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Male Magic: A Midsummer Night#039;s Dream - Essay. See also A Midsummer Night's Dream Criticism (Volume 29), and research paper Volumes 45 , 58 , 82 . Irene Dash, Hunter College of the City University of New York. And with the juice of this I'll streak her eyes, And make her full of hateful fantasies. Whether in the fantasy world of the forest or the equally fantastic world of Athens on a midsummer night, this play reveals how power, particularly political power, impinges on and shapes women's lives. Ranging from queens—Hippolyta, a character taken from mythology, and visual essays Titania, belonging to the fairy world—to youthful Athenian maidens in love, to a parodic heroine in how often should you quote in a research paper, an entertainment for the Duke's guests, these characters illustrate women's varied reactions to the imposition of power. Table! One seems to adjust; one discovers new facts about herself; one serves as a lens for looking at should research paper the larger world; and one significantly reveals the preachers resume, tragic dimensions of the loss of power.
Least mortal and yet seeming in her speeches and attitudes to mimic the research, mortal world, the fairy queen illustrates most clearly the loss of self—the abdication of autonomy—that may follow a woman's being victimized, even by lab report table, fairy power. In developing the early emotional relationship between her and how often should you quote in a research Oberon, the fairy king, Shakespeare seems to communication essays have drawn on should you quote in a research paper, the world around him for models. Thus when Titania refuses to comply to Oberon's demands, he vows in pique and jealousy to streak her eyes with magic juice and make her full of hateful fantasies (II.i.257-58). Moreover, moments before he carries out his threat, he becomes more explicit: Be it ounce, or cat, or bear, Pard, or boar with bristled hair,
In the eye that shall appear. When thou wak'st, it is thy dear: Wake when some vile thing is near. In fact, she does wake and call some vile thing her dear. How then do we interpret this? Is it the act of magic that forces her to fall in love with an communication essays, ass, or at least with a character who has been temporarily transformed into an ass? Or are we to accept much of the criticism that suggests her erotic desire for paper the ass reflects her true nature—the nature of woman? Does Titania at lab report this moment awaken from her dream, look at the monster, and desire him, as Jan Kott (228) suggests? Or is she basically still dreaming, hypnotized by a magic spell, never awakening until Oberon, later in the play, having achieved his purpose, removes that magic juice and Titania, chastened but also transformed from the outspoken character of the early scene, looks with loathing at the ass she embraced? Although her disagreement with Oberon lies at the heart of the play, Titania does not enter until the beginning of the second act. Instead, Shakespeare first introduces other women more clearly caught in situations of political or social subordination than the fairy queen: specifically Hippolyta, the captive Amazonian queen; Hermia, the rebellious Athenian daughter; and Helena who, in her complete self-denigration, illustrates more indirectly the should you quote, impact of patriarchal power on women.
Interweaving a third plot strand culminating in the performance of Pyramus and e-thesis ukm Thisbe, the comedy also provides a dual vision of you quote, women in patriarchy near the e-thesis ukm, play's close. Parodying the tragic results of arbitrary parental power, this play-within-a-play in its metadramatic dimension offers insights into you quote research the mainly silent women, now married, in the audience. Artistically, the dramatist weaves a complex multifaceted plot that exposes the political and domestic challenges confronting women while creating situations that throw us into the world of comedy. On stage, music, dancing, and fairy magic, as well as the romping of the mechanicals, have masked this power struggle. In criticism, the lure of the poetry, the concept of synthesising aspirin from, topsy turvy, the illusion of dreams, and theories of mythology have often tended to blur any interest in the domination of women. Some critics have even proposed that the play was written specifically for a wedding although none has yet been found. In fact, A Midsummer Night's Dream opens with anticipation of a wedding although it hardly reveals clearcut delight by both participants, Hippolyta and Theseus, the Duke of Athens, her captor but also her bridegroom: Now, fair Hippolyta, our nuptial hour. Draws on apace. How Often You Quote Paper! Four happy days bring in.
Another moon; but 0, methinks, how slow. This old moon wanes! She lingers my desires, Like to a step-dame, or a dowager, Long withering out essays preschoolers, a young man's revenue. His reference to happy days and the final fulfilling of his desire meets a noncommittal response from the bride. Acknowledging that four days swiftly pass, she indicates neither joy nor sorrow as she anticipates the night / Of our solemnities (10-11). In A! Her ambiguous answer leads Theseus to search further. Still the host, if also the victor, he sends his master of the preachers resume, revels on an errand to: Stir up the Athenian youth to merriments, Awake the pert and should you quote research nimble spirit of mirth.
He would have his bride be merry. Continuing, he relies on a strange metaphor to reinforce his invitation to joyous celebration: Turn melancholy forth to funerals: The pale companion is not for our pomp. Why speak of funerals, even as a contrast to preachers mirth, unless, perhaps a subtext exists here? Although pale companion defines the personified melancholy, contextually the words seem linked to should in a research paper Hippolyta, addressed in the very next word: Hippolyta, I woo'd thee with my sword, And won thy love doing thee injuries;
But I will wed thee in another key. Is he apologizing for his earlier role? She fails to reply. His speeches suggest a shift in perception of woman from enemy to lover to wife, with the implication of woman's submission to man. As courtesy books and religious tracts of the period indicate, that reference to love and marriage, while including mutuality, also meant acknowledging man's superiority. 1.
This first scene, particularly the opening entrance and resume the elliptical conversation between Theseus and his bride, have allowed for a range of how often you quote research, interpretations on stage because of Hippolyta's silence. Directors and actor-managers have long manipulated both the action and audience attitude toward a character or a situation during such silences. Writing of this phenomenon recently, particularly as it affects productions, one critic observed: Hippolyta's silence is open not because Shakespeare. lacked the skill to give her words but because he. did not exercise that skill, did not employ the power. of his poet's pen to give her silence precisely. fixed meanings and effects. (McGuire, 17) McGuire then cites examples from four productions since 1959. However, Hippolyta's silence bothered actor-managers and directors well before mid twentieth century.
Because her role is so brief (she does not appear again until act 4) some, like David Garrick in The Fairies (1755), have cut her lines although she is physically present and combined Theseus's two speeches into a single long address. 2 Other eighteenth-century versions—like the two different Pyramus and Thisbes —are even skimpier, retaining only the comic characters and the fairies while jettisoning both Hippolyta and Theseus. Preschoolers! 3 Earlier, during the Restoration, comic interludes, separated from the larger overall scheme, and abbreviated versions held the should in a research paper, stage, culminating in the opera The Fairy Queen (1692), from which Hippolyta disappeared. Preachers Resume! 4. But even when a fuller text appeared, as it did in Frederick Reynolds's 1816 production ( MND Prompt, 18), often called an opera, alterations were made that softened the opening. Some occurred in should, the text itself, as, for example, when Reynolds not only retained the conversation between the victor and his bride, but elaborated on it. In this version, Theseus's fourth act directive to preachers resume a forester to provide the music of the hounds, as entertainment for Hippolyta (IV.i.110), is should you quote in a, attached to that opening promise to wed her in another key (I.i.18), an attempt to preachers resume strengthen the attractiveness of the bridegroom. 5. A far more recent example of Hippolyta's silence disappearing after Theseus's lines I woo'd thee with my sword, /.. . But I will wed thee in how often should you quote in a research, another key occurs in the 1935 Max Reinhardt film where he transposes the sequence of speeches.
In the preachers, film, Theseus's lines precede, rather than follow, Hippolyta's single speech and therefore evoke her immediate and soothing comment Four days will quickly steep themselves in night; / Four nights will quickly dream away the should research, time (7-8). Lab Report! Nor can Reinhardt's film be looked upon as a single aberration. Rather, the German director provides an important link between stage and screen, having produced the play eleven times (beginning in 1905) prior to making the in a research paper, film in of being title, 1934. Free of the confining limits of the stage, he could, as film director, waft his viewers from one location to another, jumping from a distant scene to a close-up of should, a particular character. In a section of the film script later discarded, Reinhardt not only appears to lab report have been testing the breadth of research paper, this comparatively new medium but also offers insights into the finished film. The script also reflects the director's penchant for interpretation. In quick succession, it carries us aboard Theseus's ship, drops us in the land of the lab report, Amazons, and involves us in the battle between Theseus and Hippolyta through visuals that act as prologue to the text.
Broad shots of the sea and the distant castle of the Amazons are interwoven with close-ups of the two major figures. We read of Theseus standing on the prow of the in a paper, ship, a glamorous figure in shining armor, against the dark background of the lab report table, sail and of Hippolyta standing with a large wild dog at her side as she sternly watch[es] the approaching ship ( MND Warners, 1934). 6 Stern Hippolyta is contrasted with glamourous Theseus. Finally, when he appears on land followed by his staff, she takes up armor and weapons and how often in a research paper shoots at him. He, however, lower(s) his shield laughing, the implication being that fighting against a woman is laughable and that she, of course, will miss her mark. Eventually, they end up in hand to aspirin from wintergreen hand battle, shield against should you quote paper shield, his shield flat upon hers, pressing it backward. Preachers Resume! The sequence continues: H[ippolyta].'s knee bending, interlocking with Theseus' leg Th[eseus].'s shoulder pressing H[ippolyta].'s shoulder downward. . . . H[ippolyta].'s head and shoulders going backward.
Th[eseus].'s arm across H[ippolyta].'s shoulder, knocks the helmet from how often should research, her head. H[ippolyta].'s long hair falls about her shoulders. H[ippolyta].'s head bends backward. Th[eseus].'s head comes into picture triumphantly. 7. There we have the classic picture of the implied rape-seduction scene although as the opening of e-thesis ukm, A Midsummer Night 's Dream clearly indicates, Theseus waits to should in a research wed Hippolyta. 8 What remains of this sequence is a clue to a point of view and to of being a wallflower the play's early moments. In fact, as it was actually made, Reinhardt's film opens quite differently with a general celebratory air as crowds sing and should you quote in a paper cheer the e-thesis ukm, returning victor, their Duke Theseus, with his captive queen who rides with him, her arm entwined by how often in a research paper, a snake, indicating her heathenish origins. Lab Report! . . . Later that snake will merely be a pattern on a civilized dress she wears.
The strange look on her face during that opening entrance as well as her action in should you quote paper, a subsequent scene probably owe their origins to essays this discarded script. In the later scene, dressed like a lady, Hippolyta sits alone in how often should you quote in a, a large open colosseumlike semicircular area surrounded by large columns (a Hollywood approximation of Athens) and looks wistfully across the preachers, water. How Often You Quote Paper! Is she recollecting her former glory and perks a wallflower envisioning again the burning towers she left behind? Moments later, Theseus enters and kisses her hand. . . . Her reaction seems to suggest that she feels a thrill at his kiss. How Often Should You Quote! The rape-seduction undercurrent first suggested by synthesising aspirin from oil of, their hand-to-hand battle when her helmet fell off is sustained here. In contrast, Liviu Ciulei's stage production, fifty years later, dramatically emphasized Hippolyta's role as a captive in how often you quote in a, that opening scene. Brought on stage where everyone is preachers resume, wearing white, Hippolyta enters in dark army garb.
Moments later, screened from in a research, audience view by her captors, she is basically stripped, her clothes thrown into the fire—all except her boots, which she confines to essays wear—perhaps symbolically suggesting that some remnant of her former self remains—a remnant that allows her to you quote in a research paper express her hostility, by stamping her heels as an accompaniment to her sardonic laughter. Otherwise, she is observation essays preschoolers, redressed in a white gown. Someone holds a mirror to her. She turns away. When Theseus enters, there is laughter at his lines, as he says, But I will wed thee in another key. She simply turns around, and sits, her physical stance exuding hostility. Many versions simply eliminated this character, thus excising the frame and how often research problems of table, interpretation, but also insights into how one queen eventually handles the humiliation of defeat. In her next appearance she has adopted an attitude of congeniality, quipping with Theseus about his knowledge of hounds. Should Research Paper! Moreover, in her final scene she takes on an even more complicated role as the lab report, only speaking woman in a world of men. Out of the theater, the Hippolyta and should in a research paper Theseus relationship evoked still another reaction. Margaret Fuller, the midnineteenth-century American feminist essayist, in her outspoken work Woman in the Nineteenth Century, wrote: Only a Theseus could conquer before he wed the Amazonian queen.
Fuller compared Theseus to e-thesis ukm Hercules, who wished rather to rest with Dejanira, and received the how often should in a paper, poisoned robe as a fit guerdon.9 Whether or not Fuller had the visual essays, historical story in mind, or Shakespeare's play, she nevertheless does offer an alternative perspective on the play's first nineteen lines. Hippolyta then fades into the background as another woman enters who must wrestle with her fate. Hermia is dragged in by her angry father, Egeus, who would have the laws of Athens enforced against her because she wishes to marry Lysander, the man of how often you quote in a, her choice, rather than Demetrius, her father's choice, although, as most critics agree, little difference exists between the suitors. Aspirin! As Muriel Bradbrook has observed, Shakespeare contributed to the development of comedy by breathing life into should in a his characters through language. She compares this gift to the introduction of perspective in painting (89).
Accepting her analysis, we realize that the similarity between the young men is intentional and meant to highlight Egeus's unreasonableness. I am . as well deriv'd as he, protests Lysander, the suitor who is belov'd of beauteous Hermia: As well possess'd; my love is synthesising from oil of wintergreen, more than his; My fortunes every way as fairly rank'd. But the father refuses to listen, insisting that he may dispose of his daughter as he wishes, either to this gentleman [Demetrius] / Or to her death (42-44). Nor does Theseus, who only moments earlier had pledged to wed Hippolyta in another key from that of conqueror, offer much hope to the young woman. Supporting her father, the ruler warns of the should you quote in a paper, price of disobedience: Either to die the death, or to abjure / For ever the society of men (65-66). Life in a nunnery, a retreat for Isabella in Measure for Measure, has little appeal for Hermia.
It denies her normal sexuality. Moreover, she is a young woman in love. However, Theseus, the a wallflower title, voice of political power, continues, unconcerned about her reactions. Spelling out the meaning of the law, he details the young woman's choices: Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires, Know of your youth, examine well your blood, Whether (if you yield not to your father's choice) You can endure the livery of a nun, For aye to be in shady cloister mew'd,
To live a barren sister all your life, Chaunting faint hymns to you quote in a research the cold fruitless moon. Barren, cold, and fruitless describe the sexual denial she must confront shouldz she disobey her father. Theseus presents a frightening alternative for her. Preachers! Taking the father from you quote in a paper, Roman comedy, Shakespeare creates a comic scene with undercurrents of observation essays preschoolers, possibly tragic dimension. But sections of this speech as well as of Egeus's complaints against Lysander disappeared from the should you quote research paper, stage. Gone are such accusations against visual communication essays Lysander as thou has given her rhymes, / And interchanged love tokens; sung at her window verses of feigning love; seduced her With bracelets of thy hair, rings, gauds, conceits; and, finally, Turned her obedience, which is due to me, / To stubborn harshness. 10 Only Egeus's demand for the privilege of the father remained—the right to dispose of should you quote research paper, her as he saw fit or to call for the death penalty. Although retaining this harsh sentence, those who excised lines had effectively diminished the speech's intensity through abbreviation.
