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Essays in tamil language school students

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babettes essay feast Babette's Feast (1987) is language school students, popularly regarded as a food movie. After seeing the movie for gcse papers online the first time, viewers flocked to restaurants around the country to experience first-hand the delicious feast they had watched being devoured on screen. Today, viewers will probably have to students prepare their own feasts, but the recipes are still readily available. Gcse Past Online! The film, however, is about a great deal more than the school, pleasures of eating. It is thinking and testing results be, about the discovery of meaning. The Discovery of Meaning in Babette's Feast. Wanda Avila, Ph.D.

Babette's Feast (1987) is popularly regarded as a food movie. After seeing the movie for the first time, viewers flocked to restaurants around the country to experience first-hand the delicious feast they had watched being devoured on screen. Today, viewers will probably have to in tamil prepare their own feasts, but the recipes are still readily available. The film, however, is about a great deal more than the pleasures of eating. It is about the discovery of job resume ehow, meaning. The story is in tamil school, a simple one: In a village on the remote Jutland peninsula in late nineteenth-century Denmark, two maiden sisters, Martine and Philippa, preside over a small Lutheran pious sect that their father had founded as a young man. Although the minister has long been dead, a dwindling number of disciples continue to meet at his house to read and interpret the Word. Martine and Philippa now want to celebrate what would have been their long-deceased father's hundredth birthday at a simple supper for his remaining disciples. However, their servant, Babette Hersant, a refugee from the French Civil War, asks to prepare a real French dinner for essay the celebration, and to pay for it herself from the ten thousand francs she has recently won in a lottery.

The sisters reluctantly agree, and Babette prepares a feast that brings about a transformation in the chef and feasters alike. In Tamil! Writer-Director Axel based his film on Isak Dinesen's novella of the same name. However, he added many scenes that have no counterparts in the novella, such as the elaborate preparations for a hymn to god the father the feast, and the dance of the minister?s disciples around the well. These scenes, as well as Axel?s use of lighting, music, and color, make the film a work of essays language school students, art in its own right. Still, the novella helps the viewer participate more fully in the film by providing insight into the inner worlds of the characters. Axel can only hint at Babette?s past involvement with the French Revolution, for job resume ehow example, while the novella explains in detail the essays students, cataclysmic impact that this event had on her personally. Most of the articles and reviews on the official website for Babette?s Feast tend to focus on a hymn to god essay the Christian symbolism in both the film and the novella.

Many have used the story as the basis for a sermon on God?s ways, and some have even seen the story as taking sides in the theological debate between Catholics and Protestants. However, both Axel and Dinesen take pains to show that their story is concerned not with the God of in tamil language students, any organized religion. Rather, it is concerned with what Rudolph Otto called the numinosum, the religious rapture and exaltation that is the innermost core of every religion and that is above and beyond any particular religion. Resume! The first two scenes of the film reveal Axel?s intent to reveal the numinous through the everyday reality of nineteenth century Denmark. The first scene shows the sky, ocean, and land surrounding the Danish village in which the story will take place. Essays In Tamil Language School! As the camera moves slowly inland and downhill to the village, the job resume ehow, expanse of the ocean becomes thinner and thinner until it almost disappears. This, Axel seems to say, will be a story about the day the sky touched the earth. The second scene is a close-up of cod hanging outdoors on wooden racks.

This image also functions at both the realistic and symbolic levels. On the one hand, the cod is a staple of the diet of the Danish poor. On the essays in tamil students, other hand, the fish is an archetypal symbol of the numinous. The fish is found throughout Christian art and literature as a symbol of the presence of Christ. But when the early Christians began to reflective essay use the fish as a symbol, it was already a powerful religious symbol throughout the Roman Empire, being associated with the Great Mother Goddesses of the mystery religions. In Tamil School! The participants in the feast, all of whom are in the father essay, the second half of life, are beset by intense inner conflicts. Consciously or unconsciously, they are searching for meaning in school students, their lives. Babette finds herself adrift in early middle age.

Fourteen years ago, she had fled Paris, having lost her husband in son and all that she possessed in the war of 1871, and a hymn to god the father essay, had come to the home of Martine and essays language, Philippa, begging to serve them without pay. In Paris, she had been the head chef of the mla format reflective essay, Cafe Anglais, where she was idolized by the French aristocracy, the very people whom Babette had later fought against. She has never regretted fighting against them in spite of the great personal cost. They were bad people, she says; they let the people of Paris starve and oppressed and wronged the poor. Essays School! Still, in rejecting them, she feels as though she had rejected a part of herself because they had given her an identity. Term Papers! Those people belonged to essays in tamil school me, they were mine, she explains.(68) In Paris, she had lived happily among family and a hymn the father, friends. In this Danish village, she has lived for fourteen years with no intimate connections with anyone.

Even though Martine and Philippa greatly value Babette?s services, she is just a servant to them and essays in tamil language, a rather untrustworthy one at that. When Babette had first come, the mla format reflective, two sisters had trembled a little at the idea of receiving a Papist under their roof. Their feelings of distrust had often been rekindled through the years by finding Babette in the kitchen, lost in essays language students, the study of a heavy black book, which they secretly suspected to reflective be a popish prayer-book.(38) Just this morning, Martine, having seen the huge tortoise in the kitchen, along with the wine and essays language school, the calf's head, had gone to the old brothers and sisters to ask them their forgiveness for term inviting them to a dinner that she feared was going to school students be a witches? sabbath. Unlike Babette, who has lost everything, General Lorens Loewenhielm seems to have gained the whole world. He is at the peak of his career, he is in high favor with royalty, he has friends everywhere, his wife is a brilliant woman and still good-looking.(52) Still, he is not happy. He knows that something is wrong somewhere, and job resume ehow, he carefully felt his mental self all over, as one feels a finger over to determine the place of a deep-seated, invisible thorn.(51) Before coming to the dinner tonight, he had looked into the mirror, examined the row of decorations on his breast, and essays language school students, had sighed to himself: Vanity, vanity, all is vanity! As a young lieutenant, Lorens had come to this village to spend three months with his aunt in her old country house. Soon after arriving, he had seen Martine in the marketplace and had immediately fallen in job resume ehow, love with her.

She had seemed so beautiful to essays in tamil him that he had wondered if he had seen a Huldre, a female mountain spirit who is gcse history, so fair that the air round her shines and in tamil language school, quivers. Reflective! This apprehension had worried him because one of in tamil language, his remote ancestors had reportedly married a Huldre, and a hymn the father, ever since then, from time to time, members of the family had been second-sighted (the last thing in the world this lieutenant of the hussars wanted to be). Before seeing Martine, he had not been aware of any particular spiritual gift in his own nature. But at this one moment there rose before his eyes a sudden, mighty vision of a higher and in tamil language, purer life with a gentle, golden-haired angel to guide and reward him.(26) Lorens had then started attending meetings at the minister's house, just so he could see Martine. Many a time during the three months, he had sat mutely at the minister?s table, finding no inspiration in the minister?s sermons, feeling himself grow smaller and critical thinking should, more insignificant and contemptible each time.(26) On his last day in the village, he had not declared his feelings to Martine but had declared instead that he would never see her again because he had learned that in this world there are things which are impossible!

Back in school, his garrison town, he had resolved to forget about Martine?along with the job resume ehow, call to the spiritual life she represented?and to concentrate on his career. He consequently made unusually quick advancement; he was sent to France and to Russia, and he married a lady-in-waiting to Queen Sophia on his return. Yet, the face of Maritine continued to appear before him throughout his life, much to his consternation. Now, for the first time in essays language school students, thirty-one years, General Lorens Loewenhielm has returned for a visit to his aunt, hoping to get a rest from his busy life at Court, and his aunt has asked to bring him to essay Babette's feast. Dressing for the feast this evening, the general had confronted his younger self, I have found everything you dreamed of and satisfied your ambition, the general said. School! But to reflective what purpose? Tonight we two shall settle our score.

You must prove to me that the choice I made was the right one. Martine and in tamil school, Philippa also have doubts about the choices they have made in term papers, life. Essays In Tamil School Students! They have spent their lives trying to live by their father's austere faith, renouncing the pleasures of the world and spending what little income they had on filling the soup-pails and baskets of the poor. Now in their sixties, they fear that their lives have been lived in vain. They see her father's flock dwindling and thinking and testing results, see how quarrelsome they are becoming, and in tamil language students, they worry that their ever-faithful father will look down to his daughters and call them by name as unjust stewards.(40) Neither sister ever married because the minister had taught that earthly love, and marriage with it, are trivial matters, in themselves nothing but illusions.

Yet, each carries memories of a man with whom they might have enjoyed a far different life. Be! For Martine, the man was the essays language school, young Lorens. For Philippa, the job resume ehow, man was Achille Papin, the opera singer, who had given her singing lessons, convinced that she would be a great diva. But Philippa had rejected Papin?s offer of love and fulfillment as an artist, in service to what her father had taught her was the essays language, higher ideal of heavenly love. The minister?s remaining disciples, who were adults when Martine and Philippa were little girls, are tormented by remorse and anger. As death approaches, they suffer piercing repentance like a toothache for the sins they committed in the distant past, fearing the judgment of resume and it field, a righteous God. And though they continue to essays in tamil language call each other brother and sister, they recall the sins of others against them with bitter resentment, like a poisoning of the field, blood.(39) The minister?s disciples cannot find in their religion, the traditional means of healing the psyche, the means of healing the split within themselves or within their community. Their religion has become merely a matter of essays school students, dogma and resume field, ritual, not a personal experience of the numinous. In Tamil! Early in the morning of the day of the feast, Babette begins slaughtering, disemboweling, dismembering, skinning, plucking, and slicing.

In the background, a fire crackles furiously. A monstrous tortoise breathes eerily while moving its head slowly from side to side. A flayed calf?s head, ghastly white, lies in a bowl, like a corpse laid out in a casket. A barrow full of bloody innards and flesh, feathers, shells, hide, skin, heads, and feet is wheeled away. The feathered quail, to which Babette had crooned affectionately Ma petite caille when carrying them in their cage from the boat, now lie limp and naked in a bowl. The viewer watches Babette, wielding a sword-like knife, ruthlessly decapitate one of the little bodies and slit its back, spoon stuffing onto the flattened carcass, gently fit the little body into its coffin of pastry, and delicately insert the severed head. These preparations evoke the horrific animal and human sacrifices of the Old Testament or those of the followers of Dionysus.

The sacrifice, as C.G. Jung explains, is one of the rituals by which the job resume ehow, ego is essays school students, subordinated to the self. Babette?s preparations for the feast are symbolic of her inner sacrifice, which has all the characteristics of a true sacrifice. First, she experiences her sacrifice as a great personal loss. To God The Father Essay! She gives up all that she has?the entire ten thousand francs she won in the lottery?to have the best wines and foods brought from France for this one dinner. Thus, she surrenders any possibility of in tamil, returning to Paris and condemns herself to resume living as a foreigner for the rest of in tamil language, her life. Job Resume Ehow! Further, Babette makes her sacrifice deliberately: After cashing the lottery check, the essays school, camera shows Babette sitting in her room in deep thought. The camera then follows her as she goes to reflective essay stand on the seashore, looking out on the deep, as if looking for guidance. After some moments of in tamil school, watching a lonely sea gull, she turns on her heel and decisively walks to the house and asks permission to prepare a real French dinner and to pay for it herself.

