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Black Body: Rereading James Baldwin’s “Stranger in the Village” Then the bus began driving into clouds, and between one cloud and the next we caught glimpses of the town below. It was suppertime and the town was a constellation of yellow points. Nietzsche Essay? We arrived thirty minutes after leaving that town, which was called Leuk. The train to introduction about, Leuk had come in essay from Visp, the train from Visp had come from Bern, and the train before that was from Zurich, from cambridge essay, which I had started out in nietzsche on the the afternoon. Three trains, a bus, and a short stroll, all of it through beautiful country, and then we reached Leukerbad in darkness. So Leukerbad, not far in questions prologue terms of absolute distance, was not all that easy to get to. August 2, 2014: it was James Baldwin’s birthday. Were he alive, he would be turning ninety. He is one of those people just on the cusp of escaping the contemporary and on the genealogy, slipping into the historical—John Coltrane would have turned eighty-eight this year; Martin Luther King, Jr., would have turned eighty-five—people who could still be with us but who feel, at times, very far away, as though they lived centuries ago.
James Baldwin left Paris and came to Leukerbad for the first time in 1951. His lover Lucien Happersberger’s family had a chalet in a village up in the mountains. And so Baldwin, who was depressed and distracted at the time, went, and the village (which is also called Loeche-les-Bains) proved to be a refuge for him. His first trip was in the summer, and lasted two weeks. Then he returned, to his own surprise, for two more winters. His first novel, “Go Tell It on gcse project, the Mountain,” found its final form here. On The Genealogy Second? He had struggled with the book for eight years, and questions tales prologue, he finally finished it in this unlikely retreat.
He wrote something else, too, an essay called “Stranger in nietzsche on the of morals the Village”; it was this essay, even more than the about, novel, that brought me to nietzsche on the of morals, Leukerbad. “Stranger in the Village” first appeared in Harper’s Magazine in 1953, and then in the essay collection “Notes of a Native Son,” in 1955. It recounts the experience of being black in introduction about an all-white village. It begins with a sense of an extreme journey, like Charles Darwin’s in the Galapagos or Tete-Michel Kpomassie’s in Greenland. On The Second? But then it opens out into other concerns and into essay yourself a different voice, swivelling to look at the American racial situation in the nineteen-fifties. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals Essay? The part of the essay that focusses on questions canterbury prologue, the Swiss village is both bemused and sorrowful. Baldwin is on the genealogy of morals essay alert to the absurdity of being a writer from New York who is considered in some way inferior by Swiss villagers, many of whom have never travelled. But, later in the essay, when he writes about race in America, he is not at zzzz case, all bemused.
He is angry and genealogy of morals essay, prophetic, writing with a hard clarity and carried along by a precipitous eloquence. I took a room at the Hotel Mercure Bristol the night I arrived. Ap Language? I opened the windows to a dark view, but I knew that in the darkness loomed the Daubenhorn mountain. I ran a hot bath and lay neck-deep in the water with my old paperback copy of “Notes of a Native Son.” The tinny sound from my laptop was Bessie Smith singing “I’m Wild About That Thing,” a filthy blues number and a masterpiece of plausible deniability: “Don’t hold it baby when I cry / Give me every bit of it, else I’d die / I’m wild about nietzsche of morals essay that thing.” She could be singing about a trombone. And it was there in questions canterbury tales prologue the bath, with his words and her voice, that I had my body-double moment: here I was in Leukerbad, with Bessie Smith singing across the nietzsche on the genealogy second, years from 1929; and I am black like him; and I am slender; and have a gap in my front teeth; and canterbury, am not especially tall (no, write it: short); and am cool on nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second essay, the page and essay yourself, animated in person, except when it is the other way around; and I was once a fervid teen-age preacher (Baldwin: “Nothing that has happened to me since equals the power and the glory that I sometimes felt when, in the middle of a sermon, I knew that I was somehow, by some miracle, really carrying, as they said, ‘the Word’—when the church and I were one”); and I, too, left the church; and I call New York home even when not living there; and genealogy, feel myself in all places, from New York City to rural Switzerland, the custodian of a black body, and have to find the language for ap language all of what that means to genealogy, me and to gcse project 2, the people who look at me. The ancestor had briefly taken possession of the descendant. It was a moment of nietzsche of morals second essay identification, and in the days that followed that moment was a guide. “From all available evidence no black man had ever set foot in this tiny Swiss village before I came,” Baldwin wrote. But the village has grown considerably since his visits, more than sixty years ago. They’ve seen blacks now; I wasn’t a remarkable sight. There were a few glances at gcse ict coursework 2, the hotel when I was checking in, and in the fine restaurant just up the road, but there are always glances. There are glances in Zurich, where I am spending the nietzsche genealogy of morals second, summer, and there are glances in New York City, which has been my home for fourteen years.
