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article in a paper NOTE: Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the term format of that journal. Some journals,e.g., Science , use a number system to give the text reference. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to ernst cassirer an essay, encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al (1994). Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper. Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.g., (Clarke 2001).
When citing information from another's publication, be sure to report the relevant aspects of the paper work clearly and succinctly, IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. Standard Text Citation Formats. There are exceptions among the master social media various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples (in red): It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by term theft, a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970) . Click and Clack (1974) demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status (Anon. 1996; Bruhahauser et al 1973) . Note the following: Typically, only the last name of the master social media author(s) and the year of publication are given,e.g., Bugjuice 1970 . Your Literature Cited section will contain the term theft complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number (Gumwad 1952: 209 ) . Enhancer! This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book (not done for journal articles). The paper by Bugjuice (1970) is short, and paper, if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers , give both authors' last names (e.g., Click and about media, Clack 1974 ). Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed and others or et al., and then the year. Term Theft! When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author , cite it as Anon.
Year, e.g., (Anon. 1996) (Anon. is the abbreviation for anonymous). See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article , do so as follows: ( Driblick 1923, in Oobleck 1978 ). A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.g., (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970; Bruhahauser et al 1973) . Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.g., . courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970) . Thesis: Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: Mortimer, R. 1975. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse ( Mus musculus ) in Nome, Alaska. Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. 83 p. World Wide Web/Internet source citations : WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the master thesis about media complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:
Internet sources should be included in term paper theft your Literature Cited section. Vocabulary! For unusual reference citations such a government documents, technical reports, etc, refer to Huth et al (1994) for a complete listing of citation formats. A copy of this reference should be available in the Ladd Library and a copy is term available in essay the Biology Department. Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an expert on term the subject, Dr. About Social! Cynthia Mousse. When you have talked with, or written to term paper on identity theft, someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in contenir de dissertation the following way: It has been found that male mice . phase three of courtship behavior (C. Term On Identity! Mousse, pers. Thesis About! comm.).
No date is entered for a personal communication, nor will it be entered in your Literature Cited section. However, the source is term paper theft usually thanked in your Acknowledgments for their contribution. DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES : Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. DO NOT USE DIRECT QUOTES From Published Material : In 99.99% of the cases, the information you want from a research article is an objective result or interpretation. Master Media! How the author stated this information, i.e., their prose , is of little importance compared to the results or interpretations themselves. Take the information and theft, put it into your own words ; avoid paraphrasing since this can potentially lead to plagiarism. Formats for ernst, Complete Citations used in on identity theft the Literature Cited. In the Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the narrative essay published sources cited in your paper.
The format for entries in the Literature Cited section differs for term, books and for contenir une conclusion de dissertation, journal papers because different kinds of paper on identity theft information must be provided. The formats provided here are typical, but may vary in different publications depending on their particular needs and practices. Essay Robber! Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name(s) : All citation entries are listed in term paper theft alphabetical order based the first author's last name ; If the same author(s) are cited for more than one paper having the same order of authors' names , the papers should be listed in une conclusion de dissertation chronological sequence by year of publication. Authors' names MUST be listed in the citation in the same order as in the article. Bugjuice, B., Timm, T. and R. Cratchet. 1990. The role of estrogen in mouse. xxxx courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62(6):1130-1142. Cratchet, R., Bugjuice, B.and T. Timm.
1994. Estrogen, schmestrogen!: Mouse. xxxx ( Mus musculus ) as a dietary alternative for humans. J Nutrition 33(6):113 -114. If the on identity same author(s) are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them. For example: Bugjuice, B. 1970a . Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. . x. J Physiol 40(2):140-145.
Bugjuice, B. 1970b . Features Of A Essay! Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship. xxxx behavior in female mice. J Physiol 40(8):1240-1247. If no author is theft listed, use the word Anonymous in place of the master thesis social media author name(s). Anonymous. 1992. On Identity! . Media! give rest of citation using appropriate format. Specific Format Models. Each model is shown as the term paper on identity theft full citation plus the in-text citation format. Journal Article: Single author.
Bugjuice (1970) OR. In the cassirer citation of Bugjuice's paper, note the following: abbreviation of her first name; no comma (if full name is given, then use a comma); if multiple authors, use commas between; capitalization of the words in the title is just as though it were a sentence; abbreviation of the journal name ; usually the header on the article will list the paper appropriate abbreviation for the journal; no periods in abbreviated form of journal name; 40 is the volume number (2) is the number of the issue ; if no issue is given, the colon follows the volume number; 140-145 is the inclusive page numbers of the article; placement of periods is master thesis media standard; indentation of the second line (and all subsequent lines) in the citation. This applies to term, all citations. Journal: Two authors. Yahoo! Timm and Bugjuice (1989) OR. (Timm and Bugjuice 1989) Journal: Multiple authors. Bugjuice et al . (1990) OR. Bugjuice and others (1990) OR. (Bugjuice and term paper theft, others 1990) Author(s) Unknown or Not Named. If the authorship of a paper or other document is features not provided, cite the author using the word Anonymous in the place of the authors name(s). Paper Theft! Anonymous (1979) OR. Book: single author. Gumwad (1952:224) OR (Gumwad 1952:224) Book: multiple authors.
Huth et al. (1994:625) OR. Essay Robber! Huth and others (1994:625) OR (Huth and others 1994:625) Book: authors contributing a specific chapter. Kuret and Murad (1990:1334-60) OR. (Kuret and Murad 1990:1334-60) In the books citation, note the following: abbreviation of authors first name (one or both initials ok); capitalize title as if it was a sentence; the title is not underlined (contrary to term, literary format) 2nd ed. means second edition; if the book is a first edition; no entry is narrative made, here, but if 2nd, 3rd, etc., then the notation is made; give city of publication, and the name of the paper on identity theft publisher; year of publication follows authors' names; placement of periods is standard; indentation of all lines after the first. Department of baron Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.
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Planning a Requirements Workshop: Determining Your Input and Output Products. You can#039;t have everything. Where would you put it? Your workshop products include inputs and outputs. The outputs include requirements and supplemental deliverables such as statements of issues and follow-up actions. The inputs are any materials that jump-start workshop activities and prepare participants: posters, templates, documents, workshop activity instructions, draft or predecessor requirements models, and the results of participant pre-work (see Figure 7-1). Figure 7-1 Workshop Inputs and Outputs. I discuss output products first because they are the basis for deciding which inputs you should use for your workshop. Your primary output products are the requirements models created by term paper on identity theft, the participants. (Later in this chapter I discuss intangible workshop products, such as decisions about the state of the requirements.) Along with your core requirements deliverables, you#039;ll create supplemental deliverables, such as posters or documents that list actions or next steps, issues, and une conclusion decisions.
In some cases, you may want to create supplemental workshop products to accelerate follow-up activities. In one workshop, the participants created a communication plan for organizations to be affected by the software. In another workshop, the participants identified risks and then created a risk mitigation plan and a post-workshop implementation plan. Term Paper Theft. As part of an activity to jump-start their requirements modeling work, another group created a set of identity yahoo, posters depicting a vision of what work would be like after the system was in paper theft, place. Although this book focuses on about media the core deliverables#151;the requirements models#151;you should consider how supplemental deliverables can dovetail with project activities and help the team to communicate effectively. Creating visually rich supplemental deliverables is fast and efficient. Making Deliverables Visually Rich. To add visual value to deliverables, either the facilitator or the participants can use a variety of visual tools in paper, addition to the diagram-oriented requirements models. Table 7-1 shows some formats for framing information and ideas graphically.
Display visions, draw themes or concepts, show agenda. Describes single point or concept. Brainstorm steps, define issues and expectations, identify parking lot items, name next steps. Hard to identity essay compare listed items. Clusters, affinity groups. Group related items, find themes, analyze options, associate items.
Doesn#039;t show dynamics; categories may be unclear. Cause and effect, sequence, logical progression. Implies sequence that could be incorrect. Define missing elements, clarify choices, compare choices. Can compare only a few items at a time. Visions, stories, road maps, history, plans, business concepts. Fear of not being skilled enough to term theft draw. Ideas, categories, text and image groups, hierarchies. Complex to read. Circles, wheels, mandalas (circles symbolizing unity) Unifying concepts, unstructured relationships, layers of baron robber, relationships.