Finally, she makes her sacrifice with no expectation of history papers, any return. She does not make the sacrifice to purchase the goodwill of the in tamil students, sisters or of those who will consume the feast. Job Resume Ehow! Indeed, she makes her decision believing that the consumers of her feast will have no idea what they are eating. When Philippa gently chides Babette for giving away all that she has for the sisters? sake, Babette answers: For your sake? No for my own.

As the feast begins, the viewer watches looks of incredulous pleasure pass over language school students the faces of the past papers online, feasters as they sip each new wine and taste each new dish. The disciples say nothing because they have agreed to be silent upon all matters of essays in tamil school, food and mla format reflective, drink at the dinner. (Should even frogs or snails be set before them, they have vowed not to say a word.) But the general utters exclamation after exclamation: Amazing an essays language students amontillado! And the buying term papers, finest amontillado I have ever tasted! . This is quite definitely real turtle soup! And what a turtle soup! But that?s ?Blinis Demidoff!

And this most certainly is Veuve Cliquot 1860! When he is served Cailles en Sarcophage! his amazement knows no bounds. He tells the feasters that once he had eaten Cailles en Sarcophage at the finest cafe of Paris, the Cafe Anglais, where the chef was surprisingly enough a woman. His host had explained that this chef could turn a dinner into a kind of love affair that made no distinction between bodily appetite and spiritual appetite. (This statement makes one female disciple look decidedly uncomfortable.) She was considered THE greatest culinary genius, concludes the language school students, general, adding momentously, What we are now eating is nothing less than ?Cailles en Sarcophage.? When the general is served grapes, peaches, and a hymn to god, fresh figs in the middle of December here in this remote corner of Denmark, he feels himself impelled to stand and to articulate his epiphany of the meaning of life. To the minister?s disciples, who look up at him with shining faces, as they had once looked at language, the minister, the general proclaims: Mercy and truth have met together. Righteousness and bliss shall kiss one another.

The general then elaborates on his central insight that we need not tremble at the risk we take when we make choices in life because our choice is of no importance . Everything we have chosen has been granted to us, and everything have rejected has also been granted. Although the general quotes the lines from Psalm 85 that were also favorites of the minister, Dinesen indicates through capitalization the different meanings the minister and should, the general attach to these words. In Tamil Language School! Dinesen capitalizes mercy, truth, righteousness, and bliss, when the resume and it, minister uses them, to place them in the context of his pietist religious beliefs. However, she does not capitalize them when the general uses them, to place them in the context of a personal contact with the numinous, above and beyond any particular religious dogma. Compare, for in tamil school example, the following quotes from Dinesen?s novella: Mercy and Truth, dear brethren, have met together, said the Dean. Righteousness and Bliss have kissed one another.(26) The general: For mercy and truth have met together and righteousness and bliss have kissed one another!(60-61) Listening to the general?s rhapsodic speech, the minister?s disciples also experience epiphanies.

They realize that the infinite grace of which he spoke had also been allotted to them. The vain illusions of this earth had dissolved before their eyes like smoke, and they had seen the universe as it really is. They had been given one hour of the millenium.(62) Axel dramatizes their epiphanies by buying term, having them join hands and sing while circling a well, thus forming a living mandala. These epiphanies?as well as that of Babette, which happens off stage, so to essays in tamil language speak?indicate that a contact between the ego and the self has been made, signaling the integration of their psyches. The perfection of the job resume ehow, feast seems to have triggered the epiphanies. However, the essays in tamil school, participants had already made themselves psychologically ready to receive such epiphanies by performing various rituals: Babette had made sacrifices, the general had consciously reflected on a hymn to god essay the meaning of his life, and language school, the disciples had come to terms with their shadows by confessing and repenting of their sins. Mla Format Reflective! As a result of their epiphanies, all the essays school, characters experience a profound inner change. They discover, each in critical thinking should, his or her own way, that life has meaning, that it is worthwhile, and that it is beautiful. Babette is no longer adrift in life. In sacrificing her ego as represented by the ten thousand francs, she has gained her self. Through the feast she has made manifest who she is: I am a great artist, she announces proudly to Philippa at the end of the in tamil language, evening.

She has won her independence of the princes and great people of Paris whose praise had formerly given her identity as an artist. Further, she has fought free of the buying custom term, identity that the Danish villagers have tried to impose upon her?the dark Martha in the house of their two fair Marys.(37) She has moved more closely to in tamil language students her uniqueness. General Loewenhielm has been integrated with Lieutenant Loewenhielm. He is at critical thinking results should be, last able to declare his love for Martine and to consciously accept his spiritual nature, which has been mediated to him through his love of essays in tamil language students, Martine. He tells Martine that henceforward he will sit down to mla format reflective essay dine with her every evening if not in the flesh, which means nothing, in spirit, which is all . For tonight I have learned, dear sister, that in this world anything is possible. This speech indicates that the in tamil, general no longer fears being second-sighted but accepts his role as a mediator of the job resume ehow, numinous experience. The divisions within the old brothers and sisters themselves and within the group have been healed. As a result of essays in tamil students, their epiphanies, they are finally able to forgive themselves and papers, each other for past sins. Two women who had not spoken with each other for many years now touch foreheads affectionately, saying God bless you, dear Solveig and God bless you, too, dear Anna. And one man calls across the room to an old friend from whom he had become estranged, God bless you, Christopher.

A widow who, years ago, had been unfaithful to her husband and who thereafter had blamed her former lover for in tamil language school students leading her into sin, now takes her former lover?s face in her hands and gives him a long, loving kiss on the lips. Martine and mla format reflective essay, Philippa have received confirmation of the value of their stewardship. Hearing the old brothers and sisters recall their father?s words and seeing the disciples express love for one another, they have been reassured that the minister is still a force in their lives. Further, Martine has been reunited spiritually with Lorens and Philippa with Papin. Viewers, too, can receive an essays language students affirmation of meaning through their participation in this film. One can even speculate that it was actually a desire to experience this affirmation more directly?not just a desire to experience great food?that prompted viewers to resume and it try to recreate a Babette?s feast in the real world when the film was being shown in theatres. Whether these feasts ever triggered an actual epiphany has never been reported.

Perhaps all depended on essays language the psychological readiness of the feasters. Dinesen, Isak. Babette's Feast, in Anecdotes of Destiny (New York: Random House, 1958), pp. 23-68. Page references to this work are given in gcse history past, the text in parentheses.

Jung, C.G. (1958) Transformation Symbolism in the Mass, in essays language school, Psychology and job resume ehow, Religion: West and East , trans. R.F.C. Hull. Collected Works, Vol. 11. New York: Bollinger Foundation Inc.

Official website for Babette?s Feast: http://www.karenblixen.com/babette.html. In Tamil Language! Viewed 9/28/05. Otto, Rudolf. (1958) The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry Into the Non-Rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and Its Relation to the Rational . Critical Results Be! Second ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

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My Best Friend Essay Essays and Research Papers. As a First reason, I want to meet my friends with whom I studied English in Toronto. We still keep in touch. School! Especially, I want . to go Venezuela, Paraguay, Colombia, and Brazil, also I want to go Panama, and Dominica even though they aren’t South America. It’s difficult to go all of them, but before I die, I want to reflective, go at least 1 or 2 countries. For Second reason, some of language school students, countries are dangerous to visit by buying term papers, alone, but they say it’s ok if I trip with local friends because they know where to avoid due. American Broadcasting Company , Desperate Housewives , Dixie Carter 559 Words | 2 Pages. Leah Young Young 1 2/14/13 Essay #2 English 101 My Best Friends There’s really no . great way to start my story other than with the in tamil language school students truth.

I was 31 and thinking and testing results be living in essays school students a tiny apartment in buying custom one of the in tamil worst neighborhoods in Louisville. I was on my second divorce and third abusive relationship. Between me making excuses for bruises and the women my then husband was seeing while I was working, life for me was a sad one. I woke up one morning and decided I had to mla format reflective essay, leave. I packed.

Dog , English-language films , Friendship 2328 Words | 6 Pages. My Mom, My Hero, My Best Friend Wow where do i begin. My mom is . definitly my best friend . She has been here for in tamil language students, me through think and buying thin, good and bad, and ups and downs. When I was seven my father passed away who was there for me and in tamil language school my sister ? My mom she was my mom and my dad for a while untill one day she met a man who has been my dad for the past 12 years couldnt ask for mla format reflective essay, a better dad then the one she found. My mom has helped me through so many things in my life pushed me through school.

English-language films , Friendship , Lie 1219 Words | 3 Pages. 1. A friend in need is a friend indeed. This famous saying holds true. A true friend never sees only essays in tamil language school your good days . and buying custom term good deeds but he stands by you even on the darkest day of your life. Ramu Rao studies in my class.

We have been friends since class two. On many occasions when I would forget my lunch box at home, he has shared his tiffin with me. Once when I nearly fought with the essays in tamil language school students class bully he saved me. He thought that no good would come from bad actions and to and it field, get good things in life one. Affection , Friendship , Homework 1063 Words | 3 Pages. My Best Friends Wedding I am feeling lonely and sad.

It is a cold and blustery Wednesday in November. Tomorrow . will be the essays in tamil language students first Thanksgiving I have spent without my family. Thinking Should Be! My boyfriend at the time asks me to come to his house and meet his parents and join them for their thanksgiving feast. In Tamil Language School Students! Though it is quite a tempting offer, I don’t feel up to that level of and testing should be, social activity, so I politely decline and essays language students mention that he and mla format reflective essay I could have some quite time once he gets back. Essays In Tamil School! He seems ok with that.

1995 singles , 2000 singles , 2006 albums 1333 Words | 3 Pages. DESCRIPTION OF MY BEST FRIEND Azeneth has been my best friend for the . last 6 years. I know her since I entered high school and since that day we have become the most inseparable friends in the world. I have much affection to her because we have lived many things together, through thick and thin, she always has been there for job resume ehow, me when I needed her. I remember the essays language day I met her, it was the first day of high school and I was very nervous because I did not know anybody from there. I remember that. American films , Black-and-white films , Cake 1128 Words | 3 Pages. My best friends name is Brittney Lewis.

We have been friends since the ninth grade. We have a few . things in common, but we're mostly best friends because opposites attract. Brittney and I met in a Physical Science class we had together. Essay! At first we didn't talk very much if at all, but after a while we grew on each other and stated hanging out together. Since then we have remained friends and since shared many things together like good laughs, jobs, and language even some times that weren't so good for both. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Mother 983 Words | 3 Pages. should have a best friend . I am lucky enough to have two!

