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Book Report Alternative: Writing Resumes for papers, Characters in Historical Fiction. Historical fiction transports its readers back in time with the characters. Readers can feel as if they are experiencing life vicariously with the characters in these novels. Invite your students to engage even more with the thesis law, characters and setting of the historical fiction that they read by helping a character from their reading choose and apply for a job. What would it be like to search for a job in the past? What qualifications would be needed? Students explore help wanted ads, in on line print and online, to see what employers want. Then, students draft a resume so their characters can apply for jobs. Historical Fiction Novels : This sheet features a list of dozens of historical fiction novels. The traditional book report rarely gives students the opportunity to move beyond summary to engage with the book and respond analytically or in any detail. Chris Crowe warns teachers: Forget traditional book reports.

Kids hate them, and you'll hate reading them, in part because they're inherently boring and in part because it is impossible to tell whether or not your students actually read the books they will have written their reports on (151). Diana Mitchell offers similar advice: Students tire of responding to novels in the same ways. Help Literature! They want new ways to think about a piece of literature and new ways to dig into it (92). What teachers need, Mitchell suggests, are book report alternatives that whet the interest of pay research papers on line students in exploring new directions and in responding with greater depth to the books they read (92). Crowe, Chris. Young Adult Literature. English Journal 90.1 (September 2000): 149-51.

NCTE/IRA NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the about essay, cultures of the United States and pay research on line, the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and problem solving essay about smoking, contemporary works. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to pay research papers on line, build an understanding of the pros transport, many dimensions #40;e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic#41; of on line human experience. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. Pros And Cons Of Using Public Transport! They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and papers on line, writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and master thesis, their understanding of textual features #40;e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics#41;. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language #40;e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary#41; to papers, communicate effectively with a variety of toefl writing audiences and for different purposes. Pay Research On Line! Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions #40;e.g., spelling and punctuation#41;, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and cai thesis, discuss print and nonprint texts. Students use a variety of technological and information resources #40;e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video#41; to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and papers, critical members of a variety of literacy communities.

Students use spoken, written, and most and why essay, visual language to pay research on line, accomplish their own purposes #40;e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of literature information#41;. The Resume Handbook: How to Write Outstanding Resumes Cover Letters for Every Situation (Resume Handbook, 4th Ed) by Arthur D. Rosenberg, et al. Resume for Sarah Elisabeth Wheaton. Before this lesson, students will read a book independently, in literature circles, or as a whole class. analyze a historical fiction novel for explicit and pay research papers, implicit information about a character. Ximing Cai Thesis! Introduce the assignment to students: What if a character from your book came to you and asked you to pay research on line, help write a resume so he or she could apply for a job? What would you need to know to help that character? You would need to cai thesis, know that character’s skills, knowledge, and personality traits. You would also need to know the specifics about the job they are looking for. Share additional details about the assignment using the interactive Writing Resumes for Fictional Characters. Use books, Web resources, and collected resumes to share more details about the different types of resumes.

If desired, go over the components of a resume in papers more detail, using the Resume Workshop, from Purdue OWL. Invite students to explore the sites further on their own, but note that the ximing cai thesis, resources are geared toward an older audience. Pay Research On Line! The resources include sample resumes. Distribute the Resume Component Checklist. Have students mark out any components that they wish to omit from their characters’ resumes.

Have the students write a resume to get promoted to the next grade level. Have teachers from the next level provide feedback. Informal feedback can come from students who respond to the character resumes and then search out the related book is excellent feedback for are you passionate and why, students. You might make arrangements with your school library to display copies of the resumes in a notebook. Students looking for something to read can then browse through the notebook for suggestions.

In this alternative to the traditional book report, students report on papers, their novel choices using Facebook-like pages. In this alternative to the traditional book report, students respond to a play they have read by creating a resume for one of its characters. To prepare for literature circles featuring historical novels, students research the writing, decades of the 1930s to pay research papers on line, the 1990s and share their information using Prezi, a web application for creating multimedia presentations. Students identify the thesis in competition law, elements of fiction in a book they have read and share summaries of them by writing and illustrating their own mini-book. Students respond to a book they have read by pay research thinking symbolically to create a business card for help literature review, one of the characters. Students make bookmarks on computers and share their ideas with other readers at their school, while practicing summarizing, recognizing symbols, and writing reviews—all for an authentic audience. Students select a book to read based only on its cover art.

After reading the book, they use an interactive tool to create a new cover for it. Students explore book covers of pay research a variety of books then create a new cover for a book they have read. Students must think critically to create comic strips highlighting six important scenes from a book they have read. Students explore familiar literary characters, usually first encountered as adults, but whose childhood stories are only told later. Students then create childhoods for adult characters from books of their choice. Students write a persuasive letter to the editor of are you most passionate and why a newspaper from a selected fictional character#039;s perspective, focusing on a specific issue or situation explored in the novel. Students select a job listing for a character in pay research papers a book they have read, then create a resume and application letter for law, that character. Comic frames are traditionally used to illustrate a story in a short, concise format. In this lesson, students use a six-paneled comic strip frame to create a story map, summarizing a book or story that they#039;ve read.

Each panel retells a particular detail or explains a literary element #40;such as setting or character#41; from the papers on line, story. Pros Of Using Public! Students celebrate a novel they have read and get hands-on experience with technical writing by creating a board game based on pay research on line, the novel and writing the instructions for it. In this alternative book report, students identify the elements of fiction in books they have read by creating glogs, interactive multimedia posters, and then share their glogs. Grades 9 12 | Student Interactive | Organizing Summarizing. This tool guides students through the creation of what are you passionate about a resume that can be saved and edited. Written and audio tips provide extra support. Students explore the on line, genre of historical fiction by writing original works and comparing all of the finished pieces. Grades 7 12 | Calendar Activity |nbsp August 29. Thesis In Competition! Students write original short works of historical fiction in verse format, modeling the style Hesse used to write Out of the Dust . Offers 50 diverse suggestions intended to offer students new ways to papers on line, think about a piece of literature, new directions to explore, and ways to respond with greater depth to what and why essay, the books they read. Professional Library | Journal. In this article, Versaci details the many merits of using comics and graphic novels in the classroom, suggests how they can be integrated into historical and social issues units, and recommends several titles. Papers! © 2017 IRA/NCTE.

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Military to Civilian Resume: How to Use Your Military Experience. That’s the on line number of American men and women who have served as active-duty soldiers since the Gulf War era. Now, thousands of them are unemployed and facing the difficult transition into civilian life and employment. You’re probably one of ximing, them. Are you tired of sending your military resume without receiving a reply from employers?

You've served the country and learned valuable skills while working in the military. So why aren't you getting interviews? Thousands of veterans like you face the same challenge. The good news? All you have to do is translate your military experience into pay research on line, skills and and cons of using essay achievements civilian employers can understand. In this post, I’ll show you different examples and strategies to: Translate military jargon into pay research papers on line, its corporate equivalent. Avoid awkward conversations about combat experience. Highlight your communication and leadership skills.

Here's a sample military to civilian resume made using our builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. Toefl Ibt Essay? See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Here's the on line Main Problem with Your Military Resume. Veteran resumes contain terminology and acronyms that some recruiters might not understand.

Phrases like, “ Assistant G-3 Training Office r” and “ Battery Commander ” might be impressive in the service, but don't mean much for potential employers. What does the job experience above have to most passionate about essay, do with management? It’s hard to tell without speaking to the applicant. The applicant won’t have a chance to explain her side of the story unless her army resume wows the recruiter. That’s why you need to know how to write a military resume. Need to refresh your general knowledge about how to write a resume? Not sure what to include or what's the best military resume format? Read our guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) Your Mission, Should You Choose to Accept it. Is writing a military to civilian resume that meets the following criteria:

Demonstrates the civilian applications of your hard-earned military skills, accomplishments, and experiences. Entices recruiters and HR managers to call you for an interview. Papers On Line? Serves as a guide for future job interviews. Prevents recruiters from doubting your ability to transition into civilian employment. Bridges the gap between who you were in the service, and who you want to toefl ibt essay, be as a civilian employee. How can you write military resumes for civilian jobs? It might be easy if you’re an army medic or a Marine Corps chef. But what if your role included combat and field experience that doesn’t translate to most civilian jobs? I’ll answer those questions and more in this guide. Planning Your Career Path Outside the pay research papers on line Military. It’s hard to figure out what military skills to put on a resume for a civilian job if you don’t have a career path in mind.

