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ay Sheraton - Banquet Manager Resume Example. ay Sheraton West Des Moines , IA. Manage daily banquet functions in 20,000 square feet of space. Sentences In Essays. Hire, train and schedule all banquet staff, including servers, bartenders and housemen. Maintain inventory of all equipment in the banquet department and purchase additional items as needed. Essay. Work closely with sales team and the kitchen staff to how to use topic ensure successful events. Sparknotes. Develop connections with clients to maintain return business. Work with ReactorNet to ensure proper items are being ordered and how to in essays, budgets are maintained. Manage department expenses to w.b yeats leaving cert stay within budget. Maintain and train staff on AV needs and issues. Meet with clients to plan and develop their off-site functions. Work closely with the chefs and other departments to ensure all the client's needs are met.
Coordinate all equipment needs and staffing for events. Create and develop BEOs for events. Act as the client's on site contact during events. Coordinate execution of service and use topic, timing with staff. Assist in marketing for Gateway Market by attending Bridal Shows, Chamber events, YPC events, etc. Coordinate return of all equipment after events. Ensure proper billing for clients following functions. Coordinate large functions such as; Arts Festival, Winefest Dinners, Arts Fest West. One Source Event Productions, Stuart Alexander D Des Moines , IA. Work as the liaison between venues and staff of One Source Event Productions.
Manage logistics for several events happening simultaneously in different cities ensuring all timelines are maintained and all details are executed. Meet with event planners, brides and other clients to help determine client's needs for events and to sell them on our vast amount of Schedule and supervise staff during events, to paper include, schedules for several crews working in how to use topic different cities on the same weekend. Coordinate proper billing of clients and ensure accounts receivables are maintained. Responsible for ordering and maintaining inventory and equipment for studio. Coordinate details and timelines with planners on such events as: Festival of Trees, American Diabetes Association, Bravo Greater Des Moines, Home Instead Annual Convention, Coordinate with venues such as country clubs, hotels, vineyards, convention centers to ensure proper timing for events. The Des Moines Embassy Club Des Moines , IA. Managed daily banquet functions at two club locations ranging in size from resume 5 people to 400 people. Managed catered functions at how to use topic in essays, the historic Temple for forming, Performing Arts, the Salisbury Mansion and the Central Library. Also managed catered functions at various businesses and homes around the city of Des Moines. Organized all beverage orders for use topic in essays, banquet functions. Organized a banquet staff of 20 servers and 4 different chefs logistically to forming ensure each off site function has all equipment required and how to sentences in essays, is arriving on time.
Coordinated sales staff, chefs and banquet staff on high profile events such as: The Art Center Gala, the Iowa Caucus, WineFest, The Gatsby Gala. Worked closely with chefs to page develop new and creative menus for some of how to use topic, Des Moines's most elite. Supervised sales staff to help increase sales and improve client satisfaction. Worked closely with the different chefs and staff on leadership about, two televised events: Home Makeover and I Do, Let's Eat. Sofitel Chicago Water Tower, Accor Hotels North Chicago , IL. Managed daily activities in how to banquet department with budgeted annual revenue of five million dollars. Essay Leaving. Upheld luxury standards in use topic sentences in essays order to cater to our international clients. Incremental Thesis. Led a team of 25 employees at the highest level of performance earning the hotel the number two placement in how to use topic sentences in essays customer service within the company. Trained 20 wait staff on new style of service, improving evening service standards. Worked with the hotel's world class chefs and other departments to ensure highest level of quality was always consistently provided.
Organized and executed VIP events including: Catering Executives Club of America, Chaine des Rotissuers, Grammy Awards Dinner, Wine pairing dinners for various political groups and sat essay themes, executives, Bastille Day, Mother's Day and Easter Brunch. Scheduled, ordered and maintained inventory for department including alcohol, rental items and daily materials needed by department. Purchased new equipment and how to use topic sentences in essays, empowered staff to be more involved on the floor improving employee and gu. Embassy Suites on the River, John Q. Hammons Hot Des Moines , IA. Resume. Responsible for success of daily banquet events and guest satisfaction. Organized and executed food and in essays, alcohol sales, scheduling, logistics and revenue for hotel during events including: Nitefall on the River, Des Moines Arts Festival and Alive Concert Series. Supervised 30 banquet employees, maintained departmental schedule.
Controlled labor costs and other budgeted items as head of department. Scheduled, ordered and maintained inventory for department including alcohol, rental items and daily materials needed by department. Planned and executed large annual events including: AARP Democratic Presidential Debate, Leukemia Society Fundraiser, and Star 102.5 Radio New Year's Eve Celebration. Worked with other departments in leadership essay about yourself order to ensure high quality events were executed flawlessly. Sentences In Essays. Iowa State University Ames , IA. [email protected] S Commercial Services. Sparknotes. Office Maintenance [email protected] of Corrections. Assistant to Managing [email protected] EVENTS. Use Topic In Essays. Catering set-up, food services/ (part-time)[email protected] Go's Fine Foods. Financial Aid and [email protected] Catering Sales [email protected] Williston Hotel.
Featured Jobs in term paper Des Moines:View More Des Moines Jobs. Get job alerts sent to how to your inbox for. Banquet Manager Special Events Manager Event Manager Banquet and Catering Director Banquet Director. B.S : Hotel , Restaurant and Institute Management May 2000. Where can I find a ay Sheraton Banquet Manager resume example in Des Moines, Iowa 50310?
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oberlin essay THE EDUCATION OF MINORITY CHILDREN by Thomas Sowell. Will Rogers once said that it was not ignorance that was so bad but, as he put it, all the things we know that ain't so. Nowhere is that more true than in American education today, where fashions prevail and how to sentences, evidence is seldom asked or given. And nowhere does this do more harm than in the education of minority children. The quest for esoteric methods of about, trying to educate these children proceeds as if such children had never been successfully educated before, when in fact there are concrete examples, both from history and from our own times, of schools that have been sucessful in educating children from low-income families and from minority families. Yet the educational dogma of the how to day is that you simply cannot expect children who are not middle-class to do well on standardized tests, for all sorts of essay about, sociological and psychological reasons. Those who think this way are undeterred by the fact that there are schools where low-income and minority students do in fact score well on use topic sentences in essays, standardized tests. These students are like the bumblebees who supposedly should not be able to fly, according to w.b yeats essay the theories of aerodynamics, but who fly anyway, in disregard of those theories. While there are examples of schools where this happens in our own time-- both public and private, secular and religious-- we can also go back nearly a hundred years and how to in essays, find the incremental forming thesis same phenomenon. Back in 1899, in use topic sentences in essays Washington, D. C., there were four academic public high schools-- one black and three white.
1 In standardized tests given that year, students in the black high school averaged higher test scores than students in term paper in physics two of the three white high schools. 2. This was not a fluke. It so happens that I have followed 85 years of the how to sentences history of leaving cert, this black high school-- from 1870 to 1955 --and found it repeatedly equalling or exceeding national norms on how to use topic sentences in essays, standardized tests. 3 In the 1890s, it was called The M Street School and after 1916 it was renamed Dunbar High School but its academic performances on standardized tests remained good on into the mid-1950s.
When I first published this information in 1974, those few educators who responded at all dismissed the relevance of these findings by saying that these were middle class children and therefore their experience was not relevant to the education of low-income minority children. Those who said this had no factual data on the incomes or occupations of the parents of paper, these children-- and how to in essays, I did. The problem, however, was not that these dismissive educators did not have evidence. The more fundamental problem was that they saw no need for evidence. Resume Writing Services. According to their dogmas, children who did well on standardized tests were middle class. These children did well on such tests, therefore they were middle class.
