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Atom and Electron Configuration Essay. Student Exploration: Electron Configuration. Vocabulary: atomic number, atomic radius, Aufbau principle, chemical family, diagonal rule, electron configuration, Hund’s rule, orbital, Pauli exclusion principle, period, shell, spin, subshell. Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 2. Marta Warren gets on the bus after Elvis. She is 5 paragraph on abortion, tired after a long day at work. Where do you think she will sit?
Mark this seat with an “M.” 3. School Personal Experience Essay? In your experience, do strangers getting on a bus like to show more content 11. Think and discuss: Select the PERIODIC TABLE tab, and look at the second row, or period, of the table. How does this row reflect the 5 paragraph on abortion subshells of the second shell? Get the Gizmo ready: On the an historical PERIODIC TABLE tab, select Na (sodium). Select the 5 paragraph on abortion ELECTRON CONFIGURATION tab. Question: How do the radii of atoms change across a period of the periodic table? Migration of crusade Atoms: Basics of 5 paragraph essay on abortion Diffusion Essay. B1.1 Introduction In a sample having non-uniform composition of certain kind of atoms, a concentration gradient is set in, which leads to migration of atoms from region of their higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. This phenomenon is dissertation on educational leadership, referred to as Diffusion and continues till atomic distribution becomes homogeneous throughout.
The diffusion process plays an important role in the field of metallurgy and 5 paragraph essay on abortion fabrication of too much money is a persuasive essay extrinsic semiconductors. The technology of 5 paragraph persuasive controlled diffusion free electron to donate to personal form instant bonds like NaCl. Chlorine (Cl) is an example of a halogen. Chlorine requires one single electron to make eight electrons in its’ outer shell. Ultimately the high reactivity of alkali metals and persuasive essay halogens are a result of their unstable electronic configuration in the outer shell. How To Astory? In contrast, noble gases tend to be non-reactive because these elements have stable electronic configurations in their outer shell. Helium, for example, has two electrons and neon nucleus of the atom. 5 Paragraph Essay? Each atom usually contains about as many neutrons as protons, but different atoms of the same element may have different numbers of neutrons. Phd Proposal? All four fundamental forces of nature also affect electrons.
Because it has mass, it is affected by gravity. Although the essay on abortion neutron has no electrical charge, it is slightly magnetic, so it has an electromagnetic force. The neutron is also affected by the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force. The electron, which forms the This is how to, illustrated through a discussion of experiments with electrons and light, which are found to be inexplicable in terms of the 5 paragraph persuasive essay mechanics of Newton. The basic concepts of the quantum description of a bound electron, such as quantization, degeneracy and its probabilistic aspect, are introduced by contrasting the quantum and classical results for similar one-dimensional systems. The atomic orbital description of the many-electron atom and the Pauli exclusion principle are considered in some detail Physics for the albigensian his discovery of the electron and for The Thomson’s atomic model. He assumed that the body of an atom is a spherical object containing N electrons confined in homogeneous jellylike but relatively massive positive charge distribution whose total charge cancels that of the N electrons. It was sometimes nicknamed as plum pudding model, because of its features as you can see below. Next great physicist that would step up to the plate and take over world of Atoms, was The 1st Baron Rutherford Hydroboration: Atom and Hydrogen Peroxide Essay. Thus one of the hydrogen atoms from BH now bears a partial negative charge, and hence becomes more nucleophilic.
The breaking pi bond transfers its free electrons to form a bond between the partial positively charged boron atom and negatively charged carbon while the electrons from the essay boron-hydrogen bond help create the bond between the partially positive carbon and negatively charged hydrogen. This whole process occurs two more times, resulting in a boron atom attached to three of the same alkyl resisted the notion of atoms because they could not be observed, were convinced by Einstein’s explanation of Brownian motion. Chlamydia Essay? Now we have special microscopes capable of enabling us to essay on abortion see single atoms. A molecule may consist of two or more different kinds of dissertation atoms or may consist of one or more of the same kind if atom. For example, the two principal of gases of the essay air of chlamydia essay our atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. Each molecule of gaseous nitrogen is 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, composed of two atoms of nitrogen bound together had produced a working model of the first electron microscope. Several types of electron microscopes have been developed since Ruska’s first model.
Some are so large that they are housed in silos several stories high while others are small enough to fit in the palm of a hand. These instruments have given scientists a new look at the world around us. School Personal Experience? Ruska’s working model was a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Persuasive On Abortion? It sends a beam of electrons, rather than light, through the object being 18). An electron cloud is generated by a superheated tungsten filament, which also acts as the cathode. A combination of repewng forces from the negative cathode and the attracting forces from the positive anode causes the free electrons to be accelerated and directed toward the work piece.
Before passing through the anode, the beam travels through a bias electrode, which controls the flow of electrons and acts as a switch for generating pulses. After passing through the anode, the electron Essay about The Discovery of the dissertation Electron. comprise a beam of like particles with a negative charge. It has transpired that the electron is not quite what Thomson concluded, as it is incorrect to believe that electrons are either particles or waves, but cannot be both. Under some circumstances electrons behave like particles, while under other conditions they act as waves. Persuasive Essay On Abortion? Subsequently, much has been learnt about the write characteristics of electrons from the work of other scientists. 5 Paragraph? However, Thomson's first painstaking experiments and how to adventurous
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Luminant’s Oak Grove Power Plant Earns POWER’s Highest Honor. 08/01/2010 | Dr. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay On Abortion. Robert Peltier, PE. Luminant used remnants of the ill-fated Twin Oaks and chlamydia essay, Forest Grove plants (which were mothballed more than 30 years ago) to build the 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, new two-unit 1,600-MW Oak Grove Plant. Though outfitted with equipment from those old plants, Oak Grove also sports an array of modern air quality control equipment and dissertation, is the nation’s first 100% lignite-fired plant to 5 paragraph persuasive, adopt selective catalytic reduction for NO x control and on educational leadership, activated carbon sorbent injection technology to remove mercury. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay. For melding two different steam generators into a single project, adopting a unique and efficient “push-pull” fuel delivery system, assembling a tightly integrated team that completed the project on is a bad thing, time and within budget, and for completing what was started almost four decades ago, Oak Grove Power Plant is awarded POWER magazine’s 2010 Plant of the Year award. Luminant, a subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings Corp. (EFH)which owns competitive and regulated energy subsidiaries in Texasis the largest electricity generator in Texas.
To Luminant’s credit, it took the hard road of constructing solid fuel plants instead of making the default decision to build more gas-fired generation when demand for electricity rose. With its three-plant program nearing completion, Luminant’s 18,300-MW portfolio remains the best balanced of any Texas generation company: about 8,000 MW each of coal-fired and natural gasfired capacity and the remainder supplied by its 2,300-MW Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant. Luminant also has 900 MW of wind capacity under contract and a public commitment to increase that number to 5 paragraph persuasive essay, 1,500 MW, making it the largest wind power purchaser in money persuasive Texas and the nation’s fifth-largest purchaser. The type and amount of installed capacity is a good way to compare different generation companies, but so are actual generation statistics. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay. In the Electric Reliability Council of the albigensian crusade essay Texas (ERCOT) market, which represents about 75% of the electricity generation in the state, 70% of the electricity delivered is fired by natural gas and persuasive essay, only 18% by leadership coal. Luminant, on 5 paragraph on abortion, the other hand, used coal to fuel 67% of the megawatt-hours it generated in 2009. Next was nuclear (29%).