Gone too from the stage are the closing lines of Theseus's admonition to Hermia defining the synthesising aspirin from oil of wintergreen, obligations of a daughter: To you your father should be as a god. One that composed your beauties; yea, and how often you quote research paper one. To whom you are but as a form in wax. By him imprinted and preachers within his power. To leave the figure or disfigure it.
The image here, specifically the threat to disfigure, disturbed critics and research editors as early as the eighteenth century. William Warburton, for example, sought to preachers resume change the last line, finding Theseus's statement inappropriate for comedy. In contrast, Samuel Johnson, always one to favor the text over any change of in a research, language, defended the word although still bothered by communication essays, the meaning: I know not why so harsh a word should be admitted with so little need, a word that, spoken, could not be understood, and of which no example can be shown. The sense is plain, you owe to your father a being which he may at pleasure continue or destroy. (Yale Johnson, VII, 136) If that rather chilling ultimatum contributes to the portrait of a powerful ruler asserting the ideas of his society, stage productions, by should you quote in a paper, omitting the last three and a half lines of Theseus's speech, frequently altered the image. In fact, some stage versions retained only the preceding line, Theseus's far more gentle, What say you, Hermia? Be advis'd, fair maid (46). 11 Because the interaction of preachers, characters helps define them, a weakened portrait of Hermia results from the you quote in a research, combination of excisions in lab report, Theseus's and Egeus's speeches.
Facing less opposition, she need be less defiant. Or, looking at it another way, we see her as a less interesting character than the sharp, courageous young woman Shakespeare begins to develop here. Illustrating just how complex this text is and how it may be read and reread for the stage, some twentieth-century directors have translated the you quote in a paper, relationship between the two women at this moment on resume, the stage as one of you quote research, bonding: Hermia, who faces an anguished choice, and Hippolyta, who stands on the sidelines, listening. And here too promptbooks offer evidence. Beerbohm Tree's, for example, indicates the Amazonian queen's sympathy for of being a wallflower the younger woman by directing: Hyp[polyta] leads Herm[ia] to seat ( MND 7, interleaf facing p. 4). In Liviu Ciulei's production, the bonding takes another form. Since Hippolyta's strong personality had been developed at the play's opening, here she sneeringly laughs at you quote in a research paper Theseus's ultimatum, a clear comment on his actions and on the irony of preachers, his earlier words to her, But I will wed thee in another key (I.i.18). More humorous in approach and less sharply disapproving is the direction in the Peter Brook prompt: All bow their heads (12a). How Often Should Research! Brook dramatizes the rift between Theseus and Hippolyta by having them exit to opposite sides of the stage, pausing at doors to look at a wallflower title each other. You Quote In A Paper! These twentieth-century directors found their cues in lab report table, the text and responded, not with excision but with a new awareness of the play's subtlety and of the possibilities that staging might permit.
If Hermia's tragic fate is how often in a paper, briefly understood by essays, Hippolyta, the play quickly moves back to the world of how often you quote research, comedy as the two lovers left alone on stage not only bemoan their fate but also engage in lab report table, a conversation in which neither is hearing what the other says. Comforting his love, Lysander cites historical parallels of similarly fated lovers; Hermia, not listening, overflows with anger and you quote in a research frustration: Lys The course of true love never did run smooth; But either it was different in blood— He begins, but she interrupts: Alternating lines, they continue: Lys Or else misgraffed in respect of years— Her O spite! Too old to e-thesis ukm be engaged to young!
Lys Or else it stood upon how often you quote, the choice of friends— Her O hell! To choose love by another's eyes! The stichomythic pattern of the communication, duet captures the intensity of the lovers' feelings, but also the humor of their reactions as each finds solace from how often research paper, a different verbal outpouring. Nevertheless, the exchange disappeared from acting texts for over a hundred years. 12 Although the excision at first seems inexplicable, George Bernard Shaw's comments on an Augustin Daly production offer a partial answer. Unaware of how much Daly's version owed to his predecessors, and indignant over his mauling of the text, Shaw attributes the excision to Daly's uncomfortableness with Hermia's Oh hell, then notes the impact of the preachers, cuts.
Humorously he writes: Mr. How Often In A Paper! Daly, shocked, as an American and an Irishman, at a young lady using such an expression as Oh hell! cuts out the whole antiphony, and leaves Lysander to deliver a long lecture without interruption from the synthesising from oil of, lady. ( Our Theatres, I, 180-81) This long lecture without interruption also further denies audiences the partial portrait, later to be developed, of Hermia. Unsurprisingly, the lines disappeared from the Garrick-Colman and Reynolds operatic versions since these works concentrated on songs loosely connected with one another by speeches, rather than on short exchanges. But the absence of Hermia's frustrated expression from the later stage versions is how often in a research paper, surprising.
13. Was her Oh hell too forthright for the sensibilities of all those audiences, as Shaw implied in preschoolers, blaming Daly? A glance at the Variorum, strong in nineteenth-century criticism, suggests other, literary reasons, as well. How Often You Quote! Coleridge, for example writes: There is essays, no authority for how often should you quote research any alteration,—but I never can help feeling how great an improvement it would be, if the aspirin from oil of, two former of Hermia's exclamations were omitted—the third and only appropriate one would then become a beauty, and most natural. (Coleridge , quoted in the Variorum, 18)
Rather than denigrating that last line with its Oh hell, Coleridge praises it. Obviously, Hermia's annoyed exclamations bothered him more than the simple comment on the unfairness of choosing love by another's eyes. Less generously, Halliwell, another critic of the time, believed Lysander's speech would be improved by you quote research paper, the omission of all of Hermia's interpolations (18). Moreover, to support his opinion, he cited the editions of Dodd and Planche which actually deleted Hermia's lines. A Wallflower Title! 14 Once again, as so often happens, literary criticism correlates with contemporaneous staging. Why did her short speeches offend so? Was Lysander's single uninterrupted speech more appropriate?
But then how could his speech help project Hermia's personality as it does in you quote in a research paper, the original exchange? Stylistically, those clipped single lines suggest the lab report table, exasperation and intensity of the research paper, young woman we are to meet later on in the visual communication, forest. How Often Should You Quote In A Paper! Moreover, the patter, or duet, of these two lovers complements the long heavy speeches of of being a wallflower essay title, Egeus and Theseus, taking us back into the comic, romantic world of the play. As critics have often noted, conflict between father and daughter arises here as it does in how often research, so many other of Shakespeare's plays, and here too the strength of the daughter is aspirin wintergreen, created by showing her resistence to her father's pressure; her lines in this duet are important. How Often You Quote In A Paper! Shaw's review of Daly's production suggests a further effect of the of being a wallflower essay, alternating lines spoken by the two star-crossed lovers; he believes the alternating pattern sets the whole scene throbbing with their absorption in one another (133).
It also explodes with their differing responses to the same situation. Although a strong, self-confident, if frustrated, young woman emerges through the language here, not all of her lines reinforce this portrait. In fact, her subsequent speech advises, Then let us teach our trial patience (152). Between her two speeches, she has listened to Lysander's litany of lovers who, throughout history, have faced problems. In the cut acting texts I have examined, the line advising patience always remains.
What a different Hermia we experience. The language has been modulated, the humor of the exchange lost, and the outspoken young woman tempered. Artistically, too, a change occurs. No verbal echoes will sound for how often you quote in a paper the audience when, a few lines later, Hermia and her best friend, Helena, indulge in a similar pattern of alternating lines. Nor will the audience hear how their conversation mimics and yet differs from that of the lovers. The repetition of the pattern, comic in its shift of topic, also defines and contrasts the young women.
Helena pines for Demetrius. Hermia would most willingly relinquish him. Unlike the e-thesis ukm, earlier duet, this one concentrates on each young woman's attitude towards Demetrius. How Often Should Paper! Rhyming couplets mark their exchange of essays, confidences, and again acting texts excise: Her. How Often Should Paper! I frown upon him; yet he loves me still. Hel. O that your frowns would teach my smiles such skill! Her. I give him curses; yet he gives me love.
Hel. O that my prayers could such affection move! Her. E-thesis Ukm! The more I hate, the more he follows me. Hel. You Quote Research! The more I love, the more he hateth me. Differing in preachers resume, their appeal to Demetrius, the women differ in their sense of self, Hermia confident with two adoring males, Helena disconsolate that the youth she loves has eyes only for her friend.
Physically they differ too: Hermia being small and dark, at how often should paper one point called puppet (III.ii.286), dwarfish (295), and e-thesis ukm an Ethiop (257); Helena being tall and lanky—a painted may-pole (296). She is also probably fair. Throughout this scene, Hermia exhibits a sardonic sense of humor, not only in her exclamations after her father leaves with Theseus, but even in her exchanges with her less confident friend. And once again, some texts delete Hermia's attempt to console her friend: Before the time I did Lysander see, Seem'd Athens as a Paradise to how often you quote research me; O then, what graces in my love do dwell,
That he hath turn'd a heaven unto a hell! Although meant to emphasize the problems Hermia faces, the lines referring to Lysander's graces making Athens a hell also have a built-in irony. Surely a lover's graces should turn a hell into visual essays heaven rather than the opposite. How Often Should You Quote In A Paper! Although differing from Theseus's comment to Hippolyta on altering their relationship from of being a wallflower essay title, excombatants to lovers, Hermia's words here suggest a similarly thin and tenuous line between heaven and hell, springing from should in a research paper, love. Of the exchange, Samuel Johnson wrote:
Perhaps every reader may not discover the propriety of these lines. Hermia is communication, willing to comfort Helena, and to avoid all appearance of triumph over her. How Often Paper! She therefore bids her not to consider the power of pleasing, as an e-thesis ukm, advantage to should you quote paper be much envied or much desired, since Hermia, whom she considers as possessing it in communication essays, the supreme degree, has found no other effect of it than the loss of happiness. (Johnson, The Plays, 1:98) The comment also appears in how often in a research paper, a footnote in the Phelps promptbook (MND 13, 314). Since this was an 1805 printed text used for an 1861 production, it suggests that the perks of being a wallflower, lines were not only challenging in the eighteenth century but continued to how often in a be relevant in the nineteenth. When they disappear, as often occurs, they erase a problem for interpreters, but also an insight into observation essays preschoolers Hermia's capacity for humor and sympathy. To further comfort Helena, Hermia and Lysander reveal their secret plan to escape Athens. In soliloquy at the scene's close, Helena confesses her response. Should You Quote Research! She will divulge the news of their flight to Demetrius, hoping to win his favor.
Bemoaning her fate in of being title, rhymed couplets, she begins: How happy some o'er other some can be! Through Athens I am thought as fair as she, But what of should you quote in a paper, that? Demetrius thinks not so; Love looks not with the eyes but with the mind; And therefore is wing'd Cupid painted blind. But Helena does not think herself as fair as Hermia. Thus this reference to Cupid suggests a rather confused young woman.
Continuing for twenty-six lines, the soliloquy ranges from analyses of preachers resume, love to a discussion of Hermia's strengths to a lament for how often you quote in a research paper the speaker's own plight: For ere Demetrius look'd on resume, Hermia's eyne, He hail'd down oaths that he was only mine; She therefore resolves, I will go tell him of fair Hermia's flight (246), expecting a kind response. Here too excisions mar the how often should you quote research, portrait. Sometimes the lines are absent from perks essay title, printed acting versions; sometimes sections are crossed out or blocked for cutting. How Often Should Research Paper! 16 As a result only the bare plot outline of this section remains, subtleties in characterization being lost. Later, in lab report table, the forest, the dramatist further develops the young women's personalities. There the popular Hermia, speaking with confidence, gently reprimands her lover, while the rejected Helena subjects herself to how often in a further humiliation, frustratingly following the man she loves. Hermia's reprimand comes after long and fruitless traveling through the woods with Lysander. Essays Preschoolers! Escaping Theseus's ultimatum, they seek refuge with the young man's aunt, beyond the range of you quote in a research, Athens' law.
Weary with wandering, Hermia would rest; Lysander then admits he has lost his way in the enchanted forest: We'll rest us, Hermia, if you think it good, And tarry for the comfort of the day. Appreciating the idea, she then counters: Be't so, Lysander.
Find you out a bed; For I upon this bank will rest my head. But he would have it otherwise. Aspirin From! In fact, the how often should you quote in a research, lines indicate the action that has just occurred on stage as she chooses her sleeping site. A minidebate then ensues: Lys. One turf shall serve as pillow for us both, One heart, one bed, two bosoms, and one troth. Her. Lab Report! Nay, good Lysander; for my sake, my dear,
Lie further off yet; do not lie so near. The adapters once again cut. Garrick's abbreviated musical version provides a record of the cuts in this speech, and, to should you quote paper some extent, sets the pattern for what subsequently occurred. Visual Communication Essays! The first eight lines of the exchange between the couple are retained (lines 35-42), followed by how often in a research paper, a duet (25). Then come lines not Shakespeare's, but believed to be composed by Garrick, which appear in a handwritten insert ( MND 6). 17 In that version Hermia exhibits proper womanly fear: Now my Lysander, on that bank repose, That if perchance my woman's fears shou'd seek. Protection in thy love and brav'ry, I may not call on perks of being a wallflower essay, love and thee in vain.
( MND 6, insert 21; Garrick, 25) Lysander responds with the promise of protective care. The Garrick lines also appear in the Reynolds printed text ( MND 8, 18). Research Paper! Later the pattern of excision continues although without the new, added material. The musical Reynolds version ( MND 8, 18) contains no hint of preschoolers, her asking him to move.
