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Essay: Health and safety in the …
Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of their behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK) © The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to address the use of Essay Mills and other ‘contract cheating’ services by on health at school students. These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to students in exchange for a fee. There have been calls for the use of writing apa style legal approaches to tackle the and safety at school, problem. Here we determine whether the UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to tackle some of the thesis, activities of companies providing these services in the UK, by comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the use of their products but there are some obvious contradictions in the activities of the sites which undermine these disclaimers, for on health and safety at school example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions. We identify possible areas in which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an approach is unlikely to be effective.
We call for a new offence to essay be created in UK law which specifically targets the undesirable behaviours of these companies in the UK, although the on health and safety, principles could be applied elsewhere. We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful. The use of so-called ‘contract cheating’ services by chrysalids vs x-men students has been a source of controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in the last decade. ‘Contract cheating’ refers, basically, to the outsourcing of assessments by students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in and safety at school, return for a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and Clarke 2016 ). These services offer ‘custom assignments’ of write almost any form, although custom written essays appear to be the and safety at school, most common. Students are often able to specify the grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and research, Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the essay and safety at school, severity with which universities penalise the use of contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and research write, ‘custom essay writing companies’, many of whom are ‘listed’ companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. Essay? However there are many ways in which students can use third parties to essay writing using apa style complete work for them, with the contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in a different country to the student and their institution. These freelance writers may make use of online auction services to advertise and and safety at school, organise their work and these may be in yet another country, and there may be another intermediary; an individual who receives the order from the student and then posts the work on an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. 2016 ). Thus there are multiple actors in contract cheating, one or more of whom may be liable if their actions violate the law; students, their universities, the persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the research write, advertising, and on health and safety at school, so on.
Here we focus primarily on UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an assessment to earn credit towards an award is normally required to do so on the explicit basis that the submission is their own independent work. Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about what constitutes academic misconduct and the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to fostering ‘academic integrity’ (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in whole or in paper write, part, material that is not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by their university, for academic misconduct. In the UK these usually include cancellation of marks for the relevant module or the relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and on health, Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in the words of Saunders,”. is not in thesis, itself illegal; it is and safety at school, only illegal if it breaches an established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules” (Saunders 2010 ). However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to on dissertation 2 diabetes determine how a ‘reasonable person’ might view a particular behaviour. If asked to describe the purchasing of essays for on health and safety at school submission for the purposes of gaining academic credit it seems logical to conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is ‘fraudulent’, particularly given the language associated with it (e.g. ‘cheating’).
If another individual has knowingly assisted in that activity then they might reasonably be said to vs x-men essay have assisted, conspired or colluded in such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty. If a student has purchased written work from another individual or a company for the purpose of passing it off as his or her own work then it is clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the individual or company that supplied the work in essay on health and safety at school, return for payment? To what extent is lancia testbericht, that individual or company (an ‘assistor’) complicit in such misconduct? What is the potential liability of the essay on health and safety at school, assistor and can action be taken against them? Are the assistors by writing using their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the assistor is on health, a student in the same institution an educational institution cannot normally take action against the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, is there the possibility of fraudulent behaviour in the relationship between the student and the company? Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). An action in civil law is taken by a wronged individual at their initial cost. This cost is often prohibitive and lancia, also normally requires the formulation of a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for which a remedy is sought. Thus the ability of educational institutions (or a student for that matter) to take civil action against assistors is limited. Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by and at the cost of the state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to have been committed (private prosecutions at private cost are possible but relatively rare).
The Code for Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to be followed by Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is on health and safety, enough evidence to provide a “realistic prospect of conviction” and that it is the research paper, public interest to pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). A purpose of essay this paper is to assess the extent that a business organisation who supplies an essay or written work upon instructions from a student in return for money might be liable under the criminal law of England and Wales for using an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on on health at school, 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. The Act applies to offences committed wholly on thesis, or after 15 January 2007 and extends to England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In August 2016 the UK regulator of Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated “poses a serious risk to the academic standards and the integrity of on health and safety at school UK higher education” (QAA 2016 ). Their consideration of possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the essay apa style, Fraud Act was the on health and safety, “nearest applicable legislation”, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on its use, stating that “Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the courts to be involved in help, cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for academic judgement that falls outside the competence of the essay at school, court (Hines v Birkbeck College  3 All ER 15)” (QAA 2016 ). Essay Writing Using Apa Style? In their conclusion, the QAA state that the UK 2006 Fraud Act is “untested in this context”. Here we explore the detail of the Fraud Act further, and compare it to essay on health and safety the established business practises of UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on their Terms and Conditions.
We first compare the commonly observed practises of essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). We then specifically compared the Terms and Conditions of some UK-based companies and lancia thesis testbericht, their advertising to on health Sections 1-7 of the college essay reader jobs, Act to determine whether or not these companies are committing an offence under these sections of the Act. As part of a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in on health and safety, Higher Education. We analysed the sites to identify those which indicated that they are owned by companies listed at Companies House in the UK, meaning that they are able to run as ‘legitimate’ businesses and that they are subject to regulation by UK law, having been ‘incorporated’ under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at Companies House. We also analysed a handful of additional sites from Australia and the USA, making a total of 31 sites. Essay Writing? We have not included the identity of the and safety, specific companies in this publication for the following reasons: 1. We do not wish to further advertise the services of black essay these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it.
2. We have no guarantee that the company number given on these websites is actually that of the company which runs the site. In some cases the on health at school, names are the same but in others this is not the case. 3. The content of this article is academic opinion and not the basis for legal proceedings. We have shared, confidentially, the help, identities of the companies with the reviewers of this manuscript and also with the UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of UK-based companies in their recent report on essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Questions asked of the different websites and the number/percentage of sites for which the answered was considered to and safety be ‘yes’ Is there a disclaimer of liability in respect of use? Are there contractual terms and conditions relating to use? Are customers able to specify the using apa style, quality (grade) of the work)? Is the Intellectual Property in the work retained by the company?
Does the work come with a ‘plagiarism-free’ guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to be used for ‘research’ only? Does the site offer ‘qualified’ or ‘expert’ writers? Is the and safety, advertising potentially misleading (compared to college reader jobs disclaimer/terms + conditions)? Shown below are questions that we asked of the websites. Essay On Health And Safety At School? We then considered the thesis, Fraud Act in detail, informed by essay answers to the questions below. The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for a general offence of fraud, defined through the three ways of paper committing it, which are (1) by false representation, (2) by failing to disclose information and (3) by abuse of essay and safety position. Each is essay, dealt with in a separate Section of the Act. Essay On Health? It is also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to possess, make or supply articles for writing apa style use in fraud(s).
Section 3 Fraud by failing to disclose information. We will consider Section 2 of the act (‘fraud by false representation’) later in this paper but at this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Act which makes it an offence to fail to disclose, to another, information for which there is a legal duty to disclose. For instance failing to disclose information in relation to a contract of essay and safety insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to a hospital that certain patients referred by him or her for treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for the services provided. A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of a contract between two parties or because of the existence of a particular type of professional relationship between them; for example, a solicitor/client relationship. In its report on Fraud (Report on a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 No.
276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the essay, following comments about the circumstances in at school, which a legal duty might arise: “7.28 … Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the provisions governing company prospectuses), from the fact that the transaction in question is one of the testbericht, utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the express or implied terms of a contract, from the custom of on health a particular trade or market, or from the existence of a fiduciary relationship between the help 2 diabetes, parties (such as that of agent and principal). 7.29 For this purpose there is a legal duty to disclose information not only if the defendant’s failure to and safety disclose it gives the victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the law gives the victim a right to set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the reader jobs, non- disclosure. For example, a person in a fiduciary position has a duty to disclose material information when entering into a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to rescind the contract and to reclaim any property transferred under it.” Thus a key question is whether essay mills owe a legal duty to their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to disclose to customers that if they submit the purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the assistor and the customer (a fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to act for or on behalf of another in on health and safety at school, a particular matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and jobs, confidence). Thus the relationship between student customer and essay mills appears to and safety be entirely contractual. In the first instance therefore the writing apa style, legal duty on essay at school, the part of the company is simply to comply with the terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in the terms and conditions of business drafted by them. These do not routinely place a legal duty on the company to disclose information about the possible consequences of use by a student and in on dissertation 2 diabetes, any event as discussed below they routinely warn against the submitting of the essay without proper attribution. Section 3b (i) and (ii) of the Act go on to provide that an offence is only committed if by failing to disclose information the defendant “ intended to make a gain for on health and safety him or to cause loss to lancia thesis testbericht another or expose another to essay on health and safety at school a risk of loss” . By failing to give information that use of the writing using apa style, essay through submission at an educational institution may lead to an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. continue in business and there is potential for risk of loss by the student customer. However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to provide this information and in essay on health and safety, fact as discussed below the terms and conditions of business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in relation to use of the essay (Similarly an offence under section 4 of the Act – abuse of position - is effectively negated). We consider the chrysalids vs x-men, position in relation to advertising used by essay mills later in this paper – there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the Fraud Act 2006.
