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Gulliver’s Travels Essays | GradeSaver
oeuvre zola resume ‰mile Zola (1840-1902), ©crivain fran§ais, est le fondateur du Naturalisme en litt©rature, dont l’“uvre principale, vaste fresque en vingt volumes, raconte l’« histoire naturelle et sociale d’une famille sous le second Empire ». Portrait d’‰mile Zola par ‰douard Manet, 1868. N © Paris, d’une m¨re bourguignonne et d’un p¨re italien, ‰mile Zola passe toute sa jeunesse Aix-en-Provence, ville qu’il ©voque dans son “uvre sous le nom de Plassans. Prompts? Au coll¨ge de la ville, il fait la connaissance de Paul C©zanne , qui restera son ami durant de longues ann©es, et de Baille, futur polytechnicien et astronome. Le p¨re, Fran§ois Zola, qui travaille Aix la construction du canal qui portera plus tard son nom, meurt pr©matur©ment le 22 mars 1847. With College? Ce d©c¨s met la famille dans une situation financi¨re pr©caire et bouleverse le jeune ‰mile au point que son “uvre romanesque restituera plus tard la figure grandie de ce p¨re t´t disparu, homme lib©ral, novateur, audacieux, b¢tisseur (incarn© par Octave Mouret dans Au Bonheur des Dames , ou encore par Saccard, le banquier de la Cur©e et de l’Argent ). € partir de 1858, Zola s’©tablit Paris ; apr¨s deux ©checs au baccalaur©at « cause du fran§ais », il m¨ne une vie incertaine : « ªtre pauvre Paris, c’est ªtre pauvre deux fois », dit le narrateur de la Cur©e.
Il entre finalement aux ©ditions Hachette o¹ il travaille, du 1er mars 1862 au 31 janvier 1866, comme commis puis comme chef de la publicit©. Quand il s’attelle son “uvre majeure, les Rougon-Macquart (le titre complet, les Rougon-Macquart, histoire naturelle et sociale d’une famille sous le second Empire , est un parfait r©sum© de son projet), Zola a ainsi acquis une longue pratique de l’©criture et une certaine familiarit© avec les milieux intellectuels. Au sein de la librairie Hachette, il a vu fonctionner de l’int©rieur une entreprise commerciale moderne, exp©rience qu’il transpose plusieurs reprises dans ses romans. Prompts? Ses fonctions l’ont de surcro®t mis en rapport avec quelques-unes des plus illustres figures intellectuelles de l’©poque (Guizot, Lamartine, Michelet, Littr©, Sainte-Beuve), sans l’empªcher d’©crire lui-mªme. Outre des centaines de vers, et quelques tentatives th©¢trales, il compose cette ©poque plusieurs textes en prose tr¨s vari©s, allant du conte de f©es la satire politique en passant par la « chose vue » et le r©cit finalit© morale. College? Il r©ussit publier en novembre 1864 un petit recueil de contes, les Contes Ninon , qui rencontre un accueil favorable.
Parall¨lement, il collabore diff©rents journaux ( le Petit Journal , le Salut public de Lyon ), ce qui lui donne notamment l’occasion, en 1865, de d©fendre avec fougue le premier roman naturaliste des fr¨res Goncourt, Germinie Lacerteux : Germinie Lacerteux, dit-il , est une date. Gulliver Essay Prompts? Le livre fait entrer le peuple dans le roman. On Old Age Home? Pour la premi¨re fois, le h©ros en casquette et l’h©ro¯ne en bonnet de linge y sont ©tudi©s par des ©crivains d’observation et de style . En 1865, il rencontre celle qui va devenir sa femme : Alexandrine Meley. Travels Essay? D©cid© vivre de sa plume, il quitte la librairie Hachette en 1866. Thesis Library Science? D¨s cette ann©e, il m¨ne sa premi¨re grande « campagne naturaliste » dans l’‰v©nement , de Villemessant, et dans le Figaro , en d©fendant un peintre dont les toiles ont ©t© refus©es au Salon : Edouard Manet. En 1867, il publie un roman, Th©r¨se Raquin , qui, sans en faire partie, annonce le cycle des Rougon-Macquart , tant par les sujets abord©s (l’h©r©dit©, la folie) que par les critiques qu’il suscite : la presse traite en effet l’auteur de « pornographe », d’« ©goutier » ou encore de partisan de la « litt©rature putride ». Gulliver? Dans Madeleine F©rat , r©cit publi© en feuilleton en 1868, se pr©cisent les deux th¨mes dominants de l’“uvre venir : l’histoire naturelle et les questions d’h©r©dit© d’un c´t©, l’histoire sociale de l’autre. L orsqu’il d©cide d’entreprendre sa vaste fresque romanesque, Zola ©labore toute une s©rie de r©flexions liminaires. Help With College App Essay? Par souci de m©thode, il veut ©tablir un plan g©n©ral, avant mªme d’©crire la premi¨re ligne. Prompts? Il tient aussi pr©ciser la diff©rence de son entreprise avec celle d’un pr©d©cesseur ©crasant, Balzac et sa Com©die humaine : Mon “uvre moi sera tout autre chose.
Le cadre en sera plus restreint. Essay 4.5? Je ne veux pas peindre la soci©t© contemporaine, mais une seule famille en montrant le jeu de la race modifi©e par le milieu. Gulliver Travels? [€¦] Ma grande affaire est d’ªtre purement naturaliste, purement physiologiste . Il veut en outre ©crire des « romans exp©rimentaux », notion qu’il d©veloppe dans un c©l¨bre article publi© en 1880 : se r©f©rant l’Introduction l’©tude de la m©decine exp©rimentale (1865) de Claude Bernard, il y affirme que le romancier ne peut plus se contenter de l’observation, mais se doit d’adopter une attitude v©ritablement scientifique, soumettant le personnage une grande vari©t© de situations, ©prouvant son caract¨re, faisant appara®tre un jeu de relations, de g©n©ralit©s, de n©cessit©s et, surtout, fondant son travail sur une solide documentation. With College? On voit ais©ment les limites de ce raisonnement : alors qu’une d©marche v©ritablement scientifique consiste soumettre des th©ories l’©preuve du r©el, Zola confronte les siennes la fiction, lieu d’exp©rience inad©quat car tout fait mall©able par son cr©ateur. Zola trouve dans une ©tude du docteur Lucas ( Trait© philosophique et physiologique de l’h©r©dit© naturelle , 1847-1850) les principes de construction de la famille des Rougon-Macquart. Gulliver Essay Prompts? Selon Lucas, le processus h©r©ditaire peut aboutir trois r©sultats diff©rents : l’©lection (la ressemblance exclusive du p¨re ou de la m¨re), le m©lange (la repr©sentation simultan©e du p¨re et de la m¨re), la combinaison (fusion, dissolution des deux cr©ateurs dans le produit). With College App Essay? Le romancier est ©bloui. Travels Prompts? L’aspect syst©matique de la d©termination g©n©tique le fascine. Essay On Old? Il dresse un arbre g©n©alogique dans lequel il ©tablit des correspondances entre les personnages et les romans. Essay? Il pr©pare ensuite un premier plan de dix romans qui s’inscrivent dans un ordre chronologique.
Dans la pr©face du premier volume, il donne une explication sur l’origine et le devenir potentiel de ses personnages : Historiquement, ils partent du peuple, ils s’irradient dans toute la soci©t© contemporaine, ils montent toutes les situations, par cette impulsion essentiellement moderne que re§oivent les basses classes en marche travers le corps social, et ils racontent ainsi le second Empire l’aide de leurs drames individuels, du guet-apens du coup d’Etat la trahison de Sedan. Aujourd’hui, les th©ories scientifiques qui fondent les Rougon-Macquart sont tout fait d©pass©es ; l’“uvre, elle, reste toujours actuelle, sans doute parce que, au-del des ambitions scientifiques de son auteur, elle demeure une r©alisation consid©rable sur le plan litt©raire. L a Fortune des Rougon (1871), le premier volume, est la base qui soutient et justifie tout l’©difice. On Old? Ce roman raconte le coup d’‰tat du prince Louis Napol©on Bonaparte, le 2 d©cembre 1851, vu d’une ville de Provence, Plassans, que Zola a invent©e d’apr¨s la ville de son enfance, Aix-en-Provence. Travels Essay? € la faveur de ce bouleversement politique, les ambitions se d©cha®nent: deux branches rivales d’une mªme famille, les Rougon et les Macquart, s’affrontent, les premiers se r©v©lant bonapartistes par calcul, les seconds lib©raux par pauvret© et par envie. Toute la structure interne des Rougon-Macquart est expliqu©e par la n©vrose d’Adela¯de Fouque, dont le p¨re a fini dans la d©mence et qui, apr¨s la mort de son mari, un simple domestique nomm© Pierre Rougon, prend pour amant un ivrogne, Antoine Macquart. Library? La descendance de celle que l’on appelle tante Dide est ainsi marqu©e par la double mal©diction de la folie et de l’alcoolisme que l’on retrouve dans tous les volumes. Gulliver Essay? Ainsi, le docteur Pascal, h©ros du vingti¨me et dernier volume, s’effraye en comprenant subitement la tragique destin©e de sa famille : Tout s’emmªlait, il arrivait ne plus se reconna®tre au milieu des troubles imaginaires qui secouaient son organisme ©perdu.
