We all feel confident in specific areas of life. You might be confident when playing tennis, or in closing a deal, or in giving a speech. The Best Closing For A Cover Letter. But you might lack confidence in changing a diaper, replacing your computer#146;s hard drive, or singing in tune. The dynamic optimist cannot help but lack competence in numerous areas, yet retaining a solid confidence . Write Great Introductory Paragraph. Self-confidence means not confidence in specific areas, but a fundamental conviction that I am competent to live. I may lack a skill or ability needed to activities for teaching, get a particular job or to solve a relationship difficulty, but I feel confident that I can acquire those skills. I feel assured that I can think up or discover existing solutions, or find someone with sound advice. If a person lacks this basic sense of self-confidence, a pervasive pessimism will be hard to avoid. Acquiring self-confidence requires an effort; anyone promising to deliver it to you in introductory one quick painless fix is essay, lying. The underlying confidence I refer to comes from write introductory essay repeated experiences of successful learning and problem-solving, each of which takes attention and effort.

By repeatedly achieving, as well as recognizing and french essay on sport in school celebrating our achievements, we can build self-confidence. While the passive optimist hopes that someone else will make the future better, the great paragraph essay dynamic optimist believes he can and will bring about what he wants. He does not leave the future up to passive hoping and wishing, he takes action. If he wants a more enjoyable job, he does not wait for an offer, he goes out and searches for one, confident that he has the necessary skills or that he can acquire them. Effective optimism implies confidence in being able to create the future we want. Self-confidence generates persistence by giving us the constitutional conventions essay power to keep trying in the face of resistance and setbacks. With self-confidence we will continue making an effort until we finally overcome all obstacles. Write Great Introductory Essay. Pessimists, believing desirable goals to be unattainable, do not persist. In giving up so soon, and thereby failing, they reinforce their sense of personal inefficacy.

Pervasive pessimism in a person goes hand in hand with a self-image conveying failure, inability and resignation. A drive towards self-improvement and a willingness to daisy, experiment with novel approaches cannot exist without self-confidence. (10) Self-Worth: Self-confidence combines with self-worth to form self-esteem. Whereas self-confidence means a fundamental sense that I am competent to live and flourish, self-worth means a sense that I deserve to live. Some unfortunate individuals lack self-worth, sometimes due to great introductory paragraph, destructive parents who continually undermined them as children, and sometimes due to religious doctrines proclaiming that we are inherently evil, corrupt, and letter unworthy. While we can practice dynamic optimism even without a sense of self-worth, believing that we are worthy of success and great introductory happiness makes optimism far easier. Essay. How motivated will a person be to create the conditions for his success if he believes he does not deserve to flourish? How strongly will he pursue happiness if he believes he deserves to write essay, be punished? This motivation may still exist: the person might be motivated to achieve in order to serve someone else, or as an letter is offering to a god. Write Great Essay. Such externally-based motivation risks building resentment.

Self-worth bonded to self-confidence forms a powerful core of self-esteem. When self-esteem suffuses our personality, we can forcefully tackle any new challenge with assurance. (11) Personal Responsibility: Effective optimism requires understanding the daisy dream essay part we play in bringing about the results we want. The passive optimist, with his comfortable faith that other people and institutions will do it all, refuses to acknowledge his own role. I cannot endorse the common New Age belief that we entirely create our own reality. Yet our own thinking and action does radically affect our chances of success. Unlike the passive optimist, the dynamic optimist realizes that goals can be reliably achieved only through personal effort. Great Paragraph Essay. Wishful thinking cannot substitute for active pursuit of the life we want. Taking responsibility for ourselves requires a strong sense of constitutional conventions essay, purpose.

Without a clear vision of our destination we will find it hard to introductory paragraph, get anywhere. Being responsible asks of us self-discipline: as we make our choices through the day we need to keep our goals and values in mind, stay focused, and french resist distractions. More than that, taking responsibility means persisting at working toward what matters to us. Persistence and perseverance are virtues of introductory essay, character found in all successful persons. Ptv Drama Thesis. Standing out as a great model of persistence, Thomas Edison tried endless combinations of materials and structures before finally creating the light bulb. His mind stayed focused tightly on introductory his goal, allowing no doubts to stop him, and he persisted through hundreds of failed attempts. Personal responsibility combines psychological characteristics with ethical values. Being responsible involves more than personal effort, focus, and persistence. The Best Statement For A Cover Letter Is. It also requires integrity: living according to write introductory paragraph essay, your values.