In most staged versions, however, her request that he find another bed meets simple acquiescence. How Often You Quote Research Paper! Usually gone are his lines One turf shall serve as pillow for us both / One heart, one bed, two bosoms, and one troth (41-42) along with his attempt to convince her of the reasonableness of his proposal. Gone too is observation preschoolers, Hermia's perceptive Lysander riddles very prettily. . . . / But, gentle friend, for love and should you quote in a research paper courtesy, / Lie further off, in humane modesty (53, 56-57). 18 Amusing, her response in Shakespeare's play highlights her realistic awareness of the physical attraction between lovers. Visual Communication! Their debate is research, reminiscent of Juliet's What satisfaction canst thou have to-night? ( Romeo and Juliet, II.ii.126) when Romeo protests, O, wilt thou leave me so unsatisfied (125). In both cases, the dramatist suggests that confidence in the loyalty of synthesising wintergreen, her lover does not blur each young woman's recognition of the reality of the how often should you quote in a research, sexual drive. Unlike Hermia, her friend Helena nurtures no such fear. Groveling for some affection, she trails Demetrius. I love thee not; therefore pursue me not (188), he dictates.
But Helena, like Emilia in synthesising oil of, Othello so many plays later, has divulged the secret of Hermia and Lysander's flight in order to win a boon: I am your spaniel; and, Demetrius, The more you beat me, I will fawn on you. Use me but as your spaniel; spurn me, strike me, Neglect me, lose me; only give me leave, Unworthy as I am, to follow you.
Nor do Demetrius's threats to should research her virginity (217-19) bother her. Rather they allow her to assert her confidence in his character. Of Being Essay Title! But those lines along with Helena's reply beginning Your virtue is my privilege (220-26) and then her Run when you will . . . (230-34) disappear from the stage in many promptbooks. 19. By cutting Helena's lines here and elsewhere, those versions tended to obscure the perceptiveness of Shakespeare's sketch of a young woman who is filled with self-doubt and self-hatred. 20 In fact, Shakespeare's insight here, although theatrically developed and placed in a comedic setting, has a contemporary counterpart in Kate Millett's more serious analysis of the lack of self-love that flourishes in women and minorities. She describes this as. group self-hatred and how often should you quote in a research paper self-rejection, a contempt both for herself and for her fellows—the result of that continual, however subtle, reiteration of her inferiority which she eventually accepts as a fact. (56) Helena appears to have internalized this attitude.
In an of being a wallflower essay, excellent essay on the play, David Marshall asks a relevant question concerning Helena. How Often In A Research! Are we to be pleased by preachers resume, the success of Helena's subjection of herself? (548), he wonders, challenging the you quote in a, idea that this is one of perks essay title, Shakespeare's happiest comedies. 21 Actually, by how often you quote in a research paper, the time we reach this section of the play we become aware of the various ways in essays, which the women have been dominated by men—bridegroom, father, ruler, and how often you quote rejecting suitor. However, we have not yet met the strongest and seemingly freest woman character in A Midsummer Night's Dream: Titania, the fairy queen, who so delights us at lab report her first entrance and later raises questions about women's roles. Is she the victim of male power, male irrationality, trickery, or jealousy? Is she merely a fairy? Or does she illuminate the feelings and attitudes of women reacting to dominating male behavior?
At its opening, act 2 stresses the conflict between her and Oberon, the fairy king. Quickly we learn the source of their dissension: control over an Indian boy at the time in her possession but desperately desired by Oberon. Representatives of king and should in a queen, Puck and a fairy quickly sketch in the conflict, each hoping the other party will relinquish the field. But room, fairy! here comes Oberon (II.i.58), announces Puck. And here my mistress.
Would that he were gone! (59) retorts the preachers resume, fairy. And then, king and queen enter. Do they make a grand entry from either side of the stage, magically from the air, with a train of followers, or simply alone? The scene has allowed for a tremendous range of interpretations, some concentrating on the two principals, some surrounding them with troops of followers, many including the how often should in a paper, Indian Prince. Nonexistent in the play and seeming to symbolize Oberon's drive for dominance over Titania—or perhaps his jealousy of her—the prince materializes into an actual character. Not listed in the dramatis personae, he takes on a life of a wallflower, his own in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century productions, including the Reinhardt film. Although mystery surrounds him in the text—we don't know his age, his size, or his exact identity, except as he is described variously by Puck, Titania, and Oberon—he acquires theatrical substance on stage, frequently wearing a turban or carried in on a golden cushion.
22. Suggesting the importance of this character to the relationship between the fairy king and should in a queen are the stage directions written in pencil on the interleave to Kean's prompt: Fairies enter dancing round Titania. Resume! 2 Bodies of Oberon's Train, — enter separately, . . . then 2 parties of Titania 's — chorus first, who make an avenue of boughs, then a second troop of smaller fairies trip down through them, — on tiptoes — and run back thro avenue, — down L[eft] then round avenue and follow Titania with Indian Boy tripping down through avenue, — Oberon entering same time down slote, R[ight] (MND 9, interleaf facing p. 21). In another production, a dance of twelve fairies precedes Titania's entry in a car drawn by swans and accompanied by the Indian Prince. You Quote In A Research Paper! Paralleling their entry, Oberon descends to essays meet them ( MND 20, verso of interleaf facing p. 12). A sketch indicates the placement of fairies, with Titania, Oberon, and the Prince at center front. The presence of an actual prince also allows the director editorial commentary as he emphasizes the different functions of men and women, father and mother. Thus Titania is usually portrayed in you quote paper, a maternal relationship with that young child whereas Oberon is e-thesis ukm, presented as giving the youth space and training for manhood. Consider, for example, the Reinhardt film where the young prince is practically smothered by attention from Titania's fairies and elves whereas later he is free to in a research paper accompany Oberon.
Even in criticism, this reference to the prince colors the perspective. C.L. Barber, for aspirin example, writing of how often should paper, Titania's later development, considers her giving up of the preschoolers, child as a maturing process. But one may question whether or not it is the child, as an actual person, or the symbolic importance of the debate between Titania and Oberon and its later outcome that is really at issue in in a research, the play especially since the prince's exclusion from the text helps stress the equality between king and queen. Before turning to their actual verbal sparring, I want to cite other theatrical factors that further vitiated the strength of the debate, attracting eyes to the stage and ears to the music rather than attention to the words. I refer to the persistence of lavish musical accompaniments to productions. In fact, whether it was coincidence or not, the mid-nineteenth-century productions—beginning with that of Elizabeth Vestris and visual Charles Mathews in 1840, which included Mendelssohn's music—were highly successful and included more of the text than had previously appeared on how often should you quote, stage. Discussing that production, one commentator suggested, It would be an unpardonable mistake to any future performances .. . to omit . Perks! . . Mendelssohn's music ( MND. *NCP 18—, p. Should You Quote Research! 6). 23 In Reinhardt's film, fairies, accompanied by observation essays preschoolers, the orchestral sounds of Mendelssohn's music, dance in on a cloud that spirals around a tree. Later productions, like that of the should in a, famous Old Vic Company in preachers resume, 1954 that featured Robert Helpmann and how often in a research paper Moira Shearer, both professional dancers, as Oberon and e-thesis ukm Titania, also testify to the pervasiveness of a musical tradition and the emphasis on dance for the two principal fairies. Should You Quote Paper! . . . Finally, along with the music and the young prince, one stage property worked its magic on lab report, the audience: the in a research, mushroom from which Puck eventually emerged.
The young Ellen Terry as Puck, for example, lay hidden in such a mushroom in Kean's production, springing into view as the essays preschoolers, mushroom rose. Following Kean's lead, Daly's Puck, hidden by a mushroom, was discovered when a fairy's wand brushed a plant (1888, MND 5, p. 32). Featuring complex machinery, Burton's production too had Puck spring from how often you quote in a research paper, a mushroom that rose from a trap then sank back down ( MND 21, p. 15 and facing interleaf). 24 The rival Barry production featured a different but equally enticing, entry for Puck: A romantic Landscape, through which is seen a stream of water. Synthesising Aspirin From Wintergreen! (By moonlight.) A bush in should you quote, the c[enter]. MUSIC — A troop of Fairies are discovered grouped. A Fairy touches the bush with her wand, it opens and visual communication Puck comes out; the bush disappears through the stage. Supplementing this text, the directions on the interleaf specifically place Puck inside the flower piece which then changes to how often should research paper a peacock. Accompanied by music, the first fairy trips on from [the side entrance] . . . round the e-thesis ukm, flower waving the wand. The flower opens and should discovers Puck in a Peacock Car (with wand).
More music sounds as Puck descends from the car. Eventually, a trap bell rings, the flower closes then descends into a trap (interleaf facing p. Lab Report Table! 11). I cite these extensive productions because they characterize what occurred on stage once the fuller text was presented. Whether this was because of the accompaniment of Mendelssohn's music or because the combination of the text with that music appealed so strongly to Victorians we do not know. Clearly, however, language and the verbal conflicts between men and women characters, whether fairy or not, were overshadowed by productions. Nor do the many references to a full text, as in research, the case of Phelps's production, which boasted of having omitted only synthesising aspirin from oil of three hundred lines, alter the in a, general impression of the acted play. Title! If these varied staged versions seemed to promise new perspectives, they failed to deliver; they still concentrated on how often research paper, the magic and observation essays wistfulness of the should in a research paper, dream. Synthesising From Wintergreen! Moreover, extant promptbooks testify to a disproportionate number of excisions of lines that blur Shakespeare's portrayal of the inequities that women faced whether in the real or unreal fairy world. For it is in the unreal world of the fairies that the dramatist most clearly questions the patriarchal structure.
Despite the extravagance of how often you quote in a research paper, their entrances in different productions, Oberon's and Titania's opening lines sound more like those of humans than of fairies or otherworldly beings: Ill met by moonlight, proud Titania (60), asserts proud Oberon. We then encounter the queen of the synthesising aspirin oil of, fairies whom Shakespeare has endowed with dramatic and evocative poetry. Unlike the other women thus far presented, Titania has a sure sense of self-worth and an independence of spirit. Hippolyta was presented as defeated but enigmatic, Hermia as a challenge to how often should you quote research the rules of her society, and Helena as a self-doubting person, questioning her own worth. But in Titania Shakespeare offers a portrait of visual communication, a queen, someone reliant on no one but herself for you quote in a research her power. E-thesis Ukm! Her answer to Oberon in her opening lines rings with contemporaneity: What, jealous Oberon? Fairies, skip hence— I have forsworn his bed and company. Why need a fairy assert she has forsworn another fairy's bed? Since when do fairies discuss such mundane matters?
Moreover, Oberon carries the discussion one step further by clarifying their relationship with one another: Am not I thy lord? (63) he asks. Then I must be thy lady (64) she asserts before accusing him of infidelity with various women. In his recent book Road to Divorce: England 1530-1987, Lawrence Stone notes that until recently—but particularly in the early period covered by this book—all women of childbearing age were in a state of constant anxiety about their bodies. Should You Quote Research Paper! They worried about whether they were pregnant (8) and about such things as the possibility of resume, dying in should research, childbirth, of coming to term, and of having a well child. Titania, being a fairy, has no such worry although her conflict with Oberon has to do with the child of a mortal who died in childbirth. His mother was a vot'ress of my order (123), explains Titania. For her sake do I rear up the boy; / And for her sake I will not part with him (136-37). Moreover, in recent studies of women's writings of the aspirin oil of, period, we become aware not only how often should you quote research of women's quest for communication divorce and of the problems they faced in how often in a research, confronting their husbands but also of the resume, real fears attending childbirth (Otten).
Titania's opening lines to Oberon may well have had specific resonances for how often you quote in a research paper Shakespeare's audience. The phrase separation from bed and board was applied at the time to a legitimate form of divorce, whether as'de facto' grants of permission to remarry or merely following church ordinance that allowed a form of divorce but forbade remarriages (Stone, L., 304). Although Titania, of course, had no particular plans to remarry, her language mimics that of the time, with, however, a twist—an assertion of her rights vis-a-vis an e-thesis ukm, adulterous husband. How Often You Quote! Nor does Oberon's listing of her less-than-faithful exploits affect her decision to foreswear his bed and company. According to Stone, the pattern changed in the 1640s and 50s, which may explain an altered reaction to this section of text. He writes: The 1640s and 1650s were a period of disorganization and institutional chaos in of being a wallflower essay, the church. The ecclesiastical courts ceased to function in the early 1640s and in 1646 church control over marriage was abolished, authority being shifted in theory to secular authorities. But the how often should in a research paper, bulk of the population seems either to of being a wallflower title have found ways to be married clandestinely by the old rituals of the Church of England, or were married by non-conformist clergy of their own religious persuasion, or reverted to marriages by verbal contract. As a result of this confusion, when the ecclesiastical courts were restored in 1660 they found themselves faced with an unprecedented torrent of petitions for separation which had been pent up for over a decade. (308) Interestingly, what Shakespeare is doing here is using the vocabulary of divorce without presenting the actual situation.
Moreover, unlike the usual separation between husband and how often you quote in a research paper wife of the time, this separation is instituted by the wife. Visual Communication Essays! The dramatist then interweaves the experience of mortals, specifically women, with that of the fairy queen. During the nineteenth century, the line referring to bed and company was often deleted. You Quote Paper! It disappeared from the Charles Kean printed text ( MND 9) and was crossed through in the Beerbohm Tree prompt ( MND 7). On the other hand, Garrick and Colman retained this line ( MND 19) although slashing so much material on either side to make room for visual communication musical airs that the line's implications probably had little effect on the audience.
In that text, the accusations by how often should in a research, fairy king and lab report table queen refer merely to their specific favorites within the context of this play—Titania's preference for Theseus and Oberon's for the bouncing Amazon (70). However, Titania's full speeches, although couched in fairy terms, offer insights into the imperfect relationship between men and women. Describing the conflict between her and Oberon, she begins by mentioning jealousy: These are the forgeries of jealousy; And never, since the middle summer's spring,
Met we on hill, in dale, forest, or mead, By paved fountain or by rushy brook. Or in the beached margent of the sea, To dance our ringlets to the whistling wind, But with thy brawls thou hast disturb'd our sport. The speech continues for thirty-six lines, but has usually been reduced to six, or even four. The remnant simply accuses Oberon of disturbing the gatherings of the fairies with his brawls whenever the two have met (87). How Often Should In A! As critics have frequently noted, the speech gives us a sense of of being a wallflower essay, Titania's breadth and how often should in a paper sensitivity, connecting her with an Eden or a classical world of the gods, or even with nature deities of rustic sixteenth-century England. She refers to the effect of the dissension between her and table Oberon on the elements, The ox hath . . . stretched his yoke in how often paper, vain, / The plowman lost his sweat . Perks Of Being A Wallflower Title! . . / The fold stands empty in should you quote in a paper, the drowned field / And crows are fatted with the murrion flock (93-97). Internal rhyme, the repetition of sounds, and the development of images characterize the pattern.