Lack of evidence is not the problem. How To Use Topic Sentences. There was evidence on the occupations of the parents of the children at this school as far back in the early 1890s. As of academic year 1892-93, there were 83 known occupations of the parents of the children attending The M Street School. Of these occupations, 51 were laborers and one was a doctor. 4 That doesn't sound very middle class to me. Over the years, a significant black middle class did develop in Washington and paper in physics, no doubt most of how to use topic in essays, them sent their children to the M Street School or to Dunbar High School, as it was later called.
But that is essay cert wholly different from saying that most of the children at that school came from middle-class homes. During the later period, for which I collected data, there were far more children whose mothers were maids than there were whose fathers were doctors. For many years, there was only one academic high school for blacks in the District of Columbia and, as late as 1948, one-third of all black youngsters attending high school in Washington attended Dunbar High School. So this was not a selective school in the sense in how to which we normally use that term-- there were no tests to take to get in, for example-- even though there was undoubtedly self-selection in themes the sense that students who were serious went to Dunbar and those who were not had other places where they could while away their time, without having to meet high academic standards. Use Topic In Essays. (A vocational high school for blacks was opened in Washington in 1902). 5. A spot check of attendance records and sparknotes sat essay themes, tardiness records showed that The M Street School at the turn of the century and Dunbar High School at mid-century had less absenteeism and less tardiness than the white high schools in the District of Columbia at those times. The school had a tradition of being serious, going back to its founders and early principals. Among these early principals was the first black woman to receive a college degree in the United States-- Mary Jane Patterson from Oberlin College, class of 1862. At that time, Oberlin had different academic curriculum requirements for women and men.
Latin, Greek and use topic sentences in essays, mathematics were required in the gentlemen's course, as it was called, but not in the curriculum for online resume writing any ladies. How To Sentences In Essays. Miss Patterson, however, insisted on taking Latin, Greek, and mathematics anyway. Not surprisingly, in her later 12 years as principal of the best online resume services black high school in Washington during its formative years, she was noted for how to use topic sentences a strong, forceful personality, for thoroughness,' and for being an indefatigable worker. Having this kind of person shaping the standards and w.b yeats leaving, traditions of the school in its early years undoubtedly had something to do with its later success. Other early principals included the first black man to graduate from Harvard, class of 1870. Four of the school's first eight principals graduated from Oberlin and sentences, two from incremental forming thesis Harvard. Because of restricted academic opportunities for use topic in essays blacks, Dunbar had three Ph.Ds among its teachers in the 1920s. One of the other educational dogmas of our times is the notion that standardized tests do not predict future performances for minority children, either in academic institutions or in resume in html life.
Innumerable scholarly studies have devastated this claim intellectually, 6 though it still survives and flourishes politically. But the history of this black high school in how to use topic sentences Washington likewise shows a pay-off for solid academic preparation and the test scores that result from it. Over the entire 85-year history of academic success of incremental forming, this school, from 1870 to 1955, most of its 12,000 graduates went on to higher education. 7 This was very unusual for either black or white high-school graduates during this era. Because these were low-income students, most went to a local free teachers college but significant numbers won scholarships to use topic sentences leading colleges and universities elsewhere. 8. Some M Street School graduates began going to Harvard and other academically elite colleges in the early twentieth century. Essay. As of 1916, there were nine black students, from the entire country, attending Amherst College. Six were from the how to use topic sentences M Street School. During the online writing services any period from 1918 to 1923, graduates of this school went on to earn 25 degrees from Ivy League colleges, Amherst, Williams, and Wesleyan. Over the period from how to in essays 1892 to incremental forming thesis 1954, Amherst admitted 34 graduates of the M Street School and Dunbar.
Of these, 74 percent graduated and more than one-fourth of these graduates were Phi Beta Kappas. 9. No systematic study has been made of the sentences in essays later careers of the leadership graduates of this school. How To Use Topic. However, when the late black educator Horace Mann Bond studied the backgrounds of blacks with Ph.D.s, he discovered that more of them had graduated from M Street-Dunbar than from any other black high school in the country. The first blacks to graduate from West Point and Annapolis also came from this school. So did the first black full professor at a major university (Allison Davis at the University of Chicago). So did the first black federal judge, the first black general, the themes first black Cabinet member, the first black elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction, and the discoverer of a method for use topic sentences storing blood plasma. During World War II, when black military officers were rare, there were more than two dozen graduates of M Street or Dunbar High School holding ranks ranging from major to brigadier general.
10. All this contradicts another widely-believed notion-- that schools do not make much difference in children's academic or career success because income and family background are much larger influences. If the schools themselves do not differ very much from one another, then of course it will not make much difference which one a child attends. But, when they differ dramatically, the results can also differ dramatically. This was not the page only school to achieve success with minority children. How To Use Topic. But, before turning to some other examples, it may be useful to consider why and how this 85-year history of unusual success was abruptly turned into typical failure, almost overnight, by the politics of education. As we all know, 1954 was the resume year of the how to use topic sentences famous racial desegregation case of Brown v. Term. Board of Education . Those of us old enough to remember those days also know of the strong resistance to school desegregation in many white communities, including Washington, D. C. Ultimately a political compromise was worked out. In order to comply with the law, without having a massive shift of students, the District's school officials decided to turn all public schools in Washington into neighborhood schools.
By this time, the neighborhood around Dunbar High School was rundown. This had not affected the school's academic standards, however, because black students from use topic sentences in essays all over the city went to Dunbar, though very few of those who lived in its immediate vicinity did. When Dunbar became a neighborhood school, the forming whole character of how to use topic sentences in essays, its student body changed radically-- and the character of essay leaving cert, its teaching staff changed very soon afterward. In the how to in essays past, many Dunbar teachers had continued to teach for best resume writing services years after they were eligible for retirement because it was such a fulfilling experience. Now, as inadequately educated, inadequately motivated, and how to use topic, disruptive students flooded into the school, teachers began retiring, some as early as 55 years of age. Inside of a very few years, Dunbar became just another failing ghetto school, with all the problems that such schools have, all across the country. Eighty-five years of achievement simply vanished into thin air. It is a very revealing fact about the politics of education that no one tried to stop this from happening.
When I first began to study the history of this school, back in the 1970s, I thought that it was inconceivable that this could have been allowed to happen without a protest. I knew that the Washington school board in the 1950s included a very militant and distinguished black woman named Margaret Just Butcher, who was also a graduate of essay about yourself, Dunbar High School, Surely Dr. Sentences. Butcher had not let all this happen without exercising her well-known gifts of withering criticism. Yet I looked in essay vain through the minutes of the school board for even a single sentence by anybody expressing any concern whatever about the fate of Dunbar High School under the sentences in essays new reorganization plan. Finally, in sat essay themes complete frustration and bewilderment, I phoned Dr. Butcher herself. Was there anything that was said off the record about Dunbar that did not find its way into the minutes that I had read?
No, she said. Then she reminded me that racial integration was the battle cry of the hour in how to sentences the 1950s. No one thought about what would happen to black schools, not even Dunbar. Now, decades later, we still do not have racial integration in many of the urban schools around the country-- and we also do not have Dunbar High School. Such are the ways of politics, where the crusade of the hour often blocks out everything else, at least until another crusade comes along and takes over the same monopoly of in physics, our mind. Ironically, black high schools in how to use topic in essays Washington today have many of the so-called prerequisites for good education that never existed in the heyday of Dunbar High School-- and yet the educational results are abysmal. Adequate funding is always included among these prerequisites and today the per pupil expenditure in the District of paper, Columbia is among the highest in the nation. During its heyday, Dunbar was starved for funds and use topic sentences in essays, its average class size was in the 40s.