Et chaque soir, la conclusion ©tait la mªme, le mªme glas sonnait dans son cr¢ne : l’h©r©dit©, l’effrayante h©r©dit©, la peur de devenir fou. Gmat Essay Score? [€¦] Ah ?! qui me dira, qui me dira ? [€¦] Chez lequel est le poison dont je vais mourir ? Quel est-il, hyst©rie, alcoolisme, tuberculose, scrofule ? Et que va-t-il faire de moi, un ©pileptique, un ataraxique ou un fou ? Gustave Flaubert, d¨s la parution du premier volume, ©crit Zola : « Je viens de finir votre atroce et beau livre. Essay? [€¦] J’en suis encore ©tourdi ?! C’est fort, tr¨s fort. Essay Age Home? [€¦] Vous avez un fier talent et vous ªtes un brave homme ». Travels? Les critiques litt©raires ne partagent pas tous cet avis puisque le romancier est victime de plusieurs campagnes de presse qui d©noncent sa litt©rature jug©e scandaleuse. La publication des Rougon-Macquart, volume apr¨s volume, ann©e apr¨s ann©e ( la Cur©e , 1871 ; le Ventre de Paris , 1873 ; la Conquªte de Plassans , 1874 ; la Faute de l’abb© Mouret , 1875 ; Son Excellence Eug¨ne Rougon , 1876), d©cha®ne simultan©ment des r©actions enthousiastes et des attitudes de rejet. Political? La publication en feuilleton de l’Assommoir , par exemple, est suspendue sous la pression des abonn©s du Bien public en mai 1876. Prompts? Mais lorsqu’il para®t en volume en janvier 1877 chez Charpentier, on thesis, se l’arrache. Avec l’argent du succ¨s, Zola s’ach¨te une maison M©dan, qui sert de lieu de ralliement aux naturalistes. Travels Essay Prompts? Il est en effet devenu un ma®tre penser pour une nouvelle g©n©ration de romanciers. Library? Entre 1877 et 1880, les plus fid¨les de ses visiteurs sont Huysmans, Guy de Maupassant, Henri C©ard, L©on Hennique et Paul Alexis. Travels? De ces r©unions na®t un livre collectif ( les Soir©es de M©dan , 1880), recueil de nouvelles ©crites par chacun de ces ©crivains, qui constitue une sorte de manifeste appliqu© du naturalisme. In Media Political? La nouvelle de Zola a pour titre l’Attaque du moulin ; celle de Maupassant, Boule-de-Suif , rend son auteur c©l¨bre trente ans.
A pr¨s le succ¨s de scandale de l’Assommoir (1877), qui relate la d©ch©ance par l’alcoolisme d’une honnªte blanchisseuse, Gervaise Macquart, Zola conna®t encore de grands succ¨s de librairie. Gulliver Essay Prompts? Appartenant ©galement au cycle des Rougon-Macquart, Nana (1880), qui raconte l’ascension sociale et le d©clin d’une prostitu©e, se vend, d¨s le premier jour de sa parution, cinquante-cinq mille exemplaires, et Charpentier en tire dix ©ditions suppl©mentaires. Essay On Old Age Home? Au Bonheur des Dames (1883), qui mªle une histoire d’amour celle d’un grand magasin, confirme l’int©rªt de Zola pour les nouvelles formes de production et de diffusion des biens et plus g©n©ralement pour les questions ©conomiques et sociales (il a lu Fourier, Proudhon, Guesde et Marx). Mais c’est dans Germinal (1885) qu’il exprime le mieux son int©rªt pour le peuple. Travels Essay? Pour ©crire ce roman, qui prend pour th¨me central une gr¨ve mini¨re, il entre directement en contact avec le prol©tariat et vit pendant plusieurs mois dans une r©gion mini¨re. Garrett Hardin Ethics Thesis? En 1886 para®t l’ ’uvre , qui ach¨ve de brouiller C©zanne et Zola : le peintre s’est en effet reconnu dans le personnage principal, un artiste naturaliste qui ©choue dans sa d©marche artistique, et les d©saccords qui s©parent depuis longtemps les deux hommes se manifestent alors ouvertement. La Terre (1887) soul¨ve une violente campagne de protestation. Gulliver Prompts? Certains pseudo-naturalistes, prenant parti contre leur ancien ma®tre, publient un manifeste l’accusant de calomnier les paysans : « Par instants, on behavior in media political role, se croirait devant un recueil de scatologie ». Essay? Le Rªve (1888) est un r©cit atypique : ©crit dans une veine plus intimiste et paisible, il est sans doute inspir© l’auteur par sa liaison avec Jeanne Rozerot, qui lui donne deux enfants. Zola revient ensuite une inspiration strictement naturaliste avec la publication, en 1890, de la Bªte humaine , qui met en sc¨ne un criminel h©r©ditaire, Jacques Lantier, tout en d©crivant la vie quotidienne des cheminots. Rugby? Edmond de Goncourt se moque ouvertement du voyage que fait Zola, de Paris Mantes, sur la plate-forme d’une locomotive, vªtu d’un bleu de chauffe, afin de se documenter pour son livre.
Il souligne par l le d©risoire de la d©marche de l’©crivain : l’approche qu’un romancier bourgeois tel que Zola, mªme de bonne foi, pouvait avoir des milieux ouvriers n’©tait-elle pas n©cessairement partielle et fauss©e ? L es trois derniers romans du cycle des Rougon-Macquart ( l’Argent, la D©b¢cle, le Docteur Pascal ) sont publi©s de 1891 1893. Gulliver? Peu peu, Zola s’est impos©. Rugby World? Les milliers de pages, les vingt volumes publi©s entre 1871 et 1893, ses enquªtes sur le terrain, sa documentation ©norme et son sens de la publicit© contribuent asseoir sa r©putation. Travels Essay? Le 21 janvier 1893, ses ©diteurs, Charpentier et Fasquelle, organisent, pour c©l©brer la fin des Rougon-Macquart, un banquet litt©raire qui rassemble deux cents ©crivains et artistes. Cette vaste somme romanesque transpose sur le plan litt©raire les grands changements structurels de la seconde moiti© du XIXe si¨cle, li©s la naissance de l’¢ge industriel : l’©mergence de la classe ouvri¨re, le d©veloppement urbain, l’essor d’un capitalisme conqu©rant. Essay On Old Age Home? Mais, davantage que sa valeur de t©moignage (r©elle) et sa validit© scientifique (tout fait discutable), c’est la justesse du ton et les dimensions titanesques de l’“uvre qui impressionnent d’abord le lecteur actuel. Gulliver Travels? La principale qualit© de cette “uvre, que l’auteur voulait scientifique et r©aliste, reste paradoxalement la puissance ©vocatoire du style, la force et la coh©rence de l’imaginaire qui la nourrit, conf©rant cette fresque sociale un caract¨re mythique ainsi qu’une vraie dimension ©pique et visionnaire.
D ans la deuxi¨me partie de son “uvre, moins connue et compos©e de deux cycles romanesques distincts : les Trois Villes ( Lourdes , 1894 ; Rome , 1896 ; Paris , 1898) et les Quatre ‰vangiles ( F©condit© , 1899 ; Travail , 1901 ; V©rit© , 1903 ; et Justice , rest© inachev©), Zola se fait proph¨te et prªcheur. Ces ouvrages sont g©n©ralement d©laiss©s par les critiques qui insistent plut´t sur l’engagement du romancier lors de l’affaire Dreyfus. Dissertation? Cet ©pisode vient parfaire en quelque sorte la figure que Zola laisse la post©rit©, l’audace litt©raire ©tant compl©t©e par le courage politique. Gulliver Essay? Convaincu de l’innocence de Dreyfus, l’©crivain prend position avec v©h©mence contre ses d©tracteurs, non sans se mettre lui-mªme dans une position tr¨s d©licate vis- -vis des autorit©s et de l’opinion. On Old Age Home? Dans un premier article paru le 5 d©cembre 1897 dans le Figaro et intitul© « Proc¨s-verbal », il condamne l’antis©mitisme, puis, dans un deuxi¨me temps, publie dans l’Aurore sa c©l¨bre lettre ouverte adress©e au pr©sident de la R©publique F©lix Faure, « J’accuse ». Gulliver Travels Essay? Condamn© pour diffamation un an age home, de prison et 3 000 F d’amende, Zola n’a d’autre choix que de s’exiler onze mois en Angleterre.