Doesn#039;t show details or sequence. Note that a mind map is an unstructured diagram that shows groupings of ideas and concepts associated with a central theme or topic (Buzan, 1989). A mind map starts with a central image or idea, which forms a focus for both eye and brain. It then branches out organically, with each branch representing a grouping or category. The requirements models created by participants are sources for other project activities (such as design, testing, and theft coding) and for additional workshops (if you decide to an essay produce requirements iteratively in a series of workshops). For example, outputs such as detailed use cases, business rules, and sketches of term on identity theft, screens would be inputs to cassirer an essay on man design and coding. You can use high-level requirements models#151;such as context diagrams, event tables, stakeholder classes, and use cases produced in a workshop that follows the horizontal, or width first, workshop strategy (see Chapter 10)#151;as inputs to another workshop that adds more depth to those models.
To determine which requirements models to on identity theft deliver, you need to do the following: Select model views that are aligned with the business problem domain. Use multiple models to essay vocabulary enhancer increase the quality of your requirements. Mix text models with diagrammatic models to increase the paper theft, speed of requirements definition and promote mutual learning. Pick multiple views and features of a narrative essay focuses (see Model Focus in Chapter 2) to enhance the quality of your requirements. Define the term paper, appropriate level of detail for each selected model. Iteratively deliver the requirements. Prioritize the requirements deliverables. Decide whether you should partition requirements across multiple workshops. Clarify your doneness tests for delivering good enough requirements in the workshop.
The following subsections explore these topics. Select Models Aligned with the Business Problem. Model views#151;behavior, structural, dynamic, and control#151;provide differing perspectives of user requirements (see Model Views in ernst an essay on man, Chapter 2). Even though each business problem is unique, the generic set of heuristics presented in Table 7-2 illustrates how the business domain influences the types of term on identity theft, requirements models that most strongly express user requirements. This table is intended to be representative, not inclusive. Contenir De Dissertation. No one view can express user requirements completely, so it#039;s important to draw from several views.
For example, if users are handling the ordering task, behavior models are useful. At the theft, same time, they#039;re interacting with business concepts and domains such as orders, cancellations, and master about media customers, which are best captured in structural models. As you can see from the table, a glossary should always be part of your requirements deliverables; in fact, a draft glossary should always be an input product (see Draft Models later in this chapter). As you learn more about the models and use them in workshops, you#039;ll begin to on identity recognize which ones are more useful for master thesis, the business problem you#039;re trying to solve. One project team asked me to review its requirements workshop plan. The business problem was to term paper theft create a flexible hierarchy of yahoo, salespeople and commission schemes to be used globally. The group#039;s plan called for using use cases almost exclusively.
I asked them a few questions, such as, Who will directly interact with the system? How frequently will they interact with it? What kinds of theft, decisions do you want the system to make? What information does the system use? Their answers told me that little human interaction was needed and cassirer that the core characteristic of term on identity, their business problem was to establish and manage commissions, salespeople, and zones (global groups).
The problem was best expressed not with behavioral models but rather with structural and control models. Consequently, we refocused the model orientation from use cases to que doit contenir a data model, business policies, and business rules. No single user requirements model can fully express the functional requirements for your project. Term On Identity Theft. A solution is to use multiple models (see the Multi-Model collaboration pattern in the Appendix). Delivering multiple models increases the comprehensiveness of your requirements because each model reveals aspects of another. In addition, you can use one model to test the correctness of another. Narrative Essay. (Chapter 9 describes how to weave testing into the workshop flow.) This testing is on identity, aided with the use of a list of model quality assurance (QA) questions devised before the workshop (see QA Checklist later in this chapter). Possible questions include the identity yahoo, following: For each event in our event table, is term theft, there at least one associated use case? Which use case would handle this scenario? For each use case step, have all the business rules been defined? What data is needed to support this business rule?
The specific questions depend on which models you deliver and their degrees of detail, but you can see how one model acts to trigger elements of another model. As illustrated in Figure 7-2, using multiple models allows you thread one model to another within a single workshop. Figure 7-2 Threading Multiple Models Through a Workshop. A structural model (such a context diagram or the glossary) relates to a dynamic model (such as the event table); a behavioral model (such as a process map) provides clues for a control model (such as business policies). Figure 7-2 also illustrates the concept of chunking the workshop deliverables into que doit une conclusion de dissertation iterations (see Iteratively Delivering Requirements later in this chapter). You can arrange the sequence of paper on identity theft, your models differently, depending on what you have as a starting point (see Draft Models later in this chapter). An example is presented later of a variety of sequences for arriving at business rules. Plan for participants to deliver a combination of both text and diagrammatic requirements models. Essay Enhancer. Weave both styles of products into your process design (see Chapter 9). Text models are more precise and contribute to accuracy; diagrammatic models are fast to create and understand, something that promotes overall speed in paper on identity theft, the process. The two styles also work well with regard to our two-sided brains, with the ernst an essay on man, right side being more adept at dealing with things that are visual and theft random and essay the left side being stronger at linear and analytical tasks.
To put it a different way, a picture may be worth a thousand words, but the question is, Which thousand, and what do you mean by them? You need words to term paper on identity answer that. Consider mixing text with diagrams for each view you deliver. For example: Use case text and enhancer a use case map. An actor table and an actor map.
A glossary definition and paper a data model. Some models are strictly text-based and require visual models in order to essay enhancer elicit them. Business rules and term business policies are good examples. You won#039;t get too far asking business people, What business rules do you need? Instead, you need visual models that will call up the business rules. One way to overcome this problem is to identity yahoo represent business rules using a decision table or decision tree. Another way is to start harvesting business rules using other models. The BestClaims case study in theft, Chapter 11 provides an example of essay, using a visual model (a statechart diagram) to drive the specification of business rules. Models for Harvesting Business Rules. You can use all or part of term theft, a model to thread to another model. For example, a single step of a use case gives you a thread to the data attributes needed by a data model and also to the business rules that must be enforced within that step.
To arrive at business rules, you can use a variety of sequences, including the following: Use case → events → business policies → business rules. Use cases → actors → domain model (class model or data entities) → business rules. Actor → decisions → business rules. Actors → use cases → domain model → business rules. Events → domain model → business rules. Events → use cases → business rules.
Events → domain model → life cycles → business rules. Domain model → events → life cycles → business rules. Draw from various requirements model focuses (who, what, when, where, why, and how) as well as views. Here#039;s a typical combination: Use cases are a behavior view focused on how work gets done. An actor map is baron robber, also a behavior view, but it focuses on who does the work. A data model or class model is on identity theft, a structural view focused on what information is needed. Business rules are a control view focused on why#151;the decisions that software needs to make. Eliciting a combination of models with different focuses helps you to features of a detect requirements errors. In one of my workshops, for example, the use cases that were created made the paper on identity theft, customer realize that at identity yahoo, least 20 business rules needed to term on identity be defined more precisely before the requirements could be closed. The model view can trigger creation of baron essay robber, additional models that provide more focuses.
For example, if you choose a behavioral view of your requirements (say, use cases), you can use those use cases to harvest related models. Decide how precise each requirements deliverable should be (see Table 2-4 in Chapter 2). Scope-level models are particularly important when there#039;s a high risk of scope creep or conflict among users about requirements, or when the requirements aren#039;t precise enough to support the start of design work. In that case, if users and developers expect to make the transition to design at the end of a workshop that delivers that level of detail, you#039;ll have many unhappy project team members. A useful strategy for moving from scope-level or high-level requirements down to detailed-level requirements is to term use iterations.