There exists a popular phrase, “dog is mans best . friend ,” and indeed my dog, Maxwell, is my best friend . Maxwell is critical thinking should be, a cuddly, 5 year-old cocker spaniel and poodle mixture, weighing in at roughly 20 pounds. In addition, a lovely lady by the name of Jenna Michelle also earns the essays in tamil “ best friend ” title in my life. Jenna is a 27 year-old goofy lady who has shown me solid friendship for the past three years. I spend a majority of my time with both. Best Friends , Communication , Dog 1138 Words | 3 Pages. ? My best friend Sam I go to a school in Sydney, we were sitting in and it field class my friend . came to essays language, me saying “rami do you want to go for buying term papers, a smoke at lunch”, I looked at him with anger and didn’t reply he then went and sat back down in his chair. In Tamil! When the job resume ehow lunch bell rang Sam pulled out a bottle I thought he would of essays school, taken a drink but it was empty he told me to follow him so we went towards the back gate he sat down on the floor he got a small piece of job resume ehow, hose out, I would of never thought Sam would be smoking. Bloods , Crime , Gang 1128 Words | 3 Pages. School ??? Unit IV Lesson 1 ??? ??:______________________ ??: _______________________ ????? Project: Create a voki presentation about your . best friend . Requirements: Please describe your best friend and in tamil language include the following information: ? who he/she is: include name, age, nationality, school…. ? a physical description of your best friend : use at resume, least eight adjectives. ? his/her hobby (what he/she likes to in tamil language, do ) ? food he/she enjoys ? his/her favorite color ( use … ) ? anything else. Christopher Nolan , High school , New Port Richey, Florida 298 Words | 2 Pages.

remember. Reflective Essay! Heath and I played more than ten years together. He turned into more than a friend , Heath became my brother. I am still . waiting for him to show up in the field and play another game together. “Play the best game of in tamil language school, your life today” he said” we don’t know if we will ever play again tomorrow” Those words are engraved in job resume ehow my head, and I realize the essays school students meaning of them now that he is gone. It always crosses my mind where could he be alive or dead, I just want to know about him. I also wonder if. American football , Coming out gcse past papers, 1321 Words | 4 Pages. My best friend Radar.

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Essay question ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich or limit their experiences of belonging ’ This . statement has two point of views in which that can relate to the novel ‘ The simple Gift’ by Steven Herrick and the poem ‘ Refugees blues’ by WH Auden. In the novel ‘ the simple gift’ conveys in in tamil language school the statement ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich experiences of job resume ehow, belonging’ whereas in the poem ‘ refuges blues’ conveys. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1414 Words | 4 Pages. I met Laurie Ann way back in high school, and six years on, she is still my best of friends . The first day we . In Tamil Language Students! met, she walked up to me and resume field introduced herself. It felt way weird shaking her hand like grownups do and declaring my name to essays in tamil language school students, her after the hand shake. Stacie Oliker? Pretty name. she remarked instantly. This close friendship allowed me to job resume ehow, come to know and in tamil experience a level of self disclosure like no other. With her I was and papers online still am myself.

Our high school friendship has unfolded. Ann Way , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1150 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay Dating Your Best Friend I have a boyfriend who I have been dating for 7 months now; we started . out on essays in tamil school February 12, 2011. His name is resume and it, Isaac Mendoza, and I am very lucky to have him as the person who I share my life with. Why? We have known each other since we were six years old. He has been my best friend since then and we literally know everything there is to know about essays in tamil school each other, the good things and also the unfortunate bad things. So that whole “dating your best friend ” is not. High school 1563 Words | 4 Pages.

got. Don’t cry over anyone who won't cry over you. Good friends are hard to find, harder to leave, and impossible to forget. You can . only history past online go as far as you push. Actions speak louder than words. The hardest thing to do is watch the one you love, love somebody else. Don’t let the past hold you back, you're missing the good stuff. Life’s short. If you don't look around once in a while you might miss it.

A best friend is like a four leaf clover, hard to in tamil school, find and lucky to have. . 2007 singles , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1294 Words | 6 Pages. My Best Friend- A descriptive essay; this was an essay for job resume ehow, my eng101 class. this is language school students, a very descriptive essay about my husband josh, and what he looks like and means to me. Hauser 1 Karin Hauser James Cann Eng 101/5709 2/22/05 My best friend , a descriptive essay . Custom Term! When I first met Josh I wasn't overly impressed. I had walked into a Hooters restaurant to in tamil language, dine with friends , and sitting at buying custom, the table that greeted me was Josh. I didn't notice his rugged good looks. I didn't pause to gaze down upon his broad shoulders, and thick chest. Essays In Tamil Language Students! I hardly noticed the job resume ehow caramel color of his eyes, nor his nicely manicured goatee. Essays Language! What I saw, was a broken tooth. English-language films , Human physical appearance , Teeth 640 Words | 3 Pages. “I have a best friend of the opposite sex, and he means the whole world to me. Critical Thinking Should Be! We’re not dating and yes, we do laugh together, . In Tamil Language School Students! that isn’t flirting, it’s called a joke.

I can tell him secrets and he will keep them. I can trust him with my life and they make me smile on critical results a daily basis.” A best friend is someone who you think you will have there forever. Someone who offers their shoulder when it's broken, someone who offers to essays language, come over just because you need someone to talk to. Buying Custom! A best friend is someone. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2007 singles 1301 Words | 4 Pages.

is a Best Friend ? Ashley Espinoza Texas Aamp;M International University Abstract Transferring schools isn’t the . Essays Language School Students! best way to start middle school, but with the help of a friend it starts to make life a little less hard. I know that’s what helped me, without the greeting from that nice friendly girl I would’ve probably had the worst day maybe even year ever. Job Resume Ehow! As time passed by in tamil school students, we became the job resume ehow best of friends which led her to be known as my best friend . It takes a lot to be considered a best friend. Friendship , Greatest hits albums , Interpersonal relationship 1155 Words | 3 Pages. ? My best friend Maria I’ve decided to write about one of the persons who I know the in tamil language school students best . This is a . person that I admire for better and worse. That happens to be my very best friend Maria Elena. Job Resume Ehow! Maria and I go way back!

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My grandmother said that. 2007 singles , English-language films , Family 1094 Words | 4 Pages. ?Professor Verna Geraldine Dayharsh Essay draft #1 4/17/2013 My . To God! real friend Nature I grew up in essays a flourishing metropolis sprawling over a number of cement constructions . I never stepped out of papers online, this cement forest since I was born. In my childhood, toys and high-technological machines were my best friends because they accompanied me and entertained me for essays language students, a long period of time. Compared to countryside children, I was. Banana slug , Interpersonal relationship , Life 1041 Words | 4 Pages. Woman’s best friend . 44% of essay, Americans own a dog. I have owned three dogs in my lifetime; three in which I no . longer own. Some say a dog is a man’s best friend , but to me, a dog is a woman’s best friend too. A dog is essays in tamil students, not just a friend though; it is and testing should, part of the family.

I have loved all of my dogs the same, but differently. In Tamil School Students! Each one of the gcse history online dogs that I have owned had their very own special personality. Each dog meant something different to me; I had my first dog (Sammy), my best friend (Daisy). Dog , Dog health , Dogs 929 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and essays in tamil school students Contrast My Two Best Friends Are Like Twins. My Two Best Friends are like Twins Many people in the world have two best friends . Buying Term Papers! . Some of them are so similar that it's shocking. They find some similarities in language their attitude, personality or even interests. People may find similarities or differences in their best friends and some may not find any interests at all. But, I have found three similarities in my best friends Stacy and Priscilla. Both of my best friends are smart, caring, and job resume ehow funny.

My friend Stacy and students Priscilla are. 2008 singles , Certified Nursing Assistant , Difference 459 Words | 3 Pages. We may be able to have a hundred or a thousand friends , or even more. But there is only one friend who really has loyalty on resume you . Essays In Tamil Language! if you really think about it, that is best friend . My best friend is reflective essay, my best partner for school, living my life. Buying Custom Term! His name is in tamil language school students, Sugeng Gunawan, and custom term I used to call him Sugeng. He is school, someone who really knows me deeply.

He knows the characteristic of me, from the outside and even inside of me. Someone who is able to feel my mood. Essay! He knows when I feel happy and when I feel very sad. He. 2006 albums , Aerosmith , De La Soul 824 Words | 4 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner. One of the most popular television shows in in tamil students history, Friends , is history past, a great . Essays School Students! television show to history past online, study the economic situation of a show, and essays in tamil how the economics of the show have affected the television industry. In this essay I will explore the economic situation of resume field, Friends , and how it was a financially successful show. Friends first premiered in 1994, using the typical Pilot episode in order to language school, win over their audience.

In this episode the six. Episode , Film , Friends 1902 Words | 5 Pages. close to my heart. Although it is a terrible feeling, I can honestly say that I learned a great deal from each circumstance. As I sit here . trying to remember my earliest experience with death, I recall on the time that my hamster, Chewy had passed away. And It Field! I was 9 years old and was in in tamil school a strange part of my life. I was never popular in school and didn’t have a lot of friends growing up.

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Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. choose your major? 3. If you redo college again, what would you major in? 4. What course did you like the most? 5. In Tamil Students! What course did you like the least? 6. . How will your performance in mla format reflective essay your worst class affect your performance. 7. How would your best friend describe you?

8. Language! How would your professor describe you? 9. How would your mother describe you? 10. Why are you applying for a job that you didn’t major in? 11. During college, how did you spend your summer vacations? 12. What did you learn. 2006 singles , Computer science , High school 1570 Words | 6 Pages.

DEATH OF A BEST FRIEND The school hall was quiet. And It! Everyone was silent with their heads bowed down. Essays Students! No one spoke,laughed, giggled . or chatted. There was just sorrow in the atmosphere. Job Resume Ehow! Few students could be heard sobbing while the essays in tamil school rest just sat stone dead in their seats. What had happened?

What was the resume and it cause of this sad and eerie situation? Why did she do it? She had always been that cheerful bubbly girl that everyone loved. Essays School Students! Her wide flashing smile could brighten up anyone’s day. Papers Online! My thoughts were disrupted. Eye color 1777 Words | 4 Pages. DECISION I HAD TO MAKE My endoscopy results showed that I had hiatal hernia and a stomach ulcer, the culprits behind the awful pain I had been . Students! experiencing after taking in solid or liquid food.

At the resume field hospital, my doctor shared his similar experience and in tamil language students recovery, which forced him out of field, school for school, two years. My mother's expression confirmed her support for my recovery at home. Although I found the a hymn to god situation complex, I decided to stay home and not risk academic failure during my recovery. Looking at. 2006 albums , 2007 singles , As Time Goes By 1237 Words | 3 Pages. English COMP 100-97 10-23-2012 Compare and Contrast Essay Walter Winchell once said, A friend us one who walks in when the . Essays Students! rest of the world walks out. In my life I have three different best friends , and the three of buying custom term, them walk into my life whenever there needed when the world walks out. My three different friends help me achieve any goal I set my mind too, and I know I can always run to school students, them for support. The first friend that I have is the friend that I’ve known since I was in critical results should be first grade.

Her name. Music video 820 Words | 3 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to entertain and change lives in the UK and Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on the . street and protect people living with domestic abuse. In Africa for vaccines etc. School Students! People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and custom papers other things and essays it's like winning money. Gcse Past Papers! This program is great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring.

This type of action I love. It is best to help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages. of Dong Khanh Highschool on their way back home. Language School! That image has been the endless inspirations for writers and poets since then. Young girlstudents may like . the youngness and the modernity of the reflective essay new fashionable uniforms, but the Ao Dai is always the best choice for in tamil language students, the dress that represents the and it field dynamic and modern aspects of present-time girlstudents, but still keeps the non-mistakable of the Vietnamese women. 3. Finally, the Ao Dai honors not only the external beauty but also the internal beauty. Vietnam , Vietnamese culture , Vietnamese people 1557 Words | 4 Pages. Best friend becomes enemy. It was first day of summer. School almost finished.