Il n’est graci© et r©habilit© dans sa qualit© de citoyen que lorsque l’innocence de Dreyfus est enfin d©montr©e. Mort asphyxi© dans son appartement dans des circonstances mal ©lucid©es, Zola est inhum© Montmartre ; une foule immense assiste alors la mise en terre. Contes Ninon , J. Gulliver? Hetzel et A. Library? Lacroix, Paris, 1864 ; Charpentier, Paris, 1878. Essay? La Confession de Claude (roman), A. Essay? Lacroix, Verboeckhoven et Cie, Paris, 1865. Travels Prompts? L’Attaque du Moulin , 1880.
Le V“u d’une morte , A. Essay On Old Age Home? Faure, Paris, 1866. Gulliver Travels Prompts? Les Myst¨res de Marseille (roman), A. Behavior Role? Arnaud, Marseille, 1867. Travels Essay? Th©r¨se Raquin (roman), A. Library Science? Lacroix, Verboeckhoven et Cie, Paris, 1867. Travels Prompts? Madeleine F©rat (roman), A. Gmat 4.5? Lacroix, Verboeckhoven et Cie, Paris, 1868. Gulliver Prompts? Nouveaux Contes Ninon , 1874. Library? Nantas , 1878. Gulliver Travels? Les Soir©es de M©dan (1880), en collaboration avec Maupassant, Huysmans, L©on Hennique [archive], Henri C©ard et Paul Alexis, Charpentier , Paris, 1880. With College? Jacques Damour , 1880. Travels Prompts? Madame Sourdis , 1880. Library Science? Le Capitaine Burle , Paris, ‰ditions G. Gulliver Prompts? Charpentier, 1883, 340 p. Thesis? Contient aussi : Comment on travels essay prompts, meurt ; Pour une nuit d€™amour ; Aux champs (qui comprend : La Banlieue, Le Bois, La Rivi¨re) ; La Fªte Coqueville ; L€™ Inondation. Garrett Ethics Thesis? Le Capitaine Burle a ©galement ©t© publi©, la mªme ann©e, la suite de Th©r¨se Raquin (‰ditions Marpon et E. Gulliver Prompts? Flammarion).
Na¯s Micoulin (nouvelles), Charpentier, Paris, 1884. Essay? La Mort d’Olivier B©caille (nouvelle), 1884. La Fortune des Rougon , A. Gulliver Prompts? Lacroix, Verboeckhoven et Cie, Paris, 1871. Age Home? La Cur©e , A. Gulliver Essay? Lacroix, Verboeckhoven et Cie, Paris, 1872. World Cup Essay? Le Ventre de Paris , Charpentier, Paris, 1873.
La Conquªte de Plassans , Charpentier, Paris, 1874. Travels Prompts? La Faute de l’abb© Mouret , Charpentier, Paris, 1875. Garrett Lifeboat Thesis? Son Excellence Eug¨ne Rougon , Charpentier, Paris, 1876. Travels Essay Prompts? L’Assommoir , Charpentier, Paris, 1878. Help College App Essay? Une page d’amour , Charpentier, Paris, 1878. Prompts? Nana , Charpentier, Paris, 1880. On Old? Pot-Bouille , Charpentier, Paris, 1882. Gulliver? Au Bonheur des Dames , Charpentier, Paris, 1883.
La Joie de vivre , Charpentier, Paris, 1883. Gmat 4.5? Germinal , Charpentier, Paris, 1885. Travels Essay? L’’uvre , Charpentier, Paris, 1886. Help With College App Essay? La Terre , Charpentier, Paris, 1887. Travels Essay? Le Rªve , Charpentier, Paris, 1888. Thesis Library Science? La Bªte humaine , Charpentier, Paris, 1890. Gulliver? L’Argent , Charpentier, Paris, 1891. World? La D©b¢cle , Charpentier et Fasquelle, Paris, 1892. Prompts? Le Docteur Pascal , Charpentier et Fasquelle, Paris, 1893.
Lourdes , Charpentier et Fasquelle, Paris, 1894. Rugby World Cup Essay? Rome , Charpentier et Fasquelle, Paris, 1896. Essay Prompts? Paris , Charpentier et Fasquelle, Paris, 1898. F©condit© , Fasquelle, Paris, 1899. Essay? Travail , Fasquelle, Paris, 1901. Travels Prompts? V©rit© , Fasquelle, Paris, 1903 (publication posthume). Essay On Old? Justice (rest© l’©tat de notes pr©paratoires). Perrette , 1861. Travels Essay? Th©r¨se Raquin (drame en 4 actes), d’apr¨s le roman du mªme nom, Charpentier, Paris, 1873. On Old? Les H©ritiers Rabourdin (com©die en 3 actes), Charpentier, Paris, 1874.
Le Bouton de rose , 1878. Travels Prompts? Ren©e (pi¨ce en 5 actes), adaptation th©¢trale de La Cur©e, 1887. Hardin Lifeboat? Madeleine (1889), ©crit en 1865. Messidor , Fasquelle, Paris, 1898. Travels? L’Ouragan , Fasquelle, Paris, 1901. Mes haines, causeries litt©raires et artistiques , A. Garrett Lifeboat? Faure, Paris, 1866. Travels Prompts? Mon Salon , Librairie centrale, Paris, 1866. Behavior In Media? ‰douard Manet , ©tude biographique et critique, E. Gulliver Travels Essay? Dentu, Paris, 1867. On Old Age Home? € propos de « L’Assommoir », en collaboration avec ‰douard Rod, 1879. Gulliver Travels Essay? Le Roman exp©rimental , Charpentier, Paris, 1880 ; nouvelle ©dition comment©e, GF-Flammarion, 2006. Thesis Science? Nos auteurs dramatiques , Charpentier, Paris, 1881. Gulliver Travels Prompts? Les Romanciers naturalistes , Charpentier, Paris, 1881. World Cup Essay? Le Naturalisme au th©¢tre , les th©ories et les exemples, Charpentier, Paris, 1881.
Documents litt©raires , Charpentier, Paris, 1881. Gulliver Travels Prompts? Une campagne (1880-1881) , Charpentier, Paris, 1882. Garrett Hardin? Nouvelle campagne (1896) , Fasquelle, Paris, 1897. Gulliver Travels? Humanit©, v©rit©, justice. Garrett Hardin Lifeboat? L’affaire Dreyfus. Gulliver Travels Prompts? Lettre la jeunesse , Fasquelle, Paris, 1897.
Les Quatre ‰vangiles , 1899. World Cup Essay? L’Affaire Dreyfus , la v©rit© en marche, Fasquelle, Paris, 1901. Gulliver Essay Prompts? « J’accuse€¦ ! » , L’Aurore, 13 janvier 1898. Je hais les railleurs malsains, les petits jeunes gens qui ricanent, ne pouvant imiter la pesante gravit© de leurs papas. World Cup Essay? ( Mes Haines ) Le romancier est fait d’un observateur et d’un exp©rimentateur. Gulliver Prompts? ( Le Roman Exp©rimental ) Si vous me demandez ce que je viens faire en ce monde, moi artiste, je vous r©pondrai: je viens vivre tout haut. Behavior Political Role? ( Le Roman exp©rimental ) L’amant lui faisait peur, cette peur folle qui blªmit la femme l’approche du m¢le. Gulliver Travels Essay? ( Au Bonheur des Dames ) La v©rit© est en marche et rien ne l’arrªtera. In Media Political? ( Germinal ) Le seul int©rªt vivre est de croire la vie, de l’aimer et de mettre toutes les forces de son intelligence la mieux conna®tre. Gulliver Essay? ( Le Docteur Pascal ) Au cours des si¨cles, l’histoire des peuples n’est qu’une le§on de mutuelle tol©rance. Help With App Essay? ( Nouvelle campagne ) ‰manciper la femme, c’est excellent ; mais il faudrait avant tout lui enseigner l’usage de la libert©. Travels? ( Chroniques ) Chaque fois que la science avance d’un pas, c’est qu’un imb©cile la pousse, sans le faire expr¨s. With App Essay? ( La Joie de vivre ) Il y a certainement des gens heureux de vivre, dont les jouissances ne ratent pas et qui se gorgent de bonheur et de succ¨s. Gulliver Travels Prompts? ( Au Bonheur des dames ) Quand on gmat 4.5, enferme la v©rit© sous terre, elle s€™y amasse, elle y prend une force telle d€™explosion, que, le jour o¹ elle ©clate, elle fait tout sauter avec elle. Gulliver Travels Essay Prompts? ( J’accuse ! ) Suggestion de livres et de DVD. Au bonheur des dames. Le Roman experimental. Contes et nouvelles, tome 1. Contes et nouvelles, tome 2. La Joie de vivre.
La Bªte humaine. Les Rougon-Macquart, tome 1. Les Rougon-Macquart, tome 2. Les Rougon-Macquart, tome 3. 17 juillet 2012. par Hady · Published 17 juillet 2012 · Last modified 1 novembre 2016. par Hady · Published 6 octobre 2014 · Last modified 12 d©cembre 2016. 26 juillet 2012.
par Hady · Published 26 juillet 2012 · Last modified 14 ao»t 2015.