An integrated personality has developed a consistent and rational set of pride and prejudice and letters to alice, values conducive to successful living. If we profess our values yet live according to whim, social pressures, or expediency, we will find ourselves pulled in opposing directions. Lack of integrity saps our will by write great introductory pitting our values against our outward words and deeds. Like a car trying to move with its parking brake on, we will struggle harder to create the life we want if we give up our integrity. Living with integrity is thesis, profoundly practical, not merely a nice abstract ideal. Taking responsibility for great introductory paragraph, keeping our words and actions consistent with our values means exercising our autonomy#151;our ability to buchanan american essay, make our own choices even in write great introductory paragraph the face of external pressures. Being responsible for ourselves can be a great challenge when surrounding us we find government programs to take care of us, and authority figures wanting to run our lives (whether these are parents, gurus, or officials). These stealers of responsibility seduce us by offering ease and security if we will only give up personal control and let them make the the best closing for a letter decisions. But once we give up our autonomy and responsibility to others, we also give up our control over our future. (12) Selecting Environment: We can maintain an optimistic, creative, solution-finding attitude in any environment.

The ability to separate our thinking, to choose how we feel and act, is an aspect of our autonomy as humans. Even in the Nazi death camps, some stayed alive and write great introductory paragraph sane by focusing their thoughts on their hopes and on ptv drama thesis what they could control. Clearly, though, we will find it far easier to persist in a dynamically optimistic approach to life when surrounded by others who fuel us rather than drain us. Some of write great paragraph essay, us may be unfortunate enough to essay, live and write great essay work with those who continually tell us why we cannot do what we want, why our efforts are doomed to fail, and french who point to all the possible obstacles and relate tales of every failure they have heard of. While stuck in such an environment we will need to introductory paragraph, maintain more vigilance over our own thinking. If we find ourselves smothered in this miasma, we would do well to devote plenty of effort to changing our circumstances. This may mean changing jobs or offices, or fending off negative co-workers, relatives, or acquaintances. Dynamic optimists will find themselves attracted to persons and environments that inspire, support, and for teaching assist, not those that discourage, distract, and write great introductory undermine. Still, we should take this recommendation in the context of the other characteristics of a dynamic optimist, and not take it to an extreme in isolation. Since success requires a clear understanding of the world as it really is, not as we wish it to be, we need to place ourselves among those who will not always agree with us. Closing For A Cover. If we hear only agreement from those who think just like us, we will fall into a distorted view of the world.

Our beliefs, values, and introductory paragraph goals need to be tested, questioned, challenged. Only by surviving the is criticism of others (and ourselves) or mutating into write great new forms can our beliefs and goals offer any assurance of being realistic. The optimist will therefore select the essay in school environment so as to surround himself not with only those who agree with him, but with those who will either agree and support him or constructively, reasonably, usefully criticize his goals and methods. Hostile, destructive criticism can still be useful, but is harder to learn from and can undermine our motivation. Write Introductory Paragraph. The dynamic optimist carefully selects the environment to achieve a balance of ptv drama, support with constructive disagreement.

Optimism and Uncertainty. Bertrand Russell, one of the most prolific and long-lived philosophers of the 20 th century, pointed out that: Many people would sooner die than think. In fact they do. Introductory Paragraph. Russell#146;s barbed observation continues to french essay, be all too true. At this stage in human development, most of write great introductory paragraph essay, us display a deep desire for conventions essay, certainty. Great Introductory Essay. Is this due to culture or our biological nature? Given the cross-cultural persistence of the need for certainty, I suspect it is ptv drama thesis, partly rooted in our evolutionary past. Write Great Paragraph. Back in our hunter-gatherer days, those who were uncertain about whether to run, how to throw a spear or stone, or whether to mate, were likely to die, their genes being forever taken out of the gene pool. The choices then were relatively simple.

Quick, decisive, certain choices probably conferred a survival advantage. If a tendency toward certainty and the dogmatic thinking that results really is ptv drama, built into our brain, advanced genetic technology may be the only effective way to remedy it. In the meantime, only introductory paragraph essay, those who remain aware of this tendency, and conventions essay strive continually to combat it in themselves, will have a chance of being the write great introductory rational beings philosophers have long proclaimed us to conventions essay, be. We find it more comfortable to believe things with certainty. Certainty assures us we need look no further: we have found the final, unalterable truth. We need not think, we need not make new decisions, we need not experiment or question ourselves. The desperate desire for certainty insinuates itself into every aspect of our lives but especially in the area of religious and political beliefs. Dogmatic religious beliefs extol certainty, even making faith#151;belief in something despite the paragraph essay evidence#151;into a virtue. This attitude toward certainty and dogmatic faith was stated in an especially unapologetic and extreme form by the Church father Tertullian.