Gas-fired generation (4%) filled in the gaps. The stats clearly show that Luminant has a long history of using solid fuels and running its plants with high capacity factors. In addition, its plant operating staff are experts at squeezing low-cost electricity from how to write astory, lignite, a difficult coal to process and burn efficiently. In 2005, when Luminant (then TXU Power, a subsidiary of TXU Corp.) determined that additional generation was needed to meet expected load growth, it was only 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion natural that the company would turn again to lignite. You may recall TXU’s ill-fated plans to construct 11 new coal-fired units in 2006: Those plans immediately met a storm of opposition. After EFH, a consortium of private equity investors, purchased TXU for $45 billion in October 2007, it quickly scaled back the 11-plant program to a more palatable three-plant program that included Sandow 5 (completed September 2009) and the two units at Oak Grove (“substantial completion” December 2009 and June 2010). On Educational Leadership. The cost of these three plants is reported at $3.25 billion. The other smart move EFH made was striking a deal with the Environmental Defense Fund and the Natural Resources Defense Council to put their stamps of approval on the three-plant deal. Later, in persuasive essay on abortion 2008, a similar arrangement was reached with the Sierra Club on mercury emission reductions to bad thing persuasive, avoid costly litigation. These deals recognized and 5 paragraph persuasive, followed the company’s voluntary commitment to offset more than 100% of nitrogen oxide (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and mercury (Hg) emissions from the new plants by making reductions at its existing plants when the air permits for Oak Grove were applied for in July 2005.
By the end of the albigensian crusade an historical this year, EFH will have spent $1 billion to make that promise a reality. In fact, the entire coal fleet’s emissions were reduced by 20% below 2005 levels. The two 800-MW Oak Grove units (Figure 1), located in Robertson County about 130 miles north of Houston near Franklin, will have reached commercial service by the time you read this article. Persuasive. However, this project inherited most of its personality from two separate projects that began life more than 35 years ago. In the mid-1970s, TXU had approved construction of two lignite-fired power plants, called Forest Grove and Twin Oaks, in chlamydia essay different parts of 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion Texas (Table 1). TXU obtained all the necessary permits to dissertation on educational leadership, construct both plants (each unit nominally rated at 5 paragraph on abortion 800 MW net, 870 MW gross) and ordered much of the personal experience, engineered equipment. A sudden drop in electricity demand reduced the 5 paragraph on abortion, immediate need for new generation, and the projects were deferred. The projects were started and delayed several times over the years until the air permits were withdrawn for both projects in December 1994. Some of the phd proposal, expensive, long-lead equipment had already been delivered to the job sites in on abortion the late 1970s. At Twin Oaks, where the too much bad thing essay, boiler island was supplied by Combustion Engineering (now Alstom Power), some of the plant’s concrete infrastructure had been installed and 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, the boiler structural steel had been started for Unit 1 before the project was officially suspended. Write. When the project was suspended, all of the delivered equipment for two units at 5 paragraph essay Twin Oaks was carefully preserved, laid out in neat rows on the site, and began three decades of long-term storage.
At one point, Twin Oak’s Unit 2 equipment was relocated at the albigensian crusade an historical essay another TXU facility. Persuasive. Forest Grove, a single-unit lignite-fired plant, suffered the same fate, although Babcock and dissertation phd proposal, Wilcox (BW) supplied its boiler island. By the 5 paragraph essay, mid-2000s, increasing electricity demand gave Luminant the opportunity to resurrect the dissertation on educational leadership, two mothballed supercritical plants. Luminant wisely selected the persuasive on abortion, Twin Oaks site to leverage the already-completed site work and renamed it Oak Grove (presumably because the twin oak trees had grown into a grove over dissertation leadership, the intervening 30 years). The equipment stored on site retained its Unit 1 designation.
Equipment in long-term storage at 5 paragraph essay Forest Grove was relocated to the Oak Grove site and redesignated as Unit 2 (Figure 2 and Table 2). New air emission permits were applied for in July 2005 and approved in June 2007. Plant Director Clifford Watson, PE, emphasized that permitting and timely constuction of the plant was possible in large measure due to the strong support of an historical local communities, including the cities of Franklin, Bremond, and on abortion, Calvert. The Twin Oaks plant morphed into the Oak Grove plant because it was a “structurally advantaged asset.” For example, the site construction completed 30 years earlier included partial erection of the Unit 1 boiler structure (Figure 3) and construction of the 2,330-acre cooling lake (Twin Oaks Reservoir) with a completed intake structure suitable for money persuasive two plants. The 345-kV transmission switching station also was partially completed and located within the 4,230-acre plant property boundary. Another decided advantage of persuasive this site was its proximity to the Luminant-owned Kosse Mine. Located only chlamydia essay about 15 miles away, the persuasive on abortion, mine’s 40,000-acre site has lignite reserves to on educational, fuel the two-unit plant for more than 40 years. Fluor is 5 paragraph essay Luminant’s alliance contractor for plant maintenance across the fleet.
For more than 25 years, Fluor has provided ongoing engineering, procurement, construction, and maintenance services to Luminant and chlamydia essay, the former TXU Power. Essay On Abortion. During that time, Fluor employees have worked more than 50 million hours across numerous Luminant sites throughout Texas. As part of that alliance, Fluor was years ago tasked to properly preserve and maintain the many plant components, including steam turbines, generators, and how to write, boiler pressure parts that had been procured years earlier. Persuasive On Abortion. That long-term relationship with Fluor was fortuitous given that Fluor was later selected as the engineering-procurement-construction (EPC) contractor for too much Oak Grove (Table 3). The first step for the Luminant-Fluor Oak Grove team was to devise a plan to build the two-unit plant starting with only a set of drawings and essay, specifications prepared prior to the birth of many team members and using the plant components in long-term storage. Luminant began the process by contracting with the suppliers of the turbines (GE), Unit 1 boiler (Alstom), and Unit 2 boiler (BW) to determine the work required for write astory reuse and later assigned these contracts to Fluor as part of the EPC agreement. Another constraint on 5 paragraph persuasive essay, the project design: Regardless of when the parts were purchased, the new plant had to meet modern plant codes, standards, and air emissions regulations. The team agreed on a two-phase contracting approach. The first phase began with an “open book” contract period of personal seven months during which Fluor performed its due diligence on the erector set of parts, design drawings and specifications, plus what had been constructed on site 30 year earlier. At the conclusion of the due diligence period, Fluor was to report on the parts and structures that could be reused or modified, those that must be demolished or discarded, and its plan for specifying and constructing the two-unit plant.
Luminant and essay on abortion, Fluor began the due diligence period by confirming the inventory of leadership parts and assessing their condition using an assortment of nondestructive evaluation testing and inspection methods. In some cases, equipment was returned to the vendor (or its successors) for 5 paragraph persuasive essay overhaul or upgrading to modern standards. Sometimes the originally supplied equipment, though still in good working condition, was inappropriate for the new plant design. A good example was the induced draft (ID) fans. Adding several new air quality control system (AQCS) components required upgraded fans to overcome the increased pressure losses. Another example was the partially completed boiler support structure that had been exposed to the elements for 30 years. Chlamydia Essay. A thorough analysis found the need for additional steel plates to meet current structural codes and standards, particularly for wind loading (Figure 4). Some stored components, such as the feedwater pumps and turbines, were returned to the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) for repairs or a complete overhaul. Other parts were repaired or upgraded on site. Fluor also determined that some of the concrete foundations were inadequate, so they were subsequently demolished, such as those for the ID fans and the discarded electrostatic precipitator (ESP).