Making a false representation – section 2. Essay On Health? This section of the Act states the following. dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for himself or another, or. to cause loss to another or to expose another to on dissertation 2 diabetes a risk of loss. it is untrue or misleading, and. the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the person making the representation, or. any other person. A representation may be express or implied. For the purposes of this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is essay, submitted in any form to any system or device designed to help on dissertation receive, convey or respond to communications (with or without human intervention)” (UK Government 2006 ). Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an offence to essay and safety commit fraud by false representation. Subsection (1)(a) states that the representation must be made dishonestly. The current definition of dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. The first question is whether a defendant’s behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people. If answered positively, the second question is help on dissertation, whether the essay, defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and essay writing apa style, honest people.
It seems reasonable to assume that the activities of essay writing companies would be considered ‘dishonest’ by ordinary standards, particularly when considering the media coverage given to at school their activities (Henry et al. 2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme ). However it is by no means certain that the second limb of the test would be satisfied given the rationale and justification for essay writing services usually deployed by essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in reader jobs, educational institutions (Newton and essay on health at school, Lang 2016 )) and the terms and conditions of business (Table 1 ). Paper? However, given the aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by on health and safety reasonable and honest people is subject to legitimate challenge. In any event dishonesty is history essay, only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. On Health At School? In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a student’s own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the vs x-men essay, Act requires for the offence to be made out on health and safety, that a person must make the representation with the short black history essay, intention of making a gain or causing loss or risk of essay at school loss to another. The gain or loss however does not actually have to take place. Research Paper? Subsection (2) defines the meaning of “false” in at school, this context and subsection (3) gives the meaning of “representation”. A representation is false if it is on dissertation 2 diabetes, untrue or misleading and on health, the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Subsection (3) goes on to provide that a representation means any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to essay writing apa style a person’s state of on health and safety at school mind. Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. It can be stated in words or communicated by conduct.
There is no limitation on the way in which the representation be expressed and chrysalids essay, therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on a website advertising essay writing services. Section 5 of the Act defines the essay on health and safety, meaning of “gain” and “loss” for the purposes of sections 2 to 4. Under these definitions, “gain” and “loss” are limited to gain and vs x-men, loss in essay on health and safety, money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in section 34(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968 and essay writing, section 32(2)(b) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969. The definition of “property” which applies in this context is based on section 4(1) of the Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and all forms of at school property including intellectual property. Therefore in each case of essay writing using apa style a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the Act, the defendant’s conduct must be dishonest and their intention must be to make a gain or cause a loss, or the on health at school, risk of a loss, to thesis another. Unlike the deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made. An individual or company providing an essay or coursework to a student for money clearly intends to make a gain for the purposes of the Act even if a student fails to pay. Here now we consider the specific questions addressed in Table 1 to determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the intention of making a gain. All of the companies analysed made some sort of statement, in their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to on health at school be used solely for ‘research purposes and for assistance only’ or use a variant of this form of disclaimer. Some go further and state that no permission is given to research copy the work in relation for use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is making a false representation for the purposes of the Act as they clearly present, in essay on health, the terms and conditions, the services being supplied to student customers and the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and conditions (Bakos et al.
2014 ). Short Black History? However ignorance of the terms is not a ground in the civil law that they should be ignored. 2 A degree of at school protection is given to consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a ‘fairness’ test to all ‘non-individually negotiated’ contracts. These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on research, a website relating to terms and conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and exhortations designed to persuade and legitimise activity, for example statements to the effect that students need not ‘waste time’ doing the on health, work themselves; the recent QAA report contained numerous examples of these (QAA 2016 ). The test for potential liability under section 2 of the Act is lancia thesis, whether or not the representation is untrue or misleading and and safety, the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is essay, arguable that there is on health, nothing false about paper write, such statements – the essay mills are being quite open about the rationale for their services. As such the essay and safety, representations made by essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in essay, that they create an impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by the terms and conditions accepted by the student.
There has been significant publicity over the use of purchased essays by essay and safety students and it is legitimate to suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of this use. This is paper write, evidenced in part by the terms and conditions of some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essays supplied may be submitted in some form by students as their own work subject to a disclaimer that proper referencing as to the source is made by the student. Therefore a reasonable and honest person might well take the view that such advertising is on health at school, misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an vs x-men essay, essay and submitting it as their own independent work is on health at school, a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the terms and conditions of supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by way of advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to thesis protect customers from essay and safety at school, false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information.
Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). A reasonable person might also consider that some of the statements used by essay using Essay Mills in their advertising constitute an incitement to commit academic fraud. However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to at school engage with plagiarism cases in Universities and academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the work as his or her own but the write, immediate gain made by the student is academic credit and not money or property directly. However there is nothing in the section that requires the essay and safety, gain to be immediate and gain in terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is a question of whether this gain is college essay jobs, too ‘remote’ – this ‘remoteness’ is a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). In addition, although the objective test of dishonesty in on health, R v Ghosh may be made out, the second aspect of the essay writing apa style, test (whether the student subjectively views the act of on health and safety submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the black history, advertising adopted by essay writing companies. The advice given by the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context. Making or supplying articles for essay use in essay, frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the Act makes it an offence to on health and safety make, adapt, supply or offer to supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud, or intending it to be used to commit or facilitate fraud. Section 8 extends the meaning of “article” for essay the purposes of sections 6 and 7 and certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. On Health And Safety? This should include an essay stored or supplied electronically.
3. makes, adapts, supplies or offers to supply any article; for essay use in the course of or in connection with fraud; knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). “Knowledge” in Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the use to which the article can be put is likely to provide sufficient evidence of the essay and safety, defendant’s state of mind. College Reader Jobs? Furthermore as noted above the publicity over student use of on health supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an essay has relevant knowledge for the purposes of the offence. However the manufacture of articles that are capable of being used in lancia thesis, or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the on health and safety at school, manufacturer intends that it should be used in a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)). Short Essay? The terms and conditions of and safety business will mitigate against the commission of an help 2 diabetes, offence as essays are usually required to be used in a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for use in the course of or in connection with any fraud. This section is on health, based on Section 25 of the Theft Act 1968. It must be shown that the essay writing using, Defendant had the article (essay) for the purpose or with the intention that it be used in the course of or in connection with an offence. On Health And Safety At School? Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the history essay, Act will satisfy this requirement. “In our view, to establish an offence under Section 25 (1) the prosecution must prove that the at school, Defendant was in possession of the college jobs, article, and intended the article to be used in the course of or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat. Essay On Health At School? But it is not necessary to prove that he intended it to chrysalids vs x-men be used in the course of essay and safety or in connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is enough to prove a general intention to use it for vs x-men essay some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is essay on health at school, supported by the use of the word “any” in Section 25 (1).
Nor, in essay reader jobs, our view, is it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to use it himself; it will be enough to essay on health prove that he had it with him with the intention that it should be used by short history essay someone else.” Section 7(2) of the Companies Act 2006 also is a further contraindication of the commission of an on health and safety, offence under the Fraud Act 2006 by essay a company providing essay writing services. This provides that a company must not be formed for an unlawful purpose. 5 The decision by essay on health the Registrar of companies to incorporate a company suggests in the first instance that the business of the company is lawful. That decision is subject to judicial review 6 and paper write, a certificate of incorporation is not conclusive evidence that all the company’s business is legal. If a company is registered with an illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an essay on health at school, individual citizen) might apply through the Attorney –General to cancel the registration made by the Registrar. 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to the coming into force of the on dissertation, Companies Act 2006 the requirement of incorporation for on health at school lawful purposes only writing apa style is an established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of companies prior to this date. Thus at the time of and safety at school incorporation the help, Registrar must have been satisfied that the essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. The conclusion drawn by the authors therefore is that the essay at school, terms and conditions of business accepted by students (notwithstanding the protections given by the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to help establish the elements of a criminal offence under the Fraud Act 2006.
In their recent report “Plagiarism in Higher Education”, the and safety at school, QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to tackle contract cheating in the UK and on dissertation 2 diabetes, identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the most obvious means to pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Here we conclude that the Act, as it currently stands, is unlikely to provide a successful platform for addressing contract cheating through legal means – particularly if the aim is to prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is essay on health, despite there being some obvious contradictions within the websites – all of the sites contain some form of statement that their products are ‘to be used for research purposes only’ yet all also offer some form of ‘plagiarism-free guarantee’. It is difficult to conceive of a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for a custom-written essay, unless it was to be used for submitting as the customer (student’s) own work. The companies may need to testbericht protect themselves from copyright violation, but this is distinct from plagiarism and would be a matter for the companies rather than something advertised to their customers. It might be considered that the behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in academic issues. There are also a number of potentially damaging consequences to the criminalisation of on health and safety at school student behaviour in this way, such as the undermining of trust between students and their universities and the role of university staff in such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into a legal situation. At the very least, this would seem likely to deter action.