It was sunny and windy day. Essays In Tamil Language! I was happy . that school almost finished. My friend and job resume ehow I were sitting at the park. We were planning how to spend this long summer. George, my friend , gave me many plans for this summer but I didn’t agree with him. Language School! He was a lazy gay.

His plan was: sleep till 11 a.m., and then play video games till 5 p.m. and job resume ehow then go to essays in tamil language students, sleep. He says that this must continue every day. . I Quit match , Father , Mother 1119 Words | 3 Pages. ? Friends Essay by job resume ehow, Mitchell Scott Topic: What friendship means to me Friendship is a relationship that is needed in in tamil language a society of . To God Essay! ours. With a demanding society where if you have no friends , it can be a tough time for you. Friendship is much more than just hanging around with your mates; it allows living to be much more comfortable. Essays Language Students! Friendship is extremely underrated in a society of ours; we rely on our friends to have good times.

Sometimes you can’t imagine life without those who care for you. Comfort, Texas , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1072 Words | 3 Pages. ?Types of Essay And Examples Descriptive Essay : Someone Someone is a word you can use for anyone. Someone, Someone special, . someone you care, and job resume ehow someone you don’t know. Essays In Tamil! Someone, that’s how I define him but not just that common someone, he’s someone who I treasure the job resume ehow most. He is a guy who loves dancing. Essays In Tamil Language School Students! I can conclude dancing complete his life. He’s taller and older than me. And Testing Should! He is so beauty conscious, especially when it comes to his skin’s color and his precious face. He has a cute little.

2008 singles , Debut albums , Family 842 Words | 4 Pages. This entry is dedicated to my dad and essays in tamil school students he will never read it. Sad thing.* When I was 16 I had to a hymn to god the father, write an essay in school about . the person I admire the most. So I wrote about my dad. My dad is not famous, nor is he rich or talented. He is not a scientist or a professor.

But he is the best man in my personal world even if he doesn’t know. We never talk about emotional stuff, he never gives me good advice, actually we hardly talk. When my dad was young he was a biker. Motorbikes were his lifestyle. 2006 singles , Mother 940 Words | 3 Pages. MY IDEAL FRIEND I was walking home from school.

I was carrying my books and in tamil school students tonnes of job resume ehow, homework home. I walked . with a heavy stride with my head hanging down, unaware of the chatter and socialising going on around me. Spirits were low and language students I took my usual route home which usually takes me about 20 minutes. “What next? I have no idea what to do,” I told myself. Abruptly, I knocked into something and mla format reflective essay all my books and papers fell to the sidewalk. I lost my footing and went down on in tamil language students my knees. 2005 albums , 2008 singles , Debut albums 988 Words | 3 Pages. MAN'S BEST FRIEND - DOGS Why are we say that a dog is a man's best friend ? Before talking about . how important of dogs to our lives, we have to job resume ehow, know where they come from. Dogs are domestic animals that humans first domesticated 15,000 years ago in in tamil language school students the last Ice Age. History Online! The ancestors are the wolf dogs. Essays In Tamil Language Students! These animals are used to keep as a pet or for entertaining reasons.

Dog is a well-known animal. It has four legs, and resume and it a sharp sense of hearing and smelling. A dog's brain is language students, very developing. Dogs can. Dog 1717 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 What is a friend ? I ask myself that every day. To me, a friend is someone who never let you down, who always there for mla format essay, you . matter how bad or good the situation is, who always have your back ,never turn on you, never say or do harsh things to school, you, a friend is a FRIEND . Where could I find this “ friend ”? I thought I had one but I guess not. Resume And It! I guess I was too much stuck on language school my so called friends ’ well friend . The day I met Elizabeth Taylor was the day I thought I had a trustworthy friend . Thinking Results Be! I was dumbfounded. 2005 singles , A Good Thing , Mind 2447 Words | 5 Pages. Professor Neagle English 111 15 September 2010 We All Need Somebody to language, Lean On: My Ideal Friend According to Sharita . Gadison, “Some friends come and go like a season, others are arranged in our lives for a reason. History Past Papers Online! “ Many might agree that good friends are hard to come across, so the ones that I consider good friends , I keep them close. I know without a doubt the qualities that make a good friend . School! A friend is someone who is dependable.

When all else fails, it never harms to be able to have that. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1581 Words | 4 Pages. Book – my best friend Charles W. Eliot said “Books are the quietest and most constant of friends ; . they are the most accessible and job resume ehow wisest of counselors, and the most patient of teachers.” Book is the essays school students best friend , a human being can have. Book is a friend that is never disloyal. Critical And Testing Results Be! Books are our friends for essays, life as because they never reject, never go or come, never fight and critical thinking never blame us. Books make our life easy to lead as they inform us about various ways of leading life. Essays! Books are informative. 2006 albums , Book , Experience 451 Words | 2 Pages. REFLECTED BEST SELF EXERCISE Introduction: I am Swapnili Jadhao, student with UTD under Systems Engineering and Management.

I am a simple, . happy and to god passionate person. I like my work and life. I enjoy working with people and facing new challenges at language students, work. The exercise of essay, Reflected Best Self helped me to know views of people for me. I really astonished me to know that people value me and expect good and bright future for me. I had asked for the views from around 15 people and essays in tamil language 13 of them were really. Debut albums , Decision making , Friendship 1191 Words | 2 Pages. WRITING THE COLLEGE ESSAY PURPOSE OF THE ESSAY Your GPA, class rank, SATI and SATII scores are all important to a college . admissions officer in critical should helping to assess your academic abilities. But they are only numbers – they have no personality.

What can make your application stand apart are the personal essays . Essays School Students! The college essay will allow an admissions officer to a hymn to god the father, look beyond those numbers and see you as a person. A well-written essay should convey your thoughts, attitudes, personal qualities. College , Essay , Question 1382 Words | 5 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to tell the story of when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for my reading circle to start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and started shaking them and in tamil language school making the baby smile. To God Essay! For as long as I can remember I have always like to help others, I got enjoyment out of in tamil, making my friends happy. Whenever one of my friends had a problem I was always there for them, to buying papers, listen to. International Federation of Social Workers , School social worker , Social change 2231 Words | 5 Pages. My best friend Everybody always has friend or friendship. Language School Students! There are a lot of results, kinds of . School Students! friends . Custom! We have friends , close friends and best friends . It is said a friend needs to be a good friend but it hard to essays in tamil language, find a best friend . Best friends need to know about certain qualities of critical results should be, each other.

Best friends are always there for you when you’re down or having problems. A best friend is the person you can always rely on for anything no matter what. Best friends stick up for you even if you are wrong. . Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Need 544 Words | 2 Pages.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in essays in tamil school March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to gcse papers online take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to essays students your application to field these schools. Essays In Tamil! In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to critical results be get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the school, SAT essay. You know the standard format of resume field, how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough.

If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from students, original. You’ll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to essay do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to in tamil school learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes.

What an SAT Essay Score of mla format essay, 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and essays in tamil language bad news for those of you who are determined to essay score an in tamil, 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to job resume ehow read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to essays in tamil students be – you might find some articles easier to read and to god the father analyze the argumentative structure of than others. Essays Language Students! You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing.

And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at online least two pages long, you don't have any time to essays in tamil spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the mla format reflective essay, grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to in tamil school get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is a hymn to god essay going to language students base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on mla format essay an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). In Tamil Language School! The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to essay find out language school what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay.

The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is a hymn to god between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to in tamil language school students their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the history past online, differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text.

The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the essays in tamil language, source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and job resume ehow of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the essays language, text. The response is free of errors of job resume ehow, fact or interpretation with regard to essays language students the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. History Past Papers Online! A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an essays in tamil language school, understanding of the analytical task. Reflective Essay! The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the essays in tamil students, task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.

The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the and testing results, author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to language school addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the text. Gcse History Online! The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and essays language school control of past online, language.

The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and in tamil students objective tone.

The response shows a good control of the mla format essay, conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is in tamil school students cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and critical results command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. Language School! The response demonstrates a deliberate and term papers highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is in tamil organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly.

Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is and testing be extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the essays in tamil language students, text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of job resume ehow, these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of essays school students, how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from term, The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in essays which you explain how Peter S. Resume And It Field! Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In Tamil! In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the custom term papers, logic and school students persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the job resume ehow, passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. Essays School Students! 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on a hymn slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Essays In Tamil School! Here’s the essay.

Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the job resume ehow, article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Essays School! Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011.

In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is a hymn to god essay forced to essays students do the math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the a hymn the father essay, reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to essays language school find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in field just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for language school students more professional foreign news reporting. Resume Field! In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on school the state of buying, foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.

It would have been very easy for Goodman to essays in tamil language school students elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in mla format reflective essay turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is essays in tamil school Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the a hymn essay, reader deeper into his mindset.

By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and in tamil language amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the job resume ehow, reader to view the two in students opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. To God Essay! The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to in tamil language make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on resume field what stands out in this essay (general comments are in essays language school purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery.

And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the critical thinking and testing, theory behind what makes an in tamil school students, essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out mla format what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in language Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is job resume ehow used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the essays in tamil language school, author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text.

The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the term papers, author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the in tamil school, author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the buying term papers, presentation and essays refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to job resume ehow follow. The clarity of the argument and essays in tamil language the lack of errors remain consistent from mla format essay, start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the essays, meaning of the essay.

The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and mla format reflective the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Essays Language! Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in job resume ehow different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of language students, linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times.

The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and gcse history papers evidence, a counterargument, and essays in tamil vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. Mla Format Essay! With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to in tamil language school give lots of context for her examples. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the and testing, persuasive effect the language school, author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader.

Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of resume and it field, how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to in tamil language school students correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. Job Resume Ehow! This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to essays in tamil school write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky.

How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. Custom! As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and essays in tamil language school students many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of buying term papers, SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and in tamil language school analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. The Father Essay! Find a way to grade your essay.

If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and in tamil school how to improve your weak spots to jump up in resume and it SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and in tamil language school students loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on job resume ehow your feed.

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Essay on Oligopoly: Top 8 Essays on Oligopoly | Markets | Microeconomics. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Oligopoly’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Oligopoly’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to students Oligopoly Essay on history, the Characteristics of Oligopoly Essay on the Scope of Study of Oligopoly Essay on the Models of Oligopoly Essay on the Sales (Revenue) Maximisation Essay on the Constrained Revenue Maximisation Essay on Game Theory Essay on Payoff (Profit) Matrix. Essay # 1. Introduction to Oligopoly: Two extreme market forms are monopoly (characterised by the existence of a single seller) and essays school students perfect competition (characterised by essay, a large number of sellers).

Competition is of two types- perfect competition and monopolistic competition. Students. In perfect competition, all sellers sell ho­mogeneous products while in monopolistic competition they sell heterogeneous products. In monopoly there is no rival. So the monopolist is not concerned with the effect of custom term his actions on rivals. In both types of competition, the number of in tamil language school students firms is critical thinking and testing should be so large that the actions of any one seller have little, if any, effect on its competitors. An industry with only a few sellers is known as an essays in tamil, oligopoly, a firm in such an industry is and it field known as an oligopolist. Although car-wash is a million rupee business, it is not exactly a product familiar to most consumers. However, often many familiar goods and services are supplied only by a few com­peting sellers, which means the industries we are talking about are oligopolies.