Its lunchroom was so small that many of its students had to eat out on the streets. Its blackboards were cracked and in physics, it was 1950 before the school had a public address system. Yet, at that point, it had 80 years of achievement behind it-- and only 5 more in how to sentences front of it. As a failing ghetto school today, Dunbar has a finer physical plant than it ever had when it was an academic success. Politics is also part of this picture. Immediate, tangible symbols are what matter within the limited time horizon of elected politicians. Throwing money at public schools produces such symbolic results, even if it cannot produce quality education. Another black school that I studied-- P. S.91 in Brooklyn, New York-- was housed in an even older building than the original Dunbar High School.
This building in term paper Brooklyn was so old that it still had gas jets in the hallways, left over from the gaslight era, before there were electric lights. The surrounding neighborhood was so bad that a friend told me that I was brave-- he probably meant foolhardy-- to park a car there. Yet the students in how to use topic sentences most of the grades in this predominantly black elementary school scored at or above the national norms on standardized tests. This was not in any sense a middle-class school or a magnet school. It was just an ordinary ghetto school run by an extraordinary principal. What was more extraordinary to me than even the term paper in physics test scores of the students was the openness with which I was welcomed and allowed to see what I wanted to see. Educators usually like to give guided tours to selected (and often atypical) places, much like the Potemkin village tours in Czarist Russia. But, in how to sentences P.S. Resume Writing Any. 91, I was allowed to wander down the halls and arbitrarily pick out which classrooms I wanted to go into. I did this on every floor of the school. Inside those classrooms were black children much like children you can find in how to sentences in essays any ghetto across the country.
Many came from broken homes and were on welfare. Yet, inside this school, they spoke in thesis grammatical English, in complete sentences, and to the point. Many of the materials they were studying were a year or more ahead of how to sentences in essays, their respective grade levels. It so happened that I had to fly back to term paper California right after visiting this school and did not get to talk to use topic sentences all the people I wanted to interview. I asked a mother who was head of the school's Parent-Teacher Association if I could call her at home after I got back to California and interview her over any the phone. It turned out that she did not have a telephone. I can't afford one, she said. That too hardly seemed middle class. Others have found successful black schools operating in equally grim surroundings and under similar social conditions. A collection of stories about such schools was published by the Heritage Foundation in a book titled No Excuses . How To Sentences. Back in the 1970s, I studied two academically successful Catholic schools with black students in New Orleans. In both schools, a majority of the leaving parental occupations were in the unskilled and how to sentences, semi-skilled category.
Dr. Diane Ravitch of the Manhattan Institute wrote about another successful black public school in themes another Brooklyn ghetto neighborhood. Sentences In Essays. The movie Stand and Deliver showed Jaime Escalante achieving similarly outstanding academic results from Hispanic students in a low-income neighborhood. Yet the leadership essay about yourself dogma marches on that a middle-class background is necessary for use topic sentences academic success. St. Augustine high school in term paper New Orleans was a particularly striking example of achieving academic success while going against how to sentences, the grain of prevailing opinion in educational circles. It was established back in 1951, during the incremental thesis era of racial segregation in the South, as a school for black boys, presided over by use topic sentences in essays an all-white staff from the Josephite order. None of these young priests had ever taken a course in a department or school of education.
To the horror of in physics, some outside members of the order, the how to use topic sentences in essays school used corporal punishment. Best Resume Writing. There was no unifying educational theory. The school simply kept doing things that worked and discarded things that didn't. The first black student from the South to win a National Merit Scholarship came from St. Augustine. So did the how to sentences in essays first Presidential Scholar of any race from the state of writing services, Louisiana. As of 1974, 20 percent of all Presidential Scholars in the history of the state had come from this school with about 600 black students. Test scores were never used as a rigid cutoff for admission to St. Augustine. There were students there with IQs in the 60s, as well as others with IQs more than twice that high. For individual students and for how to use topic the school as a whole, the average IQ rose over essay the years-- being in the 80s and 90s in the 1950s and then reaching the national average of 100 in the 1960s.
To put that in in essays perspective, both blacks and whites in the South during this era tended to online resume score below the national average on IQ and other standardized tests. Most of these children did not come from how to use topic sentences in essays middle-class families. Those who parents were in professional or white-collar occupations were less than one-tenth as numerous as those whose parents worked in unskilled and semi-skilled occupations. What are the secrets of such successful schools? The biggest secret is that there are no secrets, unless work is a secret. Work seems to leadership about yourself be the only four-letter word that cannot be used in how to public today. Aside from work and discipline, the various successful schools for minority children have had little in common with one another-- and even less in common with the fashionable educational theories of our times. Some of these schools were public, some were private. Some were secular and some were religious. Dunbar High School had an all-black teaching staffs but St.
Augustine in New Orleans began with an all-white teaching staff. Sparknotes Sat Essay Themes. Some of these schools were housed in old rundown buildings and others in how to use topic sentences new, modern facilities. Some of their principals were finely attuned to the social and political nuances, while others were blunt people who could not have cared less about such things and would have failed Public Relations One. None of these successful schools had a curriculum especially designed for blacks. Most had some passing recognition of the children's backgrounds.
Dunbar High School, for example, was named for black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar and it set aside one day a year to commemorate Frederick Douglass, but its curriculum could hardly be called Afrocentric. Throughout the 85 years of its academic success, it taught Latin. Term Paper In Physics. In some of the early years, it taught Greek as well. Its whole focus was on expanding the students' cultural horizons, not turning their minds inward. For all I know, there may be some Afrocentric schools that are doing well. The point here is simply that this has not been an essential ingredient in the successful education of in essays, minority students. At St. Augustine school in New Orleans, its principal, Father Grant, resisted attempts to bring into sat essay themes the school the issues arising from the civil rights struggles of the how to 1960s. Sparknotes Themes. Although sympathetic to how to in essays the civil rights movement himself, and to in physics some extent a participant in it, Father Grant opposed the introduction into the school of what he called extraneous elements, issues, and concerns.
Keenly aware of the students' cultural disadvantages and how to use topic, the need to overcome them, as well as the importance of the social issues that some wanted to w.b yeats leaving cert address in the school, he said that we absolutely could not do both things well-- and both deserved to be done well, or not at all. Sentences. As Father Grant put it bluntly: Do not consume my time with extraneous issues and then expect me to have enough time left over to dedicate myself to sparknotes sat essay a strong academic program where I will turn out sentences in essays strong, intelligent, competent kids. Again, the point here is not to incremental forming thesis say that this is the use topic only viable approach. The point is that the social visions of the essay about yourself day have not been essential ingredients in educational success. Important as the how to use topic history of outstanding schools for minority students has been, there is also much to learn from the history of very ordinary urban ghetto schools, which often did far better in the past-- both absolutely and relative to their white contemporaries-- than is the case today. I went to leadership about yourself such schools in Harlem in the 1940s but I do not rely on nostalgia for my information. The test scores in ordinary Harlem schools in the 1940s were quite comparable to the test scores in white working-class neighborhoods on New York's lower east side.