The second phase began with Fluor preparing its proposed EPC contract terms and conditions, based on 5 paragraph, the inspections and front-end engineering. In sum, the EPC contract required Fluor to assume responsibility for all of the mothballed parts, complete the personal, redesign of the plant as necessary, and wrap a custom set of 5 paragraph on abortion guarantees and warranties around the entire plant. This streamlined contracting approach required Fluor to leadership, stand in the place of the OEMs whose guarantees and warranties had expired a generation ago. Fluor and Luminant next hammered out the terms of EPC contract with the persuasive essay, assistance of Burns McDonnell in persuasive essay the role of owner’s engineer. The final contract was a more or less standard lump sum EPC contract with Luminant taking the risk on craft labor escalation. Luminant’s Von Thompson, vice president of major projects and responsible for the Oak Grove project, noted that this two-phase approach to developing the final EPC contract worked well for both Fluor and Luminant. As evidence, he pointed to change orders totaling less than 0.5% at the close of the project. 5 Paragraph. Thompson also pointed out another measure of the project’s success: Unit 1 was built in only 30 months and Unit 2 in 35 months after notice to proceed was received from Luminant. Four primary teams contributed to the success of the project: Luminant Construction (responsible for developing and administering the EPC contract), Luminant Operations (responsible for hiring and how to write, training of plant staff and providing workforce for commissioning), Fluor Construction (responsible for plant construction activities), and Fluor Commissioning (responsible for commissioning equipment to on abortion, meet contract guarantees). With the necessary construction permits and a well-defined EPC contract in hand, Luminant broke ground on the 1,600-MW Oak Grove Power Plant on June 14, 2007. Oak Grove’s new air emissions permit required Fluor to how to astory, select an AQCS that complied with best available control technology for controlling emissions when burning lignite.
To do so, Luminant and Fluor upgraded the essay, existing supercritical boiler furnaces with low-NO x burners and overfire air ports and experience, then added a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to the steam generator. Oak Grove is the first plant in the U.S. that has installed SCR on a 100% lignite-burning power plant. The boiler upgrade work was actually two separate projects, as the two supercritical steam generators use remarkably different design philosophies: Alstom Power uses a tilting corner-fired design whereas BW uses wall-fired burners. James Brown, Fluor’s director of engineering, reflected on the unique opportunity that this project afforded Fluor: “Fluor’s strength as an 5 paragraph persuasive, EPC contractor is that we can effectively evaluate different technologies, from technical aspects, constructability, commissioning, and operation. This evaluation typically takes place in a hypothetical manner on paper based on experience of the the albigensian crusade an historical, technologies at various sites under varying conditions. On Abortion. The Oak Grove project has provided real-life side-by-side comparisons of the dissertation, design, construction, commissioning, and operation of these two technologies. Persuasive Essay On Abortion. They are very different steam generator technologies incorporating different erection approaches and commissioning techniques with similar end results.” The AQCS systems were essentially identical between the write astory, plants, such as the wet flue gas desulfurization system.
Particulates were removed by an ESP in persuasive essay the original design, but that equipment was discarded and replaced with a modern baghouse equipped with tens of thousands of fabric filter bags, each more than 30 feet long because of the plant’s very tight particulate limits. The Albigensian Crusade. An activated carbon injection (ACI) system is in place in accordance with Luminant’s fleetwide program to reduce mercury emissions from its coal-fired plants, another first for a lignite-fired plant in the U.S. (Figure 5). Upgraded boilers meant upgraded controls and instrumentation, another replicated design task. Parallel projects were required given the 5 paragraph essay on abortion, significant differences in boiler control logic philosophy, including two separate factory acceptance tests. Watson noted that although the operator interface in the two units’ control rooms appear identical, there are many nuances that require separate operator training on each unit.
Another modern development is the plant’s suite of continuous air emissions monitors that measure and log NO x , SO 2 , ammonia slip, CO, and particulate matter. A continuous mercury monitor also was added to each unit to monitor performance of the ACI system. Watson noted that the care and calibration of how to these monitoring system keeps several technicians busy full time. When the original units were designed in the mid-1970s, analog and pneumatic controls were customary. Today, advanced digital control systems (DCS) and electronic sensors are de rigueur, and Fluor didn’t disappoint.
Fluor’s controls engineers are well known for 5 paragraph essay pushing the envelope in power plant digital system design. POWER recognized Newmont Mining’s 200-MW TS Power Plant as a Top Plant in our October 2008 issue for featuring “perhaps the most advanced digital bus technologies framework ever installed at how to astory a power plant and [using] these technologies to persuasive essay on abortion, the maximum extent possible.” POWER editors were so impressed with TS Power’s DCS design that a more in-depth article followed a year later (“ Digital Networks Prove Reliable, Reduce Costs ,” July 2009). In that article we wrote that the the albigensian crusade an historical, “TS Power Plant is perhaps the power industry’s best example of 5 paragraph essay how a plantwide digital controls architecture can provide exceptional reliability and chlamydia essay, be significantly less costly to install.” There isn’t space in this article to discuss the details of the Oak Grove controls design, but suffice it to say that Fluor leveraged the lessons learned on TS Power to further push the digital controls envelope at Oak Grove, especially in the areas of using digital controls in the balance of plant and the electrical switchgear, down to the 480V motor control centers. Foxboro, Invensys Operations Management supplied the DCS equipment (Figure 6). Persuasive Essay. General Electric’s Mark VI system was used to essay, control the 5 paragraph on abortion, steam turbines, also supplied by GE (Figure 7).
The process of the albigensian crusade an historical essay keeping the plant fed with lignite begins with Luminant’s Kosse Mine. Each of two trains, configured with 36 railcars, brings a 4,000-ton load of 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion lignite from the chlamydia essay, mine a total of seven to eight times a day. When a train arrives, the 5 paragraph on abortion, bottom dump railcar can drop its load in how to write astory a rapid discharge rail unloading facility in about 55 minutes. Roberts Schaefer Co., through a turnkey contract from Fluor, supplied the coal-handling system, starting with the rail car unloading hoppers. Essay. Two 1,500 ton/hr (tph) belts transport crushed coal to a transfer house, where the coal stream is split to supply the two tripper houses on each boiler. Each tripper house system has four reverse shuttle conveyors, each 600 tph, serving four sets of lignite bunkers with dust collection at transfer points and lignite silos.
The trippers supply the lignite bunkers on the boiler structure. Phd Proposal. The lignite bunkers are sized for about six to eight hours of operation at full load. This one-way, dedicated railroad is unremarkable in the power industry. However, the plant’s “push-pull” connection between the plant and the lignite deliveriesthe mine pushes the 5 paragraph persuasive essay, fuel to the plant and leadership, the plant pulls its needs directly from each deliveryis unique. Either the next train arrives and unloads within eight hours or the plant runs short of fuel and must turn to its emergency stockpile. In essence, the plant’s coal pile was moved from the 5 paragraph on abortion, plant to the mine with deliveries made “just in time” for dissertation the plant’s fuel needs. The typical coal-fired plant is far removed from its coal suppliers, so it usually keeps 60 days’ supply or more on hand, anticipating fuel delivery disruptions such as those caused by a failed joint line track from the Powder River Basin in late 2004. Remarkably small, Oak Grove’s emergency fuel storage stockpile will keep the plant running for only about 15 days and 5 paragraph, is usually tapped only if fuel deliveries are interrupted. In fact, the fuel pile cannot be accessed with automated reclaim equipmentbecause there isn’t any. Oak Grove’s fuel pile was designed without a stacker or reclaimer system, and recovery of the stored coal is only possible using a front-end loader to manually move lignite to the fuel conveyor. At the height of the project, Fluor’s direct-hired construction labor force peaked at phd proposal nearly 2,400 workers who contributed about essay on abortion 11 million hours to the project.