There is a general presumption that some form of intention or knowledge (mens rea) is lancia thesis testbericht, necessary for essay at school the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of chrysalids vs x-men criminal penalties (including loss of liberty). However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of ‘strict liability’, meaning, basically, that there is no requirement to demonstrate ‘intent’, fault’ or ‘negligence’, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Strict liability normally applies in circumstances where protection of the on health, public is paramount (eg a breach of health and safety regulations). The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is enacted specifically addressing the supply of academic essays to avoid the help on dissertation, need for a prosecutor to essay on health establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to criminal liability. The integrity of assessment in Higher Education is at college reader stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. nurses, doctors, lawyers) “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Offences of strict liability promote high standards of care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and usually operate in relation to businesses in which the penalty is a fine so that individual liberty is not at stake. On Health And Safety At School? However the penalty should be substantial to avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an expense of the business or a nominal tax on black history, illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of all due care to mitigate against the potential harshness of a strict liability offence. The defendant can avoid conviction by proving that he or she took all due care to avoid committing the offence. “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to on health prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to short black essay any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to believe is intended for submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Internationally there have been efforts to pursue contract cheating through legal means and these were described in essay on health and safety at school, detail in a recent chapter of the Handbook of black essay Academic Integrity (Newton and Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in 17 states of the USA, but these laws date back to the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully.
More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to advertise or to on health and safety at school provide ‘third party assistance to cheat’ and this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an exam on history, behalf of another. Again, this law does not appear to have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to the jurisdictional issues posed by contract cheating. As described in the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and each may be in a different country. Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to de-legitimise these services in the eyes of and safety students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect. Despite our conclusion that the current activities of UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the terms of the 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to addressing contract cheating via a legal means.
The first is in the apparent discrepancy between the terms and conditions used by essay using the companies, which frequently urges caution in the use of purchased assignments for misconduct, and their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the UK this is, potentially, a violation of the “Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008” which are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from and safety, informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of a legal approach outlined above. Vs X-men? Other strategies could include the increased use of assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and essay and safety at school, practical skills assessments (reviewed in (Newton and Lang 2016 )). Additional approaches would also benefit from support through regulation, such as a requirement from college, accrediting organisations to essay at school include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to successful legal pursuit of black history essay essay writing companies in the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. The principles identified could be adopted in other countries. Read with section 34(1) of that Act and section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of that Act). L’Estrange v F. Groucob Ltd  2 KB 394.
R v Akpom  EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office. It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for essay on health and safety non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for fraud. Five birth certificates were found in the possession of professional fraudsters for their use in making fraudulent claims for benefits. A certificate was held to be an ‘article’ R v Montila  UKHL 50. Essay Using Apa Style? R v Registrar of Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More  2 KB 197. R v Registrar of companies, ex parte A-G  BCLC 476 – attempted registration of a company to carry on the business of prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society  AC 406. The authors would like to thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of Law and Criminology for reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. MD is essay on health at school, Associate Professor in the College of Law and Criminology and Director of the Swansea Academy for Inclusivity and Learner Success. He is a solicitor of the senior courts of England and Wales (non practising). He analysed the content of the websites against lancia testbericht, the UK 2006 Fraud Act and wrote the manuscript with PN.
VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Swansea University student internship scheme. PN is the Director of Learning and essay, Teaching at the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in academic integrity. He identified the sites and their common practises. Short Black? He also wrote the manuscript with MD. All authors read and approved the essay and safety at school, final manuscript. Paper Write? The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to on health at school the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme The man who helps students to cheat. In: BBC News. Using Apa Style? http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . Essay On Health And Safety? Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of using Dishonesty in essay and safety at school, R. v. Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349–360. College Essay? doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and essay at school, I’ll put you on the way to a first’ Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work. Essay Writing Apa Style? In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity.
Springer, Singapore, pp 639–654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and on health and safety, learning approach. In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Thesis Testbericht? Springer, Singapore, pp 1–14 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at essay and safety the start of their higher education. Assess Eval High Educ 0:1–16. Research Paper? doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and essay on health at school, other paid third parties. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249–271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and the law. Essay Writing? Learn Publ 23:279–292. doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on and safety at school, background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. Apa Style? doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of academic integrity. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of on health and safety academic integrity.
Springer, Singapore, pp 39–53 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and testbericht, names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating. Educ Stud 40:233–236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on essay, Reddit.
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resume playlist vlc Resume Media has evolved into on health and safety at school a collection of thesis features that might. appeal to users who have libraries of video and at school audio files. Designed in Windows. Mostly works in college essay reader jobs Linux. Not yet in essay on health OSX.
Resume Media displays the saved positions of all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in each table. Media segments can be. defined without editing your file allowing you to watch or listen. to your favorite parts. Media can be automatically added or removed.
from a table when the media stops or finishes. Old-style tv video. ratios can be adjusted without going to the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to sample media for a number of lancia thesis testbericht seconds or. play at different speeds. And more. album.
The resume feature then allows you to play and on health stop and. quickly resume whichever entries interest you at chrysalids essay the time until you. have finally completed the list. Sort the list to see which entries. you have started. chapters. Never lose your place.
Adjust 'rewind' time to your liking. to help re-sync your memory with the story. Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time. Then go to the segments list to and safety at school, play whichever highlights that. friends and thesis relatives are leaning over your shoulder to essay at school, see.
You can also tag the individual titles in a single file album. a table. Then, when you are ready, move one entry to VLC, expand it, and import the media list back to a different table for execution. The playing media is bookmarked with an short history, '*' symbol. When finished, the bookmark advances to the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the bookmark increments to the next media. There's a convenient button to play the bookmark where you left off. Play unfinished or whole table with options to randomize and loop. * Designed in on health and safety Windows.
Mostly works in Linux. Does not work in OSX. See Mac Attack and Licking Linux near the end of the description. * If this version is not available in history the VLC Addons Manager, you can. install it manually from on health and safety, this Addons site. Open zip file, copy the thesis testbericht, lua. file to C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions. or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for Linux (unhide .local) Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Essay And Safety At School! Delete old versions.
When installed, restart VLC and check 'Resume Media' in essay using apa style View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. It's OK. ) * A Command prompt window will flash in Windows the first time only. to create the data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media. Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is essay on health and safety at school, playing. * If the writing, VLC playlist is essay at school, stopped (not playing), then you can click. [play/options] [add VLC] to add the vs x-men, VLC playlist to essay, current table.
* If the lancia thesis, VLC playlist is on health and safety, playing (or paused), then you can click. [play/options] [position] to add the college reader jobs, playing media to on health at school, the table. * There's a setting to allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to access the settings table. * There is a media-just-started tolerance of 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to writing apa style, sample media without saving the stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and 'rewind' are adjustable. * In the event there are identical media names in the VLC playlist, Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on current table.
Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to be updated in the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of tables is adjustable from 1 to at school, 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the number of tables is lowered. * To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and remove mark '*'. * Combining tables saves the highest position of black duplicate entries.
* When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at the bottom. * You can set media saved positions to 'hh:mm:ss' or to 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in any table when replayed to the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by at school, copying the data directory. (In the black, data directory, the table # in each file is the file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is playing, the essay on health and safety at school, next stop. event will be undetectable. Stop and restart media to allow detection. or click [play/options] to manually save the position without stopping. useful for making convenient tables of playlists.
Note that the lancia thesis, saved. position and bookmark are meaningless for and safety, these files and do not. respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the. instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and need to restore a table, then go to testbericht, [settings] and enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where. t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each. media in any table. The two picture keys are described in on health at school the Picture.
section following this and apply to video only. Research Write! The third key is: A reasonable range for % is essay on health, 25 to essay apa style, 300 and the default is RMP=100. The motivation for adding the essay and safety at school, speed key is to essay, allow up or down tuning. of an instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance. (See Pitch setting in and safety the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the Playback Speed setting in the Settings table is set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the. individual RMP speed keys for each media.
* Go to the Resume Media Settings and essay writing using allow application of keys. * While a media is essay at school, playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to set the keys for short history, media in the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the input line. * There is one level of [undo], then [cancel] will reset the essay and safety at school, keys to.
the values before [keys] was pressed. * There is a Keys setting in the Settings table which is help on dissertation 2 diabetes, 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in the tables) 2= Apply keys. Also, when in the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the essay at school, metadata and research paper write placed in the input. box to essay on health, allow easy manual entry of the key values into the table. 3= Apply keys. Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in.
the playing media's metadata will be read from the metadata and. automatically entered into the table for that media. Note: It may take several plays to successfully read the metadata. You can place keys (ex. RMP=102) in a media file's metadata comments. section to save the keys with the media file when not in help a table. * Changing metadata is and safety, easier in Windows. Go to Properties Details Comments.
If you select a group of similar files, you can change them. all at once. Remove write-protection first. * When in the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the short black, input line to retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for easy transfer to on health at school, a file's metadata comments section. * Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden. Be careful when including segment keys in the metadata, since they can. be long. The limit using Windows properties is. (Be careful changing metadata using VLC.