Strategize first before you start writing a military resume. Research occupations closest to the jobs you held while on duty. Look for other industries that employ people with your skills and training. And if you can’t decide on one career path, that’s okay. Start by creating a military resume template for yourself that you can use as a basis for different versions of your resume. Make a master list of what about essay, your professional merits. Which of your skills, training, military awards, and education are useful for the job you're targeting? If you’re applying to be an accountant, the award you won in marksmanship won’t do you any good. Pay Research Papers On Line? Same goes for information about the problem solving bases where you’ve worked.

The Reality of Moving to a Different Industry. It’s hard to papers, accept that the skills it took you years to learn aren’t going to help land your next job. But you have to realize that everyone who moves to a new industry has this experience. A graphic designer who decides it’s time to become an Air Traffic Controller doesn’t need to put her Photoshop skills on in competition law, her resume. Right? You will find it necessary to eliminate some of your experience and military skills for a resume. Focus on what’s transferable to pay research on line, your new role.

Not sure what skills are valued most in your new industry? Used LinkedIn to find out and to network with civilian professionals. Not sure how? Read our guide: How To Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Assume Your Hiring Manager Knows Nothing About the Military. Here's the thing. You could be using language on your military resume that civilian employers don’t understand. It’s normal after spending years in help the military.

Recruiters and pay research papers on line interviewers, who have no background in thesis in competition the military, can’t understand the lingo used in the corps. That's why you’ll need to translate military to pay research on line, civilian terms, so whoever reviews your veteran resume sees your potential. Avoid acronyms . Write “ Base ” instead of “ AFB .” Avoid using technical jargon in your job titles and thesis in competition skill descriptions. Write “ Supervisor ” instead of “ Non-Commissioned Officer .” Don’t use military code. Don’t include base or ship codes, unless it’s relevant to your target job. Use your military job title or a civilian equivalent instead of your MOS designator. Not sure about the civilian equivalent of your military job? There are tons of sites available to convert them for you. Just enter the military branch you served under, and papers on line your MOS code or job title. After that, you’ll see a list of civilian job titles and in some cases, actual open positions. For example, after selecting “ Air Force ” and typing “ Aircraft Loadmaster ,” showed the help following jobs for candidates with an pay research papers, air force resume : If you’re not ready to apply just yet, that’s okay.

Explore the job openings to find the title and job description that best fits your experience. Whatever you do, don’t copy anything from these sites verbatimaside from job titles. Paraphrase and and cons of using public transport use the power of thesaurus to papers on line, aid you. You might be suspected of plagiarism if you copy more than a sentence or four consecutive words. On the other hand, inserting keywords from the job description into your military resume never hurts.

Here's How to Create a Civilian Friendly Career Summary. Michael Richards retired after a stellar 15-year stretch of problem about smoking, military service during which he specialized in workforce management and deployment. He's now pursuing an on line, executive position in what are you essay HR and papers Talent Development. Michael has two options when it comes to writing a resume summary for his military transition resume. Master Thesis In Competition? He can focus on who he was in the military or who he wants to become as a civilian. Since your resume summary is the first thing hiring managers look at, whatever Michael picks will affect his chances of landing the pay research job. Option A: Michael Focuses on his Military Background.

Workforce Management Director Exceptional leader with analytical skills and talent development experience. Fifteen years in workforce management and personnel deployment for the United States Army. Assisted several Army staff agencies and commands in optimizing their workforce according to available talent resources and their mission’s priorities. Option B: Michael Focuses on problem solving about smoking, his Civilian Potential. Workforce Management Director A workforce and talent development expert with 15 years of pay research, experience in sourcing, organizing, and master thesis in competition deploying diverse talent to form top-performing teams for the United States Army. Pay Research Papers On Line? Helped decrease production backlog down to 7% using different workforce planning techniques. Created talent development programs encouraging team members to take on more responsibility.

The first summary mentions workforce management, talent development, and leadership experience. But the hiring manager might have no idea if workforce planning in the army is the same in corporate offices. Is there a longer chain of what are you most passionate, command when deciding personnel’s deployment? Is there a more red tape? What tools are used? It also lacks keywords from the job description that hiring managers want to papers, see. Try to anticipate what questions a hiring manager might have after reading your military to civilian resume. Then find a way to solving essay about, address these questions on pay research papers, your resume or in about and why your cover letter.

Addressing these questions is crucial for military resume writing. The second example mentions that Michael's experience is limited to the United States Army, but it elaborates on his skills and responsibilities. Pro Tip: You need to add keywords from the job description. Hiring managers scan for on line them when they look at your veteran resume for toefl the first time. Don't know how to pay research papers, tailor a military resume to a job description? Want to know what keywords are the most valuable? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description Demilitarize Your Work History and Skills. Don’t limit your experience to the core functions of your role. Ximing Cai Thesis? Think about other experiences and skills you gained as part of the job. Most military positions will instill you with leadership , management , and papers communication skills . Attention to details and the ability to work under duress are part of the package too.

You just need to emphasize them. Below is a sample navy resume, from Timothy Stergiou-Allen , Veteran Naval Officer from the UK. You’ll notice it’s stripped of ibt essay, military jargon. If “ Royal Navy warship ” and “ NATO deployment ” wasn’t mentioned, this military resume example could be mistaken for the resume of a civilian PR professional. Aside from specific accomplishments (highlighted in yellow), the sample military resume also explains Stergiou-Allen’s transferable skills as a PR officer and pay research papers on line COO (highlighted in pros and cons of using public red). Adding peer development and training coordination suggests he knows how to mentor others and conduct training sessions.

Releasing stories via digital and social media channels means he’s familiar with the pay research tools used for digital marketing. Here’s another military resume example: Security Specialist U.S. Help Literature? Marine Corps 2008 to pay research papers, 2011. Led and mentored a diverse team of 25 people, attaining a 5% increase in promotions and 20% decrease in turnovers. Received recognition for reporting and and why documentation accuracy. Achieved a “zero loss” period in 3 years of papers, managing the security of different equipment worth $125,000. When you read security specialist, you might think of military or private protection services. But that’s not the case. Transferable skills, such as mentoring, documentation, and security management, are good candidates for financial and management jobs. That's because integrity and thesis law accurate reporting are mandatory.

The candidate also did not specify what equipment he protected and what reports he wrote. Employers won't stereotype your skills as ‘ just for the military ’ if you remain less specific. Below is a sample military resume from Justin Thomas , a former military Photographer. You can see how Thomas explains his skills in pay research papers photography and image management in a concise way while mentioning his competency with the expected skills and tools for the job. Want to know how to put skills on help, your veteran resume? Not sure which skills recruiters find the most valuable? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) What About Front Line Jobs With Combat Experience.

Below are two versions of how to present your experience: Led a 15 person team in completing different operational goals . Provided strategic advice to my team while completing challenging tasks, and assisted several superiors in cross-department goals. Led a 15-man team in papers combat missions . Provided technical and tactical guidance to help both commanding officers and subordinates in completing several missions in passionate essay Iraq. Hierarchy is different in the civilian setting. Pay Research Papers On Line? My team and superiors is review better suited than subordinates and commanding officers. The term technical and tactical guidance is replaced with strategic advice which highlights leadership skills and experience. Combat missions is pay research on line replaced with operational goals, which is ximing cai thesis applicable to a variety of corporate goals. These changes prevent hiring managers from pay research papers on line thinking your mentorship and master thesis in competition law leadership skills are limited to papers on line, battle plans and military exercises.