An oligopoly is not necessarily made up of large firms. When a village has only two medi­cine shops, service there is just as much an language students, oligopoly as air shuttle service between Mumbai and Pune. Essentially, oligopoly is the result of the same factors that sometimes produce monopoly, but in somewhat weaker form. Honestly, the most important source of oligopoly is the exist­ence of economies of scale, which give better producers a cost advantage over smaller ones. When these economies of scale are very strong, they lead to job resume ehow monopoly, but when they are not that strong they lead to competition among a small number of firms. Since an oligopoly con­tains a small number of firms, any change in the firms’ price or output influences the sales and profits of competitors.

Each firm must, therefore, recognise that changes in its own policies are likely to elicit changes in essays language school the policies of its competitors as well. As a result of buying custom this interdependence, oligopolists face a situation in which the optimal deci­sion of one firm depends on essays in tamil language school students, what other firms decide to do. And so there is opportunity for both conflict and cooperation. Oligopoly refers to a market situation in which the number of sellers is few, but greater than one. Term. A special case of oligopoly is monopoly in which there are only two sellers. Essay # 2. Characteristics of in tamil school Oligopoly: The notable characteristics of oligopoly are: An oligopolist is neither a price-taker (like a competitor) nor a price-maker (like a monopolist).

It is a price-searcher. An oligopolist is neither a big enough part of the market to be able to act as a monopolist, nor a small enough part of the market to be able to act as a competitor. But each firm is history past papers online a dominant part of the market. In such a situation, competition among buyers will force all the sellers to essays in tamil students charge a uniform price for the father a product. But each firm is students sufficiently so large a part of the market that its actions will have noticeable effects upon his rivals. This means that if a single firm changes its output, the prices charged by all the resume, firms will be raised or lowered. In oligopoly, there may be product differentiation as in in tamil language school monopolistic competition (called differ­entiated oligopoly) or a homogeneous product may be traded by all the few dominant firms (as in pure oligopoly).

3. Reflective Essay. Interdependence and Uncertainty : In oligopoly no firm can take decision on price independently. It is because the decision to fix a new price or change an existing price will create reactions among the rival firms. In Tamil School. But rivals’ reactions cannot be predicted accurately. If a firm reduces its price its rivals may reduce their prices or they may not. So there is lack of critical thinking results should symmetry in the behaviour of in tamil language students rival firms.

This type of reaction of rivals is not found in perfect competition or monopolistic competition where all firms change their price in the same direction and by the same magnitude in order to remain competitive and survive in the long run. So the outcome of a firm’s decision is uncertain. For this reason it is difficult to buying papers predict the total demand for the product of an essays language students, oligopolistic industry. It is resume field still more difficult, and in some situations virtually impossible, to estimate the share of an individual firm in industry’s output. It is true that the consequences of attempted price variations on language school students, the part of an individual seller are uncertain. His rivals may follow his change, or they may not, but they will, in all likelihood, notice it. The results of any action on the part of an oligopolist or even a duopolist depend upon the reactions of his rivals.

In short, it is not possible to define general price- quantity relations for an individual firm, since reaction patterns of rivals are highly uncertain and almost completely unknown. 4. Different Reaction Patterns and Use of Models : It is not true to say that, in oligopoly, profit is always maximised. It is because an papers, oligopolist does not have control over all the variables which affect his profit. Moreover, a variety of possible reaction patterns is possible in this market—there is language school a conjectural variation in this market. Just as firm A’s profit depends on the output of firm B also, firm B’s profit, in its turn, depends on firm A’s output. This is resume and it why various models are used to describe the diverse behaviour of oligopoly markets where a variety of outcomes is possible. As in monopolistic competition there is not only price competition but non-price competition as well in oligopoly (and, to some extent, in duopoly). For example, advertising is in tamil language school students often a life and death question in this type of market due to strategic behaviour of all firms.

In most oligopoly situations we find intermediate outcomes. Economists are yet to emerge with a definite behaviour pattern in oligopoly. Essay # 3. Scope of Study of Oligopoly : Here we study a few of the many possible reaction patterns in duopoly and past online oligopoly situa­tions. The focus is on pure oligopoly. Essays School Students. Here we assume that all firms produce a homogeneous product. We do not discuss the case of differentiated oligopoly and critical results be the issue of selling cost (advertising) separately. Of course, we discuss briefly Baumol’s sales maximisation hypoth­esis—without and essays in tamil school with advertising. The focus here is on the interdependence of the various sellers’ reactions, which is the essential distinguishing feature of mla format oligopoly.

If the influence of in tamil students one seller’s quantity decision from the profit of another, ?? i /?q j , is negligible, the industry must be either perfectly competi­tive or monopolistically competitive. If ?? i /?q j , is and it field perceptible, the industry is duopolistic or oligopolistic. The optimum quantity and maximum profit of a duopolist or oligopolist depend upon the actions of the language school, firms belonging to mla format reflective essay the industry. In Tamil Language School. He can control only his own output level (or price, if his product is differentiated), but he has no direct control over other variables which are likely to (or do) affect his profits. In truth, the profit of each oligopolist is the result of the interaction of the decisions of all players in the market. Since there are no generally accepted behavioural assumptions for oligopolists and should duopolists as is found in essays language school other market forms, there are diverse patterns of buying custom term behaviour and in tamil language many different solutions for oligopolistic and duopolistic markets. Field. Each solution is based on different types of models and each model is based on a different behavioural assumption or a set of assumptions. Here we start with one or two simple duopoly models.

The same analysis (solution) can be extended to cover any oligopolistic market. The earliest model of duopoly behaviour is the language students, Cournot model, with which we may start our review of mla format reflective essay different oligopoly models. We end with the game theoretic treatment of oligopoly which shows decision-making under conflict. Essay # 4. Models of Oligopoly: The Cournot model (presented in essays in tamil students 1838) is based on the analysis of a market in which two firms produce a homogeneous product.

Augustin Cournot (a French economist) noticed that only two firms were producing mineral water for sale. He argued that each firm would choose quan­tity that would maximise profit, taking the quantity marketed by its competitor as given. Two main features of the model are: (i) Each firm chooses a quantity of output instead of price; and. (ii) In choosing its output each firm takes its rival’s output as given. In Cournot’s model, then, strategies are quantities of a hymn essay output. Here we assume that firms produce a homoge­neous good and know the market demand curve. Each firm must decide how much to produce, and the two firms make their decisions at essays in tamil language, the same time. When taking its production decision, each duopolist takes into gcse history consideration its competitor. It knows that its competitor is also de­ciding how much to produce, and the market price will depend on essays in tamil, the total output of both firms. The essence of the Cournot model is that each firm treats the output level of its competitor as fixed and then decides how much to produce. And It Field. Each Cournot’s duopolist believes that the other’s quantity will not change.

In Fig. 1 when I produces Q M , II maximises its profit by producing 1/4Q C . In order to sell Q M plus Q c , the price must fall to P 1 . Here Q M is the mo­nopoly output which is half the competitive output Q c . The inverse demand function, stating price as a function of the aggregate quantity sold, is expressed as: where q 1 and q 2 are the in tamil language school students, output levels of the duopolists. The total revenue of each duopolist depends upon his own output level as also as that of his rival: The profit of each equals his total (sales) revenue, less his cost, which depends upon field his output level above: The basic behavioural assumption of the Cournot model is that each duopolist maximises his profit on the assumption that the essays in tamil school, quantity produced by job resume ehow, his rival is invariant with respect to his own decision regarding output quantity. Duopolist I maximises ? 1 with reference to q 1 , treating q 2 as a parameter, and duopolist II maximises ? 2 , with reference to q 2 , treating q 1 as a parameter. Setting the partial derivatives of in tamil (3) equal to zero, we get: The first order (necessary) condition of and it field profit-maximisation requires that each duopolist equates his marginal cost to his marginal revenue. The second order (sufficient) condition of each duopolist requires that. The slope of the marginal revenue curve of each duopolist must be less than that of the in tamil, marginal cost curve.

Unlike the two-cost monopolist, where a single individual controls the value of both output levels, in the Cournot model each duopolist maximises his profit with reference to a single variable under his control. This simply implies that the marginal revenues of the duopolists are not necessarily the same. The marginal revenues of the duopolists are: Since the demand curve is downward sloping the duopolist with the greater output will have the smaller marginal revenue (because a duopolist has to reduce price to resume and it field sell more). The Cournot solution is essays language simple enough. In this model, the duopolist market is in equilibrium if the values of q 1 and q 2 are such that each duopolist maximises his profit, taking the output of the and it, sole rival as a parameter, and neither desires to change his output level. Thus, there is no conjectural variation in this model.

The optimum solution (equilibrium condition) can be found out in this model by in tamil language school, solving (3) for q 1 and q 2 if (4) is gcse papers online satisfied. At this stage we have to introduce an additional step to get a more complete picture of duopoly. Reaction functions which express the essays in tamil students, output of each duopolist as a function of his rival’s output are determined by solving the first equation of (3) for q 1 and the second for q 2 : The reaction function of duopolist I gives a relationship between q 1 and a hymn the father essay q 2 with the property that, for any specified value of q 2 , the corresponding value of essays in tamil q 1 maximises p 1 . In a like man­ner, duopolist II’s reaction function gives the value of q 2 which maximises p 2 for any specified value of resume and it field q 1 . An equilibrium solution here is a pair of values for q 1 and q 2 which satisfy both reaction functions. Let us suppose the demand and cost functions of duopolists are: All parameters are positive here.

So the essays in tamil language students, profits of the critical should be, duopolists are. The corresponding reaction functions are: Since the parameters B, b 1 q 1 and b 2 , q 2 are all positive, an increase in language school output of ei­ther duopolist will lead to a fall in the other optimum (profit-maximising) output. The reaction functions are linear as shown in Fig. 2. Resume Field. An equilibrium is found out by language school students, solv­ing (7), or by the intersection point E of the two reaction curves (point E in Fig. 2). The solution of (7) is. The second-order (sufficient) conditions are satisfied by the linear demand and quadratic cost functions:

The restrictions of the Cournot model lies in its basic behavioural assumption regarding the continuing belief that a firm’s only rival will always produce the quantity that is currently being produced. Each duopolist acts on the basis of the assumption that his rival’s output remained fixed. However, this need not necessarily be true. If we assume that equilib­rium is reached through a sequence of finite adjustments, one duopolist sets an output; this induces the other to critical thinking should adjust his output, which, in turn, induces the first to adjust his, and so on. It is quite unlikely that “each will assume that his quantity decisions do not affect his rival’s quantity decision if each of his adjustments is immediately followed by a reaction on the part of language his rival”. To be more specific, if equilibrium is assumed to be reached simultaneously, the optimal quantity of a duopolist is not given by q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ), but by q 1 =f 1 [f 2 (q 1 )] and, similarly for II, since each knows the behaviour pattern of his rival. Term Papers. Alternatively stated, the Cournot model assumes that each duopolist maximises his profit at essays language, the assumption that his rival’s price re­mains constant. But this is not a very realistic assumption for buying custom a homogeneous product.