I have seen media corrupted.) I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to the. keys to research, allow individual media adjustment and I will check it out. Parameters differ in success when applied by on health and safety at school, lua extensions. Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might. be tired of manually adjusting the essay writing using, picture in on health and safety VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is playing. * Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios.
(Ex. RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the lancia thesis testbericht, Keys section above to enter keys into the table. * For technical reasons, application of picture keys is limited to. single selection plays initiated from any one of the Resume Media play. options. Multiple selections will play normally. Essay On Health! Since videos are. usually long, playing one at a time should not be an issue.
Segmenting of media allows you to lancia, set start and stop times and name. the segments for and safety, any media (usually video, but audio also). Resume. Media will play the segments while ignoring the essay writing apa style, other parts. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and on health and safety at school allow segmenting of essay reader jobs media. * Play any media in the current Resume Media table. (Pausing is ok, since a paused media is still considered to and safety, be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to testbericht, prepare to edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to add media position to essay on health and safety at school, the input box. With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into the input box.
* Segment elements are [start stop name]. Get a start and stop time, add an optional name, click [save]. Essay Writing Apa Style! Save order is based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of order. - Type 'end' instead of a time to indicate play to end of media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments. * Segment play is limited to single plays initiated from Resume Media. Multiple selections will play normally without segments.
* Setting mousewheel to position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences. can make locating start and stop times more convenient. * There is a Resume Media setting to essay and safety at school, set the research paper write, VLC Fullscreen setting. Use this to keep segment play in a window or fullscreen. On Health And Safety At School! An alternate. Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for lancia testbericht, one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to essay at school, consider unchecking.
'Resize Interface to Video size' in VLC Interface Preferences. * By default, the media name will show on a video at the beginning of. each segment. There is a VLC Video Preference setting to turn that off. attempt is write, made to make the segments behave like a single file. The. segments will play in order and then the at school, media will be marked finished. The media can be stopped and resumed in any segment.
You can click. later in the time line and write Resume Media will play the segment closest. to the time clicked. Clicking past the and safety at school, last segment will finish media. If [^loopv] selected in [play More] then the segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the thesis, end time of. the segment it was playing. Resume Media can detect When you click. past the essay on health at school, segment end time and thereby decide what should be done next. Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends,
Resume Media will loop the highlighted segments. This allows you to. dynamically choose which segments will play. Also, clicking later in. the time line (past the segment end) will play the next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to the time clicked, thus allowing. you to jump through the highlighted segments. When there are no. highlights or you exit from the segment list, segments play normally. Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted. * Run time lets you sample all media for a set number of testbericht seconds.
* Start time lets you start further into the media. A saved position. will override this value. * Playback speed lets you, say, listen to an audio book faster or. have fun with a video, etc. * Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. On Health And Safety! Allows tuning of instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of a 100 you are looking for.
(Use saved positions combined with Run time for deep sampling.) I have not had access to reader, a Mac for a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to get Resume Media working on OSX can try the essay on health and safety at school, following: Set allowosx = true near top of lua file for Resume Media to run. For tinkerers only. Don't get mad at anyone.
Back up your lua file. Go down to osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is black, some additional explanation of the display issues there. When (if) the display works, I will check the rest of the essay and safety, functions. *** constructive comments are welcome *** The dialog window starts out large and help 2 diabetes gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and accepted. There hasn't been any movement on.
fixing this issue since 4/27. The VLC team needs programmers to essay and safety at school, help. to make Resume Media for using apa style, OSX possible. Everything seems to work properly in Linus except segmenting. I will work to fix this issue.
Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to address. Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on on health and safety at school the 'Score' at the top and click the short essay, plus sign when it appears. Essay On Health At School! Thanks!! Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675.
Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for essay, Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory.
Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in essay on health and safety segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap.
2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for help, play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in essay on health and safety at school table view.
2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes.
2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the on dissertation, input box to set picture keys, saved positions and settings. Change to essay on health at school, picture-adjust keys only writing allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked.
Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and and safety adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to vs x-men, show bookmarked table entries in list of tables.
Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and essay on health and safety at school autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay.
Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of research paper write 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in on health and safety at school the dialog window.
Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and chrysalids vs x-men essay issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and essay and safety the dialog for the majority of short users. Moved user variables to top of download file for easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind').
Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to essay on health at school, 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to remain in using apa style an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is.
playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned.
Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the essay at school, VLC playlist. * To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings].
Near the bottom, change Block- to Allow new table entry when media stops. From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the media name and stop position to the current table if it is not already there. Good luck, Rocky. I can open the extension from the menu under VLC/Extensions but the help on dissertation 2 diabetes, window that opens never contains anything. I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and essay and safety still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video. and create subdirectory ..luaextensions.
and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Type Cntl-A to highlight the help on dissertation, whole file contents. 3. Type Cntl-C to copy the file contents to the clipboard. 4. Open the VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in a text editor like Notepad. 5. Type Cntl-V to copy the contents into the file. Close the file. 6. Open VLC and go to on health and safety at school, View menu at the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at reader the bottom of the View Menu. 8. Click it, and the Resume Media dialog window will open.
Getting the same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and when I press the download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in your own directory. How can I download the Extension? 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows.
Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to and safety, VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the essay writing using apa style, session.
2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior.
Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015.
Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to and safety, automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to short essay, set picture keys, saved positions and settings.
Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for on health and safety, start time, run time and playback speed
Correct picture adjustment settings altered in testbericht V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and adjust picture keys for the whole table.
A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in on health at school list of lancia thesis tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to and safety, allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played.
Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to thesis testbericht, version 2.40 due to essay on health, unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in research paper autoplay.
Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is and safety, playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only.
Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in college essay reader jobs the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and essay on health and safety issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for the majority of history essay users. Moved user variables to top of download file for essay on health at school, easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no.
table dialog window. Control media and resume from the lancia testbericht, VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds.
Set media completed flag to essay on health and safety at school, 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to chrysalids essay, 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the on health and safety, previous update to include the research, case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is essay and safety at school, clicked while media is testbericht, playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to remain in essay and safety an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to chrysalids vs x-men, keep media with time reset to on health, 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the help on dissertation, next stop event is undetectable in this case.
Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations.
Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the VLC playlist.
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Health And Safety In The Workplace - …
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to essay on health and safety at school, know where to start. Black History. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the on health resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and essay using apa style tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.
Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of essay on health your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the paper write accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to essay on health and safety at school, the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to black history essay, be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on essay and safety at school, your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on lancia testbericht, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to essay and safety at school, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Essay Reader. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for on health and safety at school someone to keep on reading. Chrysalids Vs X-men. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an on health, objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and lancia testbericht need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. At School. In every other case?
Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and research write focus on essay and safety, making the paper rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on essay on health and safety, your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is paper write still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the and safety at school skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Thesis Testbericht. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and essay at school making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out lancia thesis testbericht, these tips for at school cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space.
Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in essay writing a minute. But the essay on health and safety most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Essay. Make your resume easy on essay, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of paper write white space on essay and safety at school, the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for lancia thesis testbericht which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and essay on health keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager.
That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to research paper write, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to essay on health and safety at school, make it pop. Short History. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in on health this is lancia thesis that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume.
So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to on health, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.
Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and college essay reader jobs only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and on health at school transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to paper write, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the essay and safety narrative of essay why you’re ideal for on health at school the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to write, get through them.
Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to and safety, throw in lancia testbericht tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and on health interesting to all of reader jobs them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in on health at school your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to college essay reader jobs, picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to and safety, your resume . Help On Dissertation 2 Diabetes. People hire performers, so you want to essay and safety, show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!
As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the help direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on essay and safety at school, a resume often starts to chrysalids, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them.
Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only and safety at school, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.
Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in vs x-men essay your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to essay and safety, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and thesis testbericht hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.
Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the essay and safety job than where you went to essay writing apa style, college. Essay On Health. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. Help 2 Diabetes. But if older coursework is essay and safety more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. Vs X-men. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.
While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. Essay. 28. Chrysalids Vs X-men. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to essay on health and safety, include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in short history essay your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and essay on health and safety at school motivation to help on dissertation, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the essay and safety at school relevant skills you have for vs x-men essay a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.
If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and on health and safety at school detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to short black essay, the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for essay at school a tech job at testbericht a healthcare company?
Don’t even think about it. On Health At School. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. College Jobs. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.
Yes, these experiences show a good amount of on health at school work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by thesis testbericht, someone who disagrees with the cause. Essay On Health And Safety. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Black History. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for on health and safety at school having the company’s top sales record four quarters in paper write a row.” What about and safety, personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of essay a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and essay on health at school end dates for each position. Testbericht. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of essay at school years or months you worked at your earlier positions.
If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the black history reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the essay on health and safety workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume.
Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. Essay. For example, if you took time out on health, of the workforce to 2 diabetes, raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is essay on health as demanding and intense a job as any out vs x-men, there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.
There’s no need to on health at school, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is thesis testbericht free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. On Health At School. Have you taken on on dissertation, new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.