Your choice of words can affect the way potential employers see you. It’s up to you to ximing cai thesis, make your image positive. Writing an effective military resume isn't all about pay research, avoiding jargon. In Competition? Want to know what action words will give your resume a boost? Read our guide: +80 Examples Of Resume Action Words For Every Profession How to Spotlight Accomplishments on a Military Resume. Use metrics, percentages, time optimized, and papers money saved or handled to quantify your accomplishments . Here's a sample achievement from an air force resume: Trained and managed the workload of most and why, 10 personnel in pay research papers aircraft maintenance, resulting in a 27% decrease in unexpected repairs. Doesn’t that sound impressive with all those numbers?

Sometimes, an achievement can’t be tied to a number. Ximing? In that case, it's best to give your accomplishments some context. Write a sentence or two explaining the significance of pay research on line, your achievement to emphasize the impact you made. Here's a military resume example of an accomplishment: Let's say you were selected to toefl, train new aviators to use the weapon systems and navigation equipment of on line, different aircraft. That sounds cool, but how should you phrase such an accomplishment on military resumes for civilian jobs?

Focus on the fact that you were hand-picked to train people. Here’s how to write an problem smoking, accomplishment for a post-military resume: Developed my classroom and hands-on training skills after being selected to guide new aviators in papers on line using weapons systems and navigation instruments for different aircraft. Here's How to Put Job Training on a Veteran Resume. Military training can be transferable to civilian employment. All you have to do is list the training events and cai thesis courses you attended followed by a short description. Not sure how to describe your training? Look for a training event that has a similar title and pay research papers syllabus in a corporate setting. For example, a Google search for aviation leadership courses led to this training course from the pros and cons of using transport International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Harvard Business Publishing. Just compare the examples you find to the training you had in the military.

What skills do both training courses have in common? In the example above, leadership , collaboration , setting high standards, and building relationships ’ are themes that match the following Airman Leadership School example. You don’t have to write the description verbatim. On Line? Choose a couple of common keywords and summarize the course description. Here’s an example from a military pilot’s resume: Airman Leadership School (ALS), Community College of the Air Force 2012. A 5-week course designed to hone airmen into efficient front-line leaders. It develops the participants’ communication, leadership, and management skills while giving them a broader understanding of the essay military. The Profession of Arms, International Security, and Warfare Studies courses were also included in pay research the training but the problem about smoking candidate did not include them on their military resume to avoid drawing attention away from the leadership material.

Here’s another example showing education and training from a military to civilian resume in engineering: Without a description, it’s easy to conclude that the candidate’s training doesn’t have other applications. Adding subjects with diverse applications such as “ Math ,” “ Chemistry ,” “ Electrical Engineering ,” illustrates the papers on line versatility of the training. Highlight Your Security Clearances and Certifications. Security clearances, even for non-sensitive and not so top-secret access, show proof of writing, your accountability and pay research responsibility to employers. A Top Secret (TS) clearance can cost thousands of cai thesis, dollars, so companies would rather look for someone who’s already undergone the on line background investigation and training required to get it. Justin Thomas says, If you’re applying for Boeing or Lockheed Martin, and similar companies, put your security clearance at master thesis law, the top of your resume. Papers On Line? It helps recruiters decide whether they want to take a chance on you. Examples of Security Clearance and toefl Certifications on a military resume: Secret Security Clearance Weapons Certification First Aid Certification Top Secret / Sensitive Compartmented Information Clearance (TS/SCI)

Do you have licenses, awards, or publications that should go on on line, your military resume? Do you know where to put them? Read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Be Cautious When Adding Active Combat Details. “Most frontline troops look into private security or law enforcement. In this case, combat experience is incredibly relevant,” says Allen. But what if you’re not going into help literature, law enforcement or a security related job? In that situation, adding details about your active combat experience is a bit of on line, a coin toss. Some employers might not think twice about seeing such experience on and cons public transport, a veteran resume.

On the other hand, Thomas says: “ Some might think you’ll have mental problems like PTSD because of your experience. Pay Research On Line? ” Defending your country and its people is an admirable career. The unfortunate reality is that many returning troops suffer from cai thesis depression, PTSD, and other mental illnesses. These ailments, while obviously not applicable to pay research, everyone with combat experience, may make some employers hesitate to hire you . So, military resume writers should consider removing or placing less of an emphasis on active combat experience if it's not relevant. Don’t Forget to Write a Military to Civilian Cover Letter. Yes, you need to write a cover letter.

Hiring managers often scan resumes for information to problem smoking, decide if you're documents are relevant. After, they'll check your cover letter to get a fuller image of you. Don't repeat what you've written on your military resume. Instead, use your cover letter to on line, complement the thesis law information you've provided. Your cover letter is the place for providing explanations and fleshing out information you kept brief on your veteran resume. Not sure how to pay research papers, write a military resume cover letter? Need advice on of using transport essay, what to include? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Let’s recap. To write a great military resume you should:

Choose a career path before putting your military experience on a resume. Translate your military skills, accomplishments, and papers on line work history into layman's terms. Include relevant training and education. Emphasize your security clearances. Be careful about including information about active combat.

Do you have any questions related to making a military to civilian resume? Give us a shout in problem solving essay about the comments section! Charley Mendoza is on line a freelance writer covering career development and business. She#039;s an expert in literature resume writing, interviewing, and pay research papers on line negotiating, a topic she covers in publications such as Tutsplus, Business Insider, Brazen Careerist and toefl ibt essay more.

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800 score gmat essay We all know that the papers on line, essays on the GMAT are scored separately and that the essay smoking, schools don’t care as much about the essay scores. We also know we have to write the essays first, before we get to the more important quant and papers on line, verbal sections, so we don’t want to use up too much brain-power on the essays. What Most About Essay? Still, we can’t just bomb the essay section; the papers on line, schools do care about the essays somewhat. Toefl Ibt Essay Writing? So how do we do a good enough job on the essays without expending so much energy that we’re negatively affected during the multiple-choice portion of the test? We need to develop a template, an organizational framework on which to papers “hang” our writing. The template will not, of course, tell us exactly what to write. Essay? For that, we need the actual essay prompt, which we won’t see until we take the papers on line, test. We can, however, determine how to organize the information ahead of time, as well as the general kinds of messages we need to convey at ximing various points throughout. The template should tell us: how many paragraphs to pay research on line use the what most about and why essay, primary purpose of each of those paragraphs the kinds of pay research papers on line, information that need to be conveyed in each paragraph.

The template will vary a little bit from person to person; the important thing is to have a consistent template for yourself that you’ve worked out in advance of the official test . Are You Most Passionate? In addition, we will need slightly different templates for the two different kinds of essays, so take note of the differences below. As a general rule, essays should have either four or five paragraphs total. The first paragraph is always the introduction, the pay research papers on line, last paragraph is always the conclusion, and the body (middle) paragraphs are for the examples we choose to use. Master Thesis? Each paragraph should contain certain things; these are listed in the below sections. The information does not need to be presented in pay research papers on line the given order below, though; just make sure that each paragraph does contain the necessary information in some sort of clear and logical order. In addition, the information listed below is the minimum necessary info; you can certainly add more where appropriate. Problem About Smoking? summarize the issue state a thesis acknowledge that the pay research on line, other side does have some merit introduce your examples. The first paragraph should contain a brief summary of the issue at writing hand in your own words (don't just repeat what the essay prompt said). For an Argument essay, briefly summarize the conclusion of the given argument. For the Issue essay, briefly summarize the issue upon which the pay research, prompt has asked you to pros of using convey your opinion. For either, you don’t need more than a one to two sentence summary.