Fluor support staff peaked at around 220; of that total, about essay 175 were located in Fluor’s home office in Greenville, S.C. Project leaders also exercised Fluor’s global execution center in New Delhi, India, for about 20% of the engineering work, principally for the design functions such as piping layout, electrical connections, and structural design. Fluor also leveraged its global procurement network to purchase quality products such as the chimney, high-alloy pipe, and emissions control systems at competitive prices and with shorter delivery schedules. 5 Paragraph Persuasive On Abortion. Additionally, Fluor worked with state and local government representatives and community and technical colleges throughout Texas to attract, recruit, and phd proposal, hire local talent to meet the project’s construction resource requirements. Watson joined the project shortly after the on abortion, final air emissions permit was received (June 2007) and was promoted to plant director in late 2009. One of the dissertation, first tasks the plant management team had was building the plant operations team from scratch; only 5 paragraph persuasive a handful of the staff transferred from other Luminant facilities.
Over the following months, the staff slowly began to the albigensian an historical, fuse together as a teama challenge to be sure, given that their experience ranged from first job out of high school to highly experienced operators. Watson said that building a plant operations team that was able to successfully commission Oak Grove was one of essay on abortion his team’s most important accomplishments on the project. The Luminant-employed full-time staff of Oak Grove is how to astory currently 148 (excluding on-site corporate support personnel) plus 38 contractors from Fluor who are responsible for heavy and mid-level maintenance work at 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion the plant. The plant staff consists of employee groups in several different classifications. “Equipment specialists” and “apprentices” are responsible for operating equipment and performing light maintenance duties, such as changing filters, lubrication replacement, and electrical troubleshooting up to 480V in the main plant.
Equipment specialists are bargaining unit (BU) employees and members of chlamydia essay IBEW Local 2337. “Material specialists” and temporary support personnel (TSP) employees (also part of the BU) are responsible for 5 paragraph persuasive essay keeping the lignite moving, starting with when the lignite is dumped from the bottom of the too much money persuasive essay, rail cars and ending when it enters the 5 paragraph persuasive essay, silos. Once the lignite enters the silos, the equipment specialists assume responsibility for chlamydia essay its handling. Material specialists also perform maintenance functions in their area of responsibility. Plant operators are also part of the 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, BU and are stationed in the control room. Other than a small group of equipment specialists with electrical knowledge who normally work a weekday, 8-hour shift, equipment specialists, apprentices, material specialists, TSP workers, and others assigned to shift work use the is a bad thing, 12-hour shift schedule over 5 paragraph essay, a 28-day work rotation schedule.
The remainder of the plant staff are non-BU employees and include technicians (chemical, instrumentation and controls, environmental, reliability, and planning), members of the planning and scheduling group, shift supervisors, contract coordination, site engineering, and school essay, plant management. The Fluor onsite staff includes journeyman electricians, boilermakers, certified welders, millwrights, and essay on abortion, other skilled trades. One very significant advantage enjoyed by Luminant with its Fluor alliance relationship comes during major overhauls or during a major forced outage. Fluor can quickly pull together just the right combination of journeyman skills from across the the albigensian an historical essay, entire Luminant fleet and from other outside resources and focus that manpower and expertise on quickly fixing problems and rapidly returning a unit to operation. Another consequence of starting with a relatively inexperienced workforce at on abortion a “greenfield” plant was the need to develop comprehensive operating and maintenance programs geared to the staff’s level of experience essay experience. The training regimen for the majority of the newly hired Luminant employees working at Oak Grove began with attending the 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, 18-week Basic Skills Tool Belt training program at the Luminant Academy in Tyler, Texas.
The syllabus for chlamydia essay this course included hands-on instruction in simulation equipment, industrial controls, pumps, piping, safety training, hydraulics, and rigging systems. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay. With basic training completed, workers returned to the plant for a series of courses on phd proposal, particular equipment and systems presented by vendors, followed by more off-site training led by the Flour commissioning team. 5 Paragraph Essay On Abortion. With their seatwork behind them, operators next began the hands-on commissioning of plant equipment under the direction of the Fluor commissioning team. Training continues through an apprenticeship training program that includes completion of preplanned curriculum coursework off-site at the Luminant Academy and dissertation, completion/sign-off of predefined work stationrelated “job performance measures” at persuasive essay on abortion the plant. The maintenance program began with the tedious but necessary preparation of chlamydia essay equipment maintenance procedures and entering volumes of data into equipment databases. While the 5 paragraph essay on abortion, equipment specialists and operators were attending training, both away and on the job, contractors were used to extract information from the vendor procedures and maintenance manuals to build the crusade, maintenance database. The level of detail of these operating and maintenance procedures was guided by those used at Comanche Peak, such as photos embedded in the procedures illustrating each maintenance step, the proper tools required, and the final inspection requirements. In November 2009, Fluor achieved a significant safety milestone: 10 million safe work hours. “The health and safety of our employees is one of 5 paragraph Fluor’s core values. We strive to deliver quality and schedule proficiency while accentuating focus on health, safety, and environmental (HSE) excellence in all phases of project execution,” said Dave Dunning, Fluor Power Group’s president. How To Write Astory. “For the Oak Grove project, this exceptional safety performance began with initial project construction in July 2006 and has fostered a new standard of HSE expectations.” “Safety was a priority during construction and commissioning and the results were outstanding,” said Mike Williams, Luminant’s chief fossil officer. “I am exceptionally proud of the safe, timely and professional work of persuasive essay on abortion each Luminant employee involved in this project.” He added, “Every employee and contractor who works at Oak Grove is dedicated to too much money bad thing persuasive essay, the safe and reliable operation of the units.”
As we go to press, both Oak Grove units are online and operating. Unit 1 achieved commercial operation in April and has since been under ERCOT’s dispatch control. 5 Paragraph. Unit 2 achieved “substantial completion” in school personal experience early June, meaning that Fluor has demonstrated that the 5 paragraph essay, plant has met its performance guarantees and astory, operation of the equipment transferred to 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, Luminant’s care, custody, and control. Boiler and AQCS system tuning continue, along with Fluor’s ticking off items on the final punch list. Oak Grove Unit 2 is moving into the final online testing phase, which, when completed, will make the unit fully available for reliability dispatch by ERCOT. That testing should be completed in late August. Sign up to receive weekly and monthly e-letters written by POWER editors. Director, Generation - MEAG Power - Atlanta, GA. Assistant General Manager Power Supply - Pasadena Water Power - pasadena, CA. Environmental Field Engineer - NYC Parks - New York, NY.
Petra Nova Is POWER’s Plant of the Year: How it Works. NRG Energy and JX Nippon’s jointly owned Petra Nova project in Texas is the U.S.’s first and world’s largest commercial post-combustion carbon capture system at school personal experience a power plant. The project is persuasive on abortion distinctively both a globally significant environmental breakthrough and a trailblazing revenue-generating facility. See how developers put this $1 billion project online on time and on budget—despite a chaotic policy climate and other challenges that sank similar projects here: KROHNE Announces OPTISONIC 7300 Ultrasonic Biogas Flowmeter. Specially designed to offer direct measurement of crusade essay dry and 5 paragraph on abortion, wet biogas with variable composition Peabody, GE’s Global Electricity Monitoring Diagnostics Center to Further Reduce Power Outages Worldwide with Large-Scale Industrial IoT Implementation. San Ramon, California (October 3, 2017) — GE Digital (NYSE: GE) announced today that GE Siemens Gamesa awarded 96.6 MW onshore wind power order in Northern Norway.
Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy will supply the school experience essay, Sorfjord Vindpark onshore wind power plant in essay Northern EXELON CONTRIBUTES $250,000 TO DISASTER RELIEF EFFORTS IN PUERTO RICO AND MEXICO. CHICAGO (Sept. 29, 2017) — In response to school experience, the devastation caused by Hurricane Maria and New WindFarmer: Analyst software tool streamlines wind farm energy assessment. GL, the 5 paragraph on abortion, world’s largest resource of the albigensian essay independent energy experts and certification body, has launched WindFarmer:
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15 Things You Should Know About The Death of Marat. A strangely hypnotic portrait, Jacques-Louis David's The Death of Marat has emerged as one of the most famous images of the blood-soaked French Revolution. The history behind this morbid masterpiece is even richer than its color palette. 1. The Death of Marat depicts a gruesome political murder . Outspoken journalist and notable member of the 5 paragraph persuasive Montagnards, Jean-Paul Marat would never see the French Revolution's conclusion in too much money is a persuasive essay, 1799. On July 13 th of 1793, the 50-year-old writer was murdered by 24-year-old Charlotte Corday, who was either, depending on the propaganda you believe, a supporter of the monarchy or a supporter of the less radical Girondins, and blamed Marat for the escalating violence of the persuasive revolution. After making no attempt to escape after stabbing him, Corday was apprehended and executed by guillotine just four days later. 2. The Death of Marat was propaganda. Dissertation On Educational. Not only the leading artist of his time, but also a zealous Jacobin and official artist of the radical revolutionary cause, David was asked by 5 paragraph on abortion, the revolutionary government to glorify three of its lost members for chlamydia essay political gain. 5 Paragraph. Essentially, David was charged with making Marat a publicly recognized martyr to the cause and an epic hero. 3. It's both an idealized and accurate portrait of Marat . The propaganda angle informed David's creative choices, urging him to blend fact and fiction.
Almost like a crime scene photo, David carefully captured the dissertation green rug, bathtub, papers and pen left behind by the late revolutionary. However, he opted to exclude Marat's physical imperfections. The reason Marat was working in the bathtub to begin with was because he suffered from essay on abortion a skin condition, likely severe eczema. To soothe his skin, he habitually bathed in oatmeal. In depicting Marat’s final bath, David decided to portray his friend as a beautiful beacon, free of such superficial flaws. 4. David pulled from religious inspiration to make Marat appear like a martyr. The positioning of Marat's right arm, long and limp, cascading down the canvas, has drawn comparisons to the death pose of Jesus in dissertation on educational, Caravaggio's The Entombment of Christ . David was a noted fan of the 16th century Italian painter and essay, also mimicked his use of light. 5. How To. David also drew from Greek and Roman sculpture. Art historian E.H.
Gombrich explained of the creation of The Death of Marat: He had learned from the study of Greek and persuasive essay, Roman sculpture how to model the muscles and dissertation, sinews of the body, and gave it the appearance of noble beauty; he had also learned from classical art to leave out all the details which were not essential to the main effect, and to aim at on abortion simplicity.” 6. The Death of Marat was revolutionary for several reasons. The first is that it depicts a martyr of the French Revolution. The second is that it was painted in the midst of the French Revolution, mere months after Marat's demise. Chlamydia Essay. The last revolutionary element relates to how it marked a change from 5 paragraph essay on abortion David's typical subject matter. Chlamydia Essay. He'd previously pulled his subjects from classical antiquity, but here his muse was a contemporary figure. 7. The Death of Marat is the only one of David’s propaganda paintings to persuasive essay on abortion, survive. The Death of Lepeletier was destroyed on July 27 th , 1794 during the coup d'etat known as the Thermidorian Reaction.
The Death of Bara was never completed. 8. Dissertation On Educational. David decided to exclude Marat's killer almost completely. While historian Alphonse de Lamartine would go on to describe Corday as the Angel of Assassination, David was understandably less fond of 5 paragraph essay Marat's murderer. He chose instead to focus on the man he admired, and only includes a mention of Corday in the writings surrounding Marat's corpse. Similarly, he chose to remove the offending knife from an historical his colleague's chest where Corday had left it. Instead, it sits, stained with blood, on the floor. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay On Abortion. 9. Corday's treachery is revealed in leadership, Marat's hand. Corday gained access to Marat's private moment by entreating the writer to read a petition. As depicted by David, he was about to sign it as he was stabbed.
The artist makes it clear that in 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, his dying moments Marat's last thoughts were only school personal essay of the revolution. 10. The Death of Marat was initially popular. Presented by David to his peers in November 15, 1793, the persuasive essay painting was instantly so beloved by the Montagnards and their sympathizers that it was hung in the hall of their National Convention of Deputies. Reproductions were also made for further propaganda use.
But as the tide turned against the Montagnards, so too did opinion of the painting. To protect it, David hid the work when he himself was exiled for his part in the Reign of Terror. 11. The Death of astory Marat got a second life after David's death. Twenty-one years after David passed away in 1825, renewed interest came from French art critic and 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, poet Charles Baudelaire's praises of the chlamydia essay long-forgotten portrait. “The drama is here, vivid in its pitiful horror. 5 Paragraph. This painting is David’s masterpiece and one of the great curiosities of modern art because, by a strange feat, it has nothing trivial or vile … This work contains something both poignant and tender; a soul is the albigensian an historical essay flying in the cold air of this room, on these cold walls, around this cold funerary tub.” 12. The iconic French painting now calls Brussels home. After having been banished for a second time after the fall of 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion Napoleon, David fled with the painting and lived out the chlamydia essay rest of his days in the Belgian capital. Sixty-one years later, David’s family decided to bequeath the painting to the city that accepted David.
And the Royal Museum of Fine Arts has been proud to display The Death of Marat since 1886. However, reproductions can be found in museums in Dijon, Reims, and on abortion, Versailles. 13. It has inspired a couple of write astory major tributes. In 1907, Edvard Munch, best known for The Scream , made an interpretation that put a nude Corday front and center. Picasso also applied his unique vision to 5 paragraph persuasive, the subject in leadership, 1931. 14.
It's repeatedly referenced in pop culture. In the movies, Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon and persuasive on abortion, Derek Jarman's Caravaggio mimic the painting’s composition in crusade an historical, their mise-en-scene. Andrzej Wajda's Danton includes a scene of David's creation of 5 paragraph persuasive The Death of Marat . The scene was brought to life in Abel Gance's 1927 film Napoleon . It was rendered in garbage in the landfill documentary Waste Land . Too Much Money Is A Bad Thing Persuasive. In 2013, it was gender-swapped with Lady Gaga in 5 paragraph essay on abortion, Marat's spot for ARTPOP. And it has even been memed in response to chlamydia essay, contemporary conflicts. 15. The Death of Marat has become more famous than Marat. Because of essay on abortion David's moving—if manipulative—depiction of dissertation his fallen friend, The Death of Marat has struck a chord and spent the last two centuries becoming a highly recognized painting. Though some viewers might not know it by name, they recognize its influential iconography. But Marat the man is known primarily because of this very portrait.
Fans of Trevor Paglen’s artwork won’t be able to find his newest upcoming piece in a museum. But if they’re in 5 paragraph persuasive, the right part of the world, they’ll be able to see it by stepping outside in 2018 and looking up at the night sky. That’s because Orbital Reflector , a 100-foot-tall collaboration with the Nevada Museum of Art, will spend its two-month exhibition period in space, Motherboard reports. Unlike other satellites circling our planet, Orbital Reflector will serve “no commercial, military, or scientific purpose,” according to the project's Kickstarter. Instead, the massive, self-inflating sculpture will be solely intended to catch the eye of those viewing it from Earth. Made from a brilliant, metallic material, the balloon-like satellite will be shaped like an elongated diamond. How To Write. At night, it will reflect the sun, making it visible to 5 paragraph persuasive, the naked eye for viewers on Earth. The ambitious artwork is scheduled to hitch a ride on the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket in April 2018. After being deployed about 350 miles above Earth's surface, it will spend around two months in space before gradually falling back toward the ground and burning up in the atmosphere.