When your resume is updated on and safety, a regular basis, you’re ready to writing using apa style, pounce when opportunity presents itself. On Health. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is 2 diabetes passionate about essay and safety, elevating the standard of research write writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to essay on health at school, tea—get in touch at essay eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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Health and safety in schools Essay …
final solution essay The Final Solution--An Essay by Martin Gilbert. [NOTE: Internal references are to other articles included in the Oxford Companion to World War II ] Final Solution ( Endlsung ) was the term used for essay the murder of college reader jobs six million Jews during the Second World War. These Jews were citizens of every pre-war state in Europe. Their Jewishness had been defined by the German Nuremberg Laws of 1935 as any person with one Jewish grandparent. Many were Jews only by the Nazi definition; in their own eyes they were Germans, Frenchmen, Belgians, Dutchmen, and essay on health at school so on. A number had been practising Christians for several generations. When Hitter came to power in 1933 the Jews under German control numbered just over half a million. Hitler and his Nazi Party were pledged to reader jobs, create a Germany in which the on health German Jews would be set apart from their fellow-Germans, and denied their place as an thesis integral part of German life and culture. The concept of racial purity was paralleled with the stimulation of racial hatred, to create the image of the German Jew as different, alien, and dangerous. The first measure based upon this Nazi ideology was the expulsion of German Jews from many hundreds of and safety at school villages and small towns in which they lived and worked, and in which their ancestors had lived for vs x-men many centuries; the first record of Jews in the Rhineland precedes the Hitler era by on health at school, more than a thousand years.
This first solution of what the Nazis called the #145;Jewish Question#146; (Judenfrage) was to make hundreds of essay municipalities #145;Jew-free#146; (Judenrein). The Jewish families thus driven out went to larger towns and essay on health cities inside Germany, or emigrated. Emigration was the second 'solution' approved by the Nazis for the Jewish Question. From 1933 until the outbreak of paper war in on health and safety at school, 1939, the official policy of the German government permitted, and even encouraged, emigration. The property of the Jews who left, their shops, their livelihoods, their homes and their furniture, became part of the spoils of racism. Of Germany's half-million Jewish citizens in 1933, more than half had emigrated by 1938. Of these, more than 100,000 found refuge in the USA, 63,000 in Argentina, 52,000 in the UK and 33,000 in Palestine. The mass murder of the quarter of a million Jews who remained in help 2 diabetes, Germany was nowhere envisaged, discussed, or planned. Such killing as there was took place within the concentration camp system set up to punish opponents of the regime. In the years 1933 to 1938 fewer than a hundred Jews were among several thousand German citizens murdered in essay on health and safety, concentration camps (principally at Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, and on dissertation 2 diabetes Dachau).
With the annexation of Austria in on health and safety, March 1938 and of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939 (see CZECHOSLOVAKIA) the number of Jews under German rule increased by another quarter of a million. Still there was no policy of mass murder. Such violence as there was remained on a relatively small scale. In November 1938, 91 Jews were murdered throughout Greater Germany during the night of looting and burning known as the 'Night of Broken Glass' (Kristallnacht). As many as a thousand Jews were murdered in concentration camps in the following six months. In the eyes of the German government, the help 2 diabetes 'solution' to the increased number of Jews within the Reich remained emigration. More than 100,000 of Austria's 160,000 Jews now emigrated; most of essay them to the UK, the USA, and Palestine, to which they took their talent in many professions, including scientists, doctors, writers, and musicians. Emigration depended not only on the German willingness to essay, let Jews leave. but also on the willingness of other states to take them in. Beginning in the summer of 1938, as pressure for a place of refuge grew, many states adopted laws restricting Jewish immigration. Another problem for the Jews who left Germany was that they could not know which countries would remain safe; the tens of thousands of essay Jews who found refuge in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, for example (as did the German-Jewish girl Anne Frank and help 2 diabetes her family), could not know that the countries which took their in would, in due course, be overrun by Germany.
With the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 (see POLISH CAMPAIGN), a further million and a half Jews came under German rule. During the murder in the streets of more than 10,000 Polish civilians in September and October 1939, an orgy of slaughter unprecedented in Europe in the 20th century, 3,000 Polish Jews were among those killed; some of them were forced into synagogues and then burnt alive. But no long-term plans existed for the Jews of Poland, who constituted by far the largest Jewish population within the growing borders of the Reich. With the coming of war and war conditions, including a British naval blockade of Germany (see ECONOMIC WARFARE) and on health and safety at school the restriction of almost all but military traffic within Greater Germany, emigration became virtually impossible except for citizens of certain neutral states or their spouses. Gradually, during the winter of 1939 and the early months of 1940, a third 'solution' emerged, to be applied to the Jews of Poland. They would be expelled from several thousand localities in which they had lived hitherto, and chrysalids vs x-men essay made to live in restricted areas. And Safety At School? A medieval concept, that of the ghetto, was revived. But whereas in medieval times the essay writing ghetto, such as the one in on health, Venice, was a centre of Jewish creativity, under the Nazi scheme it was a place of confinement and poverty. From the spring of 1940 Jews throughout German-occupied and annexed Poland were driven out of the towns and villages in which they had lived for centuries, and sent to specially-designated areas in certain towns. They were also driven out of many parts of the principal cities, such as Warsaw and Ldz, in which they had lived hitherto, and were forced into an area which was too small for their numbers, often lacking adequate sanitary facilities, and deliberately so.
The food ration imposed upon them was even smaller than that imposed upon the non-Jewish inhabitants of Poland. Anyone trying to essay jobs, leave the ghetto, or trying to smuggle food into the ghetto, faced execution. By April 1941 ghettos had been enforced throughout German-occupied Poland. By June the death toll from on health and safety at school, starvation had reached 2,000 a month in the Warsaw Ghetto (where half a million Jews were confined), and 800 a month in the Ldz Ghetto (where a quarter of a million were confined). This was in itself a horrifying 'solution', the murder of whole communities of people by slow starvation, though at using, the rate of death in the ghettos, the total destruction of Polish Jewry would take 20 years or more. No other solution was then in and safety at school, prospect. The mass of Polish Jews survived in their ghettos, and provided the German administration with a vast reservoir of help on dissertation 2 diabetes forced labour. The German victories in western Europe between April and June 1940 brought more and more Jews under German rule; in Norway (1,400), Denmark (5,600), France (283,000), the Netherlands (126,000), Luxemburg (1,700), and Belgium (64,000). In April 1941 Greek Jews (77,000) also came under joint German and essay on health Italian control. These western European and Balkan Jews were subjected to civic disabilities, and obliged to a yellow badge on their clothing to identify them (another medieval practice revived).
The professions were closed to them, and their property gradually taken away. But their lives were safe; indeed, a few could still emigrate, and research paper write did so; others were able to flee for safety to and safety at school, neutral Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, and college essay Turkey. In June 1941 the German Army invaded the Soviet Union (see BARBAROSSA). Immediately following the troops were special killing squads or Einsatzgruppen , whose orders were to murder Jews in every locality. This was the fourth 'solution' after expulsion, emigration, and ghettoization. It led, within six months, to and safety, the murder of as many as a million Jews. The aim of the killing squads was to eliminate Jewish life altogether. In hundreds of small villages in what, up to 1939, had been eastern Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and in western Russia, this destructive aim was fulfilled within a few hours. Vs X-men Essay? The killing was made easier by the active participation of local police and paramilitary groups, especially in essay on health, Lithuania and the Ukraine. In Bessarabia, Moldavia, and parts of southern Russia, the killing was carried out by Romanians.
In cities with large Jewish populations, thousands were murdered within a few days; at Kiev, a total of 33,000 Jewish men, women, and children were killed in three days, having been taken to chrysalids, Babi Yar, a ravine on the outskirts of the city, and machine-gunned. Tens of thousands of Jews were shot down in ditches, gravel pits, and on health at school fields near every town and village in the vast area through which the Germans advanced in apa style, the summer and on health and safety at school autumn of 1941. These killing places, some of them pre-war beauty spots, quickly became synonymous with mass murder: Ponar near Wilno, Kaiserwald near Riga, the Ninth Fort at Kovno, the Ratomskaya ravine at Minsk, and research paper the Drobitsky ravine at Kharkov were five of the most terrible. Other cities with large Jewish populations, such as Kishinev and on health and safety Odessa, were likewise the scene of massive slaughter. By October 1941 each of the four 'solutions#146; so far put into practice was still in effect. In Germany, towns still expelled Jews to the cities, in order to boast that they were Jew-free. In German-occupied western Europe it was still possible for individual Jews to emigrate, if they had, for short black example, American citizenship (the USA was not yet at war with Germany), or were married to subjects of other neutral states.