The first paragraph should also contain a thesis statement. The thesis is typically one sentence and conveys to pay research on line the reader your overall message or point for the essay that you wrote. For the Argument essay, you can write most of your thesis sentence before you get to ibt essay the test! You already know that the Argument will contain flaws, and that you will be discussing how those flaws hurt the author’s conclusion. Guess what? That’s your thesis! “While the argument does have some merit, there are several serious flaws which serve to undermine the validity of the author’s conclusion that XYZ.” DON’T USE THAT EXACT SENTENCE. They’re going to pay research papers get suspicious if hundreds of people use the same sentence. (Besides, that’s my sentence. Come up with your own!) Note the ximing cai thesis, opening clause: “While the argument does have some merit.” This is what’s called “acknowledging the papers on line, other side.” We don’t say, “Hey, your argument is completely terrible! There’s nothing good about it at solving smoking all!” We acknowledge that some parts may be okay, or some people may feel differently, but our position is that the flaws are the most important issue (that is, our thesis is the most important thing). On the Issue essay, you won’t be able to write your thesis statement ahead of time, but you do know you’ll have to do two things: (1) establish one clear position for yourself and (2) acknowledge the pay research papers on line, other side. (“While it’s certainly true that some people like Pepsi, more people prefer Coke.”) Notice one other thing that I don’t say: I don’t say “I think [blah blah thesis blah].” I state my thesis as though it is fact and toefl ibt essay writing, reasonable people surely agree with me.

That’s a hallmark of pay research papers, a persuasive essay. Master In Competition? Finally, the first paragraph needs to introduce whatever examples we’re going to use in the body paragraphs below. Don’t launch into the examples fully; that will come later. You can choose to pay research papers on line use either 2 or 3 body paragraphs. (I use 2 body paragraphs, personally. Remember, we just need to be “good enough!”) introduce one flaw explain why it is a flaw suggest ways to fix the problem smoking, flaw. introduce one real-world example give enough detail for reader to understand relevance of pay research on line, example show how example supports your thesis.

The body of an essay is where we support our thesis statement. For the help review, argument essay, your support will come from the prompt itself: brainstorm several flaws from the argument (try to find the biggest, most glaring flaws). Pay Research Papers? Each flaw gets its own paragraph, so you’ll need either two or three, depending upon how many body paragraphs you want to write. Explicitly explain why this flaw makes the conclusion less valid in some way, and pros of using public, then discuss how the author might fix that flaw. For example, let’s say that an argument claims that firing half of a company’s employees will help the pay research on line, company to reduce costs and therefore become more profitable. Solving About? While it’s certainly true that chopping half of your payroll will reduce costs, it doesn’t necessarily follow that the company will become more profitable!

That loss of pay research on line, personnel may reduce productivity, hurt morale of the remaining employees, and so on. The author of such an argument could bolster the claim by, for example, showing evidence that half of the employees are fully redundant and firing them wouldn’t affect the company adversely (if such evidence actually exists, of course!). For the issue essay, your support will come from essay smoking, your brain: you’ll have to brainstorm some real-life example ( something that actually happened in the past ) in order to support your thesis. That example could be something from your own life (work history, school, friend of a friend) or from the pay research papers, broader world (business, history, and so on). Toefl Writing? Stating that Coke’s market share is higher than Pepsi’s, for example, would bolster your claim that more people prefer Coke. Pay Research? There is cai thesis no inherent advantage to a personal example versus a broader world example, but if you use a personal example, be sure to pay research provide enough detail that the reader can understand the relevance.

When you use real-world examples that the pros and cons essay, readers are likely to pay research papers on line know, you don’t have to worry about, for example, explaining what Coke and Pepsi are. What Most? Finally, make sure to tie your example specifically back to your original thesis. Don’t make the papers, reader connect the dots: tell him or her exactly how this example supports your thesis. In Competition? re-state your thesis (using new words) re-acknowledge the other side (using new words) briefly summarize how your examples supported your thesis (using new words) minimum 3 sentences; ideally 4 to 5. Are you noticing a theme within the above bullet points? Basically, the conclusion paragraph isn’t going to contain much new information. It’s a conclusion; the major points should already have been made earlier in pay research the essay. What you’re doing now is tying everything together in one neat package: yes, the “other side” has some merit, but here’s my point-of-view and, by the way, I proved my case using these examples. Before you go into the real test, you should have a fully developed template, so that all you have to do is come up with your two examples and your thesis statement, and then “hang” your words on your framework. Practice with the above as a starting point until you develop something with which you’re comfortable.

Don’t forget to leave some time to proof your essay; it’s okay to have a few typos, but systematic errors will lower your score.

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Free Information Technology essays. In 2008, Google reported that they had discovered more than 1 trillion unique Uniform Resource Locators on the Web. And as previous research has shown or any other search engine, is even close to discovering all the pay research available content on the Web. Master Law? The Web is on line, quite a large place, and finding information can be a typical task without a web search engine. So web search engine is toefl ibt essay, very useful to find information on the web. Regular Web Search: The most popular type of search which searches the index based on any type of web page. Other on-line textual resources like PDFs and Microsoft Office formats are also available through regular web search. News Search: It searches only news-related websites. Typically the search results are ordered based on age of the story. Image Search: It searches only images that were discovered during the web crawling.

Images are normally indexed by using the image's filename and text surrounding the pay research papers image. Artificial intelligence techniques for trying to discover what is toefl writing, actually pictured in the image are slowly emerging. Video Search: It searches the text accompanied by videos on the Web. Like image search, there is heavy dependency on pay research on line people to input text which accurately describes the video. Search starts with the pros of using public transport essay web. It's made up of over large no. of individual pages and it's constantly growing. Google navigates the web by crawling. Crawling means links from page A to page B. Site owners wish their sites are crawled. Pages are then sorted by pay research papers content and other factors and the index keep track of it all. As you search some keyword, algorithms get to work looking for clues to better understand what you mean as follows: Spelling: Identifies and corrects possible spelling errors and provides alternatives.

Auto complete: It predicts what you might be searching for and includes understanding terms with more than one meaning. Google Instant: It displays immediate results as you type. Query Understanding: It gets to the deeper meaning of the words you type. Synonyms: It recognizes words with similar meanings. Based on these clues, the relevant documents from the problem solving about smoking index are pulled. And then the search results or web pages in search results are ranked by pay research papers some algorithms and they use some factors like freshness, site and page quality etc.

These algorithms are constantly changing. These changes comes as ideas in the minds of engineers. Passionate About? They take these ideas and implements them, analyze the results, tweak them, and run them again and again. The most popular algorithm for pay research on line, the ranking of web pages is PageRank algorithm which is explained in next topic. Overview of PageRank Algorithm [1] Page Rank was proposed by Sergey Brin and Larry Page, students at Stanford University and problem solving essay the founders of Google. According to Google, PageRank considers the number of links and on line quality of links to a web page to estimate importance of the website. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from other websites. PageRank is a link analysis algorithm and it assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of measuring its relative importance within the set. The algorithm may be applied to any collection of entities with reciprocal quotations and ximing cai thesis references.

The numerical weight that it assigns to any given element A is pay research papers, referred to as the PageRank of toefl A and on line denoted by PR(A). A PageRank results from a mathematical algorithm based on the webgraph. Webgraph is what most and why essay, created by pay research all World Wide Web pages as nodes and hyperlinks as edges. The rank value indicates an importance of a particular page. Problem Essay About Smoking? Number of hyperlinks to a page is considered as a vote of support. The PageRank of pay research papers a web page is defined recursively and depends on the number and PageRank metric of all pages that link to it. A page that is linked by many web pages, who has high PageRank, receives a high rank itself. A web page is important if it is pointed to by other important web pages. Google calculates a page's importance from the votes cast for it. Importance of each vote is taken into account when a page's Page Rank is calculated. Page Rank is Google's way of deciding a importance of web page.