Sometimes the how to sentences in essays Harlem schools scored a little higher and sometimes the lower east side schools scored a little higher but there were no such glaring racial disparities as we have become used to in urban schools in recent years. In April, 1941, for example, some lower east side schools scored slightly higher on tests of word meaning and paragraph meaning than some schools in Harlem but, in test given in online resume writing services December of that same year, several Harlem schools scored higher than the lower east side schools. Neither set of schools scored as high as the how to sentences city-wide average, though neither was hopelessly below it. 11. While the lower east side of New York is justly known for the many people who were born in poverty there and rose to middle-class levels-- and some to national prominence-- very little attention is best resume writing services paid to a very similar history in Harlem. Some years ago, a national magazine ran a flattering profile of me, expressing wonder that I had come out of how to use topic sentences in essays, Harlem and gone on to elite colleges and an academic career. Shortly thereafter, I received a letter from a black lawyer of my generation, pointing out that my experience was by leadership no means so unusual in those days. He had grown up in Harlem during the same era, just a few blocks from me. Use Topic Sentences. From the same tenement building in paper in physics which he lived came children who grew up to become a doctor, a lawyer, a priest, and a college president. Indeed, where did today's black middle class come from, if not from such places and such schools? My great fear is that a black child growing up in Harlem today will not have as good a chance to rise as people of my generation did, simply because they will not receive as solid an education, in an era when such an education is use topic sentences in essays even more important.
Parents have been an themes important ingredient in the success of in essays, schools, whatever the racial or social backgrounds of the students. Incremental. But the specific nature of parental involvement can vary greatly-- and has often been very different from sentences in essays what is believed among some educational theorists. In some of the most successful schools, especially of the past, the sparknotes sat essay parents' role has been that of giving moral support to the school by letting their children know that they are expected to learn and to behave themselves. Current educational fashions see parents' roles as that of use topic, active participants in the shaping of educational policy and on-site involvement in the daily activities of the schools. Whatever the thesis merits or demerits of these notions, that was certainly not the role played by in essays parents of children at successful schools in essay the past.
Nor were they necessarily equipped to play such a role. As of 1940, for example, the average black adult in the United States had only an elementary school education. I can still remember being surprised at what an event it was in our family when I was promoted to the seventh grade-- because no one else in the family had ever gone that far before. It was much the same story on the lower east side of how to, New York at that time. Biographies of immigrant children who grew up there are full of painful memories of how their parents, with their meager education and broken English, hated to have to term paper in physics go see a teacher-- and how embarrassed their children were when their parents appeared at school. Parents today may be more educated and more sophisticated but it is not clear that their political or quasi-political involvement in schools has been a net benefit. Use Topic Sentences. At the very least, history shows that it has never been essential. For those who are interested in schools that produce academic success for minority students, there is no lack of examples., past and sat essay, present. Tragically, there is a lack of interest by the public school establishment in such examples. Again, I think this goes back to the politics of education.
Put bluntly, failure attracts more money than success. Politically, failure becomes a reason to demand more money, smaller classes, and more trendy courses and programs, ranging from black English to bilingualism and how to, self-esteem. Politicians who want to incremental forming look compassionate and concerned know that voting money for sentences such projects accomplishes that purpose for w.b yeats essay them and voting against such programs risks charges of mean-spiritedness, if not implications of racism. We cannot recapture the past and there is how to use topic in essays much in the past that we should not want to sparknotes sat essay themes recapture. But neither is how to in essays it irrelevant. If nothing else, history shows what can be achieved, even in the face of adversity. We have no excuse for achieving less in an era of greater material abundance and greater social opportunities. Report of the Board of Trustees of Public Schools of the term in physics District of Columbia to the Commisisoners of the how to sentences District of Columbia: 1898-1899 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900), pp.
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To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Topics. Directions: Write a 4-6 page ( 1000-1500+ word) essay, typed and double-spaced, on one of the following topics dealing with Harper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mockingbird (1960). Compose your essay in such a way as to edify and inform readers who are unfamiliar with this book. Follow the format outlined below. Your essay will be graded on the basis of the following categories: content (How informative is your essay?), organization (Does it follow my format with a definite underlying structure?), narrative voice (Does the narrative sound credible and coherent?) and clarity (Are the examples that are given in how to in essays support of the sparknotes sat essay, thesis clearly presented and use topic in essays, explained in depth?
Topic A – Innocence and Experience – What are the major life-lessons that the younger characters in the novel ( Scout, Jem and Dill ) absorb as part of their coming-of-age in essay leaving cert Maycomb, Alabama in the 1930s? You may pick one or more of these young people to write about and you may want to use topic mention other kids in sparknotes sat essay the story as well such as Walter Cunningham, Little Chuck Little, Burris Ewell, Cecil Jacobs and in essays, Francis Hancock. Topic B – Sources of Enmity – What are the significant sources of tension (i.e. suspicion, mistrust, class prejudice, racial prejudice, snobbery, enmity, animosity, hatred) between various characters in incremental the novel and what price is use topic sentences in essays paid by certain characters for these antagonisms? For this topic, in addition to the younger characters mentioned above, you may want to concentrate on resume writing any of the following adult characters: Old Mr. Radley, Nathan Radley, Boo Radley, Miss Stephanie Crawford, Miss Maudie Atkinson, Atticus, Calpurnia, Lula, Zeebo, Reverend Sykes, Aunt Alexandra, Tom Robinson, Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell, Sheriff Heck Tate, Mr. Gilmer, Judge Taylor, Mr.
Link Deas, Dolphus Raymond, Miss Merriweather, Mrs. Farrow, Mr. Underwood . Topic C – Dimensions of Social Inequality – What does this novel have to teach us about the how to sentences in essays, problem of human inequality and the divisions within human society ? Write about specific dimensions of inequality in Maycomb, Alabama – i.e. the incremental, advantages and disadvantages that certain characters experience. Try to identify an underlying common lesson that unites each of these characters. Your paper may choose to focus on characters such as Boo Radley, Tom Robinson, Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell, Burris Ewell, Mr. How To In Essays! Cunningham, Walter Cunningham, Dill Harris, Dolphus Raymond or any of the other characters mentioned above. Leaving! Topic Sentence Begin with a topic sentence that identifies the novel’s title and author. and makes some general comment about the overall significance of the novel. General Exposition Next provide a general overview of the novel’s plot and subject matter and the principal characters. Narrow the Focus Be sure to narrow the focus so as to establish the how to use topic, range and scope of your essay.
Thesis Statement At the end of your first paragraph, include a thesis statement or statements that specifically outline and clarify the life-lessons or sources of best online writing, tension or dimensions of inequality that your paper will be analyzing. Be sure to include at least three (3) developmental paragraphs each one of which provides evidence examples illustrations (taken from various scenes in the novel) of the life-lessons or sources of tension or dimensions of inequality you have outlined in your thesis. Use Topic Sentences In Essays! Each developmental paragraph must include at best resume services, least one or two relevant quotations followed by commentary and analysis. Use Topic In Essays! Remember to begin each developmental paragraph with A.) a topic sentence that identifies the example or evidence that is relevant to sparknotes your thesis. Next, B.) set the scene sufficiently – i.e. explain what is happening in the story and which characters are involved before introducing a particular quotation. Next, C.) quote in sentences a concise manner any description and/or dialogue that you find especially important or illuminating. For each quotation or paraphrase of a scene, D.) provide relevant commentary and analysis – i.e. explain to your readers why each example or bit of evidence is significant. Use your conclusion to make editorial comments (for or again) the novel’s overall merits and its depiction of the problems and issues mentioned in your essay.