In German-occupied Poland, more than two million Jews were still confined to ghettos, many of them forced to work in factories manufacturing clothing for the German Army. In former Czechoslovakia, a so-called 'model' ghetto was established, on 10 October 1941, in the l8th-century fortress at Theresienstadt. Jews were deported there from Prague, Brno, and essay at school several hundred other towns and chrysalids villages in on health and safety at school, Bohemia and Moravia. In German-occupied USSR, the killings in fields and ditches also continued, with each day's murder total being recorded by the killing squads and reported to Berlin. Paper Write? On 24 October 1941, for essay at school example, 4,000 Jews were taken from Wilno to Ponar and murdered there during the following three days; according to black essay, the precise statistics submitted by the killing squad as a matter of routine to essay on health and safety, Berlin, the murdered Jews included 885 children. The daily slaughter in the east was often watched by curious bystanders, off-duty soldiers, and German businessmen working in the region. The brutal nature of the black essay killings led to a number of protests being sent to Berlin. One protest, dated 27 October, was forwarded to Berlin by Wilhelm Kube, the commissioner-general of Belorussia (whose headquarters were in at school, Minsk) with the vs x-men essay comment 'To have buried alive seriously wounded people, who then worked their way out of their graves again, is such extreme beastliness that this incident must be reported to the Fhrer.' Even as these protests reached Berlin, a fifth solution was under discussion there. This was intended to be the 'final' solution, the aim of which was the murder of all Jews living in Europe.
It would be 'final' in that once it had been carried out, there would be no more Jews alive in Europe, and therefore no need for any further solution. Since the German annexation of Austria in March 1938, the bureaucratic aspects of the emigration of Jews had been entrusted to a small government department in essay and safety at school, Berlin, the 'Central Office for Jewish Emigration', headed by an SS officer, Adolf Eichmann. In the vs x-men autumn of 1941, Eichmann was put in charge of a new department, the 'Race and Resettlement Office', a section of the RSHAs Amt IV, and was entrusted with the task of preparing the mechanics of the final solution. In an official letter to the German foreign office about an emigration application from essay at school, a Jewish woman who wished to move from Germany to the unoccupied zone of help France, he explained (on 28 October 1941) that the application had to and safety, be turned down 'in view of the approaching final solution of the European Jewry problem'. Henceforth, this phrase 'final solution' was to appear in many official documents.
The 'solution' itself was as follows: Jews living throughout Europe, whether confined in vs x-men, the Polish ghettos or still living in their own homes in western Europe, were to be rounded up (wherever possible this was to be done by French, Dutch, Belgian, or other local police), detained locally in special holding camps, and then deported by train to distant camps in which they would be murdered by gas. No killing would take place in or near the cities in which the victims lived; instead, it would take place hundreds, and for some thousands, of kilometres away. During the on health and safety at school autumn of black essay 1941 experiments were made on on health and safety, Soviet prisoners-of-war, and also on Jews, to find out the most expeditious method of murder by gas; the one in help on dissertation 2 diabetes, which the victims would have the least warning, if any, and in which the least number of operatives would be needed. And Safety At School? Unlike the Einsatzgruppen murders in the east, there were to be no bystanders. Central to this plan were the help on dissertation 2 diabetes elements of secrecy and deception. 'Deportation' was to be called 'resettlement'. The area in which this 'resettlement' was to take place was to be called 'somewhere in the East'. The trains taking the deportees were to be called 'Special Resettlement Trains'. The nature of the camps was to at school, be kept secret, even from those who had to drive the trains to within a few kilometres of them.
Two methods of mass murder were devised. The first was by means of gas vans in which the deportees would be taken as if on a journey to a labour camp, but would in fact be killed by exhaust fumes during the short drive from the station to the camp itself. Research Paper? The second was by means of specially-designed gas chambers, into which they would be taken as if for essay on health and safety at school a shower, and inside which, once the doors were locked, they would be killed by gas (see ZYKLON-B). Apa Style? The process of gassing was to be totally disguised; many of the essay on health and safety at school gas chambers were to have signs on them such as 'shower room' or 'washing room'. The camp sites chosen for apa style the reception and murder of the at school deported Jews were in remote areas, four in German-occupied Poland and one in occupied USSR. The first to be operational was in a wood near Chelmno, a small village in western Poland. Chrysalids Essay? The first deportees were sent there and killed in gas vans, on 8 December 1941. On that day 2,300 Jews were murdered at Chelmno. In the coming months, at least a thousand were killed each day, most of them brought by train from the Ldz Ghetto and the towns around Ldz, until as many as 400,000 had been killed. On 20 January 1942, six weeks after the start of the daily deportations and gassings at Chelmno, a group of at school senior German civil servants gathered at a villa near Berlin, in the suburb of Wannsee, to co-ordinate the activities of the various government departments, including the state railways, the college essay foreign office and the 'Race and Resettlement Office', all of whose active cooperation was needed to essay at school, carry out the deportation of Jews from throughout Europe. Statistics were prepared for apa style the Wannsee conference by Eichmann, giving the number of Jews whom it was hoped would be rounded up and essay on health and safety at school deported.
These figures included Jews in essay, the neutral countries of Europe, including Eire (where the figure given was 4,000), Switzerland (18,000), and essay and safety Spain (6,000). Also included on jobs, the Wannsee list were the Jews of Britain, estimated by Eichmann at 330,000. And Safety? All were to be brought into the net of deportation and destruction. Three more death camps, part of operation REINHARD were also set up in German-occupied Poland, to which Jews were deported and murdered. One camp was at Sobibor, where 300,000 Jews from central Poland were murdered, and several thousand Jews from Germany and the Netherlands. Another camp was at *Belzec, where, beginning in essay, March 1942, 600,000 Jews from western and eastern Galicia, including Cracow and Lww, were murdered, as well as 1,500 Poles, killed for trying to help Jews. The third camp was at Treblinka, where at least 700,000 Polish Jews were murdered, including half a million from the Warsaw Ghetto, from which the and safety first deportations took place on 22 July 1942. Also murdered at Treblinka were almost all the Jews of several other large Polish cities, including Piotrkow (22,000). During the course of fifteen months, two million Jews were murdered at these four death camps.
A further million had been murdered by the Einsatzgruppen in the east. As a result of this systematic killing, the chrysalids vs x-men Jewish populations of Poland, the Baltic States, and essay on health the USSR as far east as the Caucasus, had been almost entirely destroyed by the beginning of 1943. The few Jews still alive in paper write, those regions worked in forced-labour camps, at specific tasks needed by the German Army. The Final Solution, so effective in the east, was also intended to include all the Jews of essay on health at school western Europe. Round-ups took place every week, deportations either weekly (from France and the Netherlands), or monthly (from Belgium). All those who were rounded up were deported by train to the east.
Some were deported to history, the existing death camps, others were sent to Kovno and Riga, where they were murdered at essay on health at school, the sites of the earlier mass murder of the local Jews. At Riga, gas vans were used. Among the Jews deported to Treblinka and murdered were 8,000 from help on dissertation, Theresienstadt and 12,000 from 23 Balkan Jewish communities in distant Macedonia and Thrace; they traced their origins to the expulsion of the essay Jews from Spain in 1492. All 12,000 were deported across Europe in twenty trains, and murdered on reaching Treblinka. Other Jews, possibly as many as 250,000, and including 22,000 from Theresienstadt, were deported from vs x-men essay, western Europe to Maly Trostenets, a small village outside the Belorussian city of essay on health and safety Minsk, where they were killed in gas vans similar to those used at Chelmno and Riga. Many of the Jews of Yugoslavia were murdered in camps (including Stara Gradiska, Loborgrad, and Jasenovac), set up in the independent state of Croatia, an ally of Germany; 15,000 Serbian Jews were killed by gas vans at Zemun, a German-run camp near Belgrade. At Maly Trostenets, and in the four death camps set up by the Germans in help, eastern Poland, almost every deportee was murdered on reaching the camp: the young, the old, and the able-bodied. Essay On Health At School? A tiny number of deportees, only a few hundred out of the hundreds of thousands deported, were formed into Sonderkommandos, or special detachments. They were kept in a special section of lancia thesis each camp, under heavy guard, and forced to take the bodies of those killed to pits where they were buried or burned; or to sort out the clothes of those who had been murdered for and safety at school shipment back to Germany. These slave-labourers were then murdered in their turn. In March 1942 yet another death camp was set up, located near the village of Birkenau, close to Auschwitz, in the industrial region of east Upper Silesia.
For Jews who were sent to this camp, there was a change in essay apa style, the method of the final solution. The region, rich in coal, was part of German-annexed Poland. Several hundred German factories had been relocated here; they, and the existing coal mines, required slave labour on on health, a substantial scale. Many non-Jews formed a part of this labour force, including several thousand British prisoners-of-war. But the need for even more manpower had become urgent, as Germany approached its third year at war, and had still failed either to conquer the essay USSR or to invade the UK. To provide a further reservoir of and safety slave labour, Jews were brought to Birkenau from black, all over Europe. Unlike the murder system already in operation at the existing death camps, not every deportee to Birkenau was murdered.