It matters because it is one of the factors that determine a page's ranking in are you most, the search results. PageRank Notation- 'PR'. The main objective of the research is to provide an pay research papers on line efficient algorithm for review, sorting the web pages generated as search results in web search procedure. This provides the efficient and better search results to users relevant to their query. Our main purpose behind this work is that user does not need to on line, check thousands of search results for the information that user wants. The proposed algorithm ranks the pages according to user's query and most appropriate web page with the content that best match with user query gets the highest pagerank value and according to that pages have been sorted and result have been displayed. So the toefl algorithm saves the user's time and give better result in on line, shortest duration. As world-wide web is of using transport, developing rapidly, Internet has become the pay research on line world's richest and most dense source of information.

Users face the problem which is how to get relevant and useful information from the large number of disorder information [2]. Search engines become an important tool for problem essay about, users to retrieve information for a particular query. However, current search engines cannot fully satisfy the user's need of high-quality information search services; and it raises many new challenges for information retrieval. So this motivated me to enhance the pagerank calculation. Theoretical Background Literature Review. 2.1 Theoretical Background. 2.1.1 Pagerank Algorithm [1] Formula for pay research on line, pagerank calculation. PR(A) - pagerank of page A.

N- total pages accounted. d - Damping Factor. L(B) - Total number of outbound links of page B. So any page's PageRank is derived in large part from the in competition law PageRank of other pages. The damping factor takes the derived value downward. On Line? Sometimes following formula used, which has led to some confusion:

There is a difference between the above two formula. In first formula, PageRank values sums to one. In second formula each PageRank is multiplied by N and the sum becomes N. A statement in Page and Brin's paper that the sum of all PageRank values is to one like first formula. Step :1 At , an initial probability distribution is assumed, Step :2 At each time step, the computation, as detailed above, yields is the set of pages that link to pi. where p_1, p_2, ', p_N are the pages under consideration, M(p_i) is the ximing cai thesis set of pages that link to p_i.

L(p_j)is the pay research papers on line number of outbound links on page p_j,and N is the total number of pages. The calculations do not work if they are performed just once. Accurate values are obtained through much iteration. Suppose we have 2 pages, A and B, which link to each other, and neither have any other links of solving essay smoking any kind. Pay Research? Page Rank of and cons of using public transport A depends on Page Rank value of papers B and Page Rank of depends on Page Rank value of A. We can't work out A's Page Rank until we know B's Page Rank, and we can't work out toefl writing, B's Page Rank until we know A's Page Rank. But performing more iterations can bring the values to such a stage where the papers Page Rank values do not change. Help Literature? Therefore more iterations are necessary while calculating Page Ranks. Simple Example for calculating Pagerank: Consider following Figure:

No. of outlinks from A and B are same i.e = 1. PR(A) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. PR(B) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. Why we need damping factor? Assume the following scenario where A, B, C and D are web pages and their respective linking as shown in graph : Figure 1 Inlinks and Outlinks for web pages A, B, C and D. Figure 2 PageRank values for web pages A, B, C and D. So every page has at least a PR of 0.15/n to share out. In this context we have discussed some papers, which introduce and analyze various ranking algorithms. Some papers analyze the pagerank algorithm, limitations of the algorithm and propose the improved version of the pagerank which improve the pagerank algorithm and giving the better results. In some papers ranking algorithms which use web structure mining and are categorized based on input parameters they use.

Some algorithms use weights of inlinks, some use weight of outlinks, some use weight of inlinks and outlinks both and some ranking algorithms use weight of inlinks, outlinks and pay research papers no. of user's click information for calculating pagerank values. We then show Comparision among various ranking algorithms and strengths and weaknesses of those algorithms. We also discussed some content based algorithms which use web content mining. In the next section we discuss those research papers. 2.2.1 RatioRank: Enhancing the impact of toefl writing Inlinks and Outlinks [3] Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2012. In this paper various ranking algorithms are analyzed and explained, in pay research papers on line, which different users use different parameters for ranking algorithm. Some algorithms use inlinks weight, some use outlinks weight, some use number of visit of links of webpage. Some use both inlink weight as well as outlinks weight.

They are compared for knowing advantages and writing disadvantages of them. On Line? Then the new algorithm is presented which is called RatioRank, in master thesis, which the inlink weights and outlink weights are used with the consideration of number of visit count and is compared with some algorithms by pay research on line using certain parameters. Table 1 Comparison of help literature review various ranking algorithms. Algorithm Technique Strength Limitations. Page Ranking Algorithm Algorithm based on Web graph of pay research the.

webpages and considers the inbound. links to rank the pages Ranking is done on the basis of. importance of the pages Ranking is at indexing time. HITS Algorithm Hubs and Authority score is used to. rank the web pages Relevancy of the pages is high Problem of theme drift and all. links are considered of same. Weighted Page Ranking. Algorithm Based on problem essay about smoking the popularity of pay research inlinks and. outlinks if the page ranking is done Higher relevancy because popularity.

of the links is considered Theme Drift. Weighted Page Ranking(VOL) Rank on the basis of visit count of any. inlinks and popularity of the inlinks. are considered User input is considered hence. relevancy is higher Theme drift and surfer jamming. Page Ranking Based on visit of in competition link.

of pages Extend the standard page ranking by. considering the visit count of links of. webpages User input is considered hence the. relevancy of the pages is higher Theme Drift. Improved Page Ranking. Algorithm Replaces the rank of pages by mean of. the rank values of all pages and pay research papers on line go for. another round and carry on until the. value of two consecutive pages is. equal Reduces the computational.

complexity Relevancy is low and theme drift. Above table compare various ranking algorithms. From the table we can observe the strengths and limitations of various algorithms. New RatioRank Method: In the RatioRank, both the inlinks and outlinks are being considered for computing the page ranking, and the number of times the ximing cai thesis user visit the particular link. Figure 3 Shows inlinks and Outlinks between pages A, B and C.

As shown in the figure from page B, there is one inlink and one outlink so the pay research on line number of times the inlinks is visited is the fact of interest and solving about outlinks to it. The importance or the popularity of pay research on line out linked page C from page B will vote for ranking computation. The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v) are ranking of the webpages u and problem solving smoking v respectively. W_((v,u))^in and W_((v,u))^outare used to record the popularity of the inlinks and the outlinks and calculated as per Weighted Page Ranking Algorithm. d is the dampening factor. V_u is the pay research number of visits of link which points from v to u. TL(v) is the total number visit of essay about all links present on v, B(u) are the pages which points to webpage u, x is the pay research papers ratio of inlink weight and cai thesis y is the ratio of outlink weight.

The values of pay research x and y will be set between 0 to 1 on the basis of empirical results, while the ratio of inlink weights will be higher than that to ximing cai thesis, the ratio of outlink weights because inlinks are considered to be more important to rank the webpages. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Initially assign 1 as the rank of all the retrieved WebPages. Step 2: In the next round compute the rank again using the initialization made in step 1, using the ranking formula as given in on line, equation. Step 3: Assign the final rank value to the WebPages as obtained after step2 and the pages accordingly. As the inlinks of are you most passionate any WebPages votes more to increase the popularity of the page less of that by outlinks, that's why we assign more weightage to the inlink weights as that of papers outlink weights. In this paper the are you passionate essay parametric comparison of the algorithms are explained as follows. Table 2 Parametric Comparison of Various Page Ranking Algorithms. Algorithm Description Mining Technique.

Used I/P Parameters Relevancy of the pay research papers Pages. ed Algorithm) Static computation of page using the inlinks. and outlinks with number of problem solving essay smoking VOL as the papers on line user. input Web Structure Mining Inlinks, outlinks and what passionate the. number of VOL from user More than weighted page. Algorithm Computes scores at indexing time Web Structure Mining Inbound links of the on line pages Medium. Algorithm It computes the hubs.

and authority of the. relevant pages. Master Thesis? Web Structure Mining, Web Content Mining Content, Back and. Forward links Less than PR. Algorithm Static computation of page ranks according. to the importance level a page is observed Web Structure Mining Backlinks, forward links Higher than PR. In this paper the proposed algorithm considers the inlinks, outlinks and the number of times a user visits the inlink of a webpage.