As a general rule, duopolists and oligopolists take into consideration their mutual interdependence while taking output decisions. The simple Cournot model can be extended to cover more than two firms. As the essays language, number of a hymn the father essay firms expands, industry output expands according to the relation. where n denotes the language, number of firms. Clearly, as the number of firms increases, n/(n + 1) will approach one, and the industry output (Q) will approach the competitive level (Q c ). In gen­eral, we can write the duopolists’ profit functions as ? 1 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 1 D (q 1 +q 2 ) – C (q 1 ) and ? 2 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 2 D (q 1 + q 2 ) – C (q 2 ) where D is the demand for, and C is the job resume ehow, cost function. The first firm chooses a quantity q 1 , where the partial derivatives of ?, with functions to q 1 is in tamil language equal to zero: Of course, this is an implicit expression for the first firm’s best-response function because it determines the profit-maximising quantity of the first firm (q 1 ) for gcse past online any value of q 2 . Similarly, the second firm’s best response function is implicitly defined by.

The Cournot equation is language then a pair of quantity q 1 C q 2 C that satisfies both the best-response functions. To operate a cartel successfully, the firms must learn to threaten to punish each other for cheating on the cartel agreement. Let us consider a duopoly consisting of two identical firms such that each firm produces just half the monopoly amount of output where total profits will be maximised and each firm will get a payoff of to god the father essay ? p ( say). In order to language make this outcome stable, one firm threatens the other in terms of the production of field output such that if any one of language school students them tries to a hymn cheat by producing more than the joint industry profit level of output, then it will be punished by essays in tamil students, the other firms, who will be producing at the Cournot level of output forever. Thinking And Testing Be. This is known as a punishment strategy.

Now we assume that cheating occurs, and the punishment is carried out. As the ultimate optimal response to Cournot behaviour is the Cournot behaviour, it will result in each firm receiving a per-period profit of, say ? c , such that. where ? c > Cournot payoff. We suppose that each of the language, two firms is producing at resume and it, the collusive monopoly level of language school students output. Critical Thinking And Testing Results Should. If a firm produces more output, deviating from school students, its quota of production, the level of its profit is such that. and it is the standard temptation facing a cartel member.

Each firm has an incentive to capitalize on the high price by increasing its production, if each one restricts output and raises the price and for custom papers this there can be a punishment for school cheating. Clearly, if a firm produces at the cartel amount, each one gets a steady flow of payments of ? p . Thus, the job resume ehow, present value of this flow today can be given by: Present Value of cartel behaviour – ? p + ? p /r. The firm gets a one-time benefit of profit, ? d , if it produces more than the cartel amount. This results is the reversion to Cournot behaviour: Here the numerator of this fraction is positive, as the monopoly profits are larger than the Cournot profits, and the deviation is essays in tamil language students even more profitable than sticking with the monopoly quota which helps the denominator to be positive.

The inequality suggests that as long as the rate of interest is quite small, it will be profitable for the firms to mla format essay adhere to their quotas, so that the language school students, prospect of future punishment is sufficiently important. The Bertrand model was developed in 1883 by the French economist Joseph Bertrand. Like the Cournot model, it applies to firms that produce the same homogeneous good and make other decisions simultaneously. This change may affect market outcome dramatically. The Bertrand model substitutes price ? 1 and ? 2 for quantities q 1 and q 2 as the resume and it field, variables to be chosen.

Thus, the Cournot and Bertrand equilibrium are logical first cousins. What is the first firm’s demand function if it takes its rivals’ price p 2 as given? The first firm will anticipate that if it charges a price higher than its rivals’ (p 1 p 2 ), everyone will buy from its rival. School Students. If the first firm charges a lower price than its rivals’ (p 1 p 2 ), however, everyone will buy from it. And if it charges a price equal to its rivals’ (p 1 = p 2 ), the firms will divide the market among them. The dia­gram for this profit function is shown in gcse history past online Fig. In Tamil. 3. Here OM is the marginal cost of producing the commodity. The second firm’s price is p 2 . The first firm’s profit function is composed of three segments. When p 1 p 2 , the first firm captures the entire mar­ket, and its profit increases as its price increases.

When p 1 p 2 , the two firms split the total profits equal to distance CA, and each makes a profit equal to mla format essay CB. When p 1 p 2 , the first firm’s profit is in tamil language students zero because it sells nothing when its price exceeds the second firm’s price. The Bertrand model has been criticised on two main grounds. First, when firms produce a homogeneous good, it is more natural to compete by setting quantities rather than prices. Second, even if firms do set prices and choose the same price (as the model predicts), what share of total sales will go to each one? The model assumes that sales would be divided equally among the firms, but there is no reason why this must be the case. However, despite these shortcomings, the critical thinking and testing, Bertrand model is essays useful because it shows how the equilibrium out­come in an oligopoly can depend crucially on the firms’ choice of strategic variable. The Stackelberg model (presented by the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg) is a modified version of the Cournot model.

In the Cournot model, we assume that two duopolists make their output decisions at the same time. Job Resume Ehow. The Stackelberg model examines what happens if one of the firms can set its output first. The Stackelberg model of duopoly is language students different from the Cournot model, in which neither firm has any opportunity to critical thinking results react. The model is based on essays in tamil language school, the assumption that the profit of each duopolist is critical should a function of the output levels of language students both: The Cournot solution is found out by maximising ? 1 with reference to q 1 , assuming q 2 to be constant and ? 2 with reference to q 2 , assuming q 1 to be constant. In general, each firm might make some other assumption about the response (reaction) of thinking results should its only rival. Essays Language. In such a situation, profit-maximisation by the two duopolists requires the fulfillment of the following two condi­tions:

The terms of ?q 2 /?q 1 and custom term papers ?q 1 /?q 2 represent what economists call the in tamil language, conjectural variation, i.e., the assumed response of each firm to the output of its lone rival. Buying Papers. If firms make wrong assumptions about each other’s responses, (2) will not represent an improvement over the Cournot model. The Stackelberg model contains one of the more interesting set of assumptions about con­jectural variation based on the analysis of leadership and followership. A follower obeys his reaction function q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ) or q 2 =f 2 (q 1 ) and adjusts his output level with a view to essays students maximising his profits given the quantity decision of his rival, when he assumes to be a leader. But a leader does not obey his (the follower’s) reaction function. He simply assumes that his rival acts as a follower, and maximises his profit, given his rival’s reaction function.

If the first duopolist acts as a leader, he assumes his rival’s reaction function is valid and, therefore, substitutes this relation into mla format reflective essay his own profit function. The first duopolist’s profit is now a function of q 1 alone. Students. So it can be maximised with respect to this single variable. The second duopolist can also determine the maximum profit from leadership on the assumption that the first one obeys his reaction function and critical thinking results should acts as a follower. The first duopolist’s maximum profit from followership is students determined by substituting his rival’s optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. Similarly, the gcse papers, second duopolists’ maximum profit from language school students, followership is determined by job resume ehow, substituting the first duopolist’s optimum leadership output level in language his reaction function. This kind of ‘first mover advantage’ occurs in many strategic situations. Each duopolist determines his maximum profit levels from critical thinking should, both leadership and followership and seeks to play the essays in tamil school, role which yields the larger maximum.

Stackelberg thinks of four possible outcomes: (1)1 desires to be a leader and 2 a follower; (2) 2 desires to be a leader and thinking and testing 1 a follower; (3) both desire to be leaders; and. (4) both desire to be the followers. The first outcome results in a consistent behaviour pattern and, therefore, a determinate equilibrium (assuming that the first and second order conditions for students maximum are fulfilled in all cases). Mla Format Reflective Essay. Similarly, the second outcome results in a determinate equilibrium. But if both desire to essays language students act as followers, their expectations are not fulfilled, since each assumes that the other will take the leadership role. Comparison with Cournot Model: Even in terms of the Stackelberg model, the Cournot solution is achieved if each desires to resume and it act as a follower, knowing fully well that the school, other will also take a follower’s role.

Otherwise, one has to change his behaviour pattern and act as a leader before attaining equilibrium. If both desire to act as leaders, each assumes that the other’s behaviour is custom term governed by his reaction function, but, in fact, neither of the reaction functions is obeyed. Consequently, a Stackelberg disequilibrium situation is encountered, which, in Stackelberg’s view, is the most frequent outcome. However, if Stackleberg was correct, the situation will result in quantity market-sharing war, and equilibrium will not be achieved until one has succumbed to the leadership of the other or a collusive agreement has been reached. Essays In Tamil Language School Students. However, by using this model, it is mla format essay possible to show that each duopolist can receive a greater profit from leadership. So it is quite obvious that both desire to act as leaders. The Cournot and essays language school students Stackleberg models are alternative representatives of oligopolistic behaviour.

Which model is the more appropriate depends on the industry. In an industry where all firms are more or less identical, none of thinking results should be which has a pricing advantage or leadership position, the Cournot model is probably the more appropriate. On the other hand, some industries are dominated by a large firm that usually takes the lead in essays in tamil language school introducing new products or setting price—the mainframe computer market is an example, with IBM as the leader. Then the Stackelberg model may be more realistic. Duopolists (or oligopolists) often recognise their mutual interdependence and agree to act to­gether (in collusion) in essay order to maximise the total profit of the language school, industry. Collusive model of a hymn to god essay oligopoly shows what happens when oligopolists do decide to collude on a joint strategy. In such situations, both output levels are under a single control, and the industry is, in effect, a monopoly. Let us suppose we represent total revenue as. Total profit is.

This type of profit function is found in case of a two-plant monopolist. Here we substitute two plants by two producers. The first order condition of profit-maximisation requires that marginal cost of each producer be equated to in tamil students marginal revenue for output as a whole. In this model, the field, profit levels of two duopolists are determined as the basis of their indi­vidual profit functions. However, joint profit-maximisation or the final distribution of the ag­gregate profit is largely the matter for negotiation between the duopolists. Like the Cournot equilibrium, the essays in tamil students, Bertrand equilibrium is mla format essay individually rational, but collec­tively irrational. Again, firms of the essays students, Bertrand equilibrium have a clear incentive to collude. Does this mean that the collusive model makes better sense of and it field oligopoly than do the Cournot and Bertrand models? Not necessarily.

On the one hand, if firms find themselves at a Cournot or a Bertrand equi­librium, they have a clear incentive to collude. On the other hand, if firms manage to force a collusive agreement, there is a clear private incentive for each party to in tamil school students cheat on the collusive agreement. In the Cournot model, the individual incentive to cheat on a collusive agreement increases as the number of parties to the agreement increases, which means that the larger the number of firms in an industry, the less likely is a collusive equilibrium. If the number of firms is large enough, some firm or firms will succumb to the temptation to cheat, thereby destroying the collusive agreement. The Market-sharing Solution : Some economists have analysed the nature of a hymn oligopolistic interdependence in essays language students case of differen­tiated products. Job Resume Ehow. In truth, product differentiation is likely to occur with duopoly and oligopoly as with monopolistic competition. If duopolists produce differentiated products we can think of a type of conjectural variation (different from the school students, one assumed by Stackleberg). This form of conjectural variation assures that duopolist 2 desires to maintain a fixed share of the total sales of a differentiated product, regardless of the effects of his actions on his short-run profits.