After Jesus we have no need of speculation, after the daisy american dream Gospel no need of research. When we come to believe, we have no desire to write great introductory essay, believe anything else; for daisy buchanan dream essay, we begin by believing that there is nothing else we have to believe. Certainty reduces our chances of succeeding in many situations because it prevents us opening ourselves to new sources of information. It leads us to conclude further investigation and write introductory experimentation to the best statement letter, be a waste of time. The emotional reward that keeps people coming back to certainty like a favorite drug is its ability to pacify us, to write paragraph, soothe us, and to relieve us of responsibility. Optimism tainted with dogmatic certainty can appeal to pride connections essay, us since it lets us believe that success requires no action, or at least no new action. If you feel certain that a desired event or outcome will occur, you need not contribute to bringing it about. Write Great. If you hold a belief with certainty you need not go to the trouble of daisy dream, looking for write great introductory paragraph essay, contrary evidence. Unfortunately we cannot draw a sharp, unmistakable dividing line between dynamic optimism and passive optimism and its reliance on certainty. Keeping in mind the twelve characteristics of the dynamic optimist will help keep optimism active and conventions open.

It is up to us to write great introductory paragraph essay, guard against allowing our dynamically optimistic thinking to ptv drama, degenerate into passive Pollyanna optimism. We cannot reliably distinguish rationally and irrationally optimistic beliefs on the basis of the strength of those beliefs (though this can be one indication). Faith, or dogmatically optimistic beliefs, can be weak, though this is write great paragraph, generally an the best cover unstable state, and many perfectly ordinary beliefs are extremely strongly held. For instance, I am very sure that I currently live in Southern California, that the Earth orbits the sun and that I am biologically male. Write Great Introductory Essay. How can we distinguish life expanding optimism from dogmatic optimism? Let me emphasize some of the twelve characteristic of dynamic optimists to french essay in school, help with this question:

Both kinds of optimistic thinking involve selective focus, or selective filtering of information and experience, but in different ways. Write Great Introductory Paragraph Essay. Dogmatic optimists refuse to consider evidence that things are not going the way they want. They avert their eyes from obstacles to their goals. They see only encouraging signs while blanking out disturbing signs. The dynamic optimist uses selective focus differently: He chooses not to dwell endlessly and pointlessly on essay unpleasant and unchangeable events or persons. Write. He remains open to recognizing and accepting obstacles to his goals. For Teaching Argumentative. Rather than blind himself to write introductory paragraph essay, them, he sees them as challenges, and constitutional essay thinks cheerfully, creatively, and openly about how to deal with them. We have seen that dynamic optimists continually seek to paragraph essay, improve themselves. Conventions Essay. While valuing who they are now, they strive to become ever better.

They may be satisfied with their progress, but they are never self-satisfied in thinking they are the best they can be. To prevent life expanding optimism from decaying into self-satisfied passive optimism check your behavior over time. Have you stopped looking for ways to improve? Do you approach every conversation as a chance to show the other fellow where he#146;s gone wrong? Have you made real progress with your goals, or are you just telling yourself that you have or you will start to real soon now? We can check our optimism also by noting our degree of rationality and great essay experimentalism. You may be facing a problem or choice: Whether to stay with this job or change companies or professions; whether to tell the truth or lie to stay out of a conflict; whether to vote for government welfare or subsidies or to essay on sport, oppose them. How do you go about making these decisions? Do you look for answers and solutions always in essay the same places?

Is there one book that you look to constitutional conventions essay, every time for write, certain answers? Do you stick with what you have always done in the past? Do you look at information always from the same sources, or do you consult diverging books, magazines, speakers? Dynamic optimists never rely on dogmatic authorities (though they will listen for possible wisdom even from self-proclaimed gurus or authorities), whether these are living persons, massive institutions, or old books. For Teaching Argumentative Essay. The dynamic optimist tries to think as a critical rationalist#151;someone who leaves everything open to question and great who treats no authority as an absolute guarantee of truth. Daisy Buchanan American. Rather than being disturbed by having his beliefs or favorite sources challenged, the rational optimist welcomes feedback and new perspectives. (This does not mean wasting time with uninformative fools who only want to impose their ill-formed ideas on anyone within reach.) You can feel confident that your optimism remains rational and effective so long as you see plenty of introductory, signs of continued searching, critical experimentation, and personal responsibility for buchanan american dream, learning in open ways. The active and passive forms of optimism differ in an obvious way when it comes to the issue of write great paragraph, personal responsibility. The passive optimist believes that he will succeed in his endeavors, or circumstances will improve, not as a result of his own efforts but primarily or solely because of external factors. If someone expects their problems to be solved by the government, their parents, their spouse, or a god, they abdicate personal responsibility for their lives. You can spot the slide from dynamic to passive optimism if you see yourself no longer taking action to ptv drama, better your circumstances, instead sitting back and write great thinking someone else will take of it. Dynamic optimists realize that they cannot control other people, only themselves.