This involves working together to deliver a set of features of a, models at roughly the same level of paper theft, precision, checking their quality, and then moving down to the next level of master social media, detail. Term Theft. This approach is a top-down horizontal strategy (see Building a Horizontal Strategy: The Top-Down Approach in Chapter 10). Essay. Iterating in a top-down manner can accelerate the group#039;s mutual understanding of the requirements and term reduce rework within the workshop. But you may not always want to elicit your requirements models in that top-down order. Baron Essay Robber. If your project has a well-defined scope, the team should be ready to jump into high-level requirements. In some cases (particularly if you#039;re replacing an on identity theft existing system), you#039;ll start at a lower level of detail, with prototype screens and use case steps. At other times, you#039;ll iterate among the levels in a zigzag strategy (see The Zigzag Strategy in Chapter 10). Each project is unique. To decide the best way to que doit une conclusion elicit user requirements in workshops, you#039;ll need to consider factors such as team size, location, degree of customer and user involvement, past history with software development, existing documentation and software, and team modeling experience. Iteratively Delivering Requirements. As you consider each requirements model you want to deliver, begin to partition the term paper theft, model into its component parts.
For example, divide a detailed use case into its name, header information (such as the triggering event, event response, and initiating actor), and use case steps. Next, group elements from your various models at about the same level of detail. Figure 7-3 shows how a use case and its related requirements can be grouped in an iterative fashion. Figure 7-3 Iteratively Delivering Requirements in a Workshop. Although this example shows four iterations, you can use two or three iterations. This example moves from the que doit contenir, high level to the detailed level, following what I call the theft, vertical, how-first strategy (see Chapter 10), in contenir de dissertation, which you drill down within one focus. Note that if you choose this strategy, time will constrain how many use cases (and related requirements) you can deliver.
In iteration 1, participants begin with a named use case; they then define the paper on identity theft, initiating actor, the triggering event, and about social media the event response. In iteration 2, using the prior set of theft, requirements, participants complete the use case header using a use case template (see Templates later in enhancer, this chapter). They do this by writing a one-paragraph description of the paper on identity, use case, adding the locations of the actors, listing the associated business policies, and modeling the high-level domain model (class model or data entities). In iteration 3, participants create a use case map to visually lay out the predecessor-successor relationships among the use cases. (Creating a process map puts the thesis, use cases in on identity theft, the context of the que doit une conclusion de dissertation, workflow, giving the team the term paper on identity theft, big picture of the set of ernst on man, requirements. Paper On Identity. This map also allows the users to understand how the use cases can fit into their workflow. This work is accelerated if a process map has been created before the que doit contenir une conclusion, workshop.) Participants logically partition use cases into packages, which in turn they#039;ll use to paper theft define releases or increments for delivery. In iteration 4, the on man, participants add detailed use case steps, define business rules for each step, list data attributes needed by the steps and their rules, and sketch prototypes for term theft, each use case. At the end of each iteration#151;which should take one to enhancer three hours, depending on term theft the number of thesis social media, use cases#151;participants should test the quality of the models they#039;ve delivered (see Define Doneness Tests later in this chapter) in order to reach closure on that set of requirements before moving on to another set. Using a divide and conquer approach helps you to avoid workshop scope creep#151;getting off-track during the workshop by moving up and theft down to different levels of detail.
It also gives you a basis for ordering group activities. You also save time by eliminating the step of cleaning models up. Chapter 9 describes ways to assign work to subgroups, iterating among individual, subgroup, and whole group activities for thesis about social media, maximum efficiency. It#039;s not possible to predict exactly how long it will take to term deliver each model. Knowing what#039;s important before you begin the enhancer, workshop will help you to adjust the agenda during the session. Decide with your sponsor and planning team which of the planned requirements models are the term on identity theft, most critical and which can be skipped or skimmed if you run out of time. There is no magic formula for master, knowing how long it will take to deliver your requirements in a workshop. You must consider people factors and product factors.
People factors include how formed the group is as you begin (see Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing in Chapter 6). Newly formed groups need more time before they can be productive, whereas a group that has worked together will be able to get down to business more quickly. Product factors include how done you need your requirements to be and paper theft how much of a head start you have before the features of a narrative, workshop. You#039;ll need more time if your requirements must be very precise and well tested or if you don#039;t have models to paper on identity theft serve as a starting point. Chapter 9 has generic guidelines for workshop timing by model. I can offer a general heuristic from essay vocabulary enhancer, my years of experience: List the deliverables you think the group can deliver in term paper, the workshop, and then divide your expectations by yahoo, 3. The result will be a more realistic estimate. For example, if you think you will deliver a revised glossary, stepwise use case descriptions, prototype screens, and term on identity theft a high-level data model, you#039;re likely to ernst an essay on man deliver one-third less content for each deliverable. This is why it#039;s important to prioritize your requirements deliverables before the workshop. Once participants have a good understanding of their requirements and term paper on identity are working well together, you should consult them about which ones are most important to que doit work on together. Well-formed groups are very wise: The participants know what to do together and how to compensate for time pressures. For example, one group I facilitated decided to term paper on identity work through four high-priority use cases and yahoo then trust two of the participants to draft the remaining ones and paper on identity return for a workshop to about media review, revise, and approve them.
Know whether you need to deliver more models with less precision or fewer models with more precision. Term Paper. This will influence the number of essay enhancer, QA activities you build into the schedule. For one set of workshops I facilitated, the products included business rules, a data model, and life cycles for on identity, a well-defined scope. The work was to be done in four- to six-hour sessions within a four-week time frame. Master Social Media. Anticipating that we might not complete all the deliverables, I needed to know which was more important: volume or quality. I asked the workshop sponsor what she wanted from the workshops: more business rules, or fewer, but more correct, business rules.
She chose quality over volume. For that reason, I designed an agenda that added scenarios as a deliverable and also incorporated a process for testing each set of business rules with those scenarios before moving on to another set of rules. Partition Requirements Across Workshops. If you#039;re under tight time constraints or if your group is new and will need time to form, consider delivering your requirements iteratively across multiple workshops. An advantage of this approach is the efficient use of group time; participants take on theft post-workshop tasks, and the group uses that work as input to later workshops. After one workshop in identity, which we created high-level requirements, the paper theft, participants went back to their business areas to ask questions of master about media, their colleagues and management so that they#039;d be prepared to provide details about the use cases and assess their priority. In another workshop, a list of business policies became the paper on identity theft, basis for research by a business analyst to determine which policies could be changed along with the new system. In yet another workshop, we used the high-level data model created by the participants to conduct data mapping for two possible software packages; in that way, we were able to provide details for selecting a software package in the next workshop.
Figure 7-4 shows an example. Each workshop delivers a predefined set of related requirements. These requirements then serve as inputs to another workshop occurring soon thereafter. I like to master social schedule iterative workshops no more than five working days apart. Figure 7-4 Partitioning Requirements Across Workshops. There are numerous ways to theft arrange your session. You can conduct daily morning sessions and features leave afternoons for post-workshop tasks, as described in the HaveFunds example in Chapter 11; you can use multiday workshops within a one- or two-week period, and so on.
Use a schedule that optimizes the availability of people without exhausting them. Try to paper on identity include time off between tasks that you will use to jump-start the next workshop. A doneness test consists of one or more criteria that you use to determine whether a particular deliverable is good enough to reach closure on. Your doneness tests will be more or less precise depending on three factors: The project#039;s size (the number of people being coordinated) The criticality of the une conclusion de dissertation, systems being created. The priorities of the project (whether, for example, human lives are at on identity theft, stake or simply human comfort) As Cockburn (2001) aptly points out, more correctness and documentation are needed by projects with a large number of vocabulary, team members producing critical systems using nondiscretionary funds. A light set of term paper on identity, models would not do in features, that situation. If, however, you#039;re building an application for internal consumption with a medium risk of monetary loss if you deliver defects, your doneness tests can be looser. Different stakeholders have different views of doneness:
A customer might want to deliver the term paper on identity theft, requirements and end product as quickly and cheaply as possible. Perhaps you need only do some scope requirements and a prototype. The desire is to deliver relatively little detail for fewer requirements models. A user might be concerned with usability, so you#039;d focus on translating requirements associated with who and how focuses#151;such as actors, actor maps, prototypes, interface navigation diagrams, use cases, and use case maps#151;into more precise requirements. A software designer or architect might be most interested in building a robust product. She would want requirements models that cross multiple views and identity yahoo focuses, thus offering a broader understanding of the whole project rather than only the current release. Each of these perspectives presents a special challenge to the requirements facilitator, who must help the team determine the term paper, most appropriate doneness tests for the short term while also considering the long-term goals of the essay yahoo, project and the needs of the various stakeholders. Your doneness tests can involve the use of a tool or a process.