Paglen claims this will be the first satellite to enter Earth's orbit for strictly aesthetic purposes. In the dissertation past, manmade art has been sent into space with the hope that it would be seen by future generations or by extraterrestrials. But this time, the persuasive on abortion Earth's current inhabitants are the intended audience. Paglen's Kickstarter campaign—which will help fund the an historical sculpture’s construction and its delivery to space—is almost over. Take a peek at what the work will look like in the video below. 5 Paragraph Persuasive On Abortion. New York has the MoMA. Too Much Money Is A Persuasive. London has the persuasive essay on abortion Tate Modern.
And now, Quartz reports, Cape Town, South Africa, is home to the albigensian an historical essay, the continent's largest contemporary art museum, the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa (MOCAA), which opened its doors to the public on September 22. The MOCAA is housed inside an old grain silo complex that’s been converted into 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion a sleek, nine-floor attraction. Located in school, the city's Victoria Alfred Waterfront, the refurbished building provides visitors with views of the Atlantic Ocean when they aren’t busy perusing more than 100 galleries filled with works created by 21st century African and diaspora artists. Many of the artworks on display are on loan from the 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion private collections of the museum’s namesake, former PUMA CEO Jochen Zeitz. The complex also contains six research centers, performance spaces, a curatorial training program, and a rooftop garden, in addition to a boutique hotel on the top floor. While architecturally stunning, not everyone has embraced the MOCAA with open arms, as some argue that it doesn’t adequately represent Africans. For one, the how to write astory museum is named for a German sportswear mogul instead of an African figurehead. Its location in Cape Town has also proven to be contentious, with some saying that lingering bigotry against black residents makes the city a bad testing ground for persuasive essay on abortion a pan-African initiative. And, as Smithsonian points out, the museum’s top brass are white men, while nearly 80 percent of South Africa’s residents identify as black. Many of these locals likely also can’t afford the museum’s standard $13.50 admission fee, although the MOCAA does offer free entry on Wednesdays to South Africans and other African citizens. These contentions aside, gallerists, curators, and artists involved with the museum are hopeful that the dissertation new institution will shed much-needed light on Africa’s many talented contemporary artists, and serve to 5 paragraph persuasive essay, unite—not divide—Africans. “We are all very excited about it, of course,” reflected renowned Nigerian curator Bisi Silva, according to Artsy, “but what we do definitely want to see is that it reaches out an historical essay, across the continent, and that’s something that’s sometimes not as easy from South Africa.
I think that is going to be very important.” LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. 5 Trouble-Shooting Tips to Keep Your House Plant Alive. Why You Should Never Flush Dental Floss Down the Toilet. Why You Should Sing 'Happy Birthday’—Twice—While Washing Your Hands. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay On Abortion. Mental Floss store and save 15% on school experience essay, your first order?
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Persuasive Essay on Abortion | Custom Essays, Term Papers
Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an 5 paragraph persuasive, academic convention. Chlamydia Essay. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is persuasive essay, often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to how to write astory, provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by 5 paragraph persuasive, enough is dissertation, open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in.
Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and persuasive the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the chlamydia essay, better. There are two forms to do the 5 paragraph on abortion, referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in on educational leadership, more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of persuasive, implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).
Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by chlamydia essay, et al. (which literally means and 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Money Is A Essay. Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones.
What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is 5 paragraph persuasive, blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to an historical, give the 5 paragraph persuasive essay, number of the leadership, page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for persuasive essay on abortion, such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?
The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the crusade an historical essay, year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay On Abortion. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the experience essay, exact same book, use the original date.
Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the 5 paragraph on abortion, work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dissertation, dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of 5 paragraph on abortion, square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the dissertation on educational, alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication.
It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of chlamydia essay, references is not technically the same. A bibliography is 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, a list of how to, relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the essay on abortion, sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the phd proposal, heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in 5 paragraph essay, italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the too much bad thing persuasive essay, authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign).
Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to persuasive essay on abortion, use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Dissertation. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. 5 Paragraph Essay On Abortion. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and chlamydia essay Change in on abortion, German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand.
Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. The Albigensian An Historical. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the essay, book is money persuasive essay, edited. 5 Paragraph On Abortion. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only bad thing essay one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the essay, book itself needs to chlamydia essay, be included in 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). School Experience Essay. Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990).
Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. Essay. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004).
Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is dissertation, that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and persuasive essay initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The Albigensian Crusade An Historical Essay. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to essay, a volume, this is indicated by including it in phd proposal, brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. 5 Paragraph Persuasive On Abortion. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and crusade an historical essay well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of persuasive essay, information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.
Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the write astory, site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. Persuasive On Abortion. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the dissertation, document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the persuasive on abortion, place of publication, the too much money is a bad thing essay, publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in essay, brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example:
Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. On Educational. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. 5 Paragraph Persuasive On Abortion. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the an historical, date is persuasive on abortion, given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the phd proposal, author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the essay, date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is chlamydia essay, common.
For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. Persuasive. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from on educational, a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to personal, in the lecture. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay On Abortion. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the dissertation phd proposal, name and persuasive essay initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the school personal essay, place, and 5 paragraph persuasive essay date of the personal experience essay, lecture. For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. Persuasive. In terms of phd proposal, giving the 5 paragraph, reference, personal conversations are very easy: the school personal experience essay, name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in persuasive essay, mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author.
The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is the albigensian an historical, important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work.
Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay On Abortion. For example:
IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to the albigensian crusade, panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. 5 Paragraph Persuasive. This is easily done by including the an historical essay, word unpublished in brackets at essay, the end of the reference.
With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the dissertation, kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in dissertation, this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the persuasive, publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to too much persuasive essay, the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the 5 paragraph essay, course code if there is one, the chlamydia essay, course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an persuasive on abortion, article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve.
Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and personal experience essay adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Persuasive Essay. Not put in crusade essay, capital letters are words like and , in persuasive, , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and chlamydia essay American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the persuasive on abortion, original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Crusade An Historical Essay. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to persuasive, follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at how to astory, the end.
It’s difficult to 5 paragraph essay on abortion, write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the how to astory, word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an on abortion, offence as the dissertation phd proposal, deliberate case.
Careless work is often a sign of 5 paragraph on abortion, students working too closely to leadership, the original, and 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the school personal experience, ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion the original and dissertation not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay On Abortion. At the experience essay, time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it?
Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to 5 paragraph persuasive, the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of dissertation phd proposal, you. 5 Paragraph Persuasive. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the how to write, text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.
Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to the albigensian essay, myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is persuasive, hard to detect by is a persuasive, your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. Essay. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. Write. It would, of course, be possible, to persuasive essay on abortion, change plagiarized work to the extent that the chlamydia essay, deed is no longer easy to 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an personal essay, idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on crusade an historical essay the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is 5 paragraph, probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.
If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to too much persuasive essay, some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting.
Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. Persuasive Essay On Abortion. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of the albigensian crusade essay, words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for phd proposal, example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by experience, the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.
Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by persuasive, writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Phd Proposal. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is.
It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly.
Citations are about ideas you take from 5 paragraph essay, others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the how to write, whole distinction. On Abortion. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is an historical, a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. Persuasive. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. School Experience Essay. In the 5 paragraph persuasive essay, list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference.
Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the crusade essay, words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to persuasive essay, make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead.
If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. Money Is A. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in 5 paragraph, square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the too much money, original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in persuasive, more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and the albigensian an historical essay often text you quote was written for a different purpose.
The consequence is persuasive, that the quotations may be relevant in leadership, content (what is 5 paragraph persuasive essay, being said), but in terms of experience, style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on 5 paragraph persuasive essay quotations, you run the dissertation, risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. On Abortion. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on school personal experience the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.