You may also use the conclusion to comment on how the lessons of the novel relate to your own personal experience of essay, related subjects. Freshman English I – To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Sample Thesis Statements. Topic A – Innocence and Experience – Difficult Lessons of Youth. The three main children characters react in different ways to the trial of Tom Robinson – and take from it different lessons about the world; Dill who identifies strongly with Tom responds with panic and paranoia; Jem becomes cynical and disillusioned with the justice system, while Scout (perhaps like Harper Lee herself) remains accepting and in essays, hopeful about the possibilities of w.b yeats essay leaving, social change. The children in the novel – Scout, Jem and Dill in particular – learn harsh lessons about the ways in how to in essays which small towns and other close-knit communities can sometimes marginalize and term, de-value individuals who do not fit the mold. These three see what the older folks in the story are oblivious to: the loneliness and isolation that certain social pariahs (Boo, Mayella, Dolphus and Tom) are forced to endure. One of the big lessons that Scout learns in the story is how some children are branded from an in essays early age as “acceptable” or “unacceptable” based on online resume writing conditions and sentences, circumstances beyond their control. Leadership About! Aunt Alexandra’s judgments about the use topic sentences in essays, Radleys, the Cunninghams, the Ewells, Calpurnia, etc. serve as the perfect foil to Scout’s more mature insights. Harper Lee identifies with the children in best online writing services any the novel more than the adults – with the in essays, possible exception of Atticus.
Like Scout , her sympathies lie with good-natured kids such as Dill Harris , and Walter Cunningham , as well as the more problematic Cecil Jacobs and Mayella Ewell . From each of them, though in forming different respects, we learn about the need for maintaining “dignity in the midst of in essays, squalor” or as Hemingway would say “grace under pressure.” Topic B Sources of Enmity (Ill-Will, Mistrust, Prejudice, Hatred, Animosity) The novel deals most obviously with racial prejudice , but the greater lesson has to essay about do with class differences and how a person’s inherited social status or what Aunt Alexandra calls “heredity” – unfairly determines how individuals are treated by others. Perhaps the major underlying sources of friction within the how to sentences in essays, community are the economic hardships and uncertainties wrought by themes, the Great Depression ; the novel can be seen as a parable about how certain people react in extreme circumstances, some with fear, mistrust and suspicion, others with fair-play, generosity and good-will. Sentences! The real source of tension in essay leaving Maycomb is the ongoing rift between the country folk – poor white farmers who have been “hit the hardest” by the economic catastrophe and the city folk – merchants and professionals who are desperate to how to in essays avoid slipping into absolute poverty. Caught in the middle of all this are the innocent characters – Boo Radley, Tom Robinson and Dolphus Raymond – who are just trying to mind their own business. Topic C – Dimensions of Social Inequality. Like other social protest novels, this novel makes a special case for the ideal of social equality – as a basic dignity that the law affords to all citizens, local or otherwise; the array of misfit characters including Tom Robinson, Boo Radley, Dolphus Raymond, Dill and even Mayella Ewell – each in their own way, show us the price that must be paid when the true meaning of democracy (“equal rights for sparknotes all, special privileges for how to sentences in essays none”) is forgotten. Maycomb, Alabama – although fictional – is a microcosm for all the petty snobberies and prejudgments that exist in small towns all over America; while Harper Lee goes to great lengths to show the “logic” behind the existing social order, she is also brutally honest in exposing its shortcomings. [We see this most specifically in best online resume services the struggles of Mayella Ewell, Walter Cunningham and Dolphus Raymond.] More than anything else, To Kill a Mockingbird is a book about the need for education , for use topic sentences literacy, and online writing any, the advantages of use topic in essays, literacy as the guarantor of forming thesis, equality and social mobility. The characters who value education (Scout, Atticus and sentences, Miss Maudie) are also the most generous and magnanimous in their treatment of others; the characters who disparage learning (Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell and Aunt Alexandra) are more fearful and suspicious of others. This entry was posted in Uncategorized by leadership essay about, tsheehy.
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Religion/ Witchcraft term paper 16651. What is Witchcraft? This question is gaining importance to people as we approach the 20th century. To catch up with a constantly changing environment, people should be more aware and open-minded to how to sentences in essays things, especially to those that are rejected by our old traditional sets of resume in html page, values. We should get to know why does the Old World reject some beliefs by studying the original meanings behind those myths. The more we keep ourselves open to ideas, the more chances we have to explore ourselves and to advance our lives and our society. Each of us is a different individual. Not everybody feels right about the existing socially-accepted sets of values.
Getting to know more about other alternatives simply gives us more possibilities to choose. Due to centuries of bad press, general impression of Witchcraft is all about evils, Magick, and spells. In fact, it may just be a religion that believes in Gods and the harmonic relationship between humans and the natural environment. How To Use Topic Sentences. This research paper is to redefine, in more accurate words, the truth of one of the oldest religion in the world. In this research paper, I have used information from the Internet such as some homepages built by some Coven and believers. I also used books that are mainly about the general structure of the Craft and its religion Wicca. Thesis. I have also had an interview with one of the Witch, Robb Boyle, on the 14th of November 1998.
I asked him general ideas and in essays some specific details about the Craft and the religion. 3.1 Brief historical background of the Witchcraft in the world. Scholars like anthropologists, archaeologists and historians believe that the practice of Witchcraft has been existed for the around 20,000 to 40,000 years (Johnson). In every society, practitioners' vocations vary, like midwives or herbalists (DiLorenzo). However, fine distinctions of Witches were not made. People who believe in nature deities, and yourself possessed fortune-telling or supernatural powers have all been considered as Witches. Witchcraft can be found in different kind of culture all over use topic sentences the world, like the Celtic, Greek, African, Egyptian and Asian (Moorey 18-20). The most well known one is the Celtic tradition of the craft. It is because during the classical time, the Witches' religion and the Celtic religion have inter-influenced each other greatly (Johnson).
The ancient history of the in physics, craft mainly consists of use topic sentences in essays, a large part of themes, persecution and discrimination against the pagans by use topic sentences in essays, the public. This was due to the fact when Christianity grew stronger and expanded its political power; it set laws to suppress its rival. One of its opposition was Witchcraft. The old Gods now becomes the evil of the new religion (Johnson and resume Our History). In 1755 . . . in a 'Dictionary of the English Language,' defined a witch as 'a woman given to unlawful arts.' . . . How To Use Topic Sentences In Essays. The book 'Errores', written in 1450, declared, 'Witches . . . often make verbal pacts and promises with the Devil . . Incremental. . '. During the 'Burning Times' (circa 1400-1700), those accused of witchcraft were hung, drowned or burnt whether they confessed or not . . .by 1700, at least 200,000 women and girls had been killed (DiLorenzo). Other similar cases of persecution were Pope Innocent VIII who produced the Bulls against the Witches in 1484 and two infamous German monks created their anti-Witchery plan, the Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches Hammer), two years later. The Archbishop of Treves was convinced that the use topic sentences, local Witches had caused a severe winter and therefore 120 men and women who were thought to be the troublemakers were burned to incremental death in 1586. Witches were the most convenient scapegoats for every aspect of life. Besides religious reasons, Witches studied a lot and had a broad knowledge of use topic in essays, botany, meteorology, anatomy, veterinary science, psychology, astronomy, and primitive physics. Paper. What we called science now was considered as magic in the superstitious population of sentences, that time (DiLorenzo).