While all children, all old people, and the sick, were taken from the deportation trains and sent straight to the gas chambers, several hundred able-bodied men and women from each deportation train (sometimes as many as 500 in a train with a thousand deportees) were separated from those about to be killed, and had a serial number tattooed on their forearm; at on health and safety at school, least in the short term their lives were spared; they were sent to barracks from which they would go each day to their slave labour tasks. The camp at Birkenau consisted of a large area of essay wooden huts and brick barracks, and two (later four) gas chambers, attached to which were crematoria in which the bodies of those murdered were burned almost at once. Birkenau lay within the administrative area of a nearby existing concentration camp, Auschwitz, at on health at school, which, since the summer of 1940, Polish political prisoners had faced the worst rigours of college punishment, including torture and execution. Some Polish Jews had already been among the victims at Auschwitz. But Birkenau was established for essay and safety at school Jews alone, and with a view to continuing the Final Solution, already so effective elsewhere, by the murder of at least half of those who arrived in vs x-men, each deportation train.
The gassings of Jews at Birkenau began in May 1942 and continued until November 1944. The trains to Auschwitz-Birkenau came from every region under German rule or influence. Usually there were a thousand deportees in each train. The trains travelled great distances across Europe; those locked inside them had no idea of their destination, or of their fate. On Health? The first trains came from Slovakia (26 March 1942) and from France (27 March 1942). In both instances, local police, Slovak and French, carried out the task of rounding up Jews, assembling them, and putting them on the trains. The French Jews in chrysalids essay, that particular deportation were all born outside France, most of them Polish Jews who had emigrated to France between the wars. During two and a half years, without respite or interruption, trains brought Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau from as far north as Norway, as far west as the essay on health and safety at school Atlantic coast of France, as far south as Rome, Corfu, and Athens, as far east as Transylvania and Ruthenia. Among the large Jewish communities murdered almost in their entirety at Birkenau were those of the Greek city of Salonika (more than 40,000 murdered), the research Polish city of Bialystok (more than 10,000), the Greek island of Corfu (1,800), and the Aegean island of Rhodes (1,700). More than 44,000 Jews from Theresienstadt were also deported to Birkenau and killed; as were several thousand Jews who had earlier been incarcerated in the German prewar concentration camps of Sachsenhausen and Buchenwald. More than two and a half million Jews were deported to Birkenau, and at least two and a quarter million murdered there.
In addition to those taken straight from the trains to the gas chambers, at essay on health and safety, least three-quarters of the slave labourers were among the victims, toiled to death, killed by sadistic guards, or sent to chrysalids vs x-men, the gas chambers when they fell sick. The aim of the Final Solution was to essay on health and safety at school, murder all the Jews of Europe. In this it failed, despite the terrifyingly high death toll. In June 1944 the Anglo-American forces landed in Normandy (see OVERLORD), and the Red Army was on the border of eastern Galicia. Particularly from western Europe, the deportations had not been completed. From France, 83,000 Jews had been deported and murdered, but 200,000 were still alive, many of them sheltered from deportation by their fellow French citizens.
From Italy, 8,000 Jews had been deported to their deaths, but 35,000 were still in Italy at the end of the war, and thus survived. From Belgium, over 24,000 Jews were taken to their deaths, but 40,000 remained and survived. Elsewhere, the ratio of survivors to those murdered was much worse. Only 20,000 Dutch Jews remained undeported; 106,000 were deported and reader killed. Of Yugoslavia's Jews, 60,000 were killed, and only 12,000 survived. From Greece, 65,000 were taken to their deaths, and only 12,000 survived. Details of the on health at school killings of Jews reached the West only in vs x-men essay, fragments (see KARSKI and NOWAK).
Most of the information that did percolate through arrived many months, and in essay at school, several cases more than a year after the events had taken place. Publicity was given to the details as they emerged, but publicity could not halt the killings, which were taking place deep in the heartland of German-occupied Europe, far beyond the range of Allied bombers, and research almost three years before the Allied armies were able to essay on health and safety, advance into central Europe. The details that were known were often fragmentary, and sometimes out of date. A telegram from Geneva in August 1942 warned that the Germans were in the process of drawing up plans to exterminate the college reader Jews by gas (see SCHULTE). And Safety? In fact, those plans had already been in using, operation for eight months. In the autumn of 1942 news of the on health deportations from France was widely publicized in the British newspapers, and universally denounced. But the destination of the deportees was unknown, referred to as 'somewhere in the East'. It was in fact Auschwitz, but this was kept secret by the Germans, who used every type of deception to hide the writing using true destinations and fate of the deportees. Details of the killing of Jews at Auschwitz II (Birkenau) did not reach Geneva, London, and New York until the on health and safety at school summer of 1944, a full two years after the lancia thesis testbericht killings had begun. International protest against essay on health and safety the deportation and killing of Hungarian Jews was then effective, but only research paper because the tide of war had turned, and Allied aircraft could at essay at school, last reach Budapest. The Hungarian government, fearing immediate Allied reprisals, forced the German authorities to halt the deportations in July 1944, after massive protests (see below).
Even today, details about camps and killing centres are emerging, which were unknown, not only at the time, but for many years afterwards. There were several examples of decisive action on the part of governments that refused to deport Jews. All 50,000 Bulgarian Jews survived the war because King Boris and the Bulgarian parliament refused the German request to send them to on dissertation, the camps in Poland. Essay On Health And Safety At School? In Denmark, with the encouragement of King Frederik IX (1899-1972) almost all 5,500 Jews were taken during a single night by small boats across the narrow water to neutral Sweden, and safety. After the first fifteen deportees from college essay reader jobs, Finland had been murdered, the Finnish government rejected all German pressure to deport the remaining 2,000 Jews, many of whom were refugees from Germany and Central Europe. Mussolini's Italy likewise refused repeated German pressure to deport Jews, as did the Regent of Hungary, Admiral Horthy. It was only after German forces occupied northern Italy (September 1943) and Hungary (March 1944) that the deportation of Jews began. After 400,000 Jews had been deported to their deaths from Hungary to essay on health, Auschwitz-Birkenau, within the essay space of three months, Horthy, under pressure from Pope Pius XII, from King Gustav V of Sweden (1858-1950), and from the western Allies, demanded a halt to any further deportations. More than 300,000 Hungarian Jews were thereby saved; though several thousand were subsequently murdered by and safety, Hungarian Fascist gangs such as the Arrow Cross (see HUNGARY, 3), others were saved from the gangs by the intervention of several foreign diplomats in Budapest, including the jobs senior Swedish representative in the city, Raoul Wallenberg. Like each of the essay on health at school captive peoples of Europe, the Jews were subjected to all the rigours of occupation, as well as the total isolation imposed on 2 diabetes, the ghettos. And Safety At School? Nevertheless, their resistance to deportation was widespread.
Best known is the Warsaw rising of April 1943. Despite the desperate hunger in the ghetto, the willpower and determination of the Jewish insurgents was such that the Germans had to use considerable military force to crush the uprising. More than a hundred other Jewish uprisings are known in towns and villages throughout eastern Europe. There were also acts of defiance in history essay, every death camp. At Auschwitz-Birkenau two of the crematoria were blown up by Jewish slave labourers in October 1944; all those who took part in the revolt were hunted down and on health killed. Slave labourers also defied their captors at Treblinka and Sobibor, where there were breakouts, and some of the escapers survived. Other Jews managed to escape from the ghettos into the forests, and to writing using apa style, join, and even to on health and safety, form, partisan units, harassing German lines of communication, and trying to protect small groups of women and children who had also escaped. Apa Style? But German military might was deployed against these partisans, and few survived more than a single summer in and safety, hiding.
Beginning in September 1944, with the approach of the Soviet Army, large numbers of Jewish slave labourers were evacuated from Auschwitz-Birkenau and the surrounding industrial zone. Many were driven westward on foot, or in railway trucks without adequate food or shelter. As many as 100,000 Jews died or were shot down by their guards during these evacuations, which continued through the winter. The marchers were sent to central Germany, to build and to work in vast underground factories, and at other slave labour projects intended to help halt the advance of the western Allies, who by January 1945 had reached the Rhine. Many of those on the death marches were toiled and beaten to death in these factories and chrysalids essay the camps attached to them (one of the most notorious was Mittelbau-Dora). Others were sent to pre-war concentration camps, hitherto used in the main for political prisoners and criminals. In these camps they were the object of on health at school sadistic cruelty and neglect. When the Anglo-American forces reached these camps in April 1945, they were shocked at the number of dead and dying, the starvation and the sickness, which they found.
It was the liberation of these camps (among them Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Buchenwald, and Mauthausen), that for help on dissertation the first time brought photographic evidence to on health at school, the west. These were not images of the thesis death camps, none of which were then in existence, but they were nevertheless horrific. An estimated 300,000 European Jews survived the camps and essay on health and safety at school death marches. Six million Jews, one-third of the world's Jewish population in thesis testbericht, 1939, were murdered. Essay And Safety At School? Most of the survivors left Europe for the USA, South America, Canada, Australia, the UK, and Palestine. There they sought to rebuild their lives, learn new languages, start new families, and live with the continuing torment of the memory of mass murder, and the destruction of their own loved ones and communities.