Her concern for the maintenance of the e-thesis ukm, rhythms in the animal world extends to how often in a the human world as well. Essays! She decries the effect of their arguments on the normal flow of the seasons and on human life. The human mortals want their winter here; No night is how often you quote research paper, now with hymn or carol blest. . . The spring, the perks title, summer. The childing autumn, angry winter, change.
Their wonted liveries; and the mazed world. By their increase, now knows not which is which. Images of nature's gifts and blights vie with one another, investing her speech with cosmic concerns beyond merely trading accusations with Oberon. Should You Quote In A Paper! When, later, she explains why she will not relinquish the child, she describes his mother, with whom she laughed and gossip'd. 25 Titania's lines—we have laugh'd to see the sails conceive / And grow big-bellied with the wanton wind (128-29)—suggestively describe the pregnant woman herself. They too disappear, the verbal inferences coming too close to nature, pregnancy, and women's physical appearance. 26 Whittling down the lines narrows this portrait of Titania; she then more closely parallels Oberon who in this section has only brief comments. 27 Her short complaint about his disturbing their games is countered by his insistent query Why should Titania cross her Oberon? / I do but beg a little changeling boy, / To be my henchman (119-21). Reinhardt's film cuts even further. None of Titania's lines remain except her response to Oberon's request for the changeling boy: Set your heart at rest; / The fairy land buys not the child of me (121-22).
The scene's focus changes to the Indian boy. Even when they retain practically all of the preachers, text, however, productions may alter the how often you quote in a, power of Titania's lines by preachers, stage directions, as did Peter Brook's in the wonderfully unisex-looking work. The performance had an exuberance and how often should originality that captivated audiences. It also captured some of the attitudes of the 1960s and 1970s, as a glance at the Authorized Acting Edition testifies, raising questions about the Oberon-Titania relationship that one might even have missed in watching the play. Resume! Here, for example, is a detailed description of what went on during this scene of their first meeting which begins with Titania's crossing down stage center and kneeling (23a) before Oberon when she refers to their brawls. Later during the speech, Oberon goes down behind Titania (23a) and, as the directions continue, she gets up, hands out. Oberon puts hands around her waist with wand (24a). In talking about the hoary headed frosts she puts her hands over Oberon's. And at the lines and the mazed world / by their increase now know not which is which (24b) the stage direction reads, Oberon's hands on Titania's breasts, with wand. Titania's arms out (24a). As the scene continues, one sees more of physical sexual interaction between them until finally at her decision not to give him the boy, she pushes Oberon away.
The interpretation seems unrelated to the language but rather offers a subtext contradicting her assertive speeches. The comments accompanying the promptbook offer a partial explanation of this treatment of Titania. Brook had chosen to double the roles of Titania/Hippolyta and should you quote research paper Oberon/Theseus. Lab Report Table! Alan Howard, who played Oberon/Theseus, discusses the point of view towards the relationship between his roles and the joint Titania/Hippolyta role: At the should in a, beginning of the perks a wallflower essay title, play, Theseus/Oberon is worried about the moon being gone and that his desires are, in consequence, bottled up. And Hippolyta/Titania says: Don't worry.
Another moon will come in. Wait, and it will all be fine again. Her kind of intensity is toward her knowledge of should in a research paper, herself as a woman . Observation Essays Preschoolers! . . in terms of whatever it is that women do that men don't . Should Paper! Theseus/Oberon has somehow got to explain his case. (41, emphasis added) Howard's comment indicates a perception of preachers, Titania as inexplicable other although her language clearly expresses her dismay at the destructiveness of paper, their conflict. Oberon simply isn't listening. Visual Communication Essays! What is exciting about the should you quote in a paper, play, however, is the way Shakespeare seems to be applying what he has been hearing, or observing, in essays, the real world to this fantasy couple, embedding a contemporaneity within an otherworldly framework. You Quote Research Paper! 28. After her departure, Oberon vows, Thou shalt not from this grove / Till I torment thee for this injury (146-47), indicating a vindictiveness as well as a desire to exert power over her. And here, perhaps because of the implication of equality suggested first by the conversation between the of being a wallflower essay title, fairy and Puck and later by the confrontation between Oberon and Titania, we are unprepared for the trick he plays on her.
Shakespeare's audience, however, may well have expected it, since Titania was behaving like the rebellious, dominant, independent wife who, according to Stone, might be breaking the code of the social group concerning sexual or power relations within the should you quote in a research paper, family (3). Perks Of Being Title! Thus a husband-beating wife, a passively henpecked husband, a couple married despite gross disparities in age, a cuckold, an adulterous wife . . . were all liable to be treated to . Research! . . humiliating demonstrations of public disapproval (3). Titania suffers just such a humiliating demonstration later on when she falls in love with the first thing that she sees upon awakening, a mortal with an a wallflower essay title, ass's head—the translated Bottom. By endowing the situation with such human qualities and giving Titania wonderful lines, however, the dramatist may also be questioning the justice of Oberon's action especially where he seems to be motivated by revenge. When he directs Puck to fetch the magic herb called love-in-idleness (II.i.168), the fairy king explains: The juice of it on sleeping eyelids laid. Will make or man or woman madly dote. Upon the next live creature that it sees. He will squeeze the juice into her eyes and eventually defeat the play's most independent woman.
In the complex interweaving of how often research paper, plots, he will also, almost casually, exercise his power benevolently. Although some critics have perceived Oberon as an even-handed ruler who insists on establishing a certain kind of obedience to his rule, his actions here seem arbitrary and tinged with jealousy. When later on he acts more generously towards Helena, attempting to change her fate from that of cast-off woman to desired one, Oberon's actions seem to come almost as an afterthought to his more driven desire for revenge on Titania. Having sent Puck on aspirin wintergreen, his way, Oberon, alone in the forest, sees Demetrius and how often paper Helena approaching. 1 am invisible, he announces to his audience, as Hamlet's and perks essay Banquo's ghosts do not; rather on-stage characters provide the clues to the emptiness of the space even while the invisible character appears on stage.
Alan Dessen discusses the implications of this not seeing or blindness of characters on how often should paper, stage as often metaphoric for the blindness or inability of the characters on stage to see and understand (130-55). E-thesis Ukm! Here, however, Shakespeare denies us this metaphor by how often you quote in a research, having Oberon proclaim his invisibility. The dramatist, skilled in embedding stage directions in his text, chooses, instead, to characterize Oberon through this more direct statement, possibly with the aim of literalizing him, just as the mechanicals, later on, so carefully literalize their actions. Observing Helena trailing Demetrius, the fairy king reacts with sympathy to her plight; he would have Demetrius sue for her love. The magic herb holds the key.
What are we to e-thesis ukm make of Oberon's reaction here? If Titania is aggressive in rejecting him, Helena is aggressive in pursuing Demetrius. Ironically, Oberon, who would have the fairy queen exhibit the kind of self-abasement practiced by Helena, expresses great sympathy for the mortal woman and later sends Puck to find the Athenians while the fairy king himself will anoint Titania's eyes. In one of the four calls for music in A Midsummer Night's Dream, a play usually drenched in music on stage, she has just been lulled to sleep by her fairy troop. Come, now a roundel and a fairy song. . In A Research Paper! . . sing me now asleep (II.ii.1,7), Titania directs, becoming vulnerable to from oil of Oberon's scheme. Meanwhile, Puck, having sought Athenians in the forest and found only the how often research, sleeping Hermia and observation essays Lysander, squeezes the magic juice into the eyes of the wrong man. Now Helena, the rejected Helena, is forced to face a new role—that of the chosen one, the pursued one, when Lysander, upon you quote, being awakened, expresses his undying love for her. This is difficult for a woman whose self-image has already been shaped. Speaking in soliloquy moments before his sudden and observation essays inexplicable pursuit, she weighs her virtues and strengths and finds them nonexistent. Research Paper! She compares herself first with Hermia then indulges in e-thesis ukm, close self-analysis:
How came her eyes so bright? Not with salt tears; If so, my eyes are oft'ner wash'd than hers. No, no; I am as ugly as a bear; For beasts that meet me run away for fear.
Therefore no marvel though Demetrius. Do, as a monster, fly my presence thus. Helena doesn't like what she sees. Should You Quote! Although the speech continues developing her profile, it too, like so many earlier speeches by the women, frequently loses its subtlety and color through excision. 29 Only two lines remain; they function as a bridge between her self-hatred and her discovery of Lysander. The full speech, however, explains her astonishment at his actions, and her inability to find any excuse for them. E-thesis Ukm! Lacking any sense of self-worth, she is bewildered. The play, however, provides a rationale. According to Lysander, one needs maturity to how often should you quote in a research appreciate Helena's worth. Reason must be the guide:
The will of preschoolers, man is by how often should paper, his reason sway'd; And reason says you are the worthier maid. He then expands on this, explaining, Things growing are not ripe until their season, / so I, being young, till now ripe not to reason (117-18). The scene also permits the dramatist to differentiate further between the two young women because even in these mere sketches, he assigns specific qualities to each. Aspirin! But once again major chunks of text are cut for how often you quote in a paper the stage, eliminating all but the most obvious differences—the women's varying appeals to men. 30. Illustrating the effectiveness of the magic juice, the brief scene between Helena and Lysander in its complete form anticipates the sharp reaction Titania will experience. Because so much criticism has interpreted the fairy queen's later actions when under the synthesising oil of, juice's spell as truly representative of her underlying feelings, one could test the validity of such a theory by how often should you quote in a, applying it to Lysander, the first to be transformed. Does he really mean it when, responding to e-thesis ukm Helena's reminder of his love for Hermia, he refers to his former love scornfully as the in a research, surfeit of the sweetest things (137) and undesirable? Since he later returns to her, one must believe that this is merely his manner of coping, under the of being title, spell's influence.
Although some critics consider Oberon's potion a symbol of love, as it applies to Titania it appears to be more a symbol of power, or at least of revenge for her failure to release the child. In direct response to her unwillingness to acquiesce to his demand, Oberon induces the spell: The next thing then she waking looks upon. (Be it on lion, bear, or wolf, or bull, On meddling monkey, or on busy ape), She shall pursue it with the soul of love.
No handsome youth or prince charming but rather a list of animals is intended as her fate. In fact some promptbooks—for the 1856 [MND 9] and Tree 1900 [MND 7] productions—excise these references to animals. In Garrick's production, she is never seen enamor'd of an ass (IV.i.77). Instead, the audience must rely on Puck's report: My mistress with a patched fool is in love. Near to how often should you quote paper her close and consecrated bower. This clown with others had rehearsed a play. Intended for great Theseus' nuptial day. When, starting from her bank of mossy down, Titania waked, and straightway loved the clown.
(III.i.2-7; Garrick in Pedicord, III:176) References to the ass have disappeared; the substitute terms patched fool and preschoolers clown soften Titania's fate. Through the complex interweaving of plot strands in which fairies, tradesmen, and high-born characters from the how often research paper, world of Athens intermingle, Shakespeare can raise questions about women's roles. The dramatist draws on the third group, the visual communication, mechanicals, for how often paper the ass who will humiliate, humble, and subdue the fairy queen. Table! Entering the enchanted forest to rehearse their play, Pyramus and Thisbe, these comic characters, hoping to perform before the Duke on should in a, his wedding day, inadvertently participate in Oberon's trickery. Reacting variously to the idea of performing—some with trepidation about learning the words, others protesting assignment of visual, their roles—one in the group plunges into the adventure. He would play every role.
Quickly we become acquainted with Nick Bottom, the research paper, weaver, who would shout like a bear and weep like a woman. Table! He will, eventually, bray like an in a paper, ass, a role not in their skit, but one he will take on synthesising wintergreen, in his unexpected adventure with the fairy queen. Doomed to awaken when some vile thing is near whom she will take for her love, Titania hears the how often you quote in a, braying Bottom—anointed with an ass's head by perks a wallflower essay title, Puck—and marvels at his musicality. How Often In A Research Paper! She finds his music beautiful and his person appealing. But then she has been blinded by synthesising, Oberon's magic spell.
In the Ciulei production, she reacts to that juice by how often paper, screaming as if hit by lightning. Few productions, however, dramatize the evil inherent in this type of resume, magic. Rather, they concentrate on Bottom and, salaciously, the humor of Titania's plight. More than anywhere else, it is in how often you quote in a research, the effect of preachers resume, Oberon's trick on Titania, however, that one feels the tragedy for the women and the insights the dramatist gives us into the ways in which patriarchy manipulates women's options. This is particularly true when Titania continues to perceive herself as in control and powerful. You Quote In A Research Paper! During her first meeting with Bottom, the enchanted Titania praises his wisdom as well as beauty and musical skill, declaring that she loves him. When he wants only to leave the wood, she warns: Out of this wood do not desire to lab report table go; Thou shalt remain here, whether thou wilt or no. I am a spirit of no common rate; The summer still doth tend upon my state.
The lines underscore the ironic contrast between her perception of herself and her actual situation. Like Lysander, she is trying to cope. Some versions eliminate her reference to power: whether thou wilt or no. In many texts, her whole last speech, beginning Come wait upon him; lead him to my bower, is excised. Thus audiences do not know that she entertains him in her bower, or that the moon, when she weeps, weeps every little flower, / Lamenting some enforced chastity (199-200). You Quote In A! As a result, the full implication of Oberon's trick on Titania is lost to the audience.
31. Sometimes a critic will overlook Oberon's role, concentrating instead on the effect of the magic potion on Titania. Jan Kott, for example, not only stresses the eroticism and harshness embedded in the text but also translates this eroticism in terms of the fairy queen. E-thesis Ukm! To him, her invitation to should in a research Bottom exemplifies woman's passion and hidden desire, rather than illustrating the male (Oberon's) exercise of power. Analyzing the communication essays, staging of those scenes between Titania and Bottom, Kott also decries the tendency to play them for laughs rather than present them as black humor, an English kind of humour, 'humeur noir', cruel and scatological, as it often is in Swift (228).
Most revealing, however, is should in a paper, Kott's final comment about the scene, as he describes Titania: The slender, tender and preachers resume lyrical Titania longs for you quote paper animal love. Puck and visual essays Oberon call the transformed Bottom a monster. The frail and how often should you quote in a paper sweet Titania drags the monster to bed, almost by force. Perks Of Being Essay! (228) This is the how often should paper, effect of the magic juice.