Thus, many Witches were persecuted throughout history. Paper. Lists of Witchcraft craze happenings in England, Scotland, and France in the medieval time are attached with the paper (see appendix 1). In the how to sentences in essays, late 19th century, as the society was getting more open to ideas, Witches had started to leadership about come forward to speak of the truth of their religion. Use Topic Sentences In Essays. The religion was legalized in the 50's. Finally, Witches began to enjoy the freedom of paper, religion, which had been existed for use topic in essays, quite a long time, as others (Johnson). Incremental Thesis. It was around this very moment, in the 40s, when the Craft was revived and use topic the term Wicca has officially become the name of the religion of sparknotes sat essay themes, Witches (Moorey 17). 3.2 Background of the use topic, craft in United States. The old religion was slowly pushed back by Christian churches in Europe. Christianity claims Witches were evil and the Satan worshipped. The concepts of Satan and evil were actually constructed under the sparknotes, Christians' point of view (Vogel and Our History). The most well known event in the American history of Witchcraft persecution was the Salem Trial.
In the town of Salem, Massachusetts, 19 people were executed in 1962. Around twenty people in how to in essays the town who had suffered from hallucinations, spasm or whose cattle had died blamed those Witches for cursing them and resume putting them in trouble (DiLorenzo). At that time, claiming others as Witches was the easiest way to get rid of an undesired enemy. Those accused were typically vulnerable members of the Puritan community- quarrelsome, gossipy old women or some non-puritan. How To In Essays. The Massachusetts legislature resolved that those hang due to the accusation of Witchcraft may have been illegally tried, convicted and sentenced in 1957 (Glover). That recognition has come 300 years late. Only after that trial, witch-hunting ended in America. Although large-scale hunting stopped, but discrimination and misconception persists. Recent examples are when KGUN-TV and a local church devastate the essay, Desert Henge Coven and accused coven's members were performing Satanic Rituals in 1990 and Geoffrey Dickins ask the Parliament to . . .wipe Witches off the face of the earth in how to sentences in essays 1988 (Johnson).
3.3 Definition and Terminology. Witchcraft means Craft of the Wise Ones(Vogel). It is a Pagan Magickal-religious belief based on the natural deities and rituals (Wiccan Definiton). While Witch is a term derived from an Anglo-Saxon word Wicca (masculine) or Wicce (feminine), these two words mean twister. It was pronounced as wee-cha. It refers to someone who possesses super-natural power to perform Magick or physic powers. It also applied to w.b yeats essay leaving cert those members and followers of the Witches' religion. Modern Witches claim themselves either as a follower of the Old Religion Witchcraft or Wicca (pronounced as wik-ka); further distinction between the two will be discussed in later section. Male Witch is sometimes mistakenly called as warlock.
This is use topic sentences actually a Scottish word means traitor and it is an insult to Witches. A male witch is still called as a Witch (Johnson). Wicca is a much more positive vocabulary rose in the 40s, which stands for the revive version of the Old Religion, Witchcraft. Term Paper In Physics. The word Wicca is originated from how to sentences, Indo-European of the leadership essay about, Wic and Weik which means to how to use topic blend or turn. In addition, a Wiccan is a follower of the Wicca religion (Wiccan Definiton).
The Book of Shadows is a Witches' book of Rituals, spells, and Magickal lore. Incremental. It is a journal that allows Witches to note down all his/her rituals and spells (Thompson 67-68). A Coven is an how to organization of incremental thesis, Witches, like the churches in Christianity while referring to a Solitary, means a Witch that worships on his/her own without joining any Coven. Further details about coven will be mentioned in later section. Charge is use topic sentences a Magickal act, which saturates a certain object with personal power (Wiccan Definiton).
The method that Witches would use to worship the Goddess and the Horned God is called Ritual. They request and wish through Magick while they perform Rituals. Although each tradition works on incremental forming thesis various Rituals differently, the Circle (or Sacred Space) and a Ritual meal afterwards are the basics. They use Rituals to celebrate the close relationship between themselves, the Gods, and the nature (Johnson). The word Maigick is used to distinguish between those magic which is performed for entertainment purposes and the soul power of Witches (Alaya). Initiation is the ceremonial recognition of prospects that becomes Witches. It is the most important Ritual for a Witch. While a Novice is an officially accepted student in the Coven, the prospect is the how to use topic, one who wants to leadership essay yourself join the how to use topic in essays, fellowship but has not initiated as yet. Binding is a pre-initiation stage when a Novice promises to be loyal to the Coven for the coming year.
Novices often wear green cords (Johnson). 3.4 The facts about the Craft. 3.4.1 Their ideas and the Nature of the Belief. Witchcraft is a natural religion (Vogel). It believes in the harmonic relationship between human beings, the sparknotes, natural environment, and Gods. In fact, Witches believe in the co-existence of how to in essays, a God and a Goddess (Alaya). The Goddess is the Mother of Earth and Nature and rivers are her blood (Boyle). She is the source of everything that exists according to the religion. The moon represents her (The Grimoire). Resume Page. She embodies the use topic in essays, fertility of the best online services, plant, animal, and human kingdoms.
She has the greatest power from May to how to use topic October, a period that is being called as the fertile half of the year (Vogel). She symbolizes changeless and essay yourself eternity (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 12) The God represented by woodlands, the Sun, grain, and the hunt. It was because most prehistoric prey had horns, the God is; therefore, often being called as the Horned One. How To Use Topic Sentences In Essays. On the contrary, his power is at peak in the dark half of the year, from w.b yeats leaving cert, October to May (Vogel). As the religion believes that fertility and how to sentences in essays balance on page both body and soul, they think that the perfect blend of two genders is important for the whole system to how to use topic sentences work (Johnson). In the eyes of Witches, Gods and Goddess are equally important, although some emphasized on worshipping the resume, Goddess (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 11). The common myth that Witches believe in evil is not true.
Instead, they believe in how to use topic in essays the Wiccan Rede (see appendix 2). It is a basic moral code of the religion (Vogel). It states that: An it harms none, do what thou wilt (If it harms nobody, do whatever you want). Witches are left to choose what they would do. There is no such thing like forgiveness in Christianity.
The Threefold law states that either good or evil, it comes back to them three times over paper (Johnson). Through this law, Witches learn to be responsible for their own action. They do not worship Satan either, which is a relatively new concept from Christianity. In addition, they do not do any kind of human or animal sacrifice at all (Vogel and Friedberg). According to my interviewee, the whole purpose of practicing the craft is to reach out to the innermost of believers and to achieve a perfectly harmonious relationship with the environment. The Old Religion carries few aspects that are very different from other religions; one of these is Reincarnation. Witches think that everything will be reborn into the physical world after its' death. Their life follows a cycle of birth, death and reborn just like the in essays, endless the cycle of the moon. This is a very important and interesting concept in in html page the Witches' faith (Reincarnation: The Cycle of Rebirth). How To. There is no exact method of how this cycle works; therefore, Witches are given freedom to explore how things work for in html page, them.
Generally, Witches believe that if they are faithful enough, they will be reborn among people whom they love and get a chance to learn about and love those person again. Some believe that they can choose their parents, to learn from them and then to achieve the goal to be a better person in through different lives (Johnson). Sentences. They also believe that their Gods are reborn in every cycle (Boyle). The symbol of the best online writing services, religion, the pentagram, fully illustrates this idea. It is a five-pointed star in an upright, one-point-up position. The top point symbolizes the spirit and use topic sentences the Creator being the almighty above. Other elements of life- air, fire, water, and earth, are the four power points around the star. This never-ending circle symbolizes the cyclically reborn deity.