Available tools and processes include the following: A QA checklist for testing the term paper on identity theft, models (see the next section) Scenario- or prototype-based reviews integrated into ernst cassirer your workshop process (see Chapter 9) Matrices for analyzing one model or model element against another. Metaphors for testing doneness. QA ChecklistA quality assurance (QA) checklist is a series of questions, usually stated in term theft, binary format, about a requirements model or its elements, along with questions about how one model cross-checks another. For example, if you#039;re producing an actor table, use cases, and ernst cassirer an essay the glossary, these questions would apply for each use case:
Is the use case named as an actor#039;s goal? Does the on identity theft, use case name start with a strong action verb? Does the essay, use case name include a meaningful object? Is the object in term theft, the use case name defined in the glossary? The Web site for this book offers other QA checklist questions. Using QA checklists provides more benefits than may be immediately obvious. The very process of creating and ernst an essay agreeing on the checklist helps the team#151;users, software team, perhaps even sponsors#151;to clarify and define expectations for each deliverable clearly and paper on identity theft precisely. As with using reviews during a workshop (see Chapter 9), checklists push participants to create high-quality requirements in the first place. Essay. The checklist forces you to begin with the end in mind.
In one workshop I facilitated, the group created scope-level requirements in the form of an event table and on identity a context diagram. I divided the group of features of a narrative essay, 14 people into subgroups. Each subgroup received a copy of the same checklist. As a facilitator, I#039;ve discovered that participants give you what you ask for. My experience is that taking a testing attitude toward deliverables helps workshop participants to term find more defects and find them earlier. So I told them, Find errors in what we created.
Each subgroup indeed found defects, which were shared with the larger group and corrected. For example, the group forgot that it had to get periodic updates from an employee database, and master thesis about media it realized that it would need someone to play the role of approving certain types of queries to sensitive data. Paper On Identity Theft. After that, the group continued the que doit de dissertation, workshop by defining detailed requirements for paper on identity, each event within the que doit de dissertation, scope. Table 7-3 Sample Matrix for Doneness Testing. MatricesMatrices can help you to term paper detect incomplete and extraneous requirements; they also serve as a useful tool for checking doneness. Participants can also create complete matrices to an essay on man detect missing or extraneous requirements.
In the matrix in Table 7-3, participants fill in the cells to indicate which actors initiate which use cases. Term. An actor without an associated use case (such as Actor02) indicates either an extraneous actor or a missing use case. Perhaps having two initiating actors might be fine (as in features of a narrative, UseCase01); or perhaps it indicates that the term on identity theft, actors are truly the same and that you might benefit from having a more generic name for an actor. A metaphor is ernst an essay, a symbol, image, or figure of speech. Term On Identity Theft. You can use a metaphor as a loose form of doneness testing. In one workshop, we used a bull#039;s-eye. I created a poster with a bull#039;s-eye showing concentric circles with the que doit contenir de dissertation, label 100% in the center. The sponsor and planning team declared before the workshop that the paper theft, goal was to achieve 80 percent doneness for the models. At the end of each workshop day, I gave each participant a colored sticky dot and asked each of identity essay yahoo, them to place the dot on the bull#039;s-eye to represent where he believed our requirements deliverables were at the moment.
Each day, over four days, participants placed different dots on the bull#039;s-eye. Each day, they got closer to the center. I also used each day#039;s bull#039;s-eye in leading a brief discussion about what they needed to term theft do to get closer the next day. Metaphors can also include wishes in the form of lists, scenarios, or visions. In one of my workshops, participants wrote stories of an ideal future, describing their work environment after all their requirements were met. In another, participants provided a list of enhancer, ideal reports they could get if their requirements were met.
For yet another, participants drew posters of their ideal operational environment. Each of these metaphors serves as a doneness test because you can ask participants to return to term theft their original metaphors or visions after they create their requirements to see whether their vision has been achieved. Doneness Testing and Decision Making. No matter which doneness tests you use, they#039;re not a substitute for your decision rule and ernst cassirer an essay decision-making process (see Decision Rules in Chapter 6). Your doneness tests check only the desired level of quality of your requirements, so you must follow up with your agreed-upon decision-making process. If a doneness test tells you that you have uncooked requirements, you can still make a decision on how to proceed.
Combining Pre-Work with Doneness Tests: An Example. For one workshop I facilitated, plant managers needed to provide high-level data requirements for financial analysis. There were many complaints about the existing data: It was inconsistent, incorrect, late, and term paper on identity theft more. The primary deliverable for the workshop would be a data model, supplemented by the questions that managers would need to ask to run their plants, streamline operations, and meet operating targets. Using a spreadsheet, I created a template in which they would enter their plant-management questions along with the business reasons for the questions, the decisions they made based on the answers, and a list of ernst, specific data attributes they would need.
During the workshop, a review of those questions led to the discovery of on identity, high-level data entities and essay vocabulary enhancer attributes. We also asked the term paper on identity, plant managers to bring to the workshop a list of the que doit contenir une conclusion, top three reports they used to help run the business, and term theft a list of thesis about, their top five wish list reports. Their pre-work served as doneness tests for their data requirements, which in the workshop were listed on wall posters. Term Paper On Identity Theft. In subgroups, the managers responded to these questions: Can you get the of a essay, top three reports using the term paper theft, questions you#039;ve created? (If not, write a new question.) Can you get the essay vocabulary, top three reports with the data shown on the walls? (If not, add all the missing data to the entity#151;we called them data groupings in term paper theft, the workshop#151;to which it belongs.) Will your wish list reports answer the questions you#039;ve created? (If not, add one or more new questions to get answers.) Will your wish list reports be answered with the data shown on the walls? (If not, add all of the essay robber, data to the appropriate data grouping.)
In one of term on identity theft, my workshops, the decision maker was the business project manager; he was also a subject matter expert. Baron Robber. He decided to term on identity theft reach closure on features narrative essay a set of use cases, prototype screens, and business rules even though some of the QA answers indicated that the term paper, models were not complete. By following the decision-making process, he learned that the participants, including the baron robber, software team, supported the current states of the models despite the flaws. He made the decision to declare them good enough, and we moved on to another set of requirements.
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Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for thesis about social retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible. Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to businesses owned by women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for term on identity theft small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. The template has space for of a narrative essay information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is legally sound.
The template is questionnaire-style and asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only on identity, aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors. Your completed document is available for ernst download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. The document is $10 on term its own without a subscription. SCORE is about, a small business resource website that aims to paper on identity, help entrepreneurs launch and essay, grow small business across the United States. Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for theft startups and robber, established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and term paper on identity theft, financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and loss projections, and financial statements. You can then use these business templates to essay, meet with a Score mentor for expert business planning advice. On Identity Theft? The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by step.
Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in your company name, owner name and contact information, and then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and essay, Sales, Financial Projections), and you can save and work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to term paper on identity theft, get up and running. Contenir Une Conclusion? This free business plan template covers everything from theft your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more.
Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Baron Essay Robber? Jennifer Post graduated from term paper Rowan University in baron 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. Paper On Identity? When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.
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Free Environmental Studies essays. Pollution is defined as “to make something impure”—in this case, the term on identity theft, fresh water in lakes. The pollution of thesis media, water restricts its use for some human need or a natural function in the ecosystem. Pollution affects the water quality in freshwater lakes and other resources worldwide. Term Paper On Identity. It can take many forms, from industrial sources, agricultural and municipal; some common examples are pesticides, herbicides, wastewater and waste.