They place confidence in their own ability to change the shape of the future. They jump in and actively set about creating the outcome they desire. Adopting certain habits and practices can help guard against argumentative letting our dynamically optimistic thinking deteriorate into the more common passive form. Paragraph Essay. The crucial first step involves thoroughly understanding the characteristics of the dynamic optimist and how they differ from the passive optimist. Once that understanding has been absorbed deep down, we will find it easier to detect and prevent the infiltration of passive thinking. As part of regular daily and in school weekly meditation and life-review habits, we can check our recent thinking and behavior. Write Introductory. Regular sessions for setting personal goals and ptv drama priorities provide an opportunity for great paragraph essay, a reality check.

These sessions give us a quiet time in which to reassess short-term and long-term goals and closing statement the effectiveness of the means being used. During meditation sessions we can renew our optimistic perspective, rooting out pessimism, while also checking that our optimism remains active and open. Another way to maintain a high level of optimism while avoiding intellectual passivity and certainty is to subject your ideas to great introductory paragraph, evaluation by the best closing statement for a letter others of similar commitment. Such individuals and groups should also be oriented towards a rational, active optimism. Such persons allow you to test your ideas and goals in an environment both friendly and write introductory paragraph essay able to restrain unbridled flights of fantasy. Testing your ideas in groups that are fundamentally opposed to your goals, or who cannot comprehend them, is neither encouraging nor enlightening. Testing your ideas in supportive yet critical and analytical communities is vital.

Once we understand dynamic optimism thoroughly we have taken a giant leap toward being able to implement it fully in our lives. Ptv Drama Thesis. Shaping our thinking in an optimistic direction will be easier if we have some specific ideas of what to watch for in our thinking. I can only write paragraph, briefly explain a handful of activities for teaching argumentative essay, these mental patterns here. I refer the reader to the Resources for more writings and workshops on the subject. Write Great Paragraph. Cognitive psychologists such as David Burns and Albert Ellis have done us a great service in clearly identifying many thinking patterns typically found in essay pessimists and depressed persons. Since my focus is on the positive#151;on becoming ever better than we are#151;rather than on the negative side of what causes depression and lack of great introductory, motivation, I will point out a few positive correlates of the thinking patterns identified by these therapists. PARTICULARIZE: When the optimist has been frustrated by conventions essay obstacles to his goals, he reacts appropriately: He inspects the obstacle and sees it for what it is, then considers how to remove it. The pessimist, especially if depressed, does the opposite. Write Paragraph Essay. A depressed person will see a single negative event as an endless pattern of defeat.

A woman went for a first job interview. Argumentative Essay. Being nervous and inexperienced she performed at less than her best and was not called back for a second interview at the firm. She told herself: I never get a break. I#146;m so rotten at introductory paragraph essay this that no one will employ me. French In School. What#146;s the great introductory paragraph essay use? From a single experience she irrationally overgeneralizes to a belief about all future interview experiences. A shy teenage boy asked out a girl he was attracted to.

Being insensitive or perhaps simply not knowing how to respond any other way, she told him Only in your dreams. The boy tells himself: I#146;m ugly and boring. No girl will go out with me. Overgeneralizations like this can turn into ptv drama thesis self-fulfilling prophecies since the introductory paragraph irrational belief leads the person to refrain from more attempts. With no more attempts to get an interview or a date, there can be no successes and so the daisy buchanan dream person#146;s belief seems to write great introductory, be confirmed. The optimist refrains from overgeneralizing. Effective thinkers look at the frustrating situation as a particular event. That event need not represent any pattern; it can lead to very different future events if treated as a learning experience.

If the woman going for the interview had been aware of her thinking, she might have stopped the self-defeating cognition, instead telling herself: Well, I didn#146;t do so well at my first attempt. I#146;ll do better next time. Now I know better what to expect. Let#146;s see, I could practice my responses to the questions I was asked, I could sit straighter and constitutional conventions essay speak up confidently, and I could take more initiative in asking questions when given the opportunity. Similarly, the rejected boy might have reminded himself that this girl might have been having a bad day, and not all other girls would react the same way.

He might ask himself if he contributed to her response, perhaps by being too tentative, and write introductory paragraph consider how to ptv drama thesis, come across more engagingly. The optimistic response to write great introductory paragraph, a bad experience is to look at it as a particular event, not an omen of perpetual failure, and to learn from it in order to constitutional essay, correct course and home in on the desired goal. EMPHASIZE THE POSITIVE: Depression-prone individuals usually suffer from anhedonia#151;the inability to write great introductory essay, enjoy anything. One cause of closing statement, this is their tendency to disqualify their positive experiences. Even non-depressive, hard-driven Type A personalities can fall into write great introductory paragraph this trap. Upon being given a major promotion with raise in pride and prejudice and letters pay and great paragraph benefits, an pride and prejudice and letters executive immediately started worrying about her new responsibilities.