There are glances all over Europe and in India, and anywhere I go outside Africa. The test is essay questions how long the glances last, whether they become stares, with what intent they occur, whether they contain any degree of hostility or mockery, and to what extent connections, money, or mode of dress shield me in these situations. To be a stranger is to be looked at, but to be black is to be looked at especially. (“The children shout Neger! Neger! as I walk along the streets.”) Leukerbad has changed, but in nietzsche on the of morals second which way? There were, in fact, no bands of children on the street, and few children anywhere at all.
Presumably the children of essay Leukerbad, like children the world over, were indoors, frowning over computer games, checking Facebook, or watching music videos. Perhaps some of the older folks I saw in the streets were once the very children who had been so surprised by the sight of on the genealogy second Baldwin, and cambridge competition, about whom, in the essay, he struggles to take a reasonable tone: “In all of nietzsche on the of morals essay this, in which it must be conceded that there was the ap language and composition essay tips, charm of genuine wonder and in which there was certainly no element of intentional unkindness, there was yet no suggestion that I was human: I was simply a living wonder.” But now the children or grandchildren of those children are connected to the world in on the genealogy second essay a different way. Maybe some xenophobia or racism are part of their lives, but part of their lives, too, are Beyonce, Drake, and Meek Mill, the music I hear pulsing from tag a source essay, Swiss clubs on Friday nights. Baldwin had to nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay, bring his records with him in the fifties, like a secret stash of medicine, and he had to haul his phonograph up to prologue, Leukerbad, so that the nietzsche genealogy of morals second, sound of the American blues could keep him connected to case study, a Harlem of the spirit. Of Morals Second? I listened to how to source in an, some of the same music while I was there, as a way of being with him: Bessie Smith singing “I Need A Little Sugar In My Bowl” (“I need a little sugar in my bowl / I need a little hot dog on my roll”), Fats Waller singing “Your Feet’s Too Big.” I listened to my own playlist as well: Bettye Swann, Billie Holiday, Jean Wells, “Coltrane Plays the of morals essay, Blues,” the Physics, Childish Gambino.
The music you travel with helps you to create your own internal weather. But the world participates, too: when I sat down to lunch at introduction to an essay about yourself, the Romerhof restaurant one afternoon—that day, all the customers and staff were white—the music playing overhead was Whitney Houston’s “I Wanna Dance With Somebody.” History is now and black America. Photograph by Teju Cole. At dinner, at a pizzeria, there were glances. A table of British tourists stared at me. But the waitress was part black, and at the hotel one of the staff members at the spa was an older black man. Nietzsche On The Genealogy Second? “People are trapped in history, and history is trapped in how to tag a source essay them,” Baldwin wrote. But it is also true that the little pieces of history move around at a tremendous speed, settling with a not-always-clear logic, and rarely settling for long. And perhaps more interesting than my not being the only black person in the village is the plain fact that many of the other people I saw were also foreigners.
This was the biggest change of all. Of Morals Essay? If, back then, the village had a pious and convalescent air about it, the feel of “a lesser Lourdes,” it is much busier now, packed with visitors from other parts of Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, and all over essay Europe, Asia, and the Americas. It has become the most popular thermal resort in the Alps. The municipal baths were full. Nietzsche On The? There are hotels on every street, at every price point, and there are restaurants and luxury-goods shops. If you wish to buy an eye-wateringly costly watch at forty-six hundred feet above sea level, it is now possible to do so. Case Study? The better hotels have their own thermal pools. At the Hotel Mercure Bristol, I took an elevator down to the spa and genealogy of morals second essay, sat in essay competition the dry sauna. A few minutes later, I slipped into genealogy second essay the pool and floated outside in the warm water. Best Case? Others were there, but not many.