The circle has also encompassed a star within it, and that is actually a symbol of an out-stretched human body, reaching all connection (Vogel). As Satanic use the upside downed pentagram to illustrate their philosophies on willpower, passion, prosperity and earthly-good; it is very often mistaken that Witchcraft's pentagram symbolizes the forming, Satan evil spirit (Friedberg) or Witchcraft is the same as Satanic. Another special belief is Karma. It is a reaction to a prior situation. How To Sentences. In each reaction, Witches observe their instinct and term paper in physics responses. Gaining knowledge about themselves and their relations to the universe through each Karma, Witches learn to be a better person (Johnson). Witches see psychic as an ability that is born in use topic in essays everybody. The force, which we usually call as Magick can be easily obtained through practicing psychics with Rituals. Under such practices, people's hidden ability will be explored, thus, be able to perform Magick. Some Witches think that the Magickal power is a gift from the Goddess to her children in order to make better lives. Resume In Html. After all, it is an effort to how to use topic in essays assist people but not to replace material strength (Johnson).
3.4.2 Some Practices and Ceremonies. Unlike some major religions, the Witches' religion does not have luxurious or gigantic temples. It is w.b yeats leaving cert due to covens never collect money from believers. In Essays. In fact, they do not need one. Best Online Writing Services. To Witches, all nature is their temple. Sentences In Essays. They usually lay out a nine-foot circle wherever they wish and delineate the place as a sacred temple (Johnson).
This circle is either used for celebration or to practice magic (General Practices). W.b Yeats. Built by imagination and power from use topic, within, it encompasses the energy of the surrounding area. (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 57). After Ritual is sparknotes over, the Circle is either wiped away or saved for next occasions. Witches have some special practices, like the use topic in essays, Skyclad. People go naked when they worship the moon for example. It is because they think that a physical object like clothes will keep them from growing in Magickal power and getting closer to the Creator (Thompson 27).
They also meditated in order to get into best writing services any, a trance stage. They think they can communicate with their Gods best in this psychological condition (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 81). Trance is a state of being semi-conscious that lead to a personal revelation and a visionary journey (Moorey 51-52). Believers worship through daily life, simple things that all modern people do nowadays, like, being environmentally friendly. It is because they think that if the nature suffer, the how to in essays, suffering will be cycled back to human being soon or later (Boyle, Alaya and Friedberg). This concept makes Witches oppose animal experimentation and any destruction of the nature. They started behaving so centuries ago while to the mass, being environmental friendly is essay cert rather a new trend.
They cast spell when they worship. It is a Magickal ritual but there is nothing mysterious about it (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 203). How To Use Topic. It is just the equivalent of prayer in Christianity (Alaya). According to the religion, spells concentrate energy from the nature and combined it with the psychic power from within (Magick). Witches convert this kind of power into incremental thesis, a message back to the exterior. Through these kind of self-designated Rituals, Witches purify themselves and the environment in order to dedicate themselves to the Deity. How To Sentences In Essays. Practicing Rituals make Witches powerful enough to ask or wish for something from the nature (Boyle and Friedberg).
However, they are supposed to use it according to the Rede, not to harm anybody including him or herself (Alaya). As it is such a self-involved religion, different people may have different experiences. Normally, Witches keep a record of their personal experiences, feelings and some spells that they have composed in a journal called The Book of Shadows (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 196). This book usually passes from generation to generation. Witches use different kinds of tools when they worship, like the athame is a dagger used to direct energy from the nature. It usually has a black handle, as black is believed to be able to absorb power. It probably will not be for any physical cutting. Themes. The athame symbolizes masculinity, air, or fire.
The wand is an how to use topic sentences in essays instrument for best online resume writing any, invocation; it can be made of any material. If it is cut from how to use topic in essays, a tree, Witches will explained to the tree why they are doing so and forming thesis may give the tree something like, a stone as offerings. This action illustrate the environmental friendly nature and the cycle belief of the sentences, religion. The wand symbolizes air or fire. Broom is a tool used to sweep negative power out of the sacred Circle used for worshipping. It symbolizes intellect, cleansing, and air. The chalice is for holding wine or water on the altar. It symbolizes femininity and essay yourself water while the pentacle is a pentagram inscribed in metal plate used for evoking and how to in essays protection purposes and it symbolizes the five elements and sparknotes earth (The Grimoire). 3.4.3 Rituals and Festivals. As mentioned above, Witches believe in nature, never ending cycle of life and the Deity (both God Goddess). Use Topic Sentences. Their festive celebrations are based on the changes of the environment and the rebirth of their god.
The Esbats, the Lunar Rites, are dedicated to the Goddess. In Html Page. These are Rituals when Witches do complex training on how to use topic Magick. The Sabbats, Solar Rites, are dedicated to the Horned God and the Cycle of the year, which celebrate their relationship with nature and the Gods. Then come the Passage Rites, these festivals celebrate Wiccanings (birth). There are also Puberty Rites, Handfasting Rites (weddings), and Passing Rites (funerals) (Johnson).
As mentioned that Christianity and leadership essay yourself Witchcraft had so much influence over each other, many Sabbats listed below are now celebrated as different festivals in Christianity; like Samhain is celebrated as Halloween and Yule is celebrated as Christmas. Yule is the Winter Solstice (December 21st). How To Use Topic Sentences. It is the shortest day of the year and it is a solar festival that is celebrated by the element fire and the use of Yule log. Incremental Forming. Colors of the season are red and green. How To In Essays. Traditions of decorating Yule trees and exchanging gifts are inherited from pagans. Food is incremental forming thesis specially prepared for Yule celebration. Trees will be lightened up and logs are burned.
A piece of the log will be saved to light up the tree in next year. That leftover piece is kept all year long in how to the house as a sign of paper in physics, protection to the house. Candles are also burnt as a sign of ensuring wealth and happiness. Then it comes the Candlemas (February 2nd). Use Topic In Essays. This is the first one of the three spring festivals. Lavender and white candles are burned. It celebrates the coming of the spring, fertility, and new life.
On March 5th is the Ostatra which is also called the spring equinox. Night and day are of equal length on that day. Sparknotes Themes. This is a celebration of the balance between winter and spring. People bless seeds for future planting on in essays that day and painted eggs are placed on the altar as magickal protection. Easter how Christianity call this festival. Holiday colors are light green, lemon, and pale pink. Beltane (May 5th) is the last one of the trinity spring festivals. Sparknotes Sat Essay. All living things will prepare themselves for the coming of warmth on that day. People will decorate trees with colorful ribbons. The summer solstice has the longest daytime of the year. It represents the glorious Sun King and celebrate passion and success.
Sunflowers and flowers in how to use topic red and maize yellow color are used to decorate the altar. In this, Midsummer Night's Eve, it is a great chance to commune with the fields and forest faeries. Lammas in on leadership essay about yourself the August 2nd. It is the first of the three harvest festivals in the fall. Bread is traditionally baked for celebration. In addition, herbs for Magickal used should be harvested on this day, as it is the beginning of the harvest cycle.
Fall Equinox is on September 23rd. It also has equal length of daytime and nighttime same as the use topic sentences in essays, spring equinox. Sparknotes Sat Essay Themes. It starts winter. Moreover, the male and the female force stand in balance on in essays that day. Blackberry-blue colored candles is used during celebration (Sabbats). Samhain (October 31st) is known by Christianity to be Halloween. The day is dedicated to the eternal life. People will have connection to loved ones who have died. It is because the veil that separates the world of forms and the invisible world gets to its thinnest on that night. Samhain is essay yourself pronounced as sow-wen.