She did not hold a party to celebrate, turned down friends#146; invitations to dinner to congratulate her, and forgot about all the ways she earned the promotion. Write Introductory Paragraph. A man in his sixties who has exercised for years and maintained sound diet and health habits was complimented on his trim, youthful appearance. I#146;m just lucky he replied. Have you ever replied to a compliment or commendation with phrases like You#146;re just being nice, It was nothing really, or It doesn#146;t really count for ptv drama, anything? If so, you have disqualified your positive experiences. When this becomes a pattern, we deplete our motivation and darken our view of the world.

Having pushed aside our joyful, successful, affirming experiences, we are left looking only at our mistakes, shortcomings, and setbacks. Even if someone has enough motivation or self-discipline to keep accomplishing things despite disqualifying the positive, he will derive little pleasure from his successes. If our goal is to both move forward in our lives and enjoy doing so, we need to affirm our positive experiences. The dynamic optimist does not need to seek approval, and does not abuse compliments by write great introductory paragraph puffing himself up in a falsely self-aggrandizing manner. On the other hand, the essay on sport optimist can confidently acknowledge compliments and rewards. Instead of replying with It was nothing, he says Thank you. The optimist celebrates both his own and other people#146;s successes, enjoys each victory and advance, and appreciates what he has earned. While the optimist looks forward to tackling new responsibilities and to moving on to fresh goals after achieving old ones, he does not forget to appreciate the efforts that got him where he is. Set realistic goals and standards: The tendency to disqualify the positive often festers side by side with the vice of perfectionism.

Optimism has nothing to do with wanting to be perfect. Optimism as I have explained it involves a confident drive to continually improve oneself and one#146;s circumstances. But not only does continual improvement not require perfection, it is write introductory essay, not even compatible with it. If you are perfect, or believe you are, you have no room for further improvement. Optimists expect to do well and to keep getting better. They feel no need to be perfect or do a job perfectly. They do not have to mow the lawn magnificently, just well enough. They do not need to write to their friends with unprecedented wit and skill; they just need to say things clearly. By setting realistic goals and standards for themselves, optimists succeed more often, thereby reinforcing their optimism and activities argumentative motivation.

If I feel I must ski not just well but perfectly, I will get frustrated and paragraph essay angry at ptv drama myself for being only fairly good. Since I know I will not ski perfectly next time, I am likely to avoid trying it again. Perfectionism, by setting us up for failure, may discourage us from ever starting on a project. Write Great Paragraph. If we do start we may leave it unfinished, so we can tell ourselves: Well, if I had finished it, it would have been superb. Constitutional Essay. If we do finish the write paragraph project, we will be unable to fully enjoy the imperfect result.

We can see perfectionism as an example of black-and-white, all-or-nothing thinking. Argumentative. Either we must do a job superbly, magnificently, with unprecedented excellence, or it is not worth doing at all. Thinking more rationally, optimists breeze past the perfectionist, content to simply do things well or even adequately and then to do them better the next time. Many of us feel drawn to perfectionist attitudes because we believe this to help us perform at our best. Consider some reasons why perfectionism can have the opposite result, apart from discouraging us in the first place: Facing such a lofty standard you may get so nervous that you cannot perform well. You may be too afraid to experiment with uncertain procedures that might produce superior results. Write Great. You may be afraid to make mistakes that could reveal useful information. Turning perfectionist standards outward to constitutional conventions essay, other people, you will become intolerant of others and write great introductory paragraph may drive them away. Since perfection is almost never attainable#151;or even definable (how would you run a marathon perfectly?)#151;you will always feel frustrated, unhappy, and bitter so long as you put perfectionism in place of realistic goals and standards. KEEP EVENTS IN PROPORTION: A woman went to pick up her car from the closing statement for a cover mechanic, expecting it to be fixed by 3pm. She was looking forward to write great introductory paragraph, meeting a date at 4pm on the other side of town.

Smiling tightly at her, the mechanic explained that he hadn#146;t been able to essay, fix the engine trouble yet, and would have to keep the car for another couple of great essay, hours. You#146;re ruining my life! the woman shouted. French In School. This exaggeration in thinking afflicts almost all of us sometimes, and paragraph essay some of us all too frequently. The housecleaners do an imperfect job and we complain Everyone#146;s incompetent! Perhaps you notice a minor mistake on a report for your company after it has been printed for french on sport, everyone to read. How awful! you tell yourself. That#146;s terrible. How could I be so sloppy?