Kott continues his male fantasy—the fantasy of women never wanting to admit to themselves that they really like being raped. Table! In fact, Kott inverts this: This is the lover she wanted and dreamed off (sic); only she never wanted to admit it, even to herself. Sleep frees her from inhibitions. How Often Should! The monstrous ass is being raped by the poetic Titania, while she still keeps on chattering about flowers. .. . Of all the characters in the play Titania enters to the fullest extent the dark sphere of sex where there is no more beauty and ugliness; there is only infatuation and essays liberation. Should You Quote! (228)
Obviously to Kott, beauty and ugliness vanish before infatuation and liberation. Fuseli's eighteenth-century illustration captures much of the implied eroticism in this scene although it differs in e-thesis ukm, point of view from Kott's. .. How Often In A Research! . In the painting, dominated by the two major characters, a large nude male figure, topped by a donkey head with large ears and sitting crossed legged with his arms clasping his knees, is essays preschoolers, being caressed by Titania, her nude breast amply visible beneath the outstretched arm around his head. Surrounding the two are small insect-headed nude males, their penises visible, and small fairies looking like flirtatious women, their breasts seductively apparent although wearing female garb. While Fuseli indicates the how often should in a research, eroticism in the scene, bringing in the whole forest and suggesting, too, the male appetite, Kott concentrates only on Titania, perceiving her as a voracious female. Neither acknowledges the e-thesis ukm, idea of her being tricked. C. L. You Quote Research! Barber provides a totally different perspective. To him, the visual essays, Titania scenes with Bottom reveal a growing up, as I mentioned earlier: It is when the flower magic leads Titania to find a new object that she gives up the how often you quote in a research paper, child (who goes now from her bower to the man's world of Oberon). So here is lab report, another sort of you quote research paper, change of e-thesis ukm, heart that contributes to the expression of what is consummated in marriage, this one a part of the rhythm of adult life, as opposed to how often should you quote in a the change in the young lovers that goes with growing up. ( FC 137) Again the question arises of whether Titania experiences a change of heart or is victimized by Oberon and visual essays therefore no natural growth occurs, merely a change depriving her of her former sense of self. Nor does her subsequent awakening offer confidence about adult life for women.
Deluded, she courts the ass-headed Bottom, taking him to her bower. Should You Quote In A Research Paper! Meanwhile Oberon plans his next move: I'll to my queen and beg her Indian boy; And then I will her charmed eye release. From monster's view, and all things shall be peace. But shall they be at essay peace? Or worse, shall Titania's spirit have been broken? In The Taming of the Shrew, Kate says, My tongue will tell the how often in a research, anger of my heart / Or else my heart concealing it will break (IV.iii.77-78). E-thesis Ukm! Shakespeare recognizes the effect on the human heart of bottling up resentment. How Often Should You Quote Research! 32 Although Titania is not human, her eloquent expression of of being a wallflower essay, anger early in the play leads us to expect a strong reaction when her sight is restored.
But no such response occurs. Instead, she cares neither about the Indian boy, nor the trick that has been played on her, but only about the humiliation of having been in love with an ass. Are we to how often should in a paper think of her as resembling the nonhuman witches in perks of being a wallflower title, Macbeth whose deeds do not upset them? Or, since so much of her speech sounds human, must we think of how often should, her as resigned to a power structure she cannot alter? After Oberon removes the spell, Titania, with great equanimity, asks: My Oberon, what visions have I seen! / Methought I was enamor'd of an ass (IV.i.76-77). Nor does Oberon try to soften the answer. There lies your love (78), he asserts, pointing to the transformed Bottom. In a Daly edition (1888) [ MND 5] believed to have been used for the production . . . tour of 1895-96, Oberon's There lies your love (77) is accompanied by the stage direction sneering Puck titters (61), reinforcing a sense of lab report, Oberon's power, his delight in having played this trick on her, but more importantly, of a director's point of view.
Undoubtedly he reflected the attitudes of his time. Unfortunately, as we keep discovering, this delight in how often you quote research, seeing a strong woman bested is not confined to a bygone age. Attempting briefly to understand, Titania asks, How came these things to pass? / O, how mine eyes do loathe his visage now! (78-79). But Oberon offers no direct answer. Instead, he orders Puck to take off this head [the ass's head] (80). Then, continuing to exert his power over Titania, the fairy king directs: Titania, music call, and strike more dead. Than common sleep of all these five the sense. She complies: Music, ho, music, such as charmeth sleep! (86). Finally, as they fly off together, she once more returns to the subject of Bottom:
Come, my lord, and in our flight, Tell me how it came this night. That I sleeping here was found, With these mortals on the ground. But we never know if she receives an answer. Although little has been written about Titania's character disintegration from a fiery, concerned fairy to a compliant partner, her change and lack of any clearly defined personality in lab report, the last scenes illustrate, on in a research paper, the one hand, the destructiveness of Oberon's action and, on essays, the other, an inconsistency in characterization.
Too easily the richness of her personality as well as her intensity vanish. How Often Should Research Paper! Writing of the linguistic and dramatic complexities and synthesising aspirin from contradictions in should, the play, Jay Halio observes that. [they] keep us from simplistic reductions of experienced situations, specifically the play's mirrored experiences of reality . . . and force us out of. an artificial prison that R. P. Blackmur has . described as a tendency to a wallflower essay title set artistic unity as a chief criterion of excellence. (145) Borrowing from Halio but concentrating on how language defines and sometimes creates ambiguities concerning characters, particularly the female characters, I find in Titania either an inconsistency or a tragic transformation. How Often Should You Quote Paper! Since this is a comedy one must consider the former as more likely. Examining an early nineteenth-century musical version of the synthesising aspirin from oil of, play that attempts to inject sentimental logic to the Oberon-Titania relationship, reconciling the behavior of Oberon through some staging and language, one realizes that Shakespeare probably intentionally allowed the how often should research, ambiguity in of being, characterization to stand. Reynolds's 1816 version provides an easy alternative. Should! Oberon speaks: I'll to my Queen, and beg her Indian boy!
Not, not so much from love of him, as her, I court this contest,—I'd put her to the trial— If she refuse, I know her love is on the wane;— But, if she yield! Ah! that she may! and still— (Prompt MND 18, 8 p. 40)
Music then is played. (Clouds descend and resume open.—A Fairy is discovered, who chaunts the following lines) Fairy. Oberon! no more despair! Titania wafts him to your care! Borne by each propitious gale, From India's shores her gallies sail. Nor storms, nor quicksands can they meet, For Zephyrs fan the Fairy fleet! And silv'ry seas the treasure bear,— The Boy!—The Indian Boy is near! (Clouds begin to ascend again.)
This finale of act 2 in should you quote research, the Reynolds play confirms the portrait of an Oberon driven by love rather than jealousy and of a Titania who, on her own initiative, relinquishes the visual communication, boy. You Quote In A Paper! 34 Shakespeare, however, fails to of being essay provide any easy logical development to the Titania-Oberon relationship in the closing scenes. Should You Quote In A! In fact, the difference between this version and Shakespeare's play reminds one of the difference between Gibber's Richard III and Shakespeare's, between simple blacks and whites as compared with an extraordinary range of greys, between directness and ambiguity. In A Midsummer Night 's Dream, the dramatist raises questions concerning women and the power structure imposed on them, even when he supplies no easy answers. Having showed us Titania in her strength, he seems to turn to lab report other concerns, returning her to her fairy role. Should You Quote In A Research! The young Athenian women provide another example of the power of patriarchy over women's lives. Never confused in their affections for the two young men, Hermia and Helena gain insights into themselves and into aspirin from oil of the unpredictability of male behavior as a result of their experiences in the forest. Differing from the should paper, two young men, the women never have their eyes anointed with Oberon's magic juice; nevertheless, their relationships with the two youths as well as with one another change.
Hermia must face rejection by synthesising aspirin from wintergreen, both young men because Puck, partially correcting his error, finally anoints the right lover's eyes. Suddenly both Demetrius and should in a Lysander are amorously pursuing Helena. Desired by from wintergreen, both youths, she believes neither. How Often! Nor does her earlier passion for Demetrius convince her of his sincerity at this moment. She accuses them of mocking her. Disbelief, anger, and hurt mark her words: Can you not hate me, as I know you do, / But you must join in souls to mock me too? (III.ii.149-50). Changing places and observation relationships, the in a, women find their friendship turned into rivalry and their dispute quickly reduced to name calling, hair pulling, and physical conflict. Intermittently they recollect a happy, earlier time together before this blinding in the woods. Much cutting of preachers, lines, however, reduces this section to the outline of the contest between the men, diminishing any sharp character definition of the women. How Often In A Paper! Large sections of perks a wallflower essay title, Hermia's reprimand to Demetrius disappear.
Gone too is Helena's sensitive description of their childhood friendship when they sewed together sitting on one cushion, / .. . As if our hands, our sides, voices and should you quote in a minds / Had been incorporate. So we grew together, / Like to a double cherry, seeming parted (205-9). Much later Shakespeare would develop this recollection of an early innocent friendship ruined by resume, sexual jealousy, transmuting it into a description of the friendship between two men, Leontes and Polixenes in The Winter's Tale. Should Research! Seldom heard on lab report, the stage, Helena's lines again individualize her, as she accuses her friend of conspiring with the men. Characteristically, Hermia counters with anger and should you quote paper frustration. Because both suitors are fiercely pursuing Helena, Puck must lead them Up and down, up and down, (396) to keep them apart, and because the role has its own magic, the scenes in the forest with the blinded lovers allow for farce, action, and humor.
The two men pursue one another in the wood while Puck blankets it with fog and mimics each man's voice to mislead and confuse his opponent. Finally exhausted, each of the four young people falls asleep, allowing Puck to clear Lysander's vision. The dramatist then switches focus from the preachers, youths to their elders. Hippolyta, last seen at the play's opening when her silence left questions of interpretation open, now enters with Theseus. Discord seems to have vanished. But here, unlike the Titania-Oberon exit when the in a research, fairy queen seemed so muted and transformed, the Amazon queen exhibits sparks of individuality as she jokingly debates the relative merits of Theseus's hounds. Stumbling on visual communication, the sleeping young lovers, the older couple, upon awakening the how often in a research paper, youths, discovers two matched pairs. Oberon had never removed the magic juice from Demetrius's eyes; he will no longer pursue Hermia. Theseus's perspective alters. Rather than being the rigid, unbending Duke of Athens, he overrules Egeus's sentence on Hermia. Essays! Confused and uncertain, the couples leave the forest.
Bottom then awakens, the ass's head removed, and how often should you quote research the spell lifted. In a soliloquy emphasizing the contrast between his and a wallflower essay Titania's responses to you quote in a their strange interlude, he marvels: I have had a most rare vision, I have had a dream, past the lab report table, wit of in a research paper, man to say what dream it was (IV.i.204-6). His speech, as we know, parodies St. Paul's I Corinthians ii.9 ff. If Bottom's vision has been expanded, Titania's has been destroyed. Looking at him, she had reacted with revulsion. Preachers Resume! Thus, again, the how often in a paper, victimization of a woman is implied. As the play moves towards its denoument, the roles of the women characters have begun to shrink or change. Hippolyta opens the e-thesis ukm, fifth act with the conciliatory 'Tis strange, my Theseus, that these lovers speak of (V.i.I, emphasis added). Her term of address, like Titania's lines when she flies away with Oberon, reveals acceptance of her position although as the how often in a paper, scene develops she is the one woman who constantly speaks out.
Hermia and of being title Helena, so vocal earlier, are strangely silent during the bridal entertainment hosted by Theseus. In contrast, the young bridegrooms, Lysander and Demetrius, along with Theseus speak a good deal, deriding the entertainment by should you quote in a, Bottom and his friends. E-thesis Ukm! Here we watch the farcical production as the actors strive with their lines. The prologue begins the performance: If we offend, it is you quote in a paper, with our good will. That you should think, we come not to offend, But with good will. But he is soon interrupted by Theseus, followed by Lysander: He hath rid his prologue like a rough colt; he knows not the stop (119-20). Hippolyta too contributes: Indeed he hath play'd on essays preschoolers, this prologue like a child on a recorder—a sound, but not in government (122-24).
Trying to outdo one another, the should you quote, commentators keep interrupting the action as Pyramus exclaims against his fate: O grim-look'd night! O night with hue so black! O night, which ever art when day is not! O night, O night! alack, alack, alack. As the play-within-a-play progresses and both Pyramus and Thisby commit suicide in a case of preachers resume, mistaken supposition, much like the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, the interruptions come more often and are more incisive. Whether it is research, Hippolyta protesting, I am a-weary of this moon. Synthesising From Wintergreen! Would he would change! (251-52) of a character portraying moon, or Theseus's response, It appears . . .that he is on the wane (153-54), promptbooks, including that of the 1955 Old Vic version, indicate that the lines of the auditors are frequently cut.
35 Meanwhile, sitting on the sidelines, the two younger women do not participate. Is it an in a research paper, accident that for so long, in the early years, it was Pyramus and Thisbe or other abbreviated versions that were produced? 36 Abstracted from its place in the context of A Midsummer Night's Dream, Pyramus and Thisbe was merely a farcical commentary on lovers who die for love, having been hindered by their parents from of being title, uniting. But as part of the you quote in a research paper, larger whole, the play-withina-play not only mocks the intensity of the Athenian lovers and the price of synthesising from oil of wintergreen, love, but also highlights, through this distancing lens of metadrama, the submissiveness (or at least silence) expected of women in how often should in a, marriage. Perhaps aware of the implication of the young women's silence, Augustin Daly, having given the role of e-thesis ukm, Helena to his favorite actress, Ada Rehan, reassigned many of the interrupting lines to the women. Altering the text and how often you quote in a paper countering its implication of the silent women, Daly gave several of the lines of the commentators to Helena and Hermia, but primarily to Helena, creating in her an assertive personality.
Specifically, the exchange on the moon is assigned to Helena and Hermia, as is another exchange between Hippolyta and Theseus. In fact, Daly's reassignment of e-thesis ukm, lines spotlights the freedom of speech that Hippolyta, of all the how often in a research paper, women in the play, has gained. Did Shakespeare give her these lines because she was, even if won in visual, battle, a former queen and Amazon? Or was the assignment based on her role as Theseus's wife? Hermia and Helena's last speeches occur in the fourth act when, delighted to you quote paper have been united with the men of lab report table, their choice, each marvels at the outcome, Helena still treasuring Demetrius, whom she has found . . . like a jewel (191), Hermia in wonder noting how everything seems double (189). Of all the women characters, Titania has changed the most, accepting her role as Oberon's handmaid. Returning with the fairies, she sings and blesses the newly married couples' beds. No recollection of the votress who died in childbirth mars the blessing. Nor is the Indian boy ever mentioned again. As Stevie Davis observes: When Oberon reclaims his rule, and Theseus leads the characters into the reasserted status quo of the final Act, the issue of the changeling child is laid aside, the mother forgotten, as the play closes around the how often should you quote in a paper, artisans' comedy it contains.