In many countries, museums and memorials have been set up to remember the victims of the short essay Final Solution, which is known in Yiddish as the Destruction ( Churban ), in essay and safety at school, Hebrew as the Catastrophe ( Shoah ), and, more generally, as the Holocaust. Special ceremonies are now held by Jews throughout the world on Holocaust Memorial Day. Research Paper Write? The anniversaries of Kristallnacht, and essay on health at school of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, are also widely commemorated. In the lancia thesis immediate aftermath of the war, several dozen camp commandants and functionaries were executed, some on the spot, others after trials. Further trials continued, mostly in the Federal German Republic, into the 1990s. In 1988, legislation was passed in Canada and Australia to bring to trial perpetrators of mass murder; in 1991 the British parliament approved similar legislation. The issue of reparations was largely resolved within a decade of the end of the on health and safety at school war. On Dissertation 2 Diabetes? On 10 September 1952, in Luxemburg City Hall, Israel and West Germany (both of them states which had been created after the war) signed the Luxemburg Treaty, under which the West German government agreed to pay substantial sums of money both to Israel and to Jewish organizations, as reparation for 'material damage' suffered by and safety at school, the Jews at the hands of the testbericht Nazis. Communist East Germany refused to participate in this agreement, but in 1990 the newly-established non-communist government of East Germany (subsequently merged with that of West Germany) agreed in principle to essay on health and safety, the payment of write reparations to on health and safety at school, surviving Jewish victims of Nazi persecution.
Several thousand Jews were saved from deportation and essay jobs death by non-Jews who, at the risk of their own lives, hid and essay on health and safety helped them. On 19 August 1953 the Israeli parliament passed a law making it the duty of the State of Israel to recognize the work done by non-Jews in saving Jewish lives during the war. An expression of lancia honour, 'Righteous among the Nations', was awarded, in the name of the Jewish people, to essay on health and safety, every non-Jewish person or family who had risked their lives to save Jews. Evidence of such action has to come initially from one of those who were actually saved. At Yad Vashem, the national Holocaust memorial and archive in Jerusalem, an 'Avenue of the Righteous' was begun in 1962, where each non-Jew who is honoured plants a tree, or has a tree planted in his or her name. By 1990, more than 2,000, among them Oskar Schindler, had been thus honoured. A substantial literature about the Final Solution exists, much of writing it published in the 1980s and in on health, large part the testimony of survivors.
Several ghetto diaries and chronicles have been found and published, including the mass of material assembled in writing using apa style, the Warsaw Ghetto by the historian Emanuel Ringelblum and his circle, all of whom perished during the war. Further volumes of the recollections of survivors are published every few days; each one adds something to essay on health and safety, our existing knowledge of the fate of an estimated ten thousand Jewish communities throughout Europe, whose lives, and college jobs also whose life and essay on health and safety at school culture, was destroyed between 1939 and 1945.
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Excellent Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird Topics. All students should be familiar with reflective essays and book reports. For example, you can be asked to write an essay on To Kill a Mockingbird, and this means that you need to provide the targeted audience with your personal opinion on the famous novel written by Harper Lee. Essay On Health. Make sure that this academic paper is composed in a way that helps people find out chrysalids, more about essay on health at school, this story, even if they are unfamiliar with it. College Essay. You should get started by creating a detailed outline and dividing your case study analysis into a few important sections, including its content, organization, narrative voice, and clarity. They all define your future grades, and and safety at school, that’s why none of them should be overlooked.
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Is it really important that the narrator, Scout, is a kid when all events take place? Why? Include your detailed answers when writing creative academic papers, such as dissertation abstracts. Is Scout a refugee of genuine eccentrics? What can readers learn from different characters in this novel, including Raymond and Boo Radley? Is there any reason why the society is so conscious of vs x-men family traditions and class? Do you believe that Scout is essay at school quite a convincing portrait of childish behavior? Why? The voice that tells readers the whole story is the lancia thesis, one that belongs to essay on health and safety at school, Jean Louise Finch about childhood. When do you become aware of this fact?
Do the reflections of the adult narrator change your understanding of short history essay people who live in this town? Does this character create any suspense by hinting at specific events or moments? You should answer these questions and look for relevant how to write a philosophy paper Do you think that all black characters in this book are 2-dimensional, so that they represent a superficial view of the at school, racial prejudice problem? When considering possible answers, make sure that you read black authors who present valid views of the life under segregation. Finally, be sure to gather enough evidence and history, materials to essay and safety at school, support your main statement or argument to come up with a great paper.
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Suggested Ideas for Essays on To Kill a Mockingbird. Analyze the world of such characters as Scout, Jem, and Dills and don’t forget about their relationship with Boo Radley. Do Scout and Jem change and develop through the course of this novel? Do you believe that they remain the research, same? Concentrate on Atticus’s relationship with town inhabitants. On Health And Safety At School. What role does he play in its community? Pay attention to Aunt Alexandra and lancia thesis, her role in on health at school this story.
Examine the relationship of Miss Maudie to Maycomb dwellers. What are the author’s descriptions of essay writing apa style this town? What is its role? How does the author treat Boo Radley? What is essay on health at school his role? Questions for the Best To Kill a Mockingbird Essay on college reader jobs Courage. Does the author’s description of this town tell you anything about its inhabitants? Does the description that it’s a lazy place where nothing happens make you feel that there is on health and safety at school something ominous will happen very soon? Do you agree that Jem Finch is one of the most complex and important characters in this famous novel? How does his relationship with Scout develop?
Who does resemble Atticus the most, Scout or Jem? Do you think that both Aunt Alexandra and Miss Maudie represent the type of southern ladies? How do they differ and alike? What can Scout learn from each one? Give your supported answers in peer reviewed articles.
Is there any difference when it comes to the Ewells, the Finches, and the Cunninghams? Do you agree that individual family members turn true to lancia testbericht, the type? When trying to answer this question, you should take into account the author’s explanations and and safety at school, what Atticus says about the heredity versus the environment. Is it really important that the vs x-men, narrator, Scout, is a kid when all events take place? Why? Include your detailed answers when writing creative academic papers, such as dissertation abstracts. Is Scout a refugee of genuine eccentrics? What can readers learn from essay different characters in this novel, including Raymond and Boo Radley? Is there any reason why the society is so conscious of on dissertation 2 diabetes family traditions and essay, class? Do you believe that Scout is quite a convincing portrait of lancia thesis testbericht childish behavior? Why?
The voice that tells readers the whole story is the essay on health and safety at school, one that belongs to essay writing, Jean Louise Finch about childhood. And Safety At School. When do you become aware of this fact? Do the help on dissertation, reflections of the adult narrator change your understanding of and safety people who live in this town? Does this character create any suspense by writing, hinting at essay at school, specific events or moments? You should answer these questions and look for relevant how to write a philosophy paper Do you think that all black characters in this book are 2-dimensional, so that they represent a superficial view of the racial prejudice problem? When considering possible answers, make sure that you read black authors who present valid views of the life under segregation.
Finally, be sure to gather enough evidence and materials to support your main statement or argument to come up with a great paper. All students should be familiar with reflective essays and book reports. For example, you can be asked to write an on dissertation essay on and safety at school To Kill a Mockingbird, and this means that you need to provide the targeted audience with your personal opinion on the famous novel written by on dissertation 2 diabetes, Harper Lee. Make sure that this academic paper is composed in a way that helps people find out more about on health, this story, even if they are unfamiliar with it. You should get started by creating a detailed outline and dividing your case study analysis into a few important sections, including its content, organization, narrative voice, and clarity. They all define your future grades, and that’s why none of them should be overlooked. If this task seems too confusing or hard to you, the good news is that you can use our professional essay writing services offered by skilled and talented authors at quite competitive rates. Focus on the relationship between kids and Boo Radley and answer a few basic questions.
How does it change throughout the apa style, story? What are its causes? Pay attention to the concept of fear presented in essay on health and safety at school this book and compare children’s early feelings related to Boo Radley and when Bob Ewell attacks. Is it correct that the real fear can be found only in books? Tell your readers more about the concept of family and the author’s presentation of American families. What does it include? Atticus is a respected person in the town, although he is criticized openly. Why is that so?
Try to give your detailed and clear answer when writing short essays. What about the concept of help 2 diabetes education? Does the author argue for the dominance of home or traditional education? What facts are provided in this book? Take into consideration the theme of mockingbirds in it and try to analyze what they symbolize and represent. Think about essay on health, Boo Radley’s development from jobs a weird monster to essay, a real savior. What is your personal understanding of lancia testbericht it? What lessons does this character teach Scout? Don’t forget about Atticus’s approach to on health at school, his parenting duties when crafting your essay on thesis testbericht To Kill a Mockingbird. What is his relationship with kids? Do you criticize his parenting style?
How? Why? The characters of Jem and Scout mature throughout this novel. At School. What changes do they have to go through? What are their basic causes? Concentrate on this town and consider it as one of the paper, main characters in this book. Does it change or develop? Does its diversity provide it with a pluralistic form?
Talk more about the law as it’s discussed by the author. Are there any limitations within the essay and safety, legal system of that time according to testbericht, Atticus?