Everyone will think I#146;m an write great introductory paragraph essay idiot. Damn it! We can call this kind of negative exaggeration magnification or catastrophizing . It involves blowing up a minor irritation into a major calamity. The old cliche about ptv drama making mountains out of molehills arose from great paragraph someone noticing how some of us like to turn small annoyances and frustrations into world-shaking (or at least life-threatening) catastrophes. We feel so much more important when every little setback can be seen as a dramatic cataclysm in the epic of our life! Unfortunately, the drama is a tragedy, where each day we are fated to suffer incalculable misery. Cognitive therapist David Burns has referred to this distortion in thinking as the binocular trick.

You look at negative events in such a way as to blow them up in essay size and importance. If you tend to compare yourself to others, you might also magnify the other fellow#146;s accomplishment, making yourself feel more threatened by comparison. The binocular trick works from the other end too, in which case we call it minimization. Here you look through the write great introductory essay other end of the binoculars at your accomplishments (or your competitors imperfections) and shrink them down to an insignificant size. When we regularly practice the binocular trick we overwhelm ourselves. Obstacles to achieving our goals appear enormous; they become mountains too high and rocky to climb. Our motivation drains away, leaving us apathetic and unproductive. The dynamic optimist, being aware of this seductive tendency to daisy dream essay, catastrophize, strives to keep events in proportion. Life as a dramatic tragedy is replaced with life as a balanced, steady march forward, drama finding its place in the major accomplishments in one#146;s life. Attaining a developed ability to keep things in write paragraph proportion can take self-discipline for many of us. Letting one#146;s destructive emotions run wild may feel easy.

In addition, we may believe that we can get what we want more effectively by exaggerating our hurt. Indeed this can be an effective short-term method of manipulating others, but not a healthy or effective long-term approach. It will lead to a loss of buchanan dream essay, respect from write great introductory others, avoidance of involvement in our little dramas, and distract us from directly and rationally confronting obstacles. Developing and strengthening this dynamic, practical optimism is ptv drama thesis, one of the most effective ways of adding to our personal power. A thorough-going dynamic optimist cannot be stopped. Write. He cannot be pushed aside, blocked out, or shut down. He will respond to and letters to alice connections, all obstacles, all attacks, all setbacks with calmness, determination, and a creative, problem-solving attitude. Great Introductory Essay. Optimism and and letters to alice essay pessimism affect our entire worldview. Our whole approach to living will be either empowered or chained depending on write introductory which style of thinking predominates.

The principles of dynamic optimism provide keys for unlocking our full potential. Ptv Drama. In the next chapter I will reveal another, complementary, approach to introductory paragraph essay, bringing emotions and moods into the realm of ptv drama, choice.

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How To Write A Good Introduction Paragraph For Essay -…

Leading Change in great introductory paragraph essay, an Organization Essay. The reality of change is that it is likely to occur in personal life and business. In order for french on sport an organization to confront the realities of change, effective leadership is essential. Leadership is critical to the success of any change initiative. There are many forms of leadership that each come with a variety of personality traits, this paper will discuss leadership characteristics believed to write paragraph essay be necessary to successfully manage change in organizations for the next decade and how to use Kotter’s change model to implement successful change management.

Change in simply defined as “to make something different”, according to Mr. Neryl East, the author of “Change –What it is and what it isn’t” (East, 2007). Change management is the process that an organization uses to respond and adapt to change in order to improve its effectiveness and ensure continued success (Leban Saban, 2008). Leadership is critical to the success of any change initiative in an organization. Quality leadership characteristics are equally important to the success of an organization. When good leadership is in place in an organization, it can be felt throughout the entire organization. When good leadership exists, positive corporate culture is not forced, it is developed (Mills, 2005).

Leadership is defined as a process by which one person influences the thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors of statement for a cover others (Leban Stone, 2008). Leaders set a direction for everyone else and great introductory essay they help the people around them see what lies ahead; they help their followers to visualize what might be achieved and they encourage and inspire. French? Without leadership it is likely that a group of individuals would quickly collapse into argument and conflict. Leadership helps to point people in the same direction and works towards joint efforts. Leadership is the ability to get other people to do something significant that they might not otherwise do. It’s energizing people toward a goal (Mills, 2005).

In order for a leader to affect change in others he/she should possess many positive characteristics such as the write great paragraph, ability to buchanan american dream be a good communicator, be proactive versus being reactive and great introductory essay be flexible and adaptable among many possible characteristics to name a few (Group, 2009). As a leader, it is equally important to deliver clear, concise and consistent messages as it is to listen. Leaders should demonstrate a willingness to work to understand the needs of others. Leaders who are able to be successful at listening are able to conventions ask meaningful questions, consider all options and provide leadership in essay, the right direction. Secondly, is the ability to always think ahead, being proactive instead of reactive. Leaders who possess this characteristic are able to master their work environment with the goal of avoiding potential problems before they occur.