He is mainly concerned with the long-run advantages that can be gained from maintaining a given market share. A quantity change on the part of duopolist I will be immediately followed by a proportionate change on the part of duopolist II. The relation is: where k is duopolist II’s market share, will always hold. Here duopolist I is a market leader in the sense that his actions will always be followed by duopolist II in a predetermined manner. Substituting from (1) for q 2 , Thus, duopolist I’s profit is a function of his own output (q 1 ) and may be maximised with reference to this single variable as long as duopolist II reacts to maintain his market share. In 1939, Paul Sweezy presented the and it field, kinked demand curve model to demonstrate clearly that some duopolistic and language students oligopolistic markets are characterised by infrequent price changes. Sweezy has argued that in most real-life oligopoly markets firms usually do not change their price- quantity combinations in response to small shifts of their cost curves as is normally found in most market situations. The kinked demand curve model is consistent with the job resume ehow, behaviour of language students firms. Starting from an initial price-quantity combination, if one of the duopolists lowers his price (increasing his quantity), the other is to god the father essay assumed to react by lowering his price (increasing his quantity) in order to maintain his market share. If one of the duopolists raises his price, his rival is assumed to leave his own price unchanged and, thereby, increases his share of the market.

Price cuts are matched, but price increases are not. Since implicit collusion tends to be fragile, oligopolistic firms often have a strong desire for stability, particularly with reference to price. This is essays in tamil school why price rigidity is a characteristic of oligopolistic industries. Unless there are substantial changes of gcse costs or demand, firms hesitate to change price. If costs fall or market demand declines, oligopolists fear that lower prices might give the wrong signal to their competitors and initiate some sort of price war.

And if cost or demand rises, they are reluctant to raise prices because they are afraid that their competitors may refuse to raise prices. This price rigidity forms the basis of the kinked demand curve model of oligopoly. Accord­ing to this model, each firm faces a demand curve kinked at current prevailing price P?, as shown in Fig. 4. Language Students. At prices above P the demand curve is highly elas­tic because price increase is not matched. So the exist­ing firm will lose its market share considerably. On the other hand, the firm believes that if it lowers its price below P?, other firms will make matching price cuts, because they do not lose their market share.

Thus, for price increase, the demand curve is inelastic. In that case, sales will expand only to the extent that a lower market price increases total market demand. Thus, nei­ther price cut, nor price increase is desirable. In each case, the firm loses. Since the firm’s demand curve is kinked, its combined marginal revenue curve is thinking results be discon­tinuous. This means that the firm’s cost can change without leading to price change. In this figure, marginal cost could increase but would still equal marginal revenue at essays in tamil language school, the original out­put level. This means that price remains the same.

The kinked demand curve model fails to explain oligopoly pricing. It says nothing about how marginal revenue firms arrived at the original price P? to start with. In fact, some arbitrary price is taken as both the starting and end point of our journey. Why firms did not arrive at thinking results should be, some other price remains an school students, open question. Job Resume Ehow. It just describes price rigidity but cannot explain it. In addition, the essays school, model has not been supported by mla format essay, empirical tests. In reality, rival firms do match price increases as well as price cuts. Market-sharing Price Leadership : Oligopolists often collude—jointly restrict supply to raise price and cooperate. This strategy can lead to higher profits. Collusion is, however, illegal. Moreover, one of the main impedi­ments to implicitly collusive pricing is the fact that it is difficult for firms to essays language school agree (without talking to each other) on what the price should be.

Coordination becomes particularly problem­atic when cost and demand conditions—and, thus, the ‘correct’ price—are changing. However, benefits of cooperation can be enjoyed without actually colluding. One way of doing this is through price leadership. Price leadership may be provided by a low-cost firm or a dominant firm. In this context, we may draw a distinction between price signalling and price leadership. Price signalling is a form of job resume ehow implicit collusion that sometimes gets around this problem. Essays Language Students. For example, a firm might announce that it has raised its price with the expectation that its competi­tors will take this announcement as a signal that they should also raise prices.

If competitors follow, all of the and it field, firms (at least, in the short run) will earn higher profits. At times, a pattern is established whereby one firm regularly announces price changes and other firms in the industry follow. This type of strategic behaviour is called price leadership— one firm is implicitly recognised as the ‘leader’. The other firms, the essays in tamil language school, ‘price followers’, match its prices. This behaviour solves the problem of job resume ehow coordinating price: Everyone simply charges what the in tamil language school students, leader is charging. Price leadership helps to overcome oligopolistic firms’ reluctance to change prices—for fear of being undercut. With changes in cost and demand conditions, firms may find it increas­ingly necessary to reflective essay change prices that have remained rigid for essays school some time.

In that case, they wait for the leader to signal when and by how much price should change. Sometimes a large firm will naturally act as a leader; sometimes different firms will act as a leader from time to time. In this context, we may discuss the dominant Firm model of leadership. This is known as market- sharing price leadership. In some oligopolistic markets, one large firm has a major share of total sales while a group of smaller firms meet the residual demand by supplying the remainder of the market. The large firm might then act as a dominant firm, setting a price that maximises its own profits. The other firms, which individually could exert little, if any, influence over price, would then act as perfect competitors; they all take the price set by the dominant firm as given and produce accordingly. But what price should the job resume ehow, dominant firm set? To maximise profit, it must take into account how the essays in tamil students, output of the other firms depends on the price it sets. Fig.

5 shows how a dominant firm sets its prices. And It. A dominant firm is one with a large share of total sales that sets price to maximise profits, taking into account the supply response of in tamil language smaller firms. Term. Here D is the market demand curve and S F is the supply curve (i.e., the language school students, aggregate marginal cost curves of the smaller firms, called competitive fringe firms). The dominant firm must determine its demand curve D D . This curve is just the papers, difference between market demand and in tamil language the supply of fringe firms. For example, at price P 1 , the supply of fringe firms is just equal to market demand.

This means that the dominant firm can sell nothing at this price. And It. At a price P 2 or less, fringe firms will not supply any of the good, in which case, the dominant firm faces the market demand curve. If price lies between P 1 and P 2 , the dominant firm faces the demand curve D D . The marginal cost curve of the dominant firm corresponding to D D is MR D . The dominant firm’s marginal cost curve is essays MC D . In order to maximise its profit, the dominant firm produces quantity Q D at the interaction of MR D and MC D . From the demand curve D D , we find P 0 . At this price, fringe firms sell a quantity Q F , thus the total quantity sold is critical Q T = Q D + Q F . 7. Collusive Oligopoly: The Cartel Model : Various models have been formulated to explain the strategic behaviour of firms in an oligopolistic market. A price (cut-throat) competition exists among the language school students, rivals who try to oust the others from the market. Sometimes there ex­ists a dominant firm that acts as the leader in the market while the custom, others just follow the leader. As a result, there happens to be a clear possibil­ity of the formation of a cartel by the rival firms in an oligopolistic market in language order to eliminate competition among themselves.

This is reflective termed as “collusive oligopoly” because the firms some­how manage to combine together in order to be­have collectively as a single monopoly. Now let us see graphically what incentives the firms get for forming a cartel. In Fig. 6, the market demand curve is given by the D M the total supply curve is the essays in tamil language school students, horizontal summation of the marginal cost curves of all existing firms in the industry, which is denoted by MC M . The market equilibrium is attained at the point of intersection between the D M (demand curve) and job resume ehow the marginal cost curve MC M , if the firms compete with each other. OP M is the equilibrium price at which the in tamil language students, total output of the industry is a hymn OQ M . In order to students determine its own quantity, each firm equates this price to its marginal cost. The sum of the quantities of the firms is OQ. To God The Father Essay. If the firms form a cartel in order to act as a monopolist, the essays, price rises to OP ‘ M and buying custom the quantity is reduced to OQ ‘ M to be in equilibrium. Now, when the essays, quantity is being reduced by Q M Q’ M , then all the firms together save the cost represented by the area below the MC M curve which is Q M E M F M Q ‘ M . Thus, a rise in price due to a reduction in buying custom term the quantity is followed by a decrease in the total revenue represented by the area below the school, MR M curve, i.e., area Q M G M F M Q’ M . This, in turn, shows that the cost saved exceeds the loss in revenue and, so, all the firms taken as a whole can increase their profit represented by the area E M F M G M . The prospect of earning this extra profit actually acts as the incentive to form a cartel in the oligopoly market structure. Since the cartel is job resume ehow formed, all firms agree together to produce the total quantity OQ’ M . In order to carry this out, each and every firm is allotted a quota or a certain portion of production such that the sum of all quotas is equal to OQ M . For this, the best way of quota allotment would be to treat each firm as a separate entity (plant) under the same monopolist.

Thus, all the essays in tamil language students, firms have the same marginal cost (MC) such that MC = MR (marginal revenue). Finally, the total profit is maximised because the total output is produced at the minimum cost. Each and every firm can increase its profit by gcse history past papers online, reducing the profits of other firms, simply by increasing its output quantity above the allotted quota. The system of in tamil school students cartel formation must guard against the desire of individual firms to buying term violate the quota and the cartel breaks down when the cost of guarding against quota violation is very high. The OPEC is an example of collusive oligopoly or cartel in which members (producers) explicitly agree to cooperate in setting prices and output levels. Language School Students. All the producers in an industry need not and often do not join the job resume ehow, cartel. But if most producers adhere to the cartel’s agree­ments, and if market demand is sufficiently inelastic, the cartel may drive prices well above competitive levels. Two conditions for essays in tamil school students success:

Two conditions must be fulfilled for cartel success. First, a stable cartel organisation must be formed whose members agree on price and production levels and both adhere to that agreement. The second condition is the to god the father, potential for monopoly power. A cartel cannot raise price much if it faces a highly elastic demand curve. If the potential gains from cooperation are large, cartel members will have more incentive to share their organisa­tional problems. Analysis of Cartel Pricing: Cartel pricing can be analysed by using the dominant firm model of oligopoly. It is because a cartel usually accounts for only a portion of total production and must take into account the language school, supply response of competitive (non-cartel) producers when it sets price. Here we illustrate the OPEC oil cartel. Fig. 7 illustrates the case of OPEC.

Total demand TD is the world demand curve for crude oil, and S c is the competitive (non-OPEC) supply curve. Custom. The demand for school OPEC oil D 0 is the difference between total demand (TD) and competitive supply (SC), and MR 0 is the corresponding marginal revenue curve. MC 0 is OPEC’s marginal cost curve; OPEC has much lower production costs than do non-OPEC producers. OPEC’s marginal revenue and marginal cost are equal at quantity Q 0 , which is the history past, quantity that OPEC will produce. Students. Here we see from OPEC s demand curve that the resume and it field, price will be P 0 . Since both total demand and non-OPEC supply are inelastic, the demand for OPEC oil is also fairly inelastic; thus the cartel has substantial monopoly. In the 1970s, it used that power to drive prices well above competitive levels. In this context, it is important to distinguish between short-run and long-run supply and essays language students demand curves. The total demand and non-OPEC supply curves in Fig.

7 apply to short-or intermediate-run analysis. In the long run, both demand and supply will be much more elastic, which means that OPEC’s demand curve will also be much more elastic. We would thus expect that, in the long run, OPEC would be unable to maintain a price that is so much above the competitors’ level. In truth, during 1982-99, oil prices fell steadily, mainly because of the long- run adjustment of demand and non-OPEC supply. However, cartel is not an unmixed blessing. No doubt cartel members can talk to one an­other in order to buying custom papers formalize an agreement.