Lakes often contain high levels of pollutants in relation to enhancer the landscape and environment. Paper. Rivers and streams draining the cassirer on man, landscape of contaminants are concentrated in lakes and other water bodies. Aquatic organisms such as fish can be extremely high pollution, as some pollutants are not easy to resolve and diluting in water, and instead consist in paper, organisms. Contenir Une Conclusion De Dissertation. Certain species of aquatic organisms are particularly sensitive to pollution; they are used as indicators of pollution and called bio-indicators. Lakes drain a large natural landscape, reflecting the process and procedures to use. If chemicals are spilled, they are near streams flow downhill and can be carried into lakes. Physical water pollutants include particulate materials such as soil erosion landscape or washing paved areas by running water, the.
Once in on identity, a river or lake, some particles settle out of the water and que doit une conclusion, bottom sediments. Chemical contaminants adsorbed (attached) to the particles are also in the sediment where they are buried or carried out by the floods to other places to be installed permanently. Other physical contaminants discharged heat can be a source or output industrial hot surfaces in hot weather. Elimination of shade trees along the shore of a lake or river can also allow sunlight in the waters above the normal temperature range for heating. Fresh natural waters contain chemicals that flows dissolved in the soil and rocks. Major inorganic elements comprise calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbon, chlorine and sulfur, and plant nutrients such as nitrogen, silicon and phosphorus.
Derivatives of biological materials in decomposing organic compounds may also be present. Paper Theft. In addition, the soft water contains almost all synthetic compounds, such as pesticides and other industrial and baron essay robber, consumer products. Chemicals from human activities that can increase the concentration of specific compounds over natural levels cause pollution problems. Too many plant nutrients in excessive plant growth leading, while synthetic organic compounds can physiological changes in aquatic organisms, or can be fatal at term paper theft high concentrations is. The pollutants can be absorbed by of a narrative plants and animals by term on identity contacting the contaminated water or directly from sediment. Plants and organisms contaminate these sources of contamination of the food chain spread as predators eat. Although not generally considered contaminants, bacteria and plants living organisms, the proportions are increasingly harassment. The accidental release of cyanide from a recovery of precious metals in Romania polluted the Tisza in 2000, aquatic and terrestrial animals, as this horse has poisoned drinking water three weeks after the spill killed. Pollution not only downstream traveled through Romania, Hungary and Yugoslavia, but also joined the Danube and ultimately to the Black Sea. The release of about 100 tons of cyanide caused what. Biological contamination may affect the use of fresh water.
These problems often occur when plants die and decompose, when bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen needed by aerobic aquatic organisms. Excessive algae or other plant material provides more decomposition and thereby decompose more oxygen reduction material. In addition, non-native plants and animals that are introduced as a result of human activities alter the basic ecology of a lake or river that often great harm. Pollution is generally categorized by how it enters a lake – either point source or non-point source pollution. a) Point source pollution: Point source pollution is from pollutants that enter a body of water, which can be attributed to a source, place and specific authors.
The point source pollution is easier to features manage compared to non-point sources. b) Non-point sources: Non-point source pollution is from term paper Pollutants that enter a body of water which cannot be attributed to a specific source, place and authors. Rather, this pollution comes from many diffuse sources and often occurs in small amounts, but can focus on freshwater lakes and other resources. Examples of point sources discharging are industrial waste, sewage from wastewater treatment plants, dumping deposit and other dangerous illegal chemical (nuclear waste). Heat can also be a contaminant. For example, the enhancer, central water often one of the components of the cool overheating. Once inserted, hot water is released into term theft nearby lakes, where the enhancer, temperature changes from the on identity, lake. This heat is a form of pollution, because it can be harmful and kill aquatic organisms including fish Species sensitive to temperature change.
Another example of vocabulary enhancer, widespread environmental contamination is the term paper, legal discharge of robber, waste water and other chemicals. For example, Detroit, Michigan reports available more than 700 million gallons of wastewater per day and term, 150 million pounds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxic each year in the Detroit River, which serves as a link between Lake Huron and Lake Erie2. Since the origin of the point source pollution is often it is much easier to handle than non-point pollution sources. If the pollution originates in remote locations from que doit une conclusion water point, or is there a large number of small diffuse sources, it is called non-point sources. Term Paper On Identity. No identifiable source such contamination is often difficult to manage; it is difficult to estimate how much pollution is actually happening and vocabulary, what impact. Diffuse sources include agricultural runoff (pesticides, fertilizers), acid rain deposition and nitrate leaching from septic tanks. Diffuse sources represent most of the impurities in the water systems. 3.4 Impacts of term on identity theft, lake pollution. Whatever the source of the contamination can affect aquatic life in many ways. In general, the pollution reduces the quality of water.
It can also be the variety of wildlife; particularly sensitive species. Pollution of the que doit une conclusion de dissertation, lake has been documented as contributing to a variety of health problems and diseases in humans. It has also been shown to have significant negative impacts on wildlife and the environment as a whole. Paper. There are a few different effects of enhancer, lake pollution, which are essential for humans. The effects of pollution of the lake are not always immediate. Theft. They are not always seen on the contaminated site.
They are sometimes never known by the person responsible for the pollution. About. A pollution of the term theft, lake, however, has a great impact on the lives of everyone. With the knowledge, testing and preparation, water pollution can be reduced. It does not take much effort – just a little thought. Lake pollution can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. The risk of your health being negatively impacted by polluted drinking water in a developed country is essay enhancer small in comparison with developing countries. However, it is possible to paper on identity theft become ill from contaminated water. For example, if you are walking, you can get giardiasis, which can cause severe nausea and vomiting as the presentation of acute symptoms to develop.
This infection is caused by essay robber water that has been polluted by untreated animal waste in the drinking waterways. In anthropogenic environments such as cities and paper on identity, villages, potential toxins are much more numerous. Another high risk of lake pollution is Mercury contamination. Mercury has been found to interfere with the development of the central nervous system in essay robber, fetuses and young children, which could potentially lead to term paper on identity a large amount of long-term side effects. 3.6 Impact of lake pollution on ecosystem. Lake pollution also causes negative effects within the environment to essay animals and their habitats.
The entry of term theft, pollutants in lakes has a wide range of effects. It is que doit de dissertation possible for pollutants, to change the water temperature enough to fish force in search of colder waters. This can even create an term paper on identity theft, ecological dead zone. The pollution of lakes can also significantly increase the rate of algal blooms. These flowers create massive destruction of fish as oxygen is depleted in water and suffocate fish. Fish can be killed, even if excessive algae get caught in their gills. 3.7 Definition of vocabulary, lake maintenance.
There are numerous reasons to paper theft pay close attention to the lake maintenance, including: a) Preventing fish kill; b) Reducing sediment buildup. c) Reducing aquatic weed growth. d) Reducing need for synthetic algaecides. e) Improving irrigation water quality. f) Reducing harmful gases like CO2 and Methane.
g) Reducing mosquitoes. h) Increasing the Ozone content of the water. i) Reduce Bacteria and odor. To maintain a high water quality the lake requires a maintenance plan. Apart from preventing nutrient inflows to the lake from the catchment or surrounding farm land and road runoff, a key element of that plan should be creating plans that will help the lake to maintain clean. 3.8 Contribution of lake maintenance to the future of aquatic system. Fresh water is essential to human life and economic wellbeing, and societies draw strongly on rivers, lakes, wetlands, and underground aquifers to supply water for drinking, irrigating crops, and running industrial processes.
The benefits of these extractive uses of fresh water have traditionally overshadowed the features narrative, equally important benefits of water that remains in stream to term on identity sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. There is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex freshwater ecosystems provide many economically valuable commodities and enhancer, services to society. Lakes provide people with many services: aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, fish, and transportation, water for irrigation, drinking and dilution of pollutants. Lake degradation results from excessive nutrient inputs, toxic substances, habitat loss, overfishing, species invasions and extirpations. The goal of term paper, management is to balance the uses of lakes with conservation measures to sustain ecosystem services over yahoo time (Carpenter #038; Lathrop 1999). A degraded lake can have its water quality improved through implementing appropriate management strategies. Paper. This process is variously known as lake restoration, remediation or rehabilitation. 4.1 Lake restoration. It is important to recognize that the restoration program will take time and vocabulary, will not return the paper on identity, lake to a once untouched condition that it may have had earlier in its life, but it could improve the water quality to meet a specified water quality goal. The ability to achieve that goal for a specific degraded lake will be determined by master thesis social media the nutrient budget (internal versus external loads), how well the in-lake processes are known, the degree of paper on identity theft, restoration required to achieve the goal and que doit contenir de dissertation, the funding available to implement the management strategies required to term paper achieve that degree of essay yahoo, restoration.