The algorithm will give better results in terms of pay research on line relevance of web pages, because no other then the RatioRank page Ranking algorithm uses all the features together as the inlinks and outlinks of any webpage and the visit of link count. 2.2.2 Enhanced-RatioRank: Enhancing Impact of toefl ibt essay Inlinks and Outlinks [4] Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2013. In this paper a few of link based page ranking algorithm are revised and a new page ranking algorithm is proposed named Enhanced-RatioRank in which the inlinks, outlinks and the number of times user visits the link of the webpages. The relevancy of the on line web pages returned is more because the user behavior is also considered to rank the webpages.This Paper also consider ratio of weight of the inlinks and ximing cai thesis weight of outlinks for calculation and check which ratio gives the best result which ratio helps to give better relevancy of the pay research web pages. The problem of theme drift exist (some link may not give the toefl writing data about the query), and surfer jamming are the major limitations of the page ranking algorithm, HITS Algorithm considers all links of pay research papers on line same importance are the literature major limitations of the papers on line HITS algorithm. The problem of topic drift was also exist in this. In Weighted pagerank algorithm [5] theme drift and surfer jamming exist which are counted as the limitations of this algorithm.

Limitation of weighted page ranking algorithm based on about and why essay visits of links of users is that it only uses the inlinks and the similar ranking to the non-visited webpages.New Enhanced algorithm is proposed to remove some limitations as follows: Enhanced RatioRank Algorithm. In the Enhanced-RatioRank both the inlinks and the outlinks are being considered for computing the page ranking, and the number of times the user visit the particular link. Figure 4 Shows inlinks and outlinks in pay research papers on line, web pages X, Y, Z and V. As shown in help literature review, the figure from pay research papers on line, page V,X,Y and Z there exist different visit count and so the master thesis in competition number of times the inlinks are visited is the fact of user interest.

The mathematical equations of the inlinks and pay research papers on line outlinks weights are given as follows: The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v)are ranking of the webpages u and v respectively, d is the dampening factor, V_u is the number of passionate about and why visits of link which points from v to pay research on line, u, TL(v) is the problem total number of visits of all links present on v. B(u) are the pages which points to pay research, webpage u. As in equation only 70 percent of the weight of inlinks and the 30 percent of the weight of the outlinks is being used.

Compare to other this ratio gives the better result. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Take the link structure of the help retrieved webpages from the crawler [6]. Step 2: Obtain the webgraph from the link structure of the retrieved webpages. Step 3: Assign 1 as the initial ranking to all the webpages. Step 4: Calculate the weights of pay research papers on line inlinks and outlinks using equation number '(1)', '(2)'. ?? Step 5: Apply the proposed algorithm (RatioRank) as in the equation '(3)'. Step 6: Repeat the process iteratively until ranks of all webpages are stable means same in two consecutive iteration.

Disadvantage: The problem of theme drift still exist in this algorithm. By using all three parameters for computing the pagerank and toefl writing taking particular ratio of weight of inlinks and outlinks gives the pay research better relevancy of web pages. 2.2.3 Improved PageRank Algorithm based on feedback of userclicks [7] Author Name: Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai, Li Shasha. Published Year: 2011. This paper analyzes the PageRank algorithm, find out its shortcoming and put forward an improved PageRank algorithm. Based on the behaviour of user clicks, this algorithm on the one hand collects the clicks of result pages and the recently click time of result pages, on the other hand set the weight of clicks and click time as formula parameters of cai thesis PageRank algorithm, and verify this algorithm does improve the precision ratio of search engines through experiments. They analyzes some limitations of papers on line Pagerank in this paper:

PageRank algorithm emphasize the old page: The number of links points to the page plays a decisive role on the PR value in PageRank algorithm. Review? The old page exists longer so that can be easier to have more links point to it to improve its PR value than the new page. But most users just want to search the contents maybe in the latest pages. Pay Research Papers On Line? So the PR values of pages do not necessarily reflect the real importance of the review page. Topic shift problems: The PageRank algorithm is not dependent on pay research the keywords, the information of user feedback, and cannot judge whether a hyperlink is related to the subject of the what are you and why essay page or users inquiry. So it's easy to have the pay research papers problem of topic shift. Some large website has large numbers of hyperlinks to get a higher PR value, but not necessarily relevant to the subject of user search.

Page cheating: Some rogue websites deliberately add a lot of popular keywords which are not related to the content in the title or content of the ximing page to cheat search engines. PageRank algorithm does not identify the pay research on line content of the pages. Are You And Why Essay? If a website can maintain a certain number of hyperlinks, it will be ranked in the forefront of search results. New Improved Method: This paper figures the feedback information of user, optimize formula of PR value and adjust PR value of page appropriately. In order to reduce the probability of topic shift and page cheating, In this paper they have added weight parameter of PR value through analyzing collected click information.

S(i) =Clicks weight. N =Clicks of on line page i in a certain period of time. ?? =Attenuation Coefficient, controls the transport essay weight of clicks, generally sets to 0.3. '??=compensation coefficient, reflects the importance attached to on line, a new page, set to 1. The weight of click time reset as follows: T = Time interval of page i. Tnow = Time of user real-time search.

Tlast = Last click time of thesis webpage i. Tupdate = Modify time of page i. ?? =Attenuation coefficient, control the weight of time interval, usually set to on line, 1/12. The New proposed formula by them : They have done experimental analysis. Ximing? They took open source search engine Notch to capture and analyze pages on the, and papers on line get 181348 valid pages. Deploying standard PageRank algorithm and improved PageRank algorithm respectively on two same computers set up the user's search click log, record user's relevant search click information. It shows that the improved PageRank algorithm improves the accuracy of search results to some extent, and has a good result. This paper starts from the point of view of user, based on user search click feedback, adds clicks weight and click time weight as two parameters to classic PageRank algorithm. After experimental analysis and comparison, the improved PageRank algorithm can properly enhance the page's PR value and thesis in competition law get ranking results which better satisfy user. 2.2.4 Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search [8]

Author Name: Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Goudar and Asit Tyagi. Published Year: 2013. The Semantic Web realization is based on pay research on line the availability of ximing a significant mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the papers suitable information about the what are you most passionate about and why essay world. Searching the large internet information for small particular information leads to many deviations in the results of present searching techniques such as imprecision, large irrelevant search result, unable to interpret user's query and on line so on.

Author has proposed architecture of semantic information retrieval to enhance the relevancy of search results. An algorithm is proposed to calculate the PageRank of the documents and and cons public essay then semantic indexing [13] is being performed by these ranked web pages. In this algorithm, author is considering the two factors for computing the page rank. Papers On Line? One is the frequency of the keyword occurred in the web page. Pros And Cons Of Using Public Essay? Second is associative factor of the same keyword with the meaningful interrogative words which are generally ignored by the existing search schemes. Rank of web page is calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]=(11 - Disp)+(Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth main keyword of query. Qp = pth interrogative word.

Disp = Distance between main keyword and pth interrogative word. Freqk = frequency of kth keyword. The proposed architecture of information retrieval presents the vision of semantic search. To achieve the goal of providing the most relevant results to the user, content is matched to user's query and relevancy is taken in consideration. To improve performance, the semantic index for the ranked web pages is being created. To compute the page rank, the algorithm is proposed considering the associative factor with the interrogative words and pay research papers on line frequency factor of the problem solving about keywords so as to provide the relevant and pay research precise result. Thesis? On the basis of the experiments done, creating semantic indexes on the basis of the rank calculated is reasonable in either the hierarchical databases such as RDF (Resource description Framework) or the relational databases.' 2.2.5 PageRank optimization applied to papers on line, spam detection [9] Author Name: Olivier Fercoq.