But a reader may not forget nor really forgive the misappropriation of the perks of being a wallflower essay title, boy-child by the law of the fathers, nor is the haunting music of you quote in a paper, Titania's elegy contradicted by a preferable ethic or emotion. Resume! (127-28) Shakespeare's portraits of women here raise questions about the validity of the how often should, political and social structures that limit women's actions. At other times the dramatist challenges accepted notions by creating women characters, such as those in All's Well That Ends Well, who are more capable, clever, and intelligent than their male counterparts. In A Midsummer Night's Dream, he invents basically parallel male and female characters of equivalent ability, then weights the scales in favor of the men, illuminating the obstacles women face. Having presented the visual essays, issues lightly, he then moves on to conventional theatrical treatment in the ending. Nevertheless, one can believe that Shakespeare has painted here a complex work whose inner design has more depth than has yet been captured on stage and how often paper whose implications are still to be realized. Productions still tend to rely on music and exotic settings, frequently avoiding the intensity of the text. Preachers Resume! As John Simon wrote of a production in 1988 at the Public Theatre in New York, decrying its lack of lyricism, What has been added is a lot of samba, bossanova, and Brazilian ambiance that often clashes with what is paper, spoken.
In that late twentieth-century production by A. J. Antoon, an important contemporary director, the text still seems to have been secondary to music and setting. Perhaps an argument for perks essay title the play's still untapped potential lies in the example of the recent revival of Carousel of which one critic wrote: Carousel will be 50 next year, but as of this morning it is the freshest, most innovative musical on Broadway (Richards). You Quote In A Research Paper! Praising its power to explore the darker side of life, another critic called it an Everyman for our time. Oil Of Wintergreen! Whatever A Midsummer Night's Dream might have been planned for in its own time—whether a wedding; a simple entertainment, a vibrant piece of stagecraft to amuse even those who were being examined—in its language, in its questioning of how often, societal values, and in its brief portraits of several women suffering at the whim of essays, a power structure they did not devise, the play holds the how often research paper, potential for being an Everywoman for our time, briefly exploring the darker side of life. On the other hand, it remains for a work like Hamlet to focus more closely on that darkness—on the confusions that face women as well as men in their search for a clearer path in a patriarchal world. 1 Such popular works as Vives's Instructions of a Christian Woman and Whately's A Bride-bush, although slightly later in essays, time (1617), address the obligations of the bride. Love appears on this list.
In speaking of should you quote research paper, marriage and its obligations, he speaks of mutuality, at least obliquely: 6. The mutuali therefore (that wee may speake of them in order) are requyred both of man and wife, though not in an equall measure of both. For in all these common duties, the husband should bee most abundant, knowing that more of every grace is looked for from him, then from the perks a wallflower, weaker vessell. How Often Should You Quote Research! Wee call them not therefore common or mutuali, because both should have a like quantity of them; but because both must have some of all, and the husband most of all. And for these common duties, you must know in generali, that whatsoever is visual communication essays, requyred of all men and how often in a research women, generally towards other, by the Law of Christianity and Charity, as they bee men and synthesising oil of wintergreen neighbors; the same is in an higher degree and larger measure requyred from the husband toward the wife, and from her to him. (6) Unfortunately he then writes of persuasion of a wife to should research yield to the husband's authority, although earlier he wrote of love being a very important ingredient in the relationship.
Yea indeed she must be a monstrous and unwomanly woman, that being drawne by entreatie will not yeeld. Authority is like the arts of Logick and Rhetoricke, that must in e-thesis ukm, speaking be used, and yet concealed: and then they most prevaile when being used, they are least seene. .. . How Often Should You Quote In A Paper! Men that ride horses have a wand and a spurre, both; they will rather set forward their horses with the whisk sound, or perhaps little touch of the lab report table, smal stick, then with the sharpnesse of how often in a, their iron spurre. They proceed not to spurring till their horse be either restie or tiry; and if tiry, that doth more hurt. So the husband should governe his wife, provoke her to accomplish his will with quiet, pleasing and table insinuating termes, rather than open and how often you quote expresse, much lesse violent commandings, unlesse shee bee more then ordinarily unruly. Christ beseecheth his Church most an end, which hee might with most right command. (29) Having finally finished writing of the duties of the husband, Whately then turns to the duties of the wife: The whole duty of the observation, wife is referred to two heads. The first is, to acknowledge her inferiority: the next, to carry her self as inferiour.
First then the wives judgement must be convinced, that she is not her husbands equall, yea that her husband is her better by farre; else there can bee no contentment, either in her heart, or in her house. If shee stand upon termes of how often should in a, equality, much more of being better than he is, the very root of good carriage is withered, and visual essays the fountaine thereof dryed up. In A Paper! (36) 2 The Fairies (1755) was billed as an opera. It is lab report, made up from the first four acts only, of Shakespeare's play and how often should you quote in a research does not include references to Bottom and his troop. Perks A Wallflower! It also includes twenty-eight songs added to the text. Some are from the play, some from other plays or other sources, such as Milton's L'Allegro. It was a success (Stone, MND, 469-72). In 1763 a version of A Midsummer Night's Dream, attributed variously to Garrick and how often should in a Colman but which Stone faults Colman for, appeared for one night and lab report table failed. It was subsequently followed by A Fairy Tale, which consists of two short acts, centering about the Oberon-Titania dispute and includes Bottom and how often should in a research his fellows (Stone, MND, 480-81). For a complete discussion of the synthesising aspirin oil of wintergreen, adaptations variously attributed to David Garrick and should you quote research paper George Colman, see Stone, A Midsummer Night's Dream; and Pedicord and Bergmann, eds.
The Plays of David Garrick, vol. 4, 420-31. Preachers! Depending upon how often should in a paper, which version I am discussing, I refer either to Garrick or Garrick-Colman as the adaptors. 3 The first Pyramus and Thisbe, adapted by Richard Leveridge, 1716, contained their early scenes of planning as well as the observation essays, actual play-within-a-play; the second, adapted by John Frederick Lampe, 1745, retained only the fifth-act production but omitted the court personnel (Hogan, I.339). Departing further from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, but adopting its adventures of the workmen, Charles Johnson, in 1723, inserted a Pyramus and Thisbe comic segment into his version of As You Like It calling his work Love in a Forest (Hogan, I.339). We are not here dealing with Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, merely with bits and how often pieces.
4 Generally, but inconclusively, attributed to Elkanah Settle, its music definitely written by Henry Purcell, The Fairy Queen was a lavish production costing ?3000 ( LS, l:Iv). Its closing was capped by a dance with twenty-four Chineses (Odell, 1:194). 5 The nineteenth-century dedication to massive staging may have contributed to this shift. According to lab report table Gary Jay Williams the transposition of text and the scenic effects may also reflect the you quote research paper, general celebration of empire at the time, with Theseus as the triumphant victor. 6 Reinhardt here drew on his 1927 stage production at the Century theater, in aspirin oil of wintergreen, New York, in which Hippolyta appears with a group of large dogs.
7 These are some of the numbered shots in the script. 8 That script, although designated as Final was not incorporated into how often should you quote the finished film. Nor has any copy of this visual sequence of film—a first reel—been found. Robert H. Ball, in seeking to document this same information, found, in wintergreen, 1971 that no indication of in a research, reels until 15 reel version existed. Aspirin From Wintergreen! This comment appears on how often in a research paper, a chart he made of the different versions, identifying them as R=Reinhardt; K=Kenyon + McCall; 15=15 reel dial; 12=12 reel dial. Lab Report Table! In addition, his K list has (marked 'Final') and corresponds exactly with the material I found in the Warner Brothers archives at Princeton. The Ball notes are currently in a file at the Folger Shakespeare Library. It also contains an earlier correspondence between Ball and Joel Swensen at Warner Brothers in 1947. This says, Our print man thinks all we have is the 12 reel version 30 July 1947. An earlier letter from Henry Blanke, at Warner Brothers in California, to Joel Swensen, states, As far as I can recall, the 15 reel version of how often should in a paper, A Midsummer Night's Dream ran all over the country, except that very much later on observation, a certain re-issue it was cut down to 12 reels. However, neither the 15 nor the 12 reel version will completely correspond with the script as many sequences contained in the script were eliminated—as is in a research paper, usually the communication, case in motion pictures—before their release.
So the closest thing to you quote in a research go by e-thesis ukm, or to get a comparison to the script would be the dialogue sheets that were put out how often should you quote in a paper, with the lab report, original 15 reel version. The letter is dated 14 July 1947. 9 The full text of Fuller's comment is: In every-day life, the feelings of the many are stained with vanity. How Often Should You Quote In A Paper! Each wishes to be lord in a little world, to be superior at least over one; and he does not feel strong enough to retain a life-long ascendency over a strong nature.
Only a Theseus could conquer before he wed the of being, Amazonian queen. Hercules wished rather to rest with Dejanira, and received the how often should you quote in a research paper, poisoned robe as a fit guerdon. The tale should be interpreted to all those who seek repose with the weak. (43) 10 Aside from having been eliminated from the Garrick-Colman and Reynolds versions, the references also disappeared in resume, whole or part from the printed acting texts of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries such as French's ( MND 20), Charles Kean's edition ( MND 9), Augustin Daly's ( MND 5), and how often you quote in a from the preschoolers, type-script of Henry Jewett's for a 1915 production ( MND 12). When promptbooks relied on the full text, the lines were then crossed out for how often you quote in a research the acting versions.
Among the latter were the recording of the Burton performance of 1854 ( MND 21), the Beerbohm Tree production of observation essays, 1900 ( MND 7), and the Samuel Phelps production of 1861 ( MND 13). The Reinhardt film retains only a small section of the speech. 11 Excisions persisted over a long period of time beginning with the earliest record, the Smock Alley prompt, sometime before 1700, where the lines are crossed out. How Often In A Research! Garrick eliminated them from his preparation copy of 1763. They do not appear in Reynolds's 1816 version, are crossed out in of being a wallflower, Charles Kean's ( MND 9) and eliminated by Daly in 1888 as well as by Herbert Beerbohm Tree for the 1900 production ( MND 7), to name just a few characteristic productions. 12 Literally, the lines (136-49) were not printed in the French acting texts ( MND 15, MND 20) and Charles Kean's text of 1869 ( MND 9). How Often Should You Quote Paper! In the Burton text of 1854 ( MND 21), the lines appear but are then crossed through.
13 They are excised from the French text (Prompt MND 15, 20), the Charles Kean text ( MND 9), the Daly text ( MND 5), and are crossed out observation, or blocked for omission in the Burton prompt (page 9, MND 21), the Tree prompt (page 5, MND 7). How Often You Quote In A Paper! In the from oil of wintergreen, Phelps prompt (page 311, MND 13), it is more difficult to be certain of whether or not the section was excised since there are two different sets of markings here—some in brown ink, others in pencil. This section has a penciled bracket on the left. How Often Should You Quote! Since another passage immediately above it on the page has been crossed through, the question remains of observation, whether this passage was in fact excised. 14 The Variorum also notes that Halliwell afterwards modified this by the reflection (p.36, folio ed.) that 'the author evidently intended both the speakers should join in passionately lamenting the difficulties encountered in the path of love' (18). 15 Having removed this section from the printed text, the Kean book (prompt MND 9) indicates even further excision, penciling out still more of the beginning of this exchange between the two women. It is also excised from the Phelps promptbook ( MND 13).
Earlier, Garrick, who had cut the lines of the speech, nevertheless retained the character of should in a, Helena here whereas Reynolds, despite his promise to restore more of the play in 1816, eliminated her completely from the scene. 16 The excisions occur in the following prompts: MND 9, MND 20, MND 21, MND 15, and others. 17 The handwriting has been identified as Garrick's. See also Stone article on A Midsummer Night's Dream, discussed in e-thesis ukm, note 2. 18 In a Charles Calvert promptbook of an 1865 production ( MND 1), for example, after her line, For I upon this bank will rest my head (40), her speech continues with and good night, sweet friend / Thy love ne'er alter, till thy sweet life end! (60-61). Thus the entire debate (lines 41-59) has been excised from the printed text. Kean too ( MND 9) follows this format. Should In A Research Paper! Tree ( MND 7) crosses out text, retaining only one line of Lysander's—'One turf shall serve as pillow for us both, (41)—and then, once again, Hermia's Nay good Lysander; for my sake (43) precedes the jump to the conclusion so far be distant, and good night, sweet friend: / Thy love ne'er alter till thy sweet life end! (60-61). Lysander's innocuous Amen and a wallflower essay title the few brief lines of good night precede their finally falling off to sleep, which closes this section of the scene.
Phelps's book, too ( MND 13), cuts the how often you quote in a, debate. Gone is Lysander's sophisticated argument in favor of one bed, along with her Lysander riddles very prettily . . . (42, 43b-56a). Preachers! Daly, too ( MND 5), includes Lysander's One turf . How Often Should In A Paper! . . (41-42) and Hermia's brief response Nay good Lysander . Resume! . . (43-44) then jumps to line 60, So far be distant; and good night sweet friend. / Thy love ne'er alter, till thy sweet life end! (60-61). 19 As a sampling, they are crossed out in Burton's text (22-23) (MND 21 ) and Phelps's of 1861 (328-29) ( MND 13); and are omitted from George Colman and David Garrick's 1763 version ( MND 19), Charles Kean's ( MND 9), Augustin Daly's, 1888 ( MND 5), Herbert Beerbohm Tree's ( MND 7), French's ( MND 15), and how often the edition recording performances at the Broadway Theatre ( MND 20), as well as Henry Jewett's 1915 typescript ( MND 12). Of course the highly abbreviated Colman version of 1777, A Fairy Tale ( MND 22), does not include these Athenian characters at all. 20 Seldom the subject for criticism, Helena has the largest percentage of synthesising aspirin from wintergreen, lines (10.4) and words (11.2) of how often research paper, any woman character in the play although Hermia has more speeches (9.5 percent to Helena's 7.14). Hermia's fewer lines (7.5 percent) and words (7.9 percent) suggest the difference in the pattern of the women's speeches.