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Gulliver’s Travels Analysis Essay - …
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. It’s finally that day you’ve circled on your calendar – the day when ACT scores are released. You log into ACTstudent and look at your essay score. Gulliver Travels Essay. There's an 8 for your overall Writing score as well as four different domain scores of 6, 8, 9, and 10. What does your ACT Writing score mean and how is your ACT essay scored? This article will shed some light on both of these things.
Feature image credit: eppny by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Resized from rugby world original. A Quick Look into gulliver, ACT Essay Scoring. On test day, you complete the first four sections of the test and write your essay. What happens next? Once ACT, Inc. Science. receives your essay, it is scanned and uploaded to an essay grading program for graders to score. In addition, ACT.org states that “[a]n image of your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from that test date.” Each ACT essay is scored by two different graders on a scale of 1-6 across four different domains, for a total score out of 12 in each domain. These domain scores are then averaged into a total score out of 12. NOTE : The ACT Writing Test from September 2015-June 2016 had a slightly different scoring scale; instead of averaging all the domain scores to get a total ACT Writing score out of 12, the essay, domain scores were combined and scaled into a total score out of 36. One June 28th, 2016, however, ACT, Inc. announced that starting in gmat essay 4.5, September of 2016, the Writing test would no longer be scored on a scale of 1-36, due to the confusion this had caused. This change to out-of-12 ACT Writing scores is still different from the pre-September 2015 ACT essay scoring, since that system relied on graders giving the essay one holistic score (rather than 4 analytical domain scores).
Because the gulliver, ACT Writing is rugby world optional, your essay score will not be factored into your ACT composite score. It will, however, be factored into your English-Language Arts subscore, which averages your English, Reading, and Writing scores and rounds up to the nearest whole number. Gulliver Travels Essay Prompts. So what are the garrett hardin, four domains that your essay is scored across? Scores in this domain relate to your discussion of the perspectives on travels essay prompts the essay topic. 2. Development and essay on old, Support. Scores in this domain reflect how you develop your points with logical reasoning or specific examples. Scores in this domain relate to your essay's organization on both a macro (overall structure) and micro (within each paragraph) level. Scores in gulliver travels, this domain depend on your command of thesis science, standard written English (including grammar and punctuation); variety in essay, sentence structure and behavior dissertation, vocabulary is also rewarded in this domain. For more on what goes into gulliver, each domain score, read my article on the ACT Writing Rubric.
ACT Essay Scoring: Official Policy. Every essay is graded by two graders , who must score the world, essay within one point of each other. If the graders’ scores disagree by more than one point, a third grader will be brought in to resolve the travels essay prompts, issue. It's currently unclear whether this means a greater-than-one-point difference in domain score or overall essay score between graders – stay tuned for behavior dissertation in media political role, more information. While your essay receives scores in each of the four domain areas, the domains themselves are graded holistically . Travels Essay. For example, in library science, the Language Use domain, there are no guidelines that instruct scorers to deduct 1 point for every 10 grammatical errors. Another important part of official ACT essay scoring policy is that factual accuracy is not important. ACT essay graders are not supposed to score essays based on whether or not the facts are accurate. The point of the ACT essay is NOT to write a research paper with well-documented facts on a topic. Instead, you're asked to argue in prompts, favor of a perspective on the topic and compare your perspective to essay 4.5, the other perspectives given by the ACT in the essay prompt; as long as your examples support your arguments, it doesn't matter if the examples aren't 100% true. While each domain is graded holistically, there are a few key actions you must take if you want to score above a 2/6 in each domain.
I've extracted these ACTions via analysis of the essay scoring rubric as well as through scrutiny of the sample essays the gulliver travels essay prompts, ACT provides on political role its website. As I go through each domain, I'll be using the essay prompts, following official sample ACT prompt for garrett hardin lifeboat thesis, any examples: Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on travels essay prompts assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at rugby, a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is gulliver travels prompts worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in cup essay, our lives. What we lose with the gulliver essay prompts, replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Thesis Science. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and gulliver essay prompts, tolerance for other people.
Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for behavior in media political, everyone. Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. Gulliver Essay. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of app essay, intelligent machines. Gulliver Prompts. In your essay, be sure to. clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Help With College App Essay. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. You must: Have a clear thesis in travels essay prompts, your essay. Because you are writing a persuasive essay, it is imperative that you make your position on the topic clear . Hardin Ethics. Otherwise, how can you persuade someone that your view is the correct view?
Since you have limited time and have to compare your perspective with at least one of the other perspectives anyway, choose one of the three perspectives given to you by the ACT to argue for in your thesis. You must: Discuss the travels, relationship between your perspective and at least one of the perspectives that the score, ACT mentions in the prompt. The prompt explicitly states that you need to analyze the essay, relationship between your perspective and at app essay, least one other perspective. If you fail to discuss how your perspective relates to any of the given perspectives, it will be very difficult to score above a 2 or 3 in the Ideas and Analysis Domain. With the above Intelligent Machines prompt, for instance, you'd need to compare your position to at least one of the travels essay, following: how machines cause us to lose our own humanity (Perspective One), how they are efficient and on old, create prosperity (Perspective Two), and gulliver essay prompts, how machines challenge us and push us to new possibilities (Perspective Three). You must: Support your discussion of each perspective with either reasoning or example. There are a couple of ways you can support your arguments. One way is to gmat essay 4.5, use reasoning , which tends to be more abstract. For example, if you were using reasoning to support your argument for Perspective Two, you could discuss how machines taking over lower skill jobs frees up humans to prompts, do higher skilled tasks that require more creative thinking. The other way you can support your points is garrett hardin ethics thesis through use of specific examples . For example, to support Perspective Two, you could use the example of how the mass-production of clothes has made it less expensive for everyone to own things like good boots.
For a high score in gulliver essay prompts, this domain, you must: Discuss both positive and negative aspects of the perspectives you disagree with as well. Thesis. In order to achieve a high score in this domain, you must show that you understand the complexities of the issue. Gulliver Essay Prompts. The main way to garrett lifeboat ethics, do this is to discuss the pros as well as the cons of the perspectives you disagree with. For instance, if you agree with Perspective Two in the above prompt (machines make us more efficient and that’s good), when you discuss Perspective One you should provide a brief instance of gulliver travels essay prompts, that perspective being sort of true before moving on to show how it is help college app essay not as true as Perspective Two. Learn how to juggle both sides of a perspective in our article on how to write an ACT essay step-by-step.
You must: Group your ideas logically. Writing an organized essay will make it easier for essay, the essay graders to follow your logic and age home, reasoning. Grouping your ideas logically can mean separating out ideas into different paragraphs (for instance, putting each perspective into its own paragraph), or it can involve clearly linking different aspects of the same idea in the same paragraph . Travels Prompts. No matter how you plan out help, your essay, try to make it as easy as possible to follow your arguments. Being able to communicate clearly is a key skill for college and life in general, so it makes sense that it would be tested on the ACT (a college entrance exam). ACT essay graders care more about the clarity of your thoughts than the fanciness of your language. Gulliver. Clarity of writing normally entails using proper grammar and clear, non-convoluted sentence structures. Throwing in fancy vocab won’t get you anywhere if it makes things less clear instead of more clear (I've seen this happen too many times to count). Thesis Library Science. In addition, re-reading and revising your essay can help you make sure you are saying what you mean. Example of an unclear sentence: Machines are more practical because they are cheaper and so you can hire less people to do the work and pay less money overall and gulliver travels essay prompts, so you have a better profit margin. Example of thesis library science, a clearer sentence (revised): Machines are more practical and travels essay prompts, cheaper in the long run because you can higher fewer people to get the same work done. TURNS out, the steam engine was more practical (and cheaper in the long run) than a thousand people pushing and world, pulling a train by hand.
What Does This Mean For Your ACT Essay? Be clear up front what your perspective on the issue is. Don't hide your thesis. Make it obvious when you’re discussing each perspective (and make sure to discuss the relationship between your perspective and at least one other ). Support each argument with reasoning and/or specific examples. Take time to plan so you can write an organized essay. Travels. Focus on essay writing clearly before you start worrying about using advanced vocabulary. Gulliver Travels Essay Prompts. You've learned what your essay needs to app essay, include.
But how you do you decode the gulliver prompts, prompt? Follow along as I teach you how to attack ACT Writing prompts. Want to improve your ACT score by with app essay 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by gulliver 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. Gmat Score. If you liked this ACT Writing lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your ACT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on gulliver travels how you can improve.
We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Behavior Dissertation In Media Role. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to gulliver prompts, excel in high school.
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Gulliver's Travels Critical Essays - …
Children’s Literature: the Bad Seed. Recently I began an address at Longfellow Hall, Harvard, by calling on gulliver travels essay prompts the audience, most of whom were prospective teachers, to picket the English department. The teachers were trying to discover how to teach children’s literature, but they were getting no help at all from the English department in gmat essay score 4.5, finding out essay prompts what to teach. The English department at Harvard should be among those taking the intellectual leadership for the entire country in world cup essay, the study of the travels prompts, literature for the future generation. Yet it totally ignores the field of children’s literature—for children’s literature is not a genre but an entire field.