Other than cost, there are few limits on the size, shape or depth of lake that can be restored. While there is an implicit expectation that restoration will return the lake to its original condition, the reality is that some processes on the way to degradation are irreversible (Carpenter #038; Lathrop, 1999). Consequently, the expectation of restoration needs to be tempered with the knowledge that the term on identity theft, lake may never reach its original state and that the objective of a restoration project will be to baron rehabilitate the term, lake to improve the water quality and lake conditions to an achievable level. This rehabilitation level then becomes a management goal. The goals need to be realistic and both socially and culturally acceptable. Restoring a degraded lake to a new desirable condition is an adaptive management process which must include a monitoring program to assess the success of management strategies employed to baron essay reach that goal, and the flexibility to adapt the management strategies based on those monitoring results. Figure 4.1.a. shows the maintenance flow diagram for the rehabilitation of paper theft, a lake. The issues, goals and measures of success can be filled in cassirer, and additional sections listing the on identity theft, tools to be used can be added.
The role of the environmental consultant at key points indicated by red arrows is vocabulary enhancer optional depending on paper on identity, the competence of the lake manager and the size of the lake. Essay. A certified engineering consultant is mandatory for any structural changes to a dam. 4.2 Practical maintenance goals in Lake Restoration. Practical maintenance goals for term paper on identity, that lake would include: a. To reduce or eliminate the occurrence of nuisance cyanobacteria blooms. b. To improve the water quality of the cassirer an essay, lake from on identity hypertrophic to master thesis about social super trophic or eutrophic. c. To reduce the abundance of aquatic macrophysics in theft, the lake to enable unimpeded use of the lake for contact recreation, and.
d. To maintain or enhance the fishery in the lake and its tributaries. These goals are essential to restoring of the lake. They are closely linked that changes made to achieve one goal will interact with and affect the other goals. The following is a range of maintenance tools that have been used for the restoration of degraded lake. The most recent tool ‘Computer modelling’ uses environmental, climate and water quality / biogeochemical monitoring data from the lake to build a simulation of the lake to estimate the likely benefits to the lake of applying one or more of the maintenance tools. These tools are including:
The weight of ernst an essay, evidence indicates that the term paper theft, key to restoring the water quality of lake and its fishery is the essay yahoo, management of the lake weed. There are four approaches to this issue: (1) Mechanical weeds harvesting; (3) Bio manipulation and. (4) Changing water levels. Before undertaking any strategy to control lake weeds, there needs to be a clear understanding of the goal and the consequences of each action. The weight of theft, evidence of the cassirer an essay, importance of lake weeds includes the fact that the on identity, tall weeds remove all the NO3-N from the lake water during spring when there are high inflows of NO3-N enriched stream water. This evidence also suggests that under low flows the weeds become N-limited and, being unable to sustain the identity essay, amount of biomass with the term paper on identity, nutrients available, they senesce releasing the nutrients in the plants back into yahoo the water. Waste water treatment uses holding ponds and on identity, wetlands for identity, reducing the nutrient load before the water is released into an open waterway. The main disadvantages of the technique are that, 1) To be efficient they cover a large area to give sufficient contact time for nutrient and sediment stripping,
2) They are less efficient at removing P than N, and. 3) They may not cope with flood flows and the stream short circuits directly to the lake with no renovation. Floating treatment wetlands (FTW) are a new restoration concept where emergent wetland plants are grown in buoyant rafts which are moored in term on identity, a lake or stream. These rafts are constructed from essay vocabulary recycled plastic (PET drink bottles) in various sized sections that could be 2 m by 3 m for theft, ease of cassirer an essay, handling and joined together later. The plants are grown in recesses in the raft and paper on identity theft, their roots extend down into the water where they assimilate the N and identity essay yahoo, P. The FTWs are aesthetically pleasing and blend in with the natural lake shore environment (Figure 4.2.a) and provide additional habitat for birds and koura. Onshore management to reduce nutrient inputs to the lake should look at the sources of those nutrients. However, because the lag time between the contamination of the groundwater and theft, that contaminated groundwater reaching the lake, nutrient stripping of the groundwater at the lake edge is also essential. This is best achieved using marginal wetland buffer zones (Figure 4.2.b). Contenir Une Conclusion. The surface or unconfined groundwater aquifer is the most vulnerable to contamination in the catchment as it receives the infiltrating rainwater percolating down through the soil.
It is this surface groundwater layer that enters the paper, lake at the lake edge. • This option may be more expensive and essay, less culturally sensitive than entraining the drain flow through a shore line holding zone behind a wall of floating treatment wetlands. On Identity Theft. Another alternative is to divert the storm water into a “spill drain” behind the baron, riparian buffer zone. Both of these options dissipate the energy of the storm water inflow so that it does not move out into the body of the lake. Dispersing the flow behind the riparian buffer zone will cause all the sediment to remain on shore and paper on identity theft, the nutrients in the storm water to be assimilated by the buffer zone plants.
A stream diversion channel is ernst cassirer on man a temporary practice to convey stream flow in an environmentally safe manner around or through a construction site while a permanent structure or conveyance is being installed in term paper on identity theft, the stream channel. • Flushing – external source water. A simple expedient in small lakes overseas is to divert a proportion of essay, a clean stream or river through the lake to reduce the residence time and thus flush the N and P in solution and in theft, particulates, such as algae, down the robber, outlet stream. An in-depth analysis of the water quality of the theft, source water would be needed if this option was a serious consideration. • Enhanced flushing using fluctuating water levels.
This technique requires manipulation of the weir on the lake to increase and decrease the ernst, lake water level at different times of the year to take advantage of term on identity, specific parts of the master thesis, lake cycle. Seasonal changes in water level are potentially good for fisheries with the most productive fisheries having low water levels in on identity, summer (J. Boubee, NIWA, pers. comm.). Assuming that a suitable storage or dumping area could be found outside of the lake catchment, dredging would remove the sediment that contains the P, N and carbon (C), that has accumulated in the lake over the past few decades. Que Doit Contenir Une Conclusion De Dissertation. It would also remove the seed bank for lake weeds. The advantages of this option are that the nutrient legacy would be permanently removed and the lake would return to near its original depth. The disadvantages of this option are the cost to remove the estimated 3 km3 of sediment, the destruction of the term on identity, existing ecosystem, and of a narrative essay, the release of nutrients and other toxic chemicals such as Sulphides during the process of paper, dredging. The release of Sulphide into baron the lake water would eliminate most aquatic life in the lake. The removal of lake weeds seed banks in the sediment would not be selective and desirable species for restoring the lake habitat would be removed along with the undesirable species.
Aeration replaces the oxygen consumed by theft decomposition processes and prevents the vocabulary enhancer, development of anoxic conditions which allow P release from the sediments. This technique is often used in water supply reservoirs to prevent the term on identity, anoxic release of P, which favors cyanobacteria growth, and que doit, the release of minerals such as iron and manganese, which would stain baths, toilets and on identity theft, hand basins in homes and would cause black marks on washing as the water re-oxygenates and these metals precipitate. The advantages of the technique is that it is relatively cheap, requiring an air compressor, connection hoses and an aeration bar with anchor blocks, and only needs to run in summer when low oxygen concentrations develop. In shallow lakes, giant discs pulled through the baron essay robber, lake sediments open up the sediment allowing deep penetration of oxygen from the water column. The concept behind this tool is that the P will be bound to the iron and manganese oxides in term paper theft, the sediment.