Following is the record in the Concordance of the other long roles: Theseus: 9.5 percent speeches, 10.9 percent lines, 10.7 percent words; Bottom 9.9 percent speeches, 9.7 percent lines, 10.3 percent words; Oberon 5.7 percent speeches, 10.2 percent lines, 9.9 percent words. Spevack, Concordance 1:666-713. 21 Many fine references appear in this article, including one to Gayle Rubin's The Traffic in Women. Essays! Marshall asks questions: How are we to take Demetrius' recovery from the 'sickness' of abandoning Helena and loving Hermia since it is just as much the product of enchantment as Lysander's abandonment of how often you quote paper, Hermia and lab report love for Helena? Are we to be pleased by how often in a paper, the success of resume, Helena's subjection of how often should research paper, herself to Demetrius or Titania's sudden and manipulated surrender to preachers Oberon? What about Hippolyta's marriage to how often you quote research the soldier who vanquished her? . . . They raise the aspirin wintergreen, possibility that A Midsummer Night's Dream is not one of Shakespeare's happiest comedies' [Madeline Doran, intro. in Penguin Complete Works] but rather a 'most lamentable comedy' (I.ii.11-12) and how often should research paper 'very tragical mirth' (V.i.57) (548). Marshall also takes exception to C. Lab Report! L. Barber's comment that Theseus and Hippolyta are looking toward their wedding 'Theseus . . . with masculine impatience, Hippolyta with a woman's willingness to dream away time' ( Shakespeare's Festive Comedies, p. 128) (548). How Often Should You Quote In A Research Paper! Marshall asks how Barber knows this since the language doesn't say it.
I don't know how Barber manages to assign genders to these feelings (548). Of David P. Lab Report! Young's comment ( Something of you quote in a research, Great Constancy: the Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream , New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966, 109), It is appropriate that Theseus, as representative of daylight and right reason, should have subdued his bride-to-be to the rule of his masculine will. That is the table, natural order of things (p. 99), Marshall comments, This may have been the should you quote in a paper, ruling ideology in the sixteenth century or in 1966—I don't see that it has ever been the natural order of things—but it is not necessarily the ideology of A Midsummer Night's Dream (550). 22 The typescript of synthesising oil of wintergreen, Henry Jewett's 1915 production ( MND 12), for example, directs Titania to take the boy to her side (14). In the elegant Daly version, when Titania enters, her attendant fairies .. . carry a canopy covering the Indian child, reclining on a silver couch ( MND 5, 33).
In this cut version, there is even the printed stage direction, Oberon orders his attendants to should research paper advance, and he dashes toward the couch to seize the child. He tears aside the curtains, and finds that it has disappeared (34). Crossed out in pencil by a later manager, the action dramatizes the hostility between king and queen although simplifying the portraits. 23 The comment is by Thomas Hailes Lacy for the 1840 text. Actually Mendelssohn first wrote the overture for an 1827 revival in synthesising aspirin, Berlin (Campbell, 546). In A Paper! However it was the Vestris production, claiming to present the play almost as Shakespeare wrote it, for the first time since 1642, that was such a huge success (Campbell, 546). According to Odell, no version this close to Shakespeare's had appeared since Davenant's in the seventeenth century (II.204). Vestris's was followed by other lavish productions, most relying on synthesising from oil of, this music. Only Phelps eschewed the music. 24 The popularity of A Midsummer Night's Dream at how often in a research mid nineteenth century extended from London to New York, two rival productions appearing in February, 1854: at Burton's and the Broadway theaters. Both claimed Mendelssohn's music.
25 See Stevie Davis's sensitive analysis of Titania and of her relationship with the perks of being title, mother of the boy before his birth (125-29). 26 See the following promptbooks: MND 5, MND 9, MND 20, MND 21, MND 13, MND 15. Although, according to Allen, all but 300 lines of the original were excised by Phelps, in prompt MND 13, believed to be a record of his production, huge chunks of Titania's speeches were cut. In fact only the first seven lines (81-89) remain of the how often should research, speech beginning These are the aspirin oil of, forgeries of jealousies. They are followed immediately be Oberon's Why should Titania cross her Oberon? / I do but beg a little changeling boy, / To be my henchman (119-21). A single line is should in a research, cut from his speech. Again Titania's description of the boy's mother is also crossed through.
Thus, the restoration hardly affects the table, lines of Titania. In II.i Phelps excises most of her speech to Oberon 88-117 and then Oberon's 118, Do you amend it then. How Often In A! Again the actor-manager excises When we have laugh'd to see the sails conceive .. Preachers! . did die, 128-35. 27 Crossed out in how often paper, Burton's text ( MND 21), and in Samuel Phelps's ( MND 13), her lines disappear from the Kean printed text ( MND 9), the Daly text ( MND 5), and others. 28 Marilyn Williamson refers to the need to be aware of the historical contexts in preachers resume, which the plays were written. Surely the ideas on marriage and divorce are embedded in this text although the characters are cast as fairies. 29 Circled for excision from MND 6 (by Garrick), therefore gone from 1763 text ( MND 19), and from Reynolds's 1816 text ( MND 18); Burton ( MND 21) 1854; ( MND 9); Daly ( MND 5); the lines are circled for excision in Phelps MND 13.
Also excised from type-script of Jewett's, 1915 ( MND 12). 30 Here again Phelps's prompt ( MND 13) has excised lines as have the texts of how often you quote, 1763, 1854, and Tree, etc. The whole section referring to reason in Lysander's speech has also been eliminated from the 1856 printed text ( MND 9); most of the lines have been excised from Jewett's 1915 typescript ( MND 12) and from Daly's 1888 text ( MND 5); finally, the section has been crossed out in the 1853 ( MND 13) and 1854 versions ( MND 21), Tree's in a wallflower essay title, 1900 ( MND 7) (and probably other contemporaneous ones that I did not examine). 31 Kean ( MND 9). He emphasizes her unique role as a spirit of how often you quote in a paper, no common rate and retains only the first line (152) of the quote, following it immediately with For I do love thee, a variant on the text's And I do love thee (156). In that version, neither Bottom nor the audience is told of her power to keep him from leaving. 32 See chapter 3, Challenging Patterns, in Irene Dash's Wooing, Wedding, and visual Power: Women in how often should in a research, Shakespeare's Plays, 33-66. 33 In Prompt MND 8, this section has been crossed through in e-thesis ukm, pencil.
34 According to Shattuck (323), this is a Kemble edition (1816) although nowhere on the title page or elsewhere does the should in a research, usual attribution appear. Some of the alterations, however, do appear in resume, later acting versions. 35 Among the should research paper, other versions that excised, once the a wallflower, longer play appeared are the 1935 film, the Beerbohm Tree version, and how often paper the 1854 version. 36 According to Hogan (11.718), the play ranked twenty-first in popularity of Shakespeare's plays between 1701 and 1800. Synthesising Aspirin Wintergreen! But this figure is deceptive since only one production is listed as the original during the should you quote in a, period. Resume! The other sixty-three times that it was acted audiences were seeing either a version of Pyramus and Thisbe, The Fairies, or A Fairy Tale. Source: Male Magic: A Midsummer Night's Dream, in Women's Worlds in Shakespeare's Plays, University of should research paper, Delaware Press, 1997, pp.
67-107. Access our A Midsummer. Study Guide for Free. A Midsummer Night's Dream Homework Help Questions. One of the roles of the supernatural in A Midsummer Night's Dream is to resume create a dreamlike state that helps portray Shakespeare's theme of fantasy vs. reality.Critic Northrop Frye points out that. Demetrius is the you quote in a research, only character to have been left permanently changed by the magic within Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream.
At the resume, beginning of the play, Demetrius is in love with Hermia. One classic way to create comedy is through irony. Irony takes place when words, actions, or plot development contradict what is intended or expected to happen. Shakespeare uses many instances of. This is actually a crucial quote for the entire play, as Helena here in Act I scene 1 explains the complete irrational nature of love that had already been displayed by the central lovers and will. The four Athenian lovers are easily to confuse, particularly Helena and Hermia, due to the similarity in how their names are spelt.
It seems as if Shakespeare deliberately present them as.
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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of how often should you quote in a research paper candidates for any given career is observation essays preschoolers far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on how often, accentuating their experiences and aspirin from wintergreen backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of how often you quote in a past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the aspirin wintergreen position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and you quote research relevant knowledge are substantiated by synthesising wintergreen, the keywords they choose to research, use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of visual communication essays companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to how often should in a, have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to table, see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an how often should paper, explanation of visual communication essays those skills.
If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in how often you quote research, your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of visual communication essays job duties and how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Should You Quote Research! Ford R. Preschoolers! Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. Research Paper! By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Lab Report Table! Based on the advice of how often should in a our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and preachers resume discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to how often should you quote, know the synthesising aspirin oil of wintergreen level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. How Often Should In A! The specific required skills will vary based on synthesising aspirin oil of wintergreen, your position.
A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in in a research, a collaborative environment. If the e-thesis ukm job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. Should You Quote In A Paper! On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and synthesising from completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume.
Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is should research you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is preachers one of the how often you quote in a research most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for visual, jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and how often you quote in a research paper better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Perks Title! Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and how often research paper overall engagement.
Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.
Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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Should You Use Quotes In A Research …
essay teacher year (A. Should You Quote Research. What would you do to strengthen and preschoolers, improve the teaching profession?) The best thing that I can do to improve the you quote in a research paper teaching profession is to encourage good people to become teachers. My niece, my adopted niece, and the best piano student I have taught at my school all became teachers. I hope that my example was a factor. I see many excellent teachers moving to more lucrative jobs. I try to encourage teachers to stay.
Many teachers are discouraged and bored. I hope that my enthusiasm and e-thesis ukm, joy at work will rub off on them a little bit. I see new teachers in a state of shock. I try to help them. I demonstrate a love of my work that perhaps is a factor in leading some of my best. students to follow in my footsteps.
Everyone agrees that teaching is important work. Everyone wants their children to should you quote research, have excellent teachers. Essays Preschoolers. Yet providing a good salary for how often should you quote in a, teachers somehow isn't seen as an obvious way of accomplishing this. Money attracts talent. Everyone wants to make a decent living. Perks Essay Title. A friend who was an excellent teacher changed jobs and doubled his salary in his first year as a policewoman.
I began in my position because the how often should you quote former teacher tripled her salary as a court reporter. Unfortunately I can't introduce legislation that would make the starting salary for. teachers a living wage. I can let people know that working as a teacher is rewarding in ways that are beyond description. I can tell them that after thirty years of working in of being a wallflower title various schools, I still feel very happy as I drive to work in how often research paper the morning. That's worth something! (B. What is and/or what should be the basis for accountability in the teaching profession?) My first professional work was with symphony orchestras. For twenty hours a week I was on a small stage playing with ninety expert musicians.
Almost all of them were older and synthesising aspirin oil of, more experienced than I was. If my playing was not exactly correct it would be noticed by how often in a research paper my section, perhaps the whole orchestra, and of course by the conductor. As musicians we were accountable to each other. We all had to do our best because we worked together to essay title, produce one result. All too often teachers work alone. It's just the instructor and the students month after month. It doesn't need to be that way. I share beginning students with another teacher. We discuss the students, visit each other's classes and how often should you quote in a paper, decide how to divide teaching the basics. I helped the choir teacher set up his first schedule, share music with him, and help send the choir into the community with shared concerts.
When I first moved to my current job in the piano lab, his former position, he had useful advice for me. Perks Of Being. The band director, a gifted educator, often gives me helpful ideas. I play with her group, help the you quote in a paper players with their parts, and provide solo, ensemble, and recital opportunities for them. We, in the music department, are accountable to each other more than to any administrator. Another factor in the music department is our public performances. The training of lab report table our students is on display during recitals and concerts. Perhaps academic achievement could be made more visible. I observed the head of our science department ask a veteran teacher to help a new member of how often should research paper their department. This kind of sharing strengthens a school.
We are all on the same team. The more we share and work together the better we will teach and the. less isolated we will feel. I learned the most at Juilliard from other students. I learned about teaching from other teachers. Interaction with each other is our ultimate accountability. Philosophy of Teaching.
•A. Describe your personal feelings and beliefs about teaching, including your own ideas of what makes you an outstanding teacher. Describe the rewards you find in teaching. A TEACHER SHOULD: •1) SHOW UP ON TIME AND WORK HARD. •2) CARE ABOUT ALL THE STUDENTS. •3) LOVE THE SUBJECT AND STUDY IT CONSTANTLY. •4) BE STRICT, FAIR AND DEMANDING. •5) HELP THOSE WHO NEED HELP, CHALLENGE THE MOST TALENTED. •1) I was once asked what I do to be a role model.
My answer was simple: I do my job. By being professional I am setting an example that says more than any speech. •2) As a university instructor I was a music TEACHER. Students wanting certain skills came to essays preschoolers, me for information, which I tried to impart. Certain students needed encouragement, some needed a professional example, but for the most part they simply needed me to teach them the skills I had already acquired. I recently learned that one of my horn students at the University of Toronto is now first horn with the you quote in a Toronto Ballet Orchestra.
When I met him he was an unenthusiastic, mediocre horn player. I made him work hard, encouraged him, and featured him in concerts. Perks Of Being Essay Title. I know that my three years of ardent instruction set him on a course to become a professional player. Should. Hearing of lab report table his success, I was happy and proud. However, he came to should in a paper, me as a mature college student. E-thesis Ukm. I was simply his teacher. When I began teaching at a public school I became immediately aware that I had a vastly expanded job description. I was still a musician teaching skills, but now I was an EDUCATOR. In A Research Paper. These students needed more than instruction.
Many of the students have almost no contact with their fathers. Some have truly serious problems to deal with at home. Many don't know how to behave, but want to learn. Having a personal interest in the students became as important as instructing them. I immediately loved my new role. •3) I am a musician, I have studied music my entire life.
I practice my instruments daily and play when I teach, I listen to aspirin from oil of wintergreen, music constantly and most of my reading concerns music. I love to rehearse, organize concerts, perform, and most of all teach music to children. A little bit of enthusiasm goes a very long way in education. I have a lot. •4) Do this consistently! •5) Serving the special needs of students, both personal and academic is a critical function of a teacher. A girl living in woman's shelter wasn't being fed so I took her a big plate of food every day.
A young man needed drug counseling. A friendly appearance at a young woman's house led to less abuse. A special education student with musical gifts is included in research the A.P. Music Theory class, thanks to of being essay title, extensive extra coaching. I'm not just a horn teacher anymore. The college music majors home for the summer wanted to play, so I organized a recital and should you quote in a research, they played for their proud parents. A young trumpet player had bad practice habits so I played through etudes with him.
I provided potential music majors with metronomes. A recording had to be made for college admission. That's also my job. At the end of this application is visual communication, a picture of me sitting next to a student playing a keyboard. This girl started playing nine months before in my class, and now she is performing a four-page version of the Pachelbel Canon beautifully.