To Witches, this is the most important day of the year as it is as well as the New Year's Eve (Sabbats of the year and Watanabe). As the in essays, belief has been existed for such a long time, there are many traditions passed from the past. Each tradition has its own emphasis. It is because communication nowadays are so advanced and best resume writing the religion is so open for choices, modern Witches usually follow whatever practice they wish to (like the Eclectic). That may be a combination of different tradition from various origins and even some family traditions passed down from generations (Boyle). These make it impossible to tell a specific kind of how to, tradition that all Witches are following nowadays. Witches are allowed to have their own ways of practice as soon as they think it suits them. There are few traditions that are particularly popular though. For example, the Celtic tradition is a down-to-earth tradition which focuses on the nature, elements, faeries, plants, etc. Green Witches tend to follow this path. The Ceremonial Witchcraft uses ceremonial Magick to enhance their connection with the mighty, explore their abilities, and essay about recognize their higher purposes.
Rituals of this tradition are often derived from Egyptian magick. Dianic is another tradition which feminist oriented. Some followers therefore only focus on worshipping the Goddess. According to my interviewee, many feminists Witches choose to follow this path to sentences obtain a balance from the traditional portray of the Divine as a male, like Jesus in Christianity. The hereditary Witches are those who learn through family member and/or have traces of the Craft in their family history.
The British tradition is a strictly structured tradition comparing to others. Its Rituals consist of both Celtic and Gardnerian traditions. Eclectic Witches are the free-runner in the Craft. They blend the ideas of many different traditions. It is rather flexible, so generally, Rituals are free-style and covens are loosely structured (The Grimoire). Kitchen is a practical down-to-earth tradition according to leadership yourself my interviewee.
Eclectic Witches whose Magick focus on hearth and home are classified under this category (The Grimoire). How To Use Topic Sentences In Essays. There is also an Italian tradition name Stratic (Boyle). There are no accurate statistics about how many traditions actually exist because the religion is page keep on evolving. There are some contemporarily set up traditions that will be introduced in the section Significant Personality and Cliques in Modern Witchcraft though. 3.5 Organizations and cliques.
Covens are the equivalent of churches in Christianity in the Craft. How To Use Topic Sentences In Essays. According to Johnson, it consisted from incremental, 3 unrelated members to 13 people. Members of fellowship meet regularly for Rituals or other important matters. It is use topic sentences runs by forming, the High Priest and High Priestess. Use Topic In Essays. In the traditional religion, the Coven is divided into the Inner court and the Outer court.
The Outer court is mainly a training group. Those who wish to join the incremental thesis, Coven like Prospects and Novices were taught how to behave in use topic the coven. Essay. The Inner court is the actual place where Witches worship and learn. Sentences In Essays. High Priest and High Priestess run both courts (Johnson). W.b Yeats Cert. The most common system works in coven is the Three Degree System. The first degree is the student/Witch. The second degree is the practitioner/Priest/ess and the third degree is the teacher/ High Priest/ess.
Other traditions may have somewhat up to thirteen degrees. That depends on how they separate their coven, but almost all traditions will have initiation ceremony which Witches are formally accepted into the coven. As Gods exist in a male-female balance, Witches attempt a balance in their lives. Thus, Witches try to be sexually equality. Rules may be set in certain covens that some Rituals must be performed by how to in essays, a High Priestess though most have a High Priest as well. Some find that they can worship better with only yourself, a female leader (Johnson and Hugli). 3.5.2 Significant Personality and Cliques in Modern Witchcraft. Gerald Gardner . . .was (once) the single voice speaking for the Craft (Our History). He is the first one to admit that he is fascinated by the Craft to the public. Sentences In Essays. He wrote about the truth about of religion through books like High Magic's Aid and Witchcraft Today.
His publicity helps to revitalize the themes, religion. How To Use Topic Sentences In Essays. He also founded the Gardnerian Tradition based on his lifetime studies and a Celtic tradition which he originally belonged in the 1950's in England. This tradition means a lot to modern Witches. W.b Yeats Essay. Many ways of working Rituals and Magick nowadays are evolved from this tradition. Use Topic Sentences. His follower Doreen Valiente rewrote some fragments of thesis, his Rituals. Raymond Buckland was the first recognized Witch in contemporary America.
He had brought and popularized the Craft into use topic, this society. Initiated in Scotland, Buckland came all the way to America, a place where there were no covens at all, to promote the best writing, truths about the sentences, belief. Paper. Almost every Witch's traditions in America nowadays are Buckland's interpretation of the Gardnerian (Our History and Johnson). Alexander Sanders is another important personality. He combines the Gardnerian Witchcraft with the Ceremonial tradition and use topic sentences forms a popular tradition, the w.b yeats leaving cert, Alexandrian, around 1960 in England. He drew much attention from the media and is being called as The King of Witches (Johnson and The Grimoire). Silver Ravenwolf and Scott Cunningham is both American who had achieved a lot in promoting the Craft in the American society through writing books and promoting it through the media (Boyle).
3.6 Definition of Wicca. It is said to be the religion of Witches. According to my interviewee, it is a term rose in the 40s when the Craft was revived. Asking some Witches through the Internet, some found that there are no differences between Witchcraft and how to Wicca at all (like my interviewee) while some Witches react strongly claiming that they are Witches but not Wiccan. According to Alaya, Wicca is a tradition under Witchcraft.
Just like Catholic is under Christianity. People who follow the religion of Witchcraft are witches. The people who follow Wicca are Wiccans. All Wiccans are witches but not all witches are Wiccan. There are many tradition witches can follow. Wicca is only one of them . . . there . . . Incremental. are Wiccan that do not consider themselves as witches. But usually all Wiccans are witches. Generally, through the Internet sources I have researched through, Wicca is interpreted, as the religion of Witches and Wiccan is its believer. Few people can really tell the differences between the two. Some sources simply mix up the two with Witches has the exact same meanings as Wiccan. 3.7 Evolutions of the Craft.
Throughout all these years, the Craft have many evolutions. Some of it substances have grew to get even more attention than the craft itself. These are like herbalism and aromatherapy. According to the book Magical Herbalism by Scott Cunningham, herbalism is a knowledge that passes from generation to use topic sentences in essays generation along with Witchcraft (xii). Its main practical purposes are to in html protect and heal while in Witchcraft, it is part of the Magick used for evoking and use topic sentences soothing purposes. Aromatherapy is a rather new theory comparatively to herbalism. It uses scents to resume in html page achieve certain practical human healing or soothing purposes. Scents may be from the natural environment or from how to sentences, essence oil. 3.8 Future Trend. Witches are getting more actively involved in telling the truth about their religion publicly nowadays. There are also more positive and true portrays of the paper in physics, Craft in Hollywood, like TV show Charmed and movie The Practical Magic (Watanabe).
Although there are still many religious superstitious accusations against how to in essays the craft in this scientific era, the religion is likely to get attention that is thesis more positive in the future and may there be more believers of it. Boyle, Robb. Personal interview. How To Use Topic. I4 November 1998. Cunningham, Scott. Magickal Herbalism. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1986.
-----. Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1988. Moorey, Teresa. Online Resume Writing Any. Witchcraft: a beginner's guide. London: Hooder Stoughton, 1996. Thompson, Janet. Of Witches: celebrating the Goddess as a solitary pagan. Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1993.
DiLorenzo, Kris. That old black magic keeps witches in popular culture. Star Tribune. 29 October 1995. Online. Internet. Available WWW: http:// www.elibrary.com/id/120/203/getdoc. . . Use Topic In Essays. [email protected]_gdtype=0 0dinst= Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on best resume writing services any any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and how to use topic sentences in essays there is no plagiarism of any kind.
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