I am not alone in deploring the exclusion of children’s literature from the on old age home, canon of most English departments. In the gulliver travels essay, February, 1977 issue of ADE, A Journal for Administrators of help with college app essay, Departments of English in gulliver travels prompts, American and Canadian Colleges and Universities, Professor Mary Agnes Taylor deplored the “outdated snobbery” of English departments which ignore the field. In an essay, “The Case for a Children’s Literature,” appearing in in media, the journal, Children’s Literature, Clifton Fadiman noted that “literary historians leave out children’s literature, as they might leave out the “literature” of pidgin-English”: The English novelist Geoffrey Trease offers a key example. He refers to “Legouis and Cazamian’s History of English Literature, in which no space is travels essay found, in 1378 pages, for any discussion of children’s books and the only Thomas Hughes mentioned is not the immortal author of garrett hardin lifeboat ethics, Tom Brown’s Schooldays, but an obscure Elizabethan tragedian.” Further examples are legion. . . C.Hugh Holman’s A Handbook to Literature (1972) is alert to inform us about weighty literary matters from abecedarius to gulliver essay zeugma, but not about children’s literature. In the gmat essay score, same essay, Fadiman championed the validity of the field on the basis that it has a long tradition, many masterpieces, and that children’s literature is a medium nicely adapted to the development of certain genres such as fantasy to which mainstream media are less well suited. Why is it, then, that English departments generally sneer at children’s literature as “the literature with washable covers”? Through my experiences in teaching children’s literature for 15 years in an English department, founding the gulliver travels essay, initial seminar on children’s literature of the Modern Language Association, and establishing a journal in the field, I think I have confronted the major objections. I intend to mention them here and essay age home, follow each objection with constructive suggestions. First, most children’s literature is regarded as shallow and silly, unworthy of serious investigation. Second, it is travels essay associated with women, who bear children and are close to them at home and in schools and hardin ethics, libraries in the early years.
Third, not only scholars but other adults have subconscious resentment of essay, those who will succeed them. Garrett Ethics! Consequently, they minimize the importance of children’s literature. The first objection—that much of children’s literature is trash—is the easiest to understand. Many children’s books are trash—but so are many books for adults. I said “books” advisedly, because no real distinction is gulliver essay prompts attempted yet between children’s literature of high seriousness and books that are trivial—at least, no such distinction is attempted by most scholars in English departments. Books like Alice-in-Wonderland, The Golden Key, The Wind in behavior dissertation political role, the Willows, the Beatrix Potter books, and the more contemporary classics like A Wrinkle in Time, Charlotte’s Web, and Where the Wild Things Are are considered indiscriminately with such books as Mommy and Daddy are Divorced or Sometimes I Don’t Love My Mother, that is, books that are not literature but propagandistic treatises. Scholars of essay prompts, English literature are understandably confused because they see these pedagogical books reviewed in popular and semi-popular journals as if they were literature. The first step, then, in gaining the respect of gmat essay score 4.5, English departments for the field, is to differentiate between literature of gulliver travels essay prompts, quality for children and mere books. Only then can clear critical judgments be made. It might well be helpful to college understand how this confusion between “literature” and “books” for children arose.
Actually, the problem was generated by the Calvinists, the merchant class, in the 17th century. Branching out from the stories, the ballads, and the plays which children and adults had heretofore enjoyed together, the Calvinists brought out pamphlets or chapbooks designed to gulliver essay keep young apprentices under control. Obviously, if apprentices stole or took time to smoke on the job, (see King James I, Counter-Blaste to Tobacco) the employer lost money. As a result, a number of gmat, books were published such as The marchants avizo (1589), The apprentices warning-piece (1641), and gulliver, A Warning to young men (1680). The books must have been effective in behavior role, controlling behavior, because at about the same time a large number of similar books were directed at younger children, culminating in gulliver essay, James Janeway’s A token for children (1671), an account of the agonizing deaths of score, 13 children. As an appendix to travels essay Janeway’s famous work, Cotton Mather added accounts of essay, seven children from New England, and this work was published in Boston in 1700. (A unique copy is now in the Antiquarian Society in gulliver prompts, Worcester, Massachusetts.) The publication of such books continued uninterrupted through the 17th and 18th centuries and led directly into the Sunday School literature of the late 18th and help with, 19th centuries. A Protestant businessman, Robert Raikes, began the Sunday School movement with the expressed purpose of preventing millworkers’ children—the children “of the meaner sorte”— from vandalizing his ships, anchored at Gloucester, England. Gulliver Essay Prompts! The children worked during the week, and Sunday was their day off. Biographers of Raikes (W.
F. Lloyd, New York, 1891, J.Henry Harris, New York and Bristol, England, 1899, and help, Alfred Gregory, London, 1877), and other writers praise Raikes for gulliver travels essay prompts, beginning Sunday Schools, relate how the Sunday School movement spread to the United States through the support of the business community, and sometimes regret the ingratitude of the little children of the sweat shops, who were paid a penny apiece to go to on old age home Sunday School and learn of the damnation that awaited them if they did not give their best work to their employers. The dividing line between the Joyful Death books of the 17th century and gulliver travels, the Sunday School literature of the 18th and 19th centuries and the contemporary propagandistic books is almost imperceptible. The difference lies primarily in the focus: children had previously been threatened with hell if they did not behave in a certain way, and now they are promised success if they do behave in a certain way. A good example is The Queen Who Couldn’t Bake Ginger-bread. The sprightly illustrations by Paul Galdone lead one to expect a lovely fairy tale. Behavior Dissertation In Media Role! Instead, one learns that it is all right to reverse sex roles: that though the gulliver prompts, Queen could not bake gingerbread, she could play the trumpet, and though the King could not play the trumpet, he could bake gingerbread. This kind of cup essay, propaganda masquerading as literature has given the field a bad name. In 1968, Carmen Goldings, M. D. , a child psychiatrist at Harvard, wrote an prompts, article for the Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry (Vol.
VII, pp. 377—397) in which she castigated the behavior dissertation in media role, heavy-handedness of much modern fiction for children. Travels Essay! In the words of Narayan Kutty, a Hindu friend of mine, “It sits on the soul.” Of course, scholars in with, English should be perceptive enough to separate the wheat from the gulliver essay prompts, chaff, but, unfortunately, many of them are quite lazy. They already have a collection of books of criticism of adult literature which they can parrot to bored classes. Digging into college app essay, starkly simple children’s literature and studying the theory behind it, the style, structure, and meaning, is a difficult thing when there are few helpful hints from previous critics. The simplicity of children’s literature stuns, leaves them speechless. Even with adult literature, simple things, like the Psalms, are difficult to teach. As a matter of fact, much of the best literature can be enjoyed by children and adults as well. But more time needs to travels essay be spent studying the reason for this—that literature which appeals to this dual audience rises to world cup essay a higher sophistication in its absolute simplicity. Many “adult” novels are merely complicated spin-offs of gulliver travels essay prompts, children’s literature but with disturbing loose ends, unsatisfying resolutions.
Bruno Bettelheim quotes the gmat score 4.5, poet, Louis MacNeice, as saying that “a fairy story at least of the classical variety is gulliver a much more solid affair than the rugby, average naturalistic novel, whose books go little deeper than a gossip column.” Only recently, with the work of psychologists at the Jung Institute, Zurich, and Freudian psychologists, including Bettelheim, has the tremendous depth and metaphorical meaning of folk tales been truly appreciated. These tales, which have hitherto been largely discarded as attic rubbish, in Tolkien’s phrase, are beginning to be studied, but an enormous amount of work remains to be done. Those who have spent a lifetime studying them find that they are not only beautiful but that they feed the essay, soul, instead of sitting on it. Bruno Bettelheim has written on The Uses of Enchantment and James Hillman of the Jung Institute for 30 years, a depth psychologist in in media, Zurich, prescribes folk tales to essay prompts sick adults. He finds that adults are “adulterated” people, and, to hardin lifeboat restore them, one must “restory” them. Somehow it helps bring the jigsaw puzzles of their minds together. Folk tales, generally regarded as children’s literature, are not only gulliver travels prompts, satisfying but therapeutic. So much for the negative aspects of the field. On the positive side, there are good as well as bad books, just as in adult literature, and there is a tradition of at least three hundred years—longer than that for the adult novel. Further, many famous writers of the 17th, 18th, and hardin ethics thesis, 19th centuries as well as of our own times have shown a special interest in travels, the world of the child.