The reward I find in teaching is should you quote, shown by my facial expression. Of Being Title. A picture is worth a thousand words. B. How are your beliefs about teaching demonstrated in your personal teaching style? Classes always begin exactly on how often you quote in a paper time. It's 98% business, 2% fun. Basics are emphasized.
Students must learn to read music well. E-thesis Ukm. Theory must be mastered. How Often In A Research. A major recital involving all students is always set at the very end of the term, so we drive to the end. Students learn, through experience, that the biggest rush in the world is achievement. E-thesis Ukm. We never discuss this, but I see it on their faces when they do something excellent.
A. What were the you quote factors that influenced you to become a teacher? Describe what you consider to be your greatest contributions and accomplishments in education. I was fortunate to be in a position to receive the best music education that America has to offer. I encountered many great teachers who made me what I am. E-thesis Ukm. I will be forever grateful to them and would like to mention something about a few of them: Clark Eastham, a composer and should research paper, instructor at Wayne University in of being a wallflower essay Detroit, was my primary mentor as well as a father figure.
He taught me piano, composition and theory from the age of should you quote in a research 10-18. Table. Because of how often should his training I was able to synthesising aspirin oil of wintergreen, place out of should in a research first year Theory and Ear Training classes at Juilliard without taking an A.P. class. He demonstrated a love of music and a dedication to from wintergreen, teaching that serve as my model. He continued teaching and composing until the age of 88. Joseph Dale Parker, my 7th grade band director, introduced me to the French horn and should you quote in a paper, ensemble playing.
He directed an extraordinary high school band program, and lab report, only taught at the junior high for one year. His class gave me a love of playing horn in how often you quote research a group, something I did constantly for the next fifteen years. (It upset me to e-thesis ukm, read that New York City eliminated all junior high music classes. Seventh grade band was one of the most important experiences of my life. A picture of that group with Mr. Parker still hangs in my studio.) Yenofk Kavafian was my high school orchestra conductor. How Often Should You Quote In A Paper. He was an e-thesis ukm Armenian from Turkey, where he was a member of a string quartet. As an American immigrant he became a music educator.
He showed me that an excellent musician belongs in a public school. Madame Rene Longy had already taught solfege (ear training) in America for 53 years when I enrolled in her class. How Often Should You Quote Paper. She was a legendary teacher who was an important influence on Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland and three generations of America's musicians. She (more or less) forced me to take her advanced classes (Ear Training III and IV for observation preschoolers, conductors and composers) that pushed my skills to the limit. How Often Should You Quote Research Paper. She continued teaching until the lab report day she died. Rainer DeIntinnis was a member of the New York Philharmonic for 43 years and my horn teacher at Juilliard. Should. His purity of character had an important influence on me as a teenager living alone in essays New York City. How Often Should You Quote In A Research. A member of my brass class at Charlotte Amalie High School went on to study at Mannes Conservatory, where Mr. DeIntinnis was his brass ensemble teacher.
It was a special moment to see my teacher, then 80 years old, teaching one of e-thesis ukm my students from the Virgin Islands. I recently wrote to Mr. DeIntinnis thanking him for showing me what a teacher should and could be. These wonderful teachers, among others, are the reason that I am a teacher. How Often In A. I can only strive to offer my students what they have given me. Some moments of accomplishment: -A performance of Scott Joplin's Treemonisha at UVI for Black History Month with chorus, soloists, and narrator surprised the college audience with its quality. -In my second year there was an visual exciting evening with Vivaldi's Gloria and Magnificat, performed complete and by memory; excited students were performing for should you quote research, a thrilled audience. -A brass quartet (myself and three students) entered the Career Center to lab report, play for the Rotarians who purchased the should research computers there.
The Rotarians looked uneasy, expecting something sour. Essay Title. The three young men, all destined to become conservatory-trained professionals, had been practicing every morning before school for how often in a research, a year. As we played a Gabrielli Canzona in tune, together, meter changes exact, I saw all the jaws in the room drop in unison. My personal accomplishment as an educator was making the e-thesis ukm adjustment from in a research, being a performer in major metropolitan areas, playing with other professional musicians, to working in communication essays a small, insular environment. Offering high quality music instruction and performance opportunities to students who otherwise wouldn't have this experience is my greatest contribution and how often should you quote in a paper, accomplishment in of being a wallflower essay title education. Educational History and Professional Development Activities:
Beginning with most recent, list colleges and universities attended including. Postgraduate studies. Indicate degrees earned and how often should in a research, dates of attendance. POSTGRADUATE STUDIES - 26 CREDITS. 2006 - National Endowment for resume, the Humanities Institute: Bach in should research the. Modern World, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA. 2004 - N.E.H. Institute: Mozart's German Operas in perks of being a wallflower essay title Context, Vienna, Austria. 1983-2005 - courses at Westminster Choir College, Princeton, NJ: Vocal Pedagogy for Conductors and Accompanists, Robert Shaw Workshop (choral conducting), Teaching High School Choral Music, Music Technology I and II, Advanced Choral Conducting, Piano Teacher's Seminar, A.P.
Music Theory Teaching Strategies. l965-l971 - Juilliard School, NY - B.M. and M.S. How Often In A Paper. degrees; scholarship student. Beginning with most recent, list teaching employment history. indicating time period, grade level and preachers, subject area. 1981-present - Charlotte Amalie High School, St. Thomas, VI - Choral music program: Concert Choir, Women's Choir, Vocal Ensemble, Chamber Choir, the groups presented many major choral works and how often in a research, works by local composers in concert; grades 9-12; Currently teaching piano classes and A.P. Music Theory; additionally presenting students in solo and e-thesis ukm, ensemble recitals (5 last year); grades 9-12.
1980-1981 - College of the Virgin Islands - Instructor of you quote in a piano and music theory. 1971-1974 - Faculty of essays Music, University of Toronto: Instructor of horn and ensembles to college music majors. C. Beginning with most recent, list professional association memberships. -International Bach Society. -American Federation of Teachers. -Musician's Union - local 802 (N.Y. N.Y.) -International Horn Society. (D. List staff development leadership activity) 3. -I am frequently called upon to assist in how often should you quote in a paper teacher training for music education students from the University of the Virgin Islands.
-Other music educators (often former students) consult with me concerning teaching materials, repertoire, accompaniment needs, etc. (E. Beginning with most recent, list awards and other recognition of your teaching.) Although I am no stranger to plaques and synthesising from wintergreen, laudatory speeches. the greatest recognition I have received is from students and parents: -Kenneth Mills, a Virgin Islander who studied at Northwestern University, The University of Miami, Manhattan School of Music, and in a paper, Rutgers University said that he learned as much from me as he did from any of his teachers.
-A student whose only perks a wallflower title, piano studies were 3 years in my school classes told me that it. was possible for him to should in a research paper, major in visual communication music because of my teaching. -A 9th grade boy on his way out of piano class stopped to shake my hand and thank me for should you quote in a paper, teaching him to play the piano. -Parents often greet me on the street, thanking me for table, helping their children. -Kmisha-Victoria Counts related that after missing 6 weeks at Berkeley College of Music to compete in the Miss World competition, her Ear Training instructor told her not to how often you quote research, take the final exam because she had all the skills from my A.P. Lab Report Table. Music Theory class. -A former high school choir member said that whenever she listened to the recording of our performance of the Vivaldi Gloria she got goose bumps. -The father of a horn student in Toronto, himself an educator, told me that although his daughter wasn't much of a horn player she benefited greatly from knowing me as a teacher. He said he thought I was a great teacher and should in a research paper, I should consider that in my future plans. (I did!) -Following a recital by students I see the pride beaming in the parents' eyes. These moments are my awards, my rewards, and my recognitions. •A.
Describe your commitment to your community through service-oriented activities such as volunteer work, civic responsibilities, and other group activities. Shortly after arriving in St. John I was asked to teach student brass players at e-thesis ukm the Multi-Purpose center. I had a ball. Some of the students went on how often in a to play in local bands. The Moravian minister asked me to conduct a combined church choir singing a Moravian oratorio. It was my first time conducting a choir, and I haven't stopped since. A group of singers in St. John were tired of commuting to St. Thomas for observation, choir rehearsals, so they asked me to form a group on St.
John. This Christmas the St. John Singers will present their 25th annual Holiday Concert. We have performed in neighboring islands, at churches in should St. John and St. Visual Communication Essays. Thomas, for should you quote paper, senior citizen homes, and at special community functions.
A New Horizons school was formed on St. Thomas for students with academic and of being essay, personal problems. One year I got permission to should you quote, spend the end of perks of being title my school day there teaching a beginning piano class. As some of those students were mainstreamed to how often should you quote in a, C.A.H.S. E-thesis Ukm. they joined my classes there. A talented calypsonian-composer had written beautiful Christmas songs. We sat several hours with each piece forming smooth four-part arrangements that agreed with his ear. These arrangements, first performed by my high school choir, have since been sung by many local choirs. A well-trained local musician, Bill LaMotta wrote some classical-style piano pieces that I thought were worth doing, so I learned several of them. How Often You Quote In A Research. When I went to his home and played for him he was very excited because he hadn't been able to resume, get anyone to play them. He hoped to sponsor a recording, but he passed before we could do it. I did perform his music on a program in his memory.
Years later a student played one of his pieces at a competition in St. Croix where he is should you quote in a research, from. People were glad to hear music by a native son; she won! Education Issues and Trends. •A. (What do you consider to be the communication major public education issues today? Address one in depth, outlining possible causes, effects, and should you quote in a research paper, resolutions.) I choose to discus only one issue. I'll begin on a personal note.
When I think back on the sacrifices I have made as a teacher I have to communication, laugh. I remember giving the safari bus driver one hundred pennies to how often should in a, get to school because I had NO money. For a while I stopped wearing clothes that required dry cleaning, too expensive. One summer I worked and observation, couldn't afford to you quote research paper, visit my family, thus missing knowing my niece as a baby. I once sold my only piano to pay for insurance on the cheapest car on oil of wintergreen the market. I laugh at these experiences because I loved what I was doing and was happy with my life. There are, unfortunately, few people who would chose to should paper, have such a lifestyle after earning two college degrees and e-thesis ukm, working overtime on a daily basis. I once compared salaries with a teacher from the paper wealthiest suburb in Chicago.
Both of us had a graduate degree, an equal number of visual communication essays post-graduate credits, and the same number of years of experience. How Often Should. His salary was double mine, and he was about to get a 20% increase. His students have libraries and synthesising aspirin from, computers at home and get expensive tutoring as needed. They go to summer camps and have private lessons of all kinds. Their parents are educated and they make sure that their children do well academically. How Often You Quote Paper. They are taught by teachers who compete with over a hundred applicants to get their positions, teachers who stay after school every day because they don't need a second job. The students who could succeed without good schools go to the best schools. The students who desperately need the maximum assistance that a school can offer go to the poorest schools. America now has what amounts to school segregation, educational apartheid. The inner city schools are at least 95% Black and Hispanic. They are under funded and totally inadequate for the great task with which they are challenged.
I am from e-thesis ukm, Detroit, which offers a perfect example of this. Should You Quote. The people with money and most businesses have moved to the surrounding suburbs. Visual Essays. The city has little tax base, so city services, including schools, don't have adequate budgets. School dropouts become criminals, crime increases, more businesses move out, the city becomes poorer, and you quote in a, the schools deteriorate further. Then more students drop out. One wonders what will happen to this uneducated generation of students. The older generation had access to factory jobs, but these are disappearing as auto manufacturing moves elsewhere. A top-notch education offered to students in cities might at least begin to beak this cycle for some of the students. Some of the millions of dollars directed to problems in other countries and the billions spent on wasteful military expenditures needs be used for education here at home. Excellent educational programs from pre-school through grade 12 would have at synthesising from least some impact. Somehow, private or public funding must be channeled to inner-city schools to make them excellent.
Perhaps the how often research paper model of Metro-Toronto offers a possible solution. From downtown on the lake to the outlying suburbs is one city structure offering the same public services. There has never been more wealth and power concentrated in lab report table one nation than there is in the United States right now, and yet, tens of millions of children do not attend adequate schools. A situation like this does not exist on such a scale in any other western country. How Often Should In A Research Paper. A comparison of essays our inner city schools, especially grades 7-12, to should you quote in a paper, those in any modern country, and even with less wealthy nations, should be cause for national shame.
But, this is not a problem that directly affects the people in a wallflower essay title power. The group most affected is African-Americans. They are concentrated in inner cities and 50% are born into poverty. One-third of African-American males are in trouble. Our melting pot immigrant nation has left these people out, and the result is our biggest national social problem.
There are attitudes, both black and white, perpetuating this situation and you quote in a paper, there is no simple solution. Equally excellent schools for e-thesis ukm, all Americans would be a start. I work at a school that in some ways resembles a U.S. inner-city school. Should You Quote In A Research. Every day it is clear to preachers, me that these students deserve excellent teachers. Should You Quote In A Paper. Given a decent opportunity they can do excellent work.
They want to do well. National Teacher of the Year. If given the e-thesis ukm opportunity to be a spokesperson for the teaching profession, I would emphasize two themes. Using myself as an you quote research paper example, I would encourage highly trained professionals to enter the teaching profession at any level, however modest. Although there are many excellent teachers, as demonstrated by the applicants for this award, there is a shortage of e-thesis ukm high quality academics entering the profession.
As a baby-boomer, I was part of the last generation to be educated by bright women who saw their professional options limited to how often should you quote paper, teaching and nursing. Table. Although there are still many talented women whose love of children lead them to a career in elementary education (making our grade schools world class) there is a disturbing trend that some education majors to come from the bottom of academic class. I had planned to spend my life performing music for a living, and did so for many years. Should Research Paper. Fate, destiny, chance, or what I now see wonderful good luck led me to teach in a public school. The satisfaction I have had from this career change is huge. Working professionals are a great source of expertise and knowledge. Many find that their work, though requiring great skill, is repetitious and does not offer positive contact with others. If some of these professionals, especially those in math and science, could be encouraged to share their expertise with the younger generation in communication essays a school setting the impact on the quality of American education would be considerable. The story of Mr. Escalante in the movie Stand and Deliver is an excellent example of this. The second, and most important theme, would be addressing the needs of those students who now are not completing high school, sometimes even junior high.
I teach in a situation that somewhat mirrors the inner city school systems in the United States. Nearly half the students entering junior high do not graduate high school. With most untrained work being outsourced to in a, other counties these students have little chance of finding decent work. The wealthiest society in history needs to provide an resume excellent education to all. The poorest students need the best schools.
The inner city and rural schools need excellent facilities, adequate counseling, bountiful extra-curricular activities, the latest technology, and how often should you quote, most of all GREAT TEACHERS.