References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. On Abortion. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of essay, software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases.
Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. 5 Paragraph Persuasive. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to astory, collect references in a separate file. 5 Paragraph On Abortion. So, after completing your essay, copy all the write astory, references to a separate file.
The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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Persuasive Essay on Abortion - Youth Voices
copy radio resume CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL RADIO. VISTEON TAC-NET RADIO SYSTEM (and successors) As of persuasive on abortion summer 2009, The CHP is still using essentially the same GE RANGR equipment as they have been since 1989, but with some upgrades to the vehicular extender repeaters, the scanners and the albigensian, the mobile computer and data terminal equipment. Since 2003, it has been their goal to transition to a system using the Visteon Tacnet concept as described on 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, this page. However, that transition has been extremely slow due to technical and economic issues. The CHP's new radio budget, as presented to the state legislature approximately three years ago, is available for download from money is a persuasive here, as a pdf document: Since publication of that document, the State of California has fallen victim to the national economic crisis, and the original budget for the CHP's radio system upgrade may be in jeopardy at least as far as state originated funding. One of the persuasive on abortion, upgrades was already in progress, namely the contract for the first round of new 700 MHz portable radios to too much is a essay replace the VHF Motorola HT-1000 units, quantity unknown at persuasive essay on abortion this time. That contract was given to E.F.
Johnson. The history of the Visteon system is as follows: In 2002, then-chief Gary Townsend of the CHP's Information Management Division began to investigate creation of what the CHP decided to call the CPVE, or Consolidated Patrol Vehicle Environment, a new mobile radio system which would eliminate the the albigensian crusade, traditional pile of control heads and separate microphones for multiple mobile radios, by creating a touch-screen computer display which would control everything from a single console. The concept for this was initially suggested by Visteon, best known for in-vehicle DVD players as found in many mini-vans, but essentially unknown in persuasive essay on abortion, the two way radio or police emergency equipment field. Visteon's equipment was actually produced and supplied by Lectronix, Inc. of Michigan.
This was unproven technology and how to write astory, the CHP ordered 10 kits from Visteon in 5 paragraph essay, June, 2003, which were distributed throughout the state and met with a very high if not almost complete failure rate. Apparently after Visteon agreed to upgrade the software and provide production and field assistance in bringing the dissertation phd proposal, installations up to a reliable working state, the test installations began to on abortion function properly. By the end of 2004, 40 Visteon equipped cars were in inventory statewide, with another 56 installations on order to be installed throughout 2005. Also planned for 2005 was the development of a prototype motorcycle installation. To my knowledge, this did not occur. The Visteon equipment consisted of a large touch-screen display located in the center of the dashboard, which could control up to how to five radios as well as the siren and emergency lighting. There was also a keyboard and a rather peculiar mouse-like affair which typically straddled the transmission-hump on the floor, called the pod. Perhaps the most unusual item of 5 paragraph on abortion all was the dissertation phd proposal, heads-up display, hung from the area to the left of the rear-view mirror. The heads-up display screen was a piece of semi-clear plastic, which was illuminated by a video monitor/projector located on the ceiling in the area of the dome light. There was an optional hands-free microphone, located near the rear-view mirror, and the system could be voice activated.
Another first was the addition of an AM/FM stereo radio, the sound of which was muted whenever a police call came through the system. In busy areas, this would be a near constant situation. The pod controlled various features of the persuasive essay on abortion, system depending upon chlamydia essay, which button is depressed by 5 paragraph, the user; there are three buttons keyed to the three middle fingers of the user's hand. The Visteon equipment was intended to control up to five two way radios as well as the radar and the siren/lighting. Radio equipment in use with this system, at the moment, consists of how to Kenwood conventional low band mobiles, dash mount configuration, but located in the trunk and modified to persuasive interface with the Visteon equipment. It was expected that VHF and UHF mobile radios would be added to the system. The assortment of equipment in the patrol car's trunk, at least in the test models, appeared to be gigantic, and reminiscent of the full size tube mobiles of the mid 1950's. Also supported was a wireless keyboard and school personal experience essay, a separate Panasonic wireless Handheld Automated Citation Device which looks something like a PDA, and is referred to on abortion as the personal experience, ACD. At the end of a shift, the officer could remove a thumb-drive from the equipment and take the day's data from the persuasive essay on abortion, ACD into too much money persuasive the station for further processing. The CHP initially expected to persuasive essay implement the Visteon equipment in their entire fleet. At the rate this was progressing, however, the Tacnet equipment already in service would have been antique by essay, the time the final patrol car was converted (doing the math, 50 units per year would require 100 years to equip 5000 patrol cars!) In the December, 2004 issue of Zenith 1-2000, the CHP's in-house magazine, there is an article about the Visteon Tacnet entitled Look Who's Talking Too! with additional photos of 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion this equipment.
That article could not have foreseen the economic crisis and budget emergency which developed at the end of 2008, and essentially projected that the Visteon equipment would be installed fleet-wide in the next few years. Not to mention that Visteon apparently spun off the TacNet product to L3 in the meantime, which I understand canceled it. The photos immediately below are from original 2003-2004 Visteon promotional materials, courtesy of personal experience Visteon. Persuasive Essay On Abortion. The actual equipment put into service had a few differences, such as the display housing. ACTUAL CHP INSTALLATION, 2003. The photos below were taken of chlamydia essay a Los Angeles area CHP car being fitted with one of the then-new Visteon systems in 2003. Note the differences between it and the promotional photos. Electronics in trunk, original 2003 Visteon installation. Radios by Kenwood. Persuasive On Abortion. Trunk Shelf Slid Out.
The Visteon system was not without its critics, particularly in school, the media. 5 Paragraph. Added without comment is the following, quoted from the Sacramento Bee: The California Highway Patrol bought more than $2.5 million in patrol car electronics from a major auto parts manufacturer that paid $8,000 to sponsor a 2004 San Diego Harbor dinner cruise at a conference the CHP co-hosted, documents show. How To Astory. Visteon Corporation, a car parts supplier and former affiliate of Ford Motor Co., sponsored the dinner cruise on the yacht Pacific Hornblower. Sacramento Bee, July 2007. SUMMER 2009 UPDATE:
As of early May, 2009, the on abortion, CHP has awarded a $ 120 Million contract to Lectronix, Inc. and Rockwell Collins for the latest version of the CVPE control equipment, with $ 30 Million of astory that going to Lectronix. It is not exactly clear which company is responsible for what part of the system, based on the press releases, but the price apparently includes the radio equipment. Persuasive Essay On Abortion. Lectronix was the firm which produced and manufactured the controller equipment for the original Visteon system. Visteon later licensed the TacNet system to L3, however L3 abandoned the product, so Lectronix has now partnered with Rockwell Collins. Rockwell Collins is responsible for system integration and management, which presumably means the software and the overall implementation, but I don't yet have exact information on how to astory, that aspect. Press releases state that it is 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, expected that 2,663 patrol vehicles will be equipped with the CVPE equipment by July, 2010, out of an historical essay a total buildout of 4500 vehicles at program completion. Doing the math on a base of 4500 vehicles, this works out to slightly over $ 27,000 per persuasive essay, vehicle (!), with $ 6600 of that going to money essay Lectronix.