Their interest might help to justify an interest in children’s literature which reflects that world. The many possible selections for a course in 17th-century children’s literature include ballads such as “Babes in the Wood,” “Tom Thumbe,” “The Seven Champions of Christendom,” and thesis science, “Robin Goodfellow.” In prose are Hugh Peters’ Milk for Babes, Benjamin Keach’s War with the Devil and various chapbooks, such as Robin Goodfellow. Then there are games in the oral tradition, such as “Ring a Ring o’ Roses,” while religious verse includes such books as John Bunyan’s A Book for Boys and Girls: or, Country Rhymes for Children, Isaac Watts’ Divine Songs for prompts, Children, and, in the Royalist tradition, a book of metaphysical poetry for children, entitled Apples of Gold in Pictures of Silver. (The Opies, in their Dictionary of 4.5, Nursery Rhymes, list many children’s rhymes dating from the 17th century.) Then there are plays ranging from puppet shows to Milton’s Comus. Selections from Sir Roger L’Estrange’s two huge volumes of travels essay prompts, fables written especially for children are also to be found. College! Though written “only for childish eares,” as the introduction (1699) to L’Estrange specifically stated, a bowdlerized edition of these fables for adults was printed in Paris in the 1930’s, with Alexander Calder illustrations, and subsequently reprinted by Dover Press. It took 300 years, but adults are finally getting old enough to hear them, if the travels prompts, selections are carefully screened! The 18th century provides an equally rich course choice of gmat score, texts ranging from the first school novel in English, Sara Fielding’s The Governess, to prompts The History of Goody Two-Shoes (possibly by Goldsmith), Mother Goose’s Melody (nursery rhymes), Thomas Day’s The History of Sandford and Merton, Mary Ann Kilner’s The Adventures of a Pincushion, Mary Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories from Real Life, Maria Edgeworth’s The Parent’s Assistant, William Roscoe’s (still reprinted) The Butterfly’s Ball, and Samuel Johnson’s children’s story, “The Fountain.” In the 19th century we have Charles and Mary Lamb’s Mrs. Leicester’s School, Captain Marryat’s Masterman Ready, John Ruskin’s King of the Golden River, George MacDonald’s wonderful tales such as The Golden Key (a contemporary edition has an Afterword by W. H. Auden), The Light Princess, At the Back of the North Wind, and so on. Hardin Thesis! Then there is Lewis Carroll’s Alice-in-Wonderland, Charles Dickens’ Magic Fishbone, William Makepeace Thackeray’s Rose and the Ring, Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women, Thomas Hughes’ Tom Brown’s School Days, Charles Kingsley’s Water Babies, Mason Weems’ The Life of Washington the essay prompts, Great (particularly his fifth revised edition), Jacob Abbott’s The Franconia Stories (first important work of fiction for American children), Thomas Bailey Aldrich’s Story of a Bad Boy, Oscar Wilde’s The Happy Prince and Other Tales, and Eleanor Gates’ Poor Little Rich Girl, with its interesting uses of language.
These are pointed out in the Garland introduction by cup essay Marcella Spann, who co-authored with Ezra Pound From Confucius to Cummings (New Directions). Gulliver Travels! Poetry includes Edward Lear’s limericks, Christina Rossetti’s Sing-Song, and Robert Louis Stevenson’s Child’s Garden of Verses. These are only suggestions. The list is formidable. To the 20th century belong Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows, Beatrix Potter’s books, A.A.Milne’s Winnie-the-Pooh, Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Books (actually 1894 and 1895), C.S.Lewis’s Narnia series, P.L.Travers’ Mary Poppins, J. R. R. Tokien’s The Hobbit, E. B. Behavior Role! White’s Charlotte’s Web, Ludwig Bemelman’s Madeline, as well as books for children by Walter de la Mare, such as Three Royal Monkeys, and by lonesco, Barthelme, and other well known writers. Not even included are classics not in English such as the 17th-century Contes de ma Mere l’Oye by gulliver prompts Charles Perrault and the volumes of on old age home, fairy tales of gulliver essay, Madame d’Aulnoy and Madame de Beaumont, as well as Madame de Villeneuve’s “Beauty and the Beast,” in her Cabinet des Fees (1785—89). From Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen’s tales could constitute a course in themselves. And from Germany, of course, there are the pervasively influential tales collected by the Brothers Grimm.
As Graham Greene said, “Only in childhood do books make any deep impression on the human personality.” If this is rugby world cup essay so, then it would seem that the books children hear and read are worth study as literature. Recently, scholars in history have discovered that children’s books afford a special insight into the mores of a given period. Writers tend to write in a relaxed way and in conveying information to children convey information about themselves. I have not even touched the depth and breadth of the literature to be enjoyed and studied seriously. There could be courses—and there already are a very few—on fantasy, poetry, and fiction, as literature worthy of study as literature, not to mention the gulliver travels essay, possibility of historical and social studies. So much for the first reason why children’s literature is cup essay not respected by gulliver prompts English departments—that it is too simple. The second objection to the field is implied rather than voiced, and not so much time need be given to lifeboat considering the objection because the feminist movement has already provided the refutations. Most professors in English departments are men, and they are unreceptive to gulliver travels essay children’s literature as a scholarly subject because they are unreceptive to women as scholars. Women and behavior dissertation political, children go together in their minds. My own experience is a case in point.
So far as I can determine, I am the gulliver travels prompts, first woman to come up through the ranks to full professor in the large English department at the University of Connecticut since the school was established in 1881. In 1965, or just before the feminist movement became strong, I was flatly told at essay on old the University of Connecticut that if I wanted work, I would have to discard my years of study in the Renaissance, forget my publications, and teach children’s literature, as the legislature required a course, and the men refused to teach it. The hostility to the field has abated somewhat because of its great popularity with students and the large enrollment it consequently commands at a time when English departments need students. But, in prompts, spite of a supportive chairman, the course has not yet been accepted truly on the undergraduate or graduate level. World Cup Essay! I have taught a graduate course in the field for several years; and though there is a great need to stimulate graduate enrollment, most of the travels, men have long refused to circulate a pamphlet indicating that if students take the traditional courses, they can, with the approval of world cup essay, their topic by the graduate committee, write their dissertations in gulliver essay prompts, the field of children’s literature. They give various reasons for their attitude, but the fact remains that they are quite willing to accept such dissertations sub rosa, but they do not want to acknowledge it publicly, even though many schools, including Harvard, are now accepting dissertations in English departments in the field of with app essay, children’s literature. Harvard recently approved a dissertation on Kipling’s children’s stories—a real breakthrough, because, as Clifton Fadiman has noted, a history of English literature can discuss the gulliver travels essay, whole of Kipling’s works without noting that he was primarily a children’s writer.
The men in the department are willing to advertise their medieval offerings, even though much medieval literature is essentially literature for children and adults, as some medievalist freely acknowledge. Curiously, in spite of the attitude of most male scholars toward the behavior in media role, field, a number of the gulliver prompts, best male scholars have shown an help with college, interest in it. Oxford University furnishes the best example. John Ruskin, who taught architecture there, wrote a classic in the field of children’s literature. Lewis Carroll, who taught mathematics there, wrote Alice, perhaps the greatest children’s book.
C. S. Travels Essay Prompts! Lewis, professor of religious philosophy there, wrote a whole series of thesis, books for children and travels prompts, said that “a children’s story is the best art form for something you have to say.” W.H.Auden, who taught poetry at Oxford, wrote criticism of children’s books. And J. R. R. Tolkien, professor of Anglo-Saxon there, wrote, among other books, children’s stories. But these people were artists and college, not professors of English literature. Because of their expansive imaginations, they may not have had the academic strictures against the field which inhibit less creative minds. The third reason why children’s literature is generally excluded from English Departments has to do with the emotional and psychological makeup of all adults, including scholars.
In the April, 1978 Harper’s, the editor, Lewis Lapham wrote: (Children) remind their parents of too much that is unpleasant—of death, time, loss and failure—and so they come to be seen as unwelcome messengers bringing bad news to gulliver essay prompts the prince. He relates this attitude to behavior political literature, in prompts, discussing the help college, attitude of well-meaning friends: How is gulliver travels prompts it possible, they say, that I should choose to essay score read stories to my children when I might have the chance to see Norman Mailer throw a drink at Gore Vidal? The secret hatred and fear of children on the part of gulliver essay, adults is reflected in dissertation, such popular movies as It’s Alive, The Bad Seed, The Exorcist, and so on, and authorities on psychohistory have related the practice of child abuse in essay prompts, many cases to adult envy and fear of children. Oedipus knew all about garrett, it—his father pierced his feet and gave him to shepherds to travels essay expose on a mountain. Folk tales are full of it and are metaphorical representations of a continuing psychic condition. College! In the Brothers Grimm tale of “The Juniper Tree,” an envious stepmother shuts her stepson’s head in a chest, breaking his neck.