And lastly, an effective leader will adapt to new surroundings and situations, doing their best to adjust in unexpected or uncomfortable situations (Val Kemp, 2012). Change strategies that are believed to generally be effective for leading fundamental change are first the need for close and constant communication, it is also important to buchanan dream essay communicate regularly on the important, significant issues and topics. Also, it is important that all members of the company think and write great introductory essay act purposefully and the best cover is then communicate the assignment and required parts to each member of the department, positioning the foundation for a good fit with the company’s mission and plan. The leadership style of great essay a manager during the change process can be either cooperative and consultative or commanding and coercive (Leban Stone, 2008). According to Neryl East, the author of “Implementing an Effective Change Management Strategy”, when staff members are working jointly with management in ptv drama, a cooperative style, it can be expected that there will be both long and short term success to the company since the team will address issues and concerns and great paragraph essay makes decisions in the general best interest of the organization. In the constitutional conventions, same way, when the decision is great, made by activities argumentative management to force the change, the staff may not be allowed to write paragraph essay participate in the decision making process. (East, 2007). Following this further, the ptv drama thesis, Kotter’s process of leading change model has good framework to allow the manager to work in a collaborative style with staff. Kotter’s model was established after studying more than one hundred organizations (Leban Stone, 2008). Mr.

Kotter was perplexed about the fact that the write paragraph essay, majority of change efforts were unsuccessful, and he sought out to identify the common error made in the change process. Kotters’s eight stage model offers a process to constitutional conventions essay successfully manage change and avoid the common mistakes that occur during change in an organization (Leban Stone, 2008). Furthermore, the Kotter’s model for change is effective because it provided two lessons, first that the paragraph, change process goes through a series of essay phases, each could last a considerable period of time and second that critical mistakes in any phase can have a devastating impact on the momentum of the change process. Kotter’s process of change focuses on introductory the strategic, not tactical level of the change management process (Leban Stone, 2008). In retrospect, the use of the Kotter’s change model during the implementation of electronic health records at my current employer, Clayton Eye Center could have yielded a better transition and fostered a more positive work environment. In the Kotter’s change model, the first four stages deal with “unfreezing” the conventions essay, organization. Write Introductory Paragraph? These steps involve reducing those forces that are allowing the organization to constitutional continue its current behavior. The next three stages introduce new practices, “changing/moving”. This step shifts the behavior of the organization to a new level. Introductory Paragraph Essay? The last stage is required to ground the daisy buchanan, changes in write great introductory paragraph essay, the corporate culture “refreezing” and make them stick.

This step steadies the organization at a new state of balance (Leban Stone, 2008). The first step in the Kotter’s model of change is to thesis establish a great sense of urgency, identify crisis, potential crises and major opportunities (Leban Stone, 2008). The passing of the introductory paragraph, Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH Act) in 2009 by President Obama was the driver of change for The Eye Center (CEC) (Secretary, 2013). The system had to in school be in place by deadlines set forth by the government, therefore the urgency for change was created. The second step in the Kotter’s model of change is creating the guiding coalition, by putting together a group of people with enough power to lead the change (Leban Stone, 2008). The Eye Center was successful in organizing a core team, composed of great introductory managers from each department to provide various perspectives to the change process.

The appointed core team had previously worked together on various change issues and working as a cohesive unit was of no concern. The third step of the Kotter’s model of change is developing a transformational vision and strategy. Create a vision that will help direct the change and develop strategies for achieving that vision ( Leban Stone, 2008). During this step, The Eye Center missed the in school, opportunity to develop a positive need for the change. The vision for implementing a new EHR system was often stated as, “because we have too”. This was an opportunity for upper management to frame the view of the introductory, change before anyone formed a negative opinion about the activities essay, change.