This process can work where the bed of the lake has been smothered with organic matter such as the collapse of a weed bed. Modelling of ernst, this option (White #038; Gibbs 1991) indicates that the beneficial effect for P binding is short lived because as soon as the sediments go anoxic once more, the P is released. The technique does introduce oxygen into the otherwise anoxic sediments. This can enhance nitrification and denitrification effectively reducing the N load in the lake. More importantly it supplies oxygen to the decomposition processes so that organic carbon content and thus the sediment oxygen demand are slowly reduced. High sediment oxygen demand is the main cause of bottom water anoxia which drives P release. However, to achieve a significant reduction in sediment oxygen demand, the dicing would need to be repeated frequently. Paper On Identity. There are three major disadvantage of dicing through weed beds:
1) The organic matter could be driven into vocabulary the sediment raising the organic carbon content, 2) Every leaf node of term on identity theft, most aquatic macrophysics can grow so the dicing would most likely spread the weed more widely, and. 3) The dicing would devastate the benthic mussel beds destroying that part of the essay, fishery. In some overseas restoration studies, concentrated nitrate is injected into the sediment with equipment similar to term theft the giant discs to provide an oxygen source for que doit une conclusion, decomposition processes in summer (Hemond #038; Lin, 2010). The advantages of this technique are that the release of P is reduced and thus the on identity theft, dominant algal species are not cyanobacteria. Essay. The release of arsenic (As) is also suppressed. Term Paper Theft. The disadvantages are that the increase in NO3-N concentration drives high rates of primary production and results in high algal biomass in the lake i.e., the lake goes very green. This particular piece of research draws attention to the problems of getting the N and P out of balance i.e., heavy metals such as As and lead (Pb) can be released from the sediments. • When a cyanobacterial bloom has developed, it is too late to use many of the restoration techniques and identity essay, it is term paper theft more appropriate to treat the bloom directly to get immediate results. To that end, much research has focused on the use of clay to cassirer floc the bloom so that it settles out of the water column (Sengco #038; Anderson, 2004; Beaulieu et al. 2005; Padilla et al.
2006; Zouet al. Paper Theft. 2006; Biyu et al. 2010; Chen #038; Pan, 2012; Pan et al. 2012). Essay. While the paper, technique works in the short-term, it does not solve the underlying eutrophication problem and may smother benthic organisms in the sediment. The phosphorus released from the lake sediments is in the form of phosphate which is readily usable by plants, especially algae, for growth. While all plants use N and P in the ratio of 16 N to 1 P (Redfield 1958), the symbiotic bacteria inside blue-green algae, hence the baron, name ‘cyanobacteria’, can convert N2 gas in the atmosphere to NO3-N which the algal host can use for growth. This gives cyanobacteria a competitive advantage over all other algal species when there is term paper theft a surplus of P and a deficit of nutrient N in essay, the lake water, and they dominate the algal species assemblage.
Consequently, an excess of P in the water column is said to favor the growth of cyanobacteria and the formation of nuisance blooms. Phosphorus inactivation is used to make that P unavailable for term, algal growth by binding it to essay yahoo a metal. Term Paper On Identity. The result is the essay vocabulary enhancer, reduction in magnitude or elimination of the cyanobacteria blooms (Cooke et al. 2005). There have been many documented applications world-wide and the general conclusion is that this method for paper, treating lakes with high internal P loads can substantially reduce the internal P load. • Phosphorus inactivation with sediment capping. The alternative to alum is to use a granular P inactivation agent. These products are designed to inactivate P either in the water column or at the sediment surface before settling on the lake bed as a thin (1–2 mm thick) layer. This is the layer referred to as the sediment cap. While a combination of these tools can address the internal problems in the lake, there is features of a also an overriding requirement to address the sources of nutrients from the catchment.
The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. More than 30 million people live in the Great Lakes basin, and the impact of their daily activities, from the water consumed to the waste returned, directly affects the paper on identity, Great Lakes environment. EPA leads U.S. Cassirer. efforts to restore and maintain the quality and ecosystems of the Great Lakes watershed. The Great Lakes (also called the term on identity theft, Laurentian Great Lakes or the Great Lakes of North America) are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. Consisting of master about social, Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron (or Michigan–Huron), Erie, and Ontario, they form the term paper, largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the world’s surface fresh water by ernst volume.
The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3). Due to term on identity theft their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in baron essay, the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the theft, largest lake that is entirely within one country. The southern half of the Great Lakes is surrounded by the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets carved basins into the land and they became filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to a large number of aquatic species. Many invasive species have been introduced due to trade, and some threaten the region’s biodiversity.
Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although significant progress over the past 20 years has substantially reduced the discharge of toxic and yahoo, persistent chemicals to the Great Lakes, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised considerable concern about potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans. As a result, advisories against term paper theft, fish consumption are in place in most locations around the Great Lakes. These contaminated sediments have been created by decades of industrial and municipal discharges, combined sewer overflows, and urban and agricultural non-point source non-point source Diffuse pollution sources (i.e., without a single point of origin or not introduced into a receiving stream from a specific outlet). The pollutants are generally carried off the land by storm water. Common nonpoint sources are agriculture, forestry, urban, mining, construction, dams, channels, land disposal, saltwater intrusion, and identity essay yahoo, city streets, Runoff Water that flows off land into lakes and theft, streams.
Buried contaminants posing serious human and ecological health concerns can be dredged up by storms, ship propellers, and bottom-dwelling organisms. Many of these small bottom-dwellers absorb toxins as they feed in the mud. As larger animals eat these smaller animals, the toxins move up the food chain, with their concentrations getting higher, often thousands of times higher. Fish at the top of the food chain, such as lake trout and salmon, can be unsafe to eat in some areas because of the heavy concentrations of toxic substances in their tissues. Fish-eating birds, including the essay robber, bald eagle, may suffer low reproductive rates or produce offspring with birth defects. While the problem of contaminated sediments persists in the Great Lakes, efforts are being made in term paper theft, the pursuit of remediating these contaminated sediments. In the years 1997 through 2007, 5.5 million cubic yards of contaminated sediments have been remediated in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. Another primary reason for que doit contenir une conclusion, water pollution in the Great Lake is due to the use of pesticides in agricultural areas.
A large percentage of all of theft, pollution in the United States comes from nonpoint source pollution. The source of pesticides in the Great Lakes is called nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution. Can refers to either water or air pollution. Identity Essay Yahoo. NPS source water pollution is more common in term paper theft, the Great Lakes. The pollution from the essay, pesticides is caused due to the agricultural areas around the Great Lakes.
The NSP pollution is transported into the Great Lakes when water from rainfall, snowmelt or irrigation runs through the ground into the soil that was exposed to term on identity pesticides. The water from the runoffs takes the excess pollutants (pesticides such as: fertilizers; herbicides; insecticides; etc.) lead the pollutants directly into the Great Lakes. The pollutants are very concern to the drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and wildlife. Features. “Many toxic substances tend to bio accumulate as they pass up the food chain in term paper on identity theft, the aquatic ecosystem” (epa.gov/Greatlakes). Another problem faced in Great Lakes is the invasive species. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is foreign to an ecosystem. During the past two centuries, invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. These changes have greatly affected the que doit contenir une conclusion de dissertation, economy, health, and wellbeing of the people that rely on the system for food, water, and recreation. Once established, it is extremely difficult to control their spread.
At least 25 invasive species of fish have entered the Great Lakes since the 1800s, including: ? Alewife, A small silver-colored fish that is not native to Lake Erie. ? Spiny water flea. The Great Lakes have also been troubled by theft fast-growing invasive plants, which displace the que doit contenir de dissertation, native plants that support wildlife habitat and paper on identity theft, prevent erosion. These include: ? Reed canary grass. o Ballast Water Regulation. Ballast water is taken onto robber, or discharged from a ship as it loads or unloads its cargo, to accommodate the ship’s weight changes. Thirty percent of invasive species in the Great Lakes have been introduced through ship ballast water. In the early 1990s, the U.S. Coast Guard began requiring ships to exchange their ballast water, or seal their ballast tanks for the duration of their stay. The Coast Guard later used their success in the Great Lakes to paper develop a ballast management program for the entire nation.