Published Year: 2012. In this paper new link spam detection and PageRank demotion algorithm called MaxRank is thesis in competition law, introduced. Like TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank, it starts with a seed of hand-picked trusted and spam pages. MaxRank of a web page is the number of visit of this web page by a random user minimizing an average cost per time unit. Papers On Line? On a given page, the random surfer selects a set of essay smoking hyperlinks and clicks with uniform probability on any of these hyperlinks. The cost function is pay research papers on line, used to penalize spam pages and to remove hyperlinks. Toefl? The goal is to pay research, determine a hyperlink that has minimum score. The MaxRank is interpreted as a modi'ed PageRank vector, used to sort web pages instead of the usual PageRank vector. This algorithm uses both TrustRank and AntiTrustRank for nonspam and spam page detection respectively. P = Transition Matrix.

e = Column Vector with all entries equal to 1. Z = Zapping or Teleportation vector [Row vector] As in TrustRank [10] and AntiTrustRank [11], we start with a seed of trusted pages and known spam pages. The basic idea is to minimize the PageRank score of spam pages and maximize the PageRank score of trusted web pages. Hyperlinks are going to be removed, which points to web page, which has low PageRank value. Hence, the set of known spam pages will get less inlinks and it will have a lower PageRank. The World-Wide Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee circa 1991. By the late 1990s, the amount of content on the Web had exploded, but searching this content was becoming an increasingly pressing problem.

Human-generated indices (e.g. Yahoo!) could not keep up, and automatically generated indices (e.g. AltaVista) were sometimes of low quality. The PageRank algorithm essentially solved the web search problem and was the problem essay smoking basis for Google's success. When a search query is received, satisfying that query can be thought of as a three-stage process: Determine which pages can be returned (e.g. which ones contain the query string). Rank these pages in order of pay research papers on line importance. PageRank solves this stage. Format the ranked list and display it to the user. It becomes very important to provide an efficient and relevant search results in response to particular query. In which Pagerank algorithm is basic one which sorts the search results and provides the best result.

Pagerank algorithm has some limitations. Ibt Essay? To get advance algorithm, many enhancements are done so far. But sometimes web page does not show content which we want. There is one reason for irrelevant search results which comes mainly when the search is performed using keywords stored in meta-tags of the web pages. Today internet has become the main source of retrieving information. To find the relevant information regarding a particular topic from the huge amount of data and information present on internet, an pay research on line efficient searching technique is required. The traditional web searching techniques like Keyword-based search adopted by many web search engines are having some advantages like simple, quick and easy to implement but on the other hand they have shortcomings like less precision in results, large set of search results, which is time consuming for user to toefl writing, find relevant information out of pay research it and pros and cons of using public essay cannot judge the meaning of the pay research papers user's query. Many web designers add the keywords in meta-tags irrespective of the content of the web pages to increase the rank factor so that the link of the web page is shown at the top of the search result. 3.2 Analysis of Gap. Many improvements to Pagerank algorithm are done so far.

Some algorithm use content based Information Retrieval (web content) [14] approach to calculate Pagerank value and what most passionate and why essay some algorithms use link based (web structure) algorithms to calculate Pagerank value. Content-based Information Retrieval approach does not consider the pages link by papers on line the page while ranking the page and hence affect the quality of web documents. Link based approach has the limitation of the topic drift. 'Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search' [8] is content based algorithm in master in competition law, which main keywords, interrogative words and web pages are taken as the input parameters for pay research, calculating the Pagerank value. They gave better accuracy in terms of relevancy of of using public essay content as compared to the standard pagerank algorithms but some improvement like in terms of topic theme still exist in these algorithm. So our work is to pay research papers on line, reduce the problem of topic theme exist in these algorithms. For this work I am going to use web content mining for ranking. We have to calculate content relevance of web pages to our query.

Relevance of the web pages is and why essay, calculated by taking new parameters TrustRank [10] and Anti-TrustRank [11]. Pay Research On Line? TrustRank of web page is of using transport, increased when keywords are found in metadata and content of web page. Anti-TrustRank of papers on line web page is increased when keywords are found in metadata but not in content of web page. Rank of web page is calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]= (11 - Disp) * (Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth keyword of query. Qp = pth keyword of word. Disp = Distance between kth keyword and pth keyword.

Freqk = frequency of kth keyword. PageRank [WPj] = PageRank [WPj] + TrustRank[WPj] ' AntiTrustRank[WPj] TrustRank[WPj] = TrustRank of jth Web Page. AntiTrustRank[WPj] = Anti-TrustRank of jth Web Page' 4.1 Flow chart of the pros and cons public Proposed Algorithm.

Figure 5 Flow chart of proposed algorithm. 4.2 Proposed Algorithm. Input: Keywords[], WP[], Q[] , AntiTrustRank, TrustRank. Output: PageRank [WPj] for each WPj of set WP do, for each Keywords[k] of set Keywords do, for each WPj[i] do, increase Wordsj by 1. if (Keyword[k] = WPj[i]) increase Freqk by 1. for each Qp of set Q do, for (l=i-5 to i+5) do, tempp = WPj[i] ' WPj[l] for each Disp do, for each closep do, Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp] = closep*(Freqk / Wordsj) if(spamPage) Increase AntiTrustRank[WPj] else Increase TrustRank[WPj]

PageRank [WPj] = calculateFinalPageRank() Implementation and Results. Figure 6 Architecture used in implementation. We have used MVC architecture in our implementation. MVC means Model View and Controller. In this implementation, Database is as model, JSP is as view and pay research papers on line Servlet is as controller. User query is submitted using jsp page to servlet. In servlet all logic is implemented. Ibt Essay? Servlet make database connection using JDBC. We have used apache as web server and tomcat as container.

In our algorithm, we have added two new parameters TrustRank [10] and Anti-TrustRank [11]. Papers? TrustRank is measurement of trust of page. Toefl Ibt Essay? Anti-TrustRank is measurement of antitrust of page. These parameters are stored in database. Papers On Line? In this algorithm, input parameters are user's query string, web pages, Anti-TrustRank and TrustRank of web pages.

Output is problem essay about smoking, PageRanks for pay research on line, web pages. TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are stored in database for each page. If page contains one of keyword of user's query string in metadata then that page is related to user's query. If keywords are found in web page then web page is not spam page [15]. So TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page. If none keywords are found in web page then web page is spam page. So Anti-TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page.

So each time Either TrustRank or Anti-TrustRank is increased if page is related to user's query. Modified TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are stored in database again. Ximing Cai Thesis? So it keeps effect of past results. Owner of web page can insert only related keywords in metadata. Let say a keyword K is selected from the set of keywords.

For K we select a web page WP on which searching is done. So we scan the whole web page WP comparing each word with K. As soon as we find K at any index I of WP, we increment the frequency Freq for K by 1. Papers? If keyword K is found at index I, we try to law, find other keywords from Q from index i-5 to i+5. On Line? If keyword from what are you most passionate about, Q is papers, found at essay about index l then distance (l-i) is pay research papers, measured. For whole web page calculate these distances and master thesis find closeness for each keyword in Q. We also calculate the total number of words for pay research papers, web page WP as Words. Toefl Writing? The rank of WP for keyword K and Q is calculated by multiplying closeness and frequency factor that is Freq/Words. If none keyword K is papers on line, found in webpage WP then its PageRank value is 0. This webpage is thesis, considered as spam page and its Anti-TrustRank value is increased by 1/Words. If even single keyword is found in web page then web page is on line, not spam page and its TrustRank is ibt essay, increased by 1/Words. After finding PageRank values for all keywords K and all keywords Q, final PageRank value is calculated by adding these PageRank values.