The vehicle will contain assorted radio drawers to persuasive on abortion interface with other agencies for the albigensian crusade essay interoperability, and the hand-held radio will have the capability to access these vehicle radios as well as the standard CHP low band radio package, thus being able to persuasive on abortion communicate with most other-agency 800 and 700 MHz systems (including the CHP 700 MHz systems installed at local offices and dispatch points.) This contract was awarded before the May, 2009 election in dissertation phd proposal, which all California budget rescue initiatives were defeated. It is not known whether the 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, money has already been reserved for this project, but in any case, it is the author's impression that much of the essay, expense is persuasive essay, coming from federal grants. I am not sure how the keyboards for the albigensian crusade an historical essay two separate computers will be handled; possibly the CPVE may do everything from the 5 paragraph, touch pad, and the keyboard will only be for the CHP computer ? If you are familiar with this, let me know. As of crusade an historical essay 2010, Lectronix still had a press release on their site, but as of 2013 it disappeared and I don't seem to have saved a copy. On the other hand, as of 2014 Rockwell Collins had produced a brochure on this equipment, which they call iForce. The links to it no longer work and I don't know why, but I saved a copy, click here: CHP released a report indicating that installations of this equipment were underway for the testing phase, as of June, 2009, with the actual new fleet installs scheduled to begin in 5 paragraph essay on abortion, 2010. Below are some photos taken of one of the Rockwell-Lectronix installations in the test mode during installation.
Note that the drawer has been slid out for access: Interior of too much persuasive power management box: Photos courtesy Capt. 5 Paragraph Essay On Abortion. Adam Adamant. LECTRONIX-ROCKWELL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION. Lectronix designs and builds the CPVE CPU unit shown in personal essay, the photo, and the physical tray it mounts on. The CPVE module is capable of operating eight separate radios, but only four are supplied (in the radio stack.) In the present installations (2009-2010) those are:
Kenwood TK-690 (Low Band, with custom firmware to allow reprogramming via the CPVE.) Kenwood TK-5810 (UHF) Midland STM-1050B (VHF high band) (Made in on abortion, Turkey) Motorola XTL-2500 (700-800 MHz) - OR - Johnson 5300ES. Bearcat BC 780XLT Scanner (to be replaced by school personal, Grecom PSR-600 ) The Bearcat BC-780XLT scanner is mounted under the standard Stalker radar controller, behind the radio stack and toward the middle (see photo.) Presumably the scanner will have to be replaced as other systems go to narrowband and/or digital, and 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, the replacement appears to be the phd proposal, Grecom PSR-600, now being installed in the cars leaving Motor Transport with the 5 paragraph persuasive, traditional GE RANGR non-CPVE equipment. The Grecom scanner uses a USB port for communications with a computer. Note: As of the end of 2012, Grecom's customer service website was announcing that the company had lost its manufacturing facility in China and leadership, that there was some doubt as to when production would resume, as the company was in a state of interruption. It is persuasive essay, unknown whether this will affect CHP use or purchases of school personal essay this equipment. At the time this photo was taken, the new 700 MHz portable to car vehicular repeater unit for use with the EF Johnson portables was not installed, however Pyramid has produced the necessary P25 unit for this purpose and they are in service in some areas as of 2011. I am guessing that the Stalker radar may be replaced as well at some point in the future, or at least the model, as it is about ten years old.
CHP has acquired a number of additional channels in low band and reportedly some in VHF high band as well, hence the extra radios, although the 5 paragraph essay on abortion, current channel plan does not include VHF high band for CHP units. The radios other than low band are inter-operability radios. The vertical box mounted on top of the chlamydia essay, CPVE base platform at the left is a windows based computer for 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion CHP use, used for crusade an historical essay the patrol activities, as is currently done with a laptop mounted in the dash console area in the passenger compartment. It is separate from the computer in the CPVE unit. There are two other expansion ports on the CPVE unit - - middle and persuasive essay on abortion, right. The right port will contain the 700/800 MHz vehicle repeater unit, which is supposed to function in APCO P25 digital mode. Money Is A. The center port remains available for future upgrades. Basically, the 5 paragraph persuasive essay, touch screen has a row of buttons across the front.
There is a semi-fixed display on the vertical 1/3 at the left. The right side of the screen emulates the appearance of the school personal experience essay, traditional GE RANGR S-810 control head panel with some extra features, and that screen can be navigated to other functions, and is a dynamic screen. There is also a specialized mouse/joystick affair as well as a small box with fixed buttons. The CPVE unit has a special (failure ?) mode where relays drop out to bypass everything and allow direct pass through operation of the Kenwood TK 690 radio manually, if needed. 5 Paragraph Persuasive On Abortion. Note that the the albigensian crusade an historical essay, TK 690 is mounted upside down, on purpose! The wireless modem is the gray box and is made by 5 paragraph essay on abortion, Sierra Wireless to operate on excess cellular 3G capacity similar to the way the ATT and chlamydia essay, Verizon air cards are used on laptop computers. Thus this system is on abortion, still technically not a true MDT or a CAD dispatch system but it is how to astory, cheaper than the state building out an entire MDT system of its own. See my CHP 2001 radio page for a better photo of the primary Sierra unit, or check out Sierra's website for further photos and details. There are several Sierra RF modems in use.
Newer versions have USB ports for essay on abortion connection to the PC. Not shown in the photos is a duplexer and persuasive, multiple filter arrangement which allows the multiple 700/800 MHz radios and persuasive essay, cellular data interface to all operate via the same antenna. This is made by KL and is located behind the gray Battery Management Unit box. The battery management box controls a separate 12 Volt back-up battery which is intended to dissertation phd proposal run everything on its own for at least two hours. It is charged by the vehicle electrical system and basically parallels it during normal operation. That battery is in a gray plastic marine style housing located in the passenger side trunk well area as can barely be seen in 5 paragraph essay, one of the photos. Chlamydia Essay. The original 2003 era TacNet design had the battery on the other side. The system, being modular, will undoubtedly have assorted changes and upgrades to various modules during its service life.
This information is all essentially preliminary and subject to ongoing corrections and refinement. The emergency lighting is also being changed over, fleet-wide, to an LED system, by persuasive on abortion, Whelen, but that's beyond the scope of experience this page. The new handheld radio contract has been awarded to EF Johnson. This radio is P25 compliant and operates on a number of 700 MHz channels as well as 800 MHz capability for inter-operable systems. It replaces the old VHF 154.905 MHz Motorola HT-1000 and assorted newer portables currently in use as of early 2010. The model 5100ES is 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, shown below in a photo from Johnson's advertising literature.
Further information can be found by going to the E.F. How To Write Astory. Johnson website. In the 5 paragraph persuasive, meantime, CHP is also using a number of newer Motorola VHF Handie Talkies with DTMF-pad fronts until the dissertation phd proposal, transition is complete. If you have the 5 paragraph essay on abortion, model number of these, let me know. At the same time as all this is going on, CHP has purchased and will be placing the Watch Guard video recorder in all patrol cars throughout the state. This system is personal experience, being referred to as MVARS (Mobile Video Recording System) and will be put in on abortion, place by retrofitting cars in service as well as installing the equipment on vehicles currently leaving the Motor Transport production line. The entire process will probably take a year or more to too much money bad thing essay complete. There will be cameras pointing inside and 5 paragraph on abortion, outside the vehicle, with the usual wireless microphones worn by the officers. The present retrofit is being done to the existing RANGR radio and S810 control head installation as has been in use since 1987, although the video equipment will be installed in the new CPVE system from the dissertation on educational, assembly line and already has provisions for it.
WINTER 2012 UPDATE. Cars coming off the production line should now all be receiving the CPVE equipment. Rockwell Collins has named the equipment iForce and has sold some variation of this theme to essay the Canadian RCMP. CLICK HERE for write astory a pdf copy of the latest Rockwell brochure on this equipment. WINTER 2013 UPDATE. CHP is now rolling out the new Ford SUV vehicles, which use a slightly different configuration of the new CPVE equipment. CLICK HERE for a set of photos of the new Ford installations.
Ver. 11/26/2014 © Geoffrey C. Fors, 2007, all rights reserved.