I recall a similar case in Paris in 1939 when a man, envious of gulliver essay, his girlfriend’s little boy, stuck the child’s head in a door and on old age home, then slammed the door, breaking the prompts, boy’s neck. The man was convicted of college app essay, murder. My husband, Jerome Butler, a newspaper-man for the New York Herald Tribune in Paris, covered the guillotining. By failing to study or teach children’s literature in a serious way, scholars can do the future generation considerable harm. They leave the field wide open to ignorant critics and pseudo-experts who give bad advice which is passed on to parents and teachers and ultimately affects the psyche of children. Here is an example: In 1977 a book was published entitled, How Can Children’s Literature Meet the Needs of Modern Children: Fairy Tale and Poetry Today. It contained papers presented at the 15th Congress of the International Board on Books for gulliver essay, Young People, held at lifeboat thesis the Pandios School of Political and travels, Economical Studies in Athens, Sept.
28 to Oct. 2, 1976. Some of the help college app essay, papers were very, very good, such as that by Walter Scherf on Magic Tales and the richly informative article by Virginia Haviland on travels Fairy Tales and Creativity. But unfortunately some of the essays were horrid. One in particular is the prototype of bad criticism. The essay, “The Poetry of Early Childhood,” written by library science Mary Jane Anderson, Executive Secretary of the Children’s Services Division of the American Library Association, illustrates the uninformed nature of much criticism of children’s books and the urgent need for gulliver essay prompts, scholars with a knowledge of literature to essay on old enter the field. The ALA official began by commenting that an acquaintance told her of his plans to raise his children on travels essay Shakespeare. “No Mother Goose rhymes for them, said he.” I assumed that she was going on to observe that there are a number of the rhymes now known as Mother Goose rhymes in thesis science, Shakespeare, but instead of that she urged the banishing of most nursery rhymes as not “relevant” to “today’s” child. Miss Anderson was obviously unaware that Shakespeare, the supreme psychologist, uses several such rhymes in Lear. Towards the end of essay, Act III, when the whole world is tilting over for Lear, Edgar as Mad Tom, who is not mad at all but who has come out of the heath to help Lear, repeats a variant of the rhyme, “There was an rugby cup essay, old woman / Lived under a hill / If she’s not gone / She lives there still. . . .”—a rhyme that expresses the tragic indifference to old age.
The rhyme is “Pillicock sat on Pillicock-hill / Halloo, halloo, loo, loo.” After the rhyme about the lonely Pillicock, Mad Tom ends the scene with “Fie, fob, and fum, /I smell the blood of gulliver travels essay, a British man.” In scene vi, Tom confronts Lear with: “Sleepest or wakest thou, jolly shepherd? / Thy sheep be in the corn; / And for one blast of thy minikin mouth / Thy sheep shall take no harm.” What Tom is saying to Lear is, Leonard Mendelsohn of Concordia University, Montreal believes, “Yes, the essay on old, world— and the rhyme—are full of confusion, but there is an gulliver travels, overall meaning. If nothing more, the with, structure of the rhyme itself holds the world together.” Anyone who knows anything about gulliver travels, prosody will see on the most cursory scansion that the rhymes are not doggerel, but a varied and subtle mixture of help, dactyls, anapests, spondees, iambs, and so on. For this reason, the gulliver travels, essayist’s assertion is astonishing that “while some of the rhymes have rhythm, Mother Goose rhymes are, for in media role, the most part, simply rhymes: They do not, on travels essay the whole, have what fine poetry has, the power to make the on old age home, hearer “catch his breath in fear, gasp in wonder, smile with delight, or sit back and think.” Mother Goose rhymes are primarily jingles (Jump rope-type rhymes), narrative in form, appealing to some extent, therefore, for the simple story they convey simple rhythm. This fallacious assertion overlooks the fact that Mother Goose rhymes cling to the human memory long after other poetry or any other “simple story” is forgotten.
The mention of jump-rope rhymes touched a sensitive spot in gulliver essay, my experience, for hardin ethics, I have spent more than 30 years delving into the depths of these supposedly simply rhymes and have by no means completed my study. At the same time, I can remember when I had her attitude of contempt toward these rhymes and even denied that I was collecting them for myself because they fascinated me, but rather pretended I was collecting them for gulliver travels prompts, my daughter—a dodge not new among adults. In the 17th century, Charles Perrault pretended it was his son who was collecting the Tales of Mother Goose. Ms. Anderson asked, “But of what relevance to today’s young child is “Mary had a little lamb”?
In the United States today’s Mary does not have a lamb, unless perhaps she lives on a farm.” She has apparently not observed the wooly lamb stuffed toys, the lamb-shaped cakes with cocoanut fur, or remembered the lessons many children are still taught about the gmat essay 4.5, lamb, stories drawn from the Old and New Testaments. After a comment about not being able to gulliver essay prompts take a lamb on a school bus, this literal-minded lady proceeded to attack other rhymes. Possibly the best comment on this kind of inanity is another quotation from the essayist herself: Do parents today really want to read to their children the rhyme that begins “Hark, hark the 4.5, dogs do bark, the beggars are coming to town. Gulliver Travels Essay! . .”? Most parents, I think, would feel uncomfortable in with college app essay, transmitting that attitude toward poverty to their children. And then there is “the old man who wouldn’t say his prayers” who, at travels essay prompts the rhyme’s end, is “kicked down the stairs.” The punishment does not fit the crime in today’s society, and even if it did, should by its nature be repulsive. The beggars of the first rhyme still are arriving in Washington, D. C. by the hundreds, some of them in velvet gowns, and the children might as well know it.
And the on old, old man in the second rhyme is kicked upstairs again in a topsy-turvy way in which Kornei Chukovsky would delight. She did suggest substitute rhymes for “today’s child” (as distinguished, no doubt, from yesterday’s child and the day-before-yesterday’s child). In so doing, however, she departed in some instances from the criteria she has listed for rhymes, including making the travels essay prompts, hearer catch his breath in fear or sit back and think. Here is behavior in media one of gulliver travels prompts, her suggestions—Laura Richard’s “The Baby Goes to Boston,” written originally in 1902, which is, at on old least, “today’s” century. What does the train say? Jiggle joggle, jiggle joggle!
What does the train say? Jiggle joggle jee! Will the little baby go. Riding with the locomo? Loky moky poky stoky. Smoky Choky chee! In my opinion, even fewer babies know about locomos than lambs, and there are too many critics like this in the field of children’s literature.
But at least the essay, volume of criticism is thesis library increasing. People are taking more interest in the field. Gulliver Travels! Even Harvard, which won’t permit a course in the subject to be taught in the English department, has nevertheless yielded a little to gmat essay score 4.5 the current interest, and a volume of literary appreciation of Fairy Tales and After: From Snow White to E. B. White by the eminent critic, Roger Sale, has recently been published. Jonathan Cott, author of Beyond the Looking Glass and of several articles on children’s literature which have appeared, in of all places— The Rolling Stone — has received a Guggenheim grant to do more work in travels essay, the field. His interest is forward looking. He sees the great subtlety of the field and the limitless possibilities for developing it. “Critics of children’s literature,” he told me, “now have a kind of trembling innocence.
They are toddling bravely into a field which is frightening because it has not yet been carefully explored.” Those of us interested in children’s literature are toddling into it together. Hopefully, we will make the terrain more familiar to with college app essay the next round of critics—and children, too. You have read 1 of 10 free articles in the past 30 days. Get unlimited access. By Siva Vaidhyanathan.
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Edexcel GCSE Statistics Coursework. Extracts from this document. Edexcel GCSE Statistics 1389. PLANNING SHEET – MAYFIELD HIGH. My aim in this investigation is to query whether or not there is gulliver essay a correlation between height and gmat score, weight and find out if this varies between genders. I believe that as a student becomes taller their weight will increase; due to this assumption I expect a graph of gulliver travels essay prompts weight and height to show a rising trend. Listed below are my hypotheses. With the cumulative frequency graph displaying weight, the female’s data produces an score 4.5, almost perfect S-shape curve, whereas the male’s data has, what seems to be, an anomaly (the third point allocated at travels essay prompts, the weight of 45KG and cumulative frequency of 9) which affects its shape. For a symmetrical distribution, the median will lie halfway between the first and third quartile- neither of the medians lie halfway and dissertation in media political, so neither have exactly symmetrical distributions. Gulliver Travels Essay Prompts? The female’s median, however, is lifeboat thesis extremely close to travels being halfway between the two quartiles showing us a more symmetrical distribution than that of the gmat score males; this may explain the almost perfect curve on the frequency graph which the points plotted for females produce.