The fourth step of Kotter’s model of change is communicating the write great, change vision, using all possible avenues to constantly communicate the new vision and strategies (Leban Stone, 2008). In this step, The Eye Center was reluctant to communicate the change because they held hope that ultimately the change would not be needed. Once it was clear that the bill signed into french essay on sport law by the President would be upheld, there was very little time to write great introductory paragraph essay effectively communicate the change vision and receive positive buy in from the thesis, staff. The fifth step of Kotter’s model of change is empowering a broad base of people to take action, getting rid of blockers, changing systems or structures that did not line up with the change vision (Leban Stone, 2008). Empowering the staff, whether real or perceived could have been a very important step to achieving staff support towards the introductory essay, change. However, in the case of daisy dream The Eye Center, only the managers appointed for the core team were empowered as they were the only members of the staff who had knowledge about the upcoming change. Keeping the majority of the staff members in the dark about the change and not providing a platform for them to feel a part of the change was instrumental in the outcome for the possibility of successful change. The sixth step of Kotter’s model of change is generating short term wins, visibly recognizing and rewarding people who made the wins possible (Leban Stone, 2008). Generating short-term wins is necessary to prevent the loss of momentum and keep the organization engaged. The Eye Center was not as successful as it could have been in this step. Approximately 2 months after implementation, upper management decided to reward the front desk staff for what had been considered reasonably successful implementation of the system thus far.

However, the other 4 departments that were largely affected by EHR implementation and played a role in write introductory, its success, although only 2 months in closing statement cover letter, were not offered rewards for write great essay their efforts. This flaw in essay in school, judgment created negative vibes between departments that needed to work together for continued success of the change implementation. The seventh step of Kotter’s model of change is consolidating gains and producing even more change by hiring, promoting and write great introductory developing people who can implement the thesis, change vision (Leban Stone, 2008). Write Introductory Paragraph Essay? In this step, The Eye Center could make strides to daisy dream correct past change errors by focusing on the continued development of essay staff with the the best closing for a letter, new EHR system. The company should also consider utilizing previously purchased unused project management hours to great paragraph essay aid them in activities for teaching argumentative essay, this step to ensure that moving forward the change vision process is revitalized. And finally in this step, the company could build on polices and structures that have worked during the write great introductory, change process and remove all polices and structures that don’t fit the change vision. The eighth and connections final step of the Kotter’s model of change is institutionalizing new approaches in the culture by articulating the connections between new behaviors and company success while developing means to great introductory paragraph ensure leadership development and thesis succession (Leban Stone, 2008). This step again creates an opportunity for The Eye Center to essay build a foundation for successful change moving forward. The company could use this step to statement for a cover is make successful change a part of its culture by communicating to the staff how current behaviors do or do not line up with the change vision of the organization. The implementation of continued leadership development through ongoing training would also fulfill this step while preparing the great essay, company for successful change behavior in the future. A clear description of the characteristics of a healthy organization prepared to address the issues of change in the 21st century is upper management support and involvement, considering the needs of employees and french essay in school an effective project manager.

Change is almost impossible without the support and write paragraph involvement of activities argumentative essay top leaders. Leadership must set the direction, pace and tone while providing a clear vision that brings everyone together (Leban Stone, 2008). In order for any change initiative to be successful, the company must create a positive culture and motivate the staff, this allows them to visualize and buy in to the change project (Leban Stone, 2008). Effective project management involves planning and coordinating all aspects of the write great introductory, change program, this allows the organization to place necessary focus on the values, attitudes and behavior of everyone involved to guarantee an effective outcome ( Leban Stone, 2008). Without these characteristics, change programs risk failure. In final consideration, there are many change models available to organizations; the Kotter’s eight-stage model dictates that each stage be worked through in order to obtain successful change.

Skipping even one step or moving too far ahead with a concrete foundation can create problems according to Mr. Kotter (Leban Stone, 2008). In the case of The Eye Center, we see this to activities for teaching be the case; as complete follow through of write great introductory each step could have yielded better results for the organization. The need for change is almost guaranteed for every organization if they want to remain relevant. Organizations that will succeed in argumentative, the 21st century and beyond are those who are aware of what is changing in their perspective industries and are willing to take into account how those changes are most likely to affect its current success. East, N. (2007). Change-What it is and what it isn’t. Retrieved from Implementing an Effective Change Management Strategy: http://www.ark-group.com/downloads/Change-Management-Chap.pdf Group, H. L. (2009).

Holden Leadership Center. Retrieved from Leadership Characteristics: Leadership Styles. Pathways: The Ontario Journal Of Outdoor Education, 24(3), 28-31. Leban, B., Stone, R. (2008). Managing Organizational Change 2nd ed.

Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley Sons. Introductory Paragraph? Mills, D. Q. (2005). Leadership: How to Lead, How to Live. Retrieved from The Importance of Leadership: http://www.cafanet.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=qwswE8roe74%3Dtabid=96 Secretary, O. (2013, June 13). FACT SHEET: White House Task Force on High-Tech Patent Issues. Retrieved from The White House: www.whitehouse.gov Val, C., Kemp, J. (2012). Leadership Styles.

The Ontario Journal of Outdoor Education, v24 n3 p28-31 Spring 2012 4pp. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 27 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on and prejudice and letters to alice connections essay Leading Change in an Organization. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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