Minimum(Disp, tempp) function has two integer arguments. Here Dispp is papers on line, minimum distance between K and Q if keyword Q is found. For example Q is found 2 times in single line then closest Q is taken in consideration. Closeness is reversal of distance. If distance is high means closeness is cai thesis, low. If distance is low means closeness is high. So here each distance is subtracted from 6 beacause maximum distance is 6 between keyword K and Q. isSpamPage() function returns true if web page is spam page or false if web page is pay research, not spam page. Web Page is spam page when web page metadata contains keywords related to user query but content of web page does not contains single keyword related to user's query. If web page is transport essay, spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. If web page is not spam page then its Trust-Rank value is increased.'

Table 3 Result of pay research papers modified algorithm for 5 web pages and 5 queries. Query sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar football sachin tendulkar. Sachin.htm PageRank 0.67511 0.67529 0.67548 0 0.67548. TrustRank 0.00018 0.00036 0.00054 0.00054 0.00072. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00018 0.00018.

SachinBiography.htm PageRank 0.6565 0.65811 0.65971 0 0.65971. TrustRank 0.00161 0.00321 0.00482 0.00482 0.00642. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00161 0.00161. SachinESPN.htm PageRank 0.08554 0.08586 0.08618 0 0.08618. TrustRank 0.00032 0.00065 0.00097 0.00097 0.00129. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00032 0.00032. SachinYahoo.html PageRank 0.14089 0.14195 0.14301 0 0.14301. TrustRank 0.00106 0.00212 0.00318 0.00318 0.00424. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00106 0.00106.

SachinInfo.html PageRank 0.94634 0.94688 0.94743 0 0.94743. TrustRank 0.00054 0.00108 0.00163 0.00163 0.00217. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00054 0.00054. All results are displayed in above table. Pros Public Essay? This table contains result of pay research papers on line 5 executions. In each execution 5 web pages are filtered according to user's query and metadata for web pages. In table, PageRank values are displayed for 5 executions for 5 different web pages. TrustRank and toefl ibt essay Anti-TrustRank values are displayed for 5 executions. In 4th execution PageRank values are 0 because web pages are considered as spam pages.

So Anti-TrustRank values are increased, too.' For analysis, we have tested existing and modified algorithm 5 times. Existing algorithm gives same value for same query and modified algorithm gives different value according to previous queries due to modification in TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank parameters. Results are displayed in table 1. From table 1 we can see modified algorithm considers previous queries from user and existing algorithm gives constant value. Figure 1 is graphical presentation of Table 1. In figure 1, one line has constant height, which is for existing algorithm. Pay Research? Other line has increasing height, which is for modified algorithm. Pros Of Using Public Essay? Here PageRank value is increasing for same query for pay research on line, same web page because TrustRank value is increasing each time whenever web page is not spam page. In 4th test, web page is considered as spam page so Anti-TrustRank value is increased.

So 3rd and 5th test has same PageRank value because in 3rd and 4th test TrustRank and thesis in competition Anti-TrustRank value are increased respectively. We have tested modified algorithm for 5 different pages 5 times. Results are shown in Table 2. Figure 2 is comparison of PageRank values of 5 different web pages for 5 queries. TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank parameters were 0 for all web pages before analysis. Table 4 Comparison of Existing algorithm and Modified algorithm. Query Modified Algorithm Existing Algorithm. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.675113122.

sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. Figure 7 Comparison of papers Existing algorithm and Modified algorithm. Table 5 PageRank for 5 different web pages for 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.656500803 0.08553906 0.140889831 0.9463415. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.658105939 0.08586185 0.141949153 0.9468835. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255.

Football 0 0 0 0 0. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255. Figure 8 Comparison of PageRank values. During analysis, TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values were changed, which are shown in Table 2 below. For example for query 'sachin tendulkar' for help review, web page 'Sachin.htm' TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are 0.00018 and 0 respectively. Here 'football' is pay research on line, stored in metadata for all web pages.

But it is literature review, not found in contents of the page. All pages are considered as Spam pages and Anti-TrustRank values were increased for pay research papers on line, all web pages. Table 6 TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values for 5 different web pages for 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.00018. sachin tendulkar 0.00036. sachin tendulkar 0.00054. sachin tendulkar 0.00072. Conclusion and Future Work. In this work we have analyzed various PageRank algorithms.

The basic pagerank algorithm has many drawbacks like topic theme and more emphasis on old pages. Then pagerank algorithm is to be analyzed and some limitations of the algorithm are improved. Ximing Cai Thesis? After understanding various content based ranking algorithms, we understood that content based ranking algorithms use only pay research papers, trust rank, i.e. some pages does not gives result related to user's query. Solving Essay Smoking? So some content matching method is needed to on line, reduce this problem. So we have added two new parameters TrustRank and ximing Anti-TrustRank in pay research on line, existing algorithm. If page is writing, not spam page then its TrustRank value is increased.

If page is spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. By proper analysis of pay research on line this algorithm we conclude that these parameters make results more efficient. Master Thesis In Competition Law? This algorithm finds relatedness of two keywords in the page. Anti-TrustRank is measurement of anti trust of page. Pay Research Papers? TrustRank is measurement of trust of page. As a future work, this algorithm can be improved accuracy of algorithm by of using public providing synonyms. On Line? Algorithm can take in consideration synonym of user's query. Search results can be filtered more accurately. Algorithm can be modified to use indexing to improve performance. Meta-tags can be used instead of thesis in competition metadata. This algorithm uses text as content.

Algorithm can be enhanced to media files, too.' S. Brin and L. Page, 'The Antonomy of papers on line a Large Scale HyperTextual Web Search Engine,'7th International WWW Conference Proceedings, Australia, April 1998. Wei Huang and Bin Li, 'An Improved Method for problem solving about, the Computation of PageRank', Mechatronic Science, Electric Engineering and Computer (MEC), 2011 International Conference. Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma,' RatioRank: Enhancing the Impact of Inlinks and pay research papers Outlinks' 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference (IACC) 2013. Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma,' Enhanced-RATIORANK: Enhancing Impact of master thesis in competition Inlinks and papers Outlinks' IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies 2013.

Wenpu Xing and Ali Ghorbani,' Weighted PageRank Algorithm', Proceedings of the and cons Second Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research (CNSR'04),IEEE 2004. Ling Zhang and Zheng Qin, 'The Improved Pagerank in Web Crawler', Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), 2009 1st International Conference 2009. Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai,Li Shasha,' Improved PageRank Algorithm Based on Feedback of User Clicks' IEEE 2011. Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Goudar and Asit Tyagi, ' Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search', Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), 2013 7th International Conference.

Olivier Fercoq,' PageRank optimization applied to spam detection', Network Games, Control and Optimization (NetGCooP), 2012 6th International Conference. Z. Gy ??ongyi, H. Garcia-Molina, and J. Pedersen, 'Combating web spam with trustrank,' in Proc. 30th international conference on Very large data bases, vol. Pay Research Papers On Line? 30. VLDB Endowment, 2004, pp. 576'587. V. Krishnan and R. Raj, 'Web spam detection with anti-trust rank,' in Proc.

ACM SIGIR workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web, 2006. L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani, and T. Winograd, 'The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web Technical report, Stanford Digital Library Technologies Project, 1998. Ashish Jain, Rajeev Sharma, Gireesh Dixit and Varsha Tomar,'Page Ranking Algorithms in pros and cons of using transport, Web Minning, Limitations of pay research papers on line Existing methods and New Method for thesis law, indexing Web Pages', International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies IEEE 2013. Apostolos Kritikopoulos, Martha Sideri and Iraklis Varlamis, 'Wordrank: A Method for Ranking Web Pages Based on Content Similarity', Databases, 2007. Pay Research Papers On Line? BNCOD '07. 24th British National Conference 2007. Bing-Yuan Pu, Ting-Zhu Huang and help review Chun Wen, 'An Improved PageRank Algorithm: Immune to Spam ', Network and System Security (NSS), 2010 4th International Conference 2010. Sunil and Anjali Sardana, 'A PageRank based detection technique for phishing web sites ', Computers Informatics (ISCI), 2012 IEEE Symposium 2012. PageRank Algorithm - The Mathematics of Google Search.

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