The inter-quartile range is a measure of the central tendency, much like the standard deviation. Gulliver? The advantage of the help with inter-quartile range over the standard deviation, however, is that the inter-quartile range includes half of the points regardless of the shape of the distribution. The smaller the inter-quartile range, the more consistent the data is. The inter-quartile range for the weights of gulliver travels essay prompts males appears to rugby world cup essay be 15 and prompts, the inter-quartile range for the weights of females is 10, 5 less than the males. This shows us the female’s weights are more consistent, another explanation as to why the female’s curve on rugby world, the graph is closer to an S-shape than the males. Overall, it is evident from the cumulative frequency graph; females generally weigh less than males. Neither curves on the graph displaying height are perfect- nor near perfect, S-shape curves and neither median lies halfway between the first and third quartile, and so neither males nor females have symmetrical distributions. The inter-quartile range for the heights of males appears to be equal to the females showing us both sexes have an equal consistency, nevertheless, it is essay prompts clear males are generally taller than females as their mean is higher. After looking back at the cumulative frequency graphs it is evident, particularly for the height of males, that I could have grouped the data more clearly. Essay On Old Age Home? The third and fourth row in essay, the group of male heights show a frequency of ethics 0, which has an effect on the S-shape of the curve on gulliver travels essay prompts, my graph, and possibly having an garrett hardin, effect on the lower quartile.
To improve I should have used unequal groupings to ensure no empty groups were present. Box plots are an informative way to display a range of numerical data. It can show many things about a data set, like the lowest term in the set, the highest term in essay prompts, the set, the median, the world cup essay upper quartile, and the lower quartile. Using these from my cumulative frequency curves, I have drawn four box plots. Outliers are not present in every box plot drawn, except one where there is an essay prompts, extreme value which deviates significantly from the rest of the sample.The size of the box can provide an estimate of the kurtosis of the distribution.
A thin box relative to thesis library science the whiskers indicates that a very high number of cases are contained within a very small segment of the sample indicating a distribution with a thinner peak whereas a wider box is travels prompts indicative of a wider peak and so, the wider the box, the more U-shaped the on old distribution becomes. Looking at the box plots representing height, we can see the box plot for females is slightly more negatively skewed than that of the males, showing that most of the data are smaller values, proving females generally weigh less than males. The medians lie at the same point- 1.6M, and they both have an equal inter-quartile range, nevertheless, the tallest male is 0.5M taller than the tallest female. As both boxes are of equal size both distributions are equally U-shaped. The box represents the middle 50% of the data sample- half of all cases are contained within it. The 50% of data within the essay prompts box for the males ranges between 1.55M and 1.7M whereas for the females it ranges between 1.5M and 1.65M, showing us females are generally shorter than males.
Looking at the box plots for weight, we see that half the female's weights are between 45 and 55KG whereas half the men's weights lie between 45 and 60KG. The highest value for females is 70KG (ignoring the outlier) and for males: 75KG, the with app essay median for the males’ weight is 5KG higher than that of the females. The lowest value which appears on the box plot for males is 30KG and the highest is 75KG, giving us a range of 45KG. Looking at the same pieces of prompts data for garrett lifeboat ethics thesis the females, we can work out prompts, that the range is in fact 5KG less than that of the males. It is evident that the distribution of the female’s box plot has a thinner peak than the males attributable to the simple fact that the box of the female’s weight is far thinner than the library males’. The distribution for the weight of males is, therefore, more U-shaped. The location of the box within the whiskers can provide insight on the normality of the sample's distribution, when the box is not centred between the whiskers, the sample may be positively or negatively skewed. If the essay prompts box is shifted significantly to the low end, it is positively skewed; if the box is shifted significantly to the high end, it is negatively skewed, however, none of the garrett hardin thesis four box plots are shifted significantly to either the high end or the low end.
Nevertheless, if I were to be analytical, I could say both the box plot showing the weights are positively skewed, despite them being insignificantly shifted to the lower end; they are edging more towards that direction than the opposite. These all illustrate that females do in fact generally weigh less than males. An outlier appears on the box plot showing the weights of females, this may be the result of an error in measurement, in which case it will distort the essay interpretation of the data, having undue influence on many summary statistics- for example: the mean , however, if the outlier is a genuine result, it is important because it may perhaps indicate an extreme of behaviour or may have been affected by help with college, external behaviour, for example, dietary habits. Prompts? For this reason, I have left the outlier in the data as I am not sure whether it be a genuine result or miscalculation, as a result of not having information on exercise or dietary habits. To conclude, it is essay age home construable that my hypothesis was in gulliver essay, fact correct. It is evident from thesis library, all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. Whether this is attributable to, as studies show, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the dissimilar hormones produced in both female and male bodies, it is known females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. When the average male and gulliver travels essay, female both reach the age of 20 it is said ‘females are generally 10 percent shorter than males and 20 per cent lighter’ and hardin ethics thesis, between the ages of 11 and 16 ‘males appear to generally be 15 percent taller and heavier than the female sex’. After comparing my results to prompts articles and published graphs on the internet, I am able to confirm that my hypothesis stating females are generally shorter and weigh less than males, was correct. After calculating the frequency density for the male and female heights and weights, I created four histograms; the rugby world cup essay advantage of gulliver travels prompts a histogram is that it shows the shape of the distribution for a large set of data and so was therefore able to show me the essay score 4.5 shape of the distributions for travels male and female heights and weights, however, when using histograms it is more difficult to compare two or more data sets as we are unable to read exact values as the data is grouped into categories.
For this reason I used standard to show whether or not the data is normally distributed. From a first glance at the histograms it is easy to library science see they are not completely symmetrical but not entirely asymmetrical, I expect if I were to have used a larger sample the histograms would have appeared more symmetrical. Tables in which I used to create the histograms. From looking at the histograms, it is clear only two of these encompass curves which are appropriate to super impose normal distribution curves, and so for this reason I will not calculate the essay normal distribution. If I had, perhaps, selected a bigger sample it may have been possible to calculate the normal distribution as the histograms may have been more symmetrical. After calculating the standard deviation, it is evident for both height and weight, that for the male data each value is closer to the central tendency meaning height and weight are normally distributed more so for males than females. Again it is clear males weigh less and rugby world cup essay, are taller than females as the means for the males are higher than that of the femles. After calculating the travels essay spearman’s rank it is evident there is a correlation between height and weight, and the taller the person is the heavier they are, vice versa.
There is a weak positive correlation between height and weight for females and a moderate positive correlation for males as it is slightly stronger. The height and weight of a person is affected by rugby cup essay, their age and gender. I assumed that in years 7-9 girls will generally be taller than boys- due to the fact girls tend to grow faster than boys during the early stages of development. Boys will, however, eventually grow taller and so in years 10-11 I assumed the travels prompts number boys taller than girls will be greater. Rugby? I was correct. I also expected the relationship between height and weight to show a rising trend, although both trends for males and females were weak, they both showed this. It can be seen from all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and essay prompts, weigh less than males.
Whether this is on old attributable to, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the travels prompts dissimilar hormones produced, it has been proved females are generally shorter and gmat essay 4.5, weigh less than males. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by gulliver travels essay prompts, 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per essay age home month. Related GCSE Height and Weight of Pupils and travels essay prompts, other Mayfield High School investigations essays. Maths Statistics Coursework - relationship between the weight and height. though it could be faulty, it will make the investigation unbiased because I didn't have to choose another value. Here are all the world samples that I have got from using random sampling on this high school. I need to group all the data into essay prompts, numerous tables because it will me graph upon them. of the male and female people in my sample. Thesis? A box plot will be plotted to show the inter-quartile range and to see who is more intellectually smarter (Male or female). Male Average SAT's Results Frequency Cumulative Frequency 1 x ? 2 2 2 2 x ? Conduct an travels essay prompts, investigation comparing height and weight from pupils in Mayfield School.
7 girls, meaning that for garrett hardin lifeboat ethics girls in year 11 my hypothesis was partially correct but more accurate for travels prompts year 11 student girls than year 7 girls. For the frequency density of rugby cup essay 7 year students I found for height and weight that I had to combine the lower and higher intervals. The purpose of gulliver travels prompts this research paper is to present our findings on how the . Why should we be bothered when it seems to most observers that boys are the authors of their own misfortune? (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). The answer is 'every underachieving boy is a small tragedy for help with the individual; but a cohort of underachieving men will be a huge problem for any society (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). Offers and travels essay, Stipulation in Lonely Hearts Advertisements: A Comparison of Gender and Age. or opinions, so it could be taken either way; that he wants an essay on old age home, open-minded partner or he maybe implying that he wants someone with similar interests. Open-minded friendly, considerate male, 41, 5'8, slim build, blue/brown, loves eating out, day-trips, boot-sales, seeks like-minded female for happy times. Statistics GCSE Coursework.
Height and weight of pupils. The sampling method I am . 36 1296 1.25 100 35 97.5 2.5 6.25 96476.5 I inputted the results I got from the above table into the equation to get: The answer I got is 0.4 (to 1dp) this proves there is gulliver travels essay prompts some positive correlation (when used in conjunction with the table on essay, page 4) What affects a persons ability to estimate? As a more in depth method of analysing Gender, I will investigate the results of comparing each different Year group sex. For instance, I'll study whether being a Year 7 Male suggests that you are, on average better than a Year 11 Male. Mayfield School Mathematics Statistics Coursework. From the above values, we can clearly see that the link between ability in Science and in travels prompts, Maths is greater for the male students than the female students since the males' coefficient is far closer to gmat score 1 than the females. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work.
Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and prompts, Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Maths work?
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