But it is not that easy to reach a consensus. Students. Different members may have different costs, different assessments of market demand, and even different objectives, and they may, therefore, want to set prices at mla format, different levels. Furthermore, each member of the essays in tamil students, cartel will be tempted to “cheat” by lowering its price slightly to capture a larger market share than it was allotted. Online. Most often, only the in tamil language, threat of a long-term return to competi­tive prices deters cheating of this sort. But if the profits from cartelization are large enough, that threat may be sufficient. Essay # 5. History. Sales (Revenue) Maximisation : W.J. Baumol presented an alternative hypothesis to profit maximisation, viz., sales (revenue) maximisation. He has suggested that large oligopolistic firms do not maximise profit, but rather maximise sales revenue, subject to the constraint that profit equals or exceeds some minimum accepted level.

Various empirical studies support Baumol’s hypothesis. And it accurately cap­tures some aspects of school students oligopolistic firms’ behaviour. Most important, when firms are uncertain about their demand curve they actually face, or, when they cannot accurately estimate the marginal costs of their output (due to uncertainty about factor prices, or when they produce more than one product), the gcse, decision to try to maximise sales appears to be consistent with their long-term survival. This is why many oligopolist firms seek to maximise their market share in order to protect themselves from the adverse effects of uncertain market environment. A revenue-maximising oligopolist would choose to produce that level of output for which MR = 0. When MR = 0, TR is maximum. In Tamil Language School Students. That is, the a hymn the father essay, oligopolist should proceed to the point at which selling any extra unit(s) actually leads to a fall in TR. This choice is illustrated in Fig. Essays Language. 8. For the firm which faces the demand curve D, TR is maximum when output is q s . For q q s , MR is job resume ehow positive. This means that selling more units increases TR (though not necessarily profit). Essays Language School. For q q s , however, MR is negative.

So further sales actually reduce TR because of critical thinking price cuts that are necessary to induce consumers to language school buy more. We know that. MR = 0 if e p = 1, in which case TR will be maximum. Resume And It Field. TR is constant in a small neighbourhood of in tamil language school students that output quantity at M 1 P = 0, TR is maximum, and when TR is maximum, e p = 1. We may now compare the revenue-maximisation choice with the profit-maximising level of output, q s . Buying Custom Term. At q p , MR equals marginal cost MC in Fig. 8. Increasing output beyond q p would reduce profits since MR MC. In Tamil Language Students. Even though TR continues to thinking and testing should increase up to q s , units of output beyond q p bring in less than they cost to essays students produce. Since marginal revenue is positive at q p , equation (1) shows that demand must be elastic (e p 1) at this point. Essay # 6. Constrained Revenue Maximisation : A firm that chooses to maximise TR is neither taking into account its costs nor the resume and it, profitabil­ity of the output that it is language school students selling. And it is to god essay quite possible that the output level q s in Fig.

8 yields negative profit to the firm. However, it is not possible to any firm to essays school survive for resume and it ever with negative profits. In Tamil School Students. So it may be more realistic to assume that firms do meet some mini­mum level (target rate) of profit from their activities. Thus, even though oligopolists may be prompted to produce more than q p with a view to maximising revenue, they may produce less than q p units in order to ensure an a hymn the father, acceptable level of profit. They will, therefore, behave as constrained revenue maximises and will choose to language school produce an output level which lies between q p and q s . Let us assume that a unique unrestricted maximum profit ? m exists at the output q p with R'(q r ) 0, C”(q) 0 for q q r , and gcse past papers R” (q) 0 for q 0. If ? 0 ? m , (2) cannot be satisfied and the maximum-revenue problem has no solution. A solution will exist if ? 0 ? m . If ? 0 = ? m is q r is the essays in tamil, maximum solution since it is the only output that satisfies (2). If ? 0 ? m , revenue will increase and profit will decrease as q is increased beyond q r Thus, the oligopolist will continue to to god increase q until either (i) he reaches the unrestricted maximum of R(q); or (ii) (2) is satisfied as an equality, whichever occurs as the lower output.

If (i), (3) states that R (q) = 0 and in tamil language students ? = 0. If (ii) happens short of the output for (i), C'(q) R'(q) 0 and ? 0. Field. The multiplier ? gives the rate at which revenue can be expanded per rupee of profit sacrificed. An example will make the idea clear. Essays In Tamil Language School Students. Suppose an oligopolist faces a linear demand curve p = 100 – 4q and his cost function is C = 50 + 20q. Assume that Rs 334 = ? 0 ? m = Rs 350. How much profit has to be sacrificed per unit of revenue? The unrestricted maximum for mla format essay R(q) is Rs 625 which occurs at school students, q = 12.5 with ? = Rs 325. This option may be excluded because it yields too low a profit. The equality of (2) is job resume ehow (100 – 4q 2 ) – (50 + 20q) = Rs 334.

It may also be expressed as: The quadratic equation has the roots 8 and 12 with respective total revenues of Rs 544 and Rs 624. Thus, the revenue-maximising oligopolist produces 12 units which he sells at essays language students, a price of Rs 52 to gain a total revenue of Rs 624 and a profit of Rs 334. By contrast, a profit-maximising oligopolist produces 10 units which he sells at a price of Rs 60 to gain a total revenue of Rs 600 and gcse papers online a profit of Rs 350. From (3), ? = 0.25. So the oligopolist sacrifices at essays school students, the marginal rate of Rs 4 of profit to earn extra rupee of sales revenue. The theories of duopoly and to god essay oligopoly lead to compact mathematical solutions with the essays in tamil language students, cal­culus method. However, the various models developed are based on arbitrary (and often unrealistic) assumptions about each firm’s beliefs about rivals’ reactions to its actions. The theory of games, developed by J. von Neumann and O. Morgentern, is an alternative ap­proach that has been applied to markets in which there are few sellers with interdependent outcomes. Here we restrict ourselves to papers non-cooperative, or competitive games, known as two-person zero-sum games. The game theory has been developed to essays school students determine a rival’s most profitable counter-strategy to one owns ‘best’ moves and to formulate the appropriate defensive measures.

A game is term papers any situation in which players (the participants) make strategic decisions, i.e., decisions that take into account each one’s actions and responses, e.g., firms competing against each other for setting prices or spending money on advertising. Essays School Students. Strategic decisions result in payoffs to the players: outcomes that generate rewards or benefits. For price-setting firms, the papers, payoffs are profits. A duopoly game consists of a single move on essays school students, the part of each firm. In this context, we define a few key terms: A strategy is a rule or plan of action for playing the gcse papers online, game; it is the specification of a particular move for one of the participants. The strategy of a duopolist may consist of select­ing a particular value for essays school students each of the variables under his control.

If price is his only strategic variable, a strategy consists of to god the father essay selecting a particular price. If price and advertising expenses are both variables, a strategy consists of setting specific values for both the variables. Each duopolist is assumed to have a large but a limited number of strategies, in which case there is in tamil school students no possibil­ity of continuous variation of the action variables. The final outcome of the duopolistic game is the buying papers, profit earned by school students, each of the participants. This is determined from the relevant cost and demand functions once each firm has selected its own strategy. Job Resume Ehow. A key objective of the essays, game theory is to determine the optimal strategy for each player. The optimal strategy for a player is the one that maximises his expected pay-off.

There are two criteria of classifying duopolistic games: (i) The number of participants; and. (ii) The net outcome. Since game theory is essentially a theory of deci­sion-making involving conflict the reflective, first criterion simply involves a counting of the number of participants with conflicting interests. Here we discuss any two-person games. Language. The per­sons are like players of a hymn to god chess or card. In this case, there are the two duopolists, and each one is trying to language students outguess his rival. To God. The second criterion allows us to a draw a distinction between zero-sum and language students non-zero-sum games. A zero-sum game is one in which the sum of the out­comes—e.g., profits—for all the participants equals zero for every possible combination of strategies. The economic games that firms play can be either cooperative or non-cooperative. In a cooperative game, players can negotiate binding contracts that allow them to plan join strategies.

In a non-cooperative game, negotiation and enforcement of binding contracts are not possible. In any game, however, the most important aspect of a hymn the father essay strategic decision-making is understanding one’s opponent’s point of view, and (assuming one’s opponent is rational), deducing his likely responses to actions. Essays In Tamil School. Two-person zero-sum games are competitive (non-cooperative) in and it nature. The reason is school that if one player always loses what the other wins, there can be no room for cooperation. A two-person zero-sum game can be applied to a duopolistic market in which one partici­pant’s gain always equals the loss of the other.

In general, if I has m strategies and II has n strategies, the possible outcome of the game is given by the following payoff matrix which shows what I will receive as a result of each possible combination of strategy choice by himself and by II: where the a ij is I’s profit if I employs his ith strategy and past II employs his jth. In case of zero-sum sum, the corresponding profit earned by essays language school students, II is – a ij . Duopolists adopt two approaches, viz., maximin and a hymn to god minimax. I can make the best of the essays language school students, situ­ation aiming at resume, the maximum of the minimal payoffs. This decision rule is called a maximin strategy. Similarly, the in tamil language, best of II’s most pessimistic payoff is called II’s minimax strategy. Let us consider the following payoff matrix: If I employs his first strategy and II employs his second, I’s profit is job resume ehow 40, and in tamil II’s is – 40. If I employs his second strategy and II employs his third, I’s profit is – 10 and II’s is 10.

The duopolist’s decision problem consists of buying term papers choosing an in tamil school, optimal strategy. I desires the job resume ehow, outcome (40) in the first row and language school second column of (2), and mla format reflective essay II desires the outcome (- 10) in the second row and third column. The final outcome depends upon the strategies of essays in tamil language both duopolists, and neither has the power to enforce his desires. If I selects his first strategy, II might select his fourth, and a hymn the outcome would be 5 rather than 40. If II selects his third strategy, I might select his first, and the outcome I would be 20 rather than -10. The theory of language students games postulates behav­iour patterns which allow the buying term, determination of equilibrium in these situations.

The decisions of the duopolists are consistent and the equation is achieved if. If (3) holds, the essays school, strategies of mla format essay I and II are respectively, called an equilibrium pair of strate­gies. In example (2), suppose I employs his first strategy. If II anticipates I’s choice, I’s profit will be 5. If I employed his second strategy, and II anticipated his choice, his profit would be -10. II will employ his fourth strategy and his loss will be limited to school students 5. Every other column of resume field (2) has a maximum greater than 5. Essays. In this case, The duopolists’ decisions are consistent, and an equilibrium is established. Neither duopolist can increase profit by changing his strategy if his opponent’s strategy remains unchanged.

An equilibrium point in terms of a payoff matrix is called a saddle point. Reflective Essay. However, the coinci­dence of maximin-minimax strategy payoffs does not always occur. There are some cases in which the payoff matrix possesses no equilibrium pair. To understand this problem, we have to introduce the concept of dominance. Essays Language. A dominant strategy is mla format essay one that is school optimal—no matter what an the father essay, opponent does. In general, the essays in tamil language students, ith row dominates the the father, hth if a ij ? a hj for essays language students all j, and a ij a hj for at least one j. A rational duopolist will never employ a dominant strategy. If he does, no equilibrium pair will exist. However, when every player has a dominant strategy, we call the outcome of the game an equilibrium in dominant strategies. Equilibrium in dominant strategies refers to mla format reflective essay the outcome of a game in which each firm is doing the best it can, regardless of what its competitors are doing. Essays School. In such a game, each player’s optimal strategy can be determined without worrying about the actions of the other players.

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