The Coast Guard is in the process of developing ballast water discharge standards. o Preventing Potential Invaders. Based on the problems caused by invasive species, scientists are also closely watching other species that have invaded nearby ecosystems. Asian carp are of particular concern because they have been found in identity, nearby waterways that eventually connect to the Great Lakes. In 2004, EPA and other state and local agencies began construction of paper theft, a permanent electric barrier to prevent the fish from entering Lake Michigan. EPA is also studying how existing invasive species have become established in the Great Lakes.
These studies will help develop new techniques to predict future invasions. Clean water is master about social media fundamental to the health of the Great Lakes. To ensure water quality and availability, research conducted on the Great Lakes provides indicators that help to develop sustainable solutions to the Great Lakes water resource problems. The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) coordinates U.S. efforts with Canada under the paper on identity theft, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, which includes Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. GLNPO brings together federal, state, tribal, local, and industry partners under the ernst an essay on man, strategic framework of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to accomplish the theft, objectives of GLRI action plan which in turn fulfills the aims of the GLWQA. The agenda of these organizations is to: ? Remediate contaminated sediments under the Great Lakes Legacy Act; ? Prevent pollution and work to reduce persistent toxic chemicals, as well as to identify emerging contaminants; ? Identify, protect, and restore important habitats; ? Monitor and report on environmental status and trends; ? Provide assistance for community-based Remedial Action Plans for Areas of Concern and for Lake wide Management Plans; ? Use our funding to assist Great Lakes partners through grants, interagency agreements, and contracts, and. ? Coordinate and thesis, communicate with a wide variety of partners to achieve environmental progress. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative: The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is the largest investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. Term On Identity. A task force of 11 federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative.
This action plan covers fiscal years 2010 through 2014 and addresses five urgent issues: 1. Cleaning up toxics and areas of concern; 2. Master Social. Combating invasive species; 3. Promoting nearshore health by protecting watersheds from polluted run-off; 4. Restoring wetlands and other habitats; and. 5. Term Paper Theft. Tracking progress and working with strategic partners. The project was developed to assist in demonstrating community based approach to improve quality of master social, rivers in Malaysia. This is the first river restoration program in Malaysia that focuses on involvement from communities as a component in integrated river basin management plan.
The Kelana Jaya Lakes are ex-mining ponds in the Sungai-Damansara River Basin in Selangor managed by the Petaling Jaya City Council (MBPJ).They were initially managed solely as flood retention areas until they were developed as a public park in 1996.The lakes (4 in total) are still functioning as a flood retention basin but form an important feature of the term on identity theft, Kelana Jaya Municipal Park. The lakes are also a popular spot for anglers. The lakes ecosystem has been altered due to loss of natural wetland plants in que doit une conclusion, and surrounding the lakes. They have been replaced with rock, concrete or landscaping plants during the Park development and the catchment areas around the lakes have been developed for housing and commercial centers. In 1998, the Lebuhraya Damansara Puchong was build adjacent to the park. As a result of these changes, the water quality of the lakes declined. Term Paper On Identity. The lakes receive polluted water from drains connected to the lake system. This has led to que doit de dissertation major loss of local fish species which are sensitive to pollution. The fishes are now being replaced by alien species which are more tolerant to pollution. Other pollutant sources in the lakes includes rubbish, organic waste and term on identity theft, untreated sewage effluent leaking from sewage treatment tanks from on man housing as well as commercial areas.
The project has met encouraging local citizen support. Petaling Jaya City Council alongside the local citizen is aiming to achieve these goals in the Kelana Jaya Lake Restoration project: ? To reduce the term, level of pollution flowing into the lakes. ? To increase community awareness. ? Rehabilitating biodiversity of the lake. ? To stop the pollution source from essay entering the lake system by Informing the community about the importance of re-establishing a more natural ecosystem which can provide better habitats for wildlife. To achieve these goals they have begun phase one of the restoration in term paper on identity theft, 2002 and phase two of restoration in 2008. The restoration activities in phase two consist of: 1. Aquatic Vegetation restoration.
2. Ernst Cassirer An Essay On Man. Non-native animal species control. 3. Decaying vegetation removal. 4. Term Theft. Litter control and floating vegetation management. Tangible impact of these activities result in solid waste and wastewater from storm drains were reduced by 60 percent and the quality of discharge from oxidation pond improved after refurbishment work was carried out. Water quality in the lake improved, with consequent benefits for fishing and Lake Ecosystem, and health benefits were observed in the lakeside communities. One of the biggest ways that lake pollution can be prevented and robber, stopped is through public education. This includes more than just cleanup days where rubbish is on identity theft removed from rivers, although such events are very successful and necessary.
Prevention is the most powerful tool in the resource against lake pollution. Learning about harmful chemicals and how to properly dispose of them is vital to ensuring fresh lake remains usable. In order to manage pollution effectively, several questions must be answered: a) What is the source of the pollution? b) How much pollution is occurring? c) What is the projected lifetime of the une conclusion de dissertation, pollution? d) What are the expected effects of the pollution? Point source pollution can be easier to term paper theft manage than non-point source pollution because the source, volume, and enhancer, impact of pollution can be easily identified. Further, point source pollution impacts are often focused in one location, making remediation easier. The level of impact from a pollutant is dependent on term paper theft, several properties of the que doit contenir, particular pollutant.
First, its level of term on identity, toxicity is an important consideration; some pollutants such as PCBs are highly toxic, meaning only a small amount is enough to ernst an essay harm humans and other organisms. On the other hand, some pollutants are toxic only in high concentrations, such as the on identity, pesticide Atrazine. The amount of a particular pollutant in the environment is also an important factor regulating its effects. Baron. For example, if a particular chemical is only mildly toxic to fish, yet is found in the environment in high amounts because of paper on identity theft, a widespread application, it can be very harmful. Finally, the lifetime of a pollutant – the length of time it is expected to stay in the environment – is another vital factor. Some chemicals break down or are diluted in water quickly, while others are highly persistent and resistant to breakdown. Examples of que doit contenir une conclusion, long-lived pollutants include chemicals DDT, PCBs, and on identity theft, mercury; these chemicals are highly resistant to degradation and can remain for decades after their release has stopped. Enhancer. For example, studies from the Great Lakes in the U.S. and other important lakes show that while the release of these toxic pollutants had decreased their levels in fish and other aquatic organisms have actually increased because they stay in the environment and accumulate in fish over term on identity theft long periods of time. Essentially, once these pollutants enter a lake they tend to stay and are extremely difficult to remove.
Once lake is contaminated, it is difficult, expensive, and sometimes impossible to remove pollutants. Preventing pollution is obviously important. Drinking water suppliers have discovered that lake protection is identity essay cost-effective because it reduces pollution and cuts the cost of drinking water treatment. Through a combination of government intervention and increased awareness of the importance and fragility of paper theft, freshwater resources, pollution can be effectively managed in the future. There are many difficulties faced while observing the results of features of a narrative, lake restoration projects and term theft, basically lake restoration also includes a high proportion of trial and error, in which the means for a successful recovery is still largely uncertain. Restorations are often performed mainly to improve the robber, water quality and term paper theft, not intended as a scientific experiment, (Mehner et al., 2002). This implies that several remedies are often used more or less simultaneously, making it impossible to completely disentangle the effects of all measures. A new challenge to future restoration projects is future climate changes and the extent to which increased temperature or changed precipitation patterns may affect the choices and plans for restoration. There are several signs that climatic changes will increase the essay enhancer, risk of eutrophication and thus counteract restoration measures and destabilize the theft, macrophyte-dominated clear-water state in coastal north temperate lakes (Mooij et al.
2005; Jeppesen et al. 2007): higher precipitation will increase the external nutrient loading and higher temperatures might improve the conditions for Zooplanktivorous fish species such as carp Cyprius carpio and other cyprinids, and in combination this may reduce the possibility of essay, obtaining top-down control of phytoplankton. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Environmental Studies essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
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