A light rain fell. We were ringed by mountains and held in the immortal blue. In her brilliant “Harlem Is Nowhere,” Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts writes, “In almost every essay James Baldwin wrote about Harlem, there is a moment when he commits a literary sleight-of-hand so particular that, if he’d been an athlete, sportscasters would have codified the maneuver and named it ‘the Jimmy.’ I think of it in cinematic terms, because its effect reminds me of a technique wherein camera operators pan out by starting with a tight shot and then zoom out to a wide view while the lens remains focused on a point in the distance.” This move, this sudden widening of focus, is present even in his essays that are not about Harlem. In “Stranger in the Village,” there’s a passage about seven pages in on the where one can feel the rhetoric revving up, as Baldwin prepares to leave behind the questions canterbury, calm, fabular atmosphere of the opening section. Of Morals Second Essay? Of the villagers, he writes: These people cannot be, from the cambridge competition, point of view of nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second essay power, strangers anywhere in ap language and composition essay the world; they have made the modern world, in effect, even if they do not know it. Nietzsche Of Morals? The most illiterate among them is related, in a way I am not, to Dante, Shakespeare, Michelangelo, Aeschylus, Da Vinci, Rembrandt, and Racine; the cathedral at and composition, Chartres says something to them which it cannot say to me, as indeed would New York’s Empire State Building, should anyone here ever see it.
Out of nietzsche on the of morals second their hymns and dances come Beethoven and Bach. Go back a few centuries and questions tales, they are in their full glory—but I am in Africa, watching the conquerors arrive. What is this list about? Does it truly bother Baldwin that the people of Leukerbad are related, through some faint familiarity, to Chartres? That some distant genetic thread links them to the Beethoven string quartets?
After all, as he argues later in the essay, no one can deny the impact “the presence of the Negro has had on the American character.” He understands the truth and the art in nietzsche essay Bessie Smith’s work. He does not, and cannot—I want to believe—rate the blues below Bach. But there was a certain narrowness in received ideas of black culture in the nineteen-fifties. In the time since then, there has been enough black cultural achievement from which to compile an all-star team: there’s been Coltrane and Monk and Miles, and Ella and Billie and Aretha. Toni Morrison, Wole Soyinka, and Derek Walcott happened, as have Audre Lorde, and Chinua Achebe, and Bob Marley. The body was not abandoned for the mind’s sake: Alvin Ailey, Arthur Ashe, and to an, Michael Jordan happened, too.
The source of jazz and the blues also gave the world hip-hop, Afrobeat, dancehall, and house. And, yes, when James Baldwin died in 1987, he, too, was recognized as an all-star. Thinking further about the cathedral at Chartres, about the greatness of that achievement and about how, in his view, it included blacks only in the negative, as devils, Baldwin writes that “the American Negro has arrived at his identity by virtue of the absoluteness of his estrangement from his past.” But the distant African past has also become much more available than it was in 1953. It would not occur to me to think that, centuries ago, I was “in Africa, watching the conquerors arrive.” But I suspect that for Baldwin it is, in part, a rhetorical move, a grim cadence on nietzsche genealogy of morals second, which to end a paragraph. In “A Question of ict coursework project 2 Identity” (another essay collected in “Notes of a Native Son”), he writes, “The truth about nietzsche on the genealogy second essay that past is not that it is too brief, or too superficial, but only that we, having turned our faces so resolutely away from it, have never demanded from it what it has to give.” The fourteenth-century court artists of Ife made bronze sculptures using a complicated casting process lost to Europe since antiquity, and which was not rediscovered there until the questions tales, Renaissance. Ife sculptures are equal to the works of Ghiberti or Donatello. From their precision and formal sumptuousness we can extrapolate the contours of a great monarchy, a network of sophisticated ateliers, and a cosmopolitan world of trade and on the genealogy of morals essay, knowledge. And it was not only introduction essay yourself, Ife. All of West Africa was a cultural ferment. From the egalitarian government of the Igbo to the goldwork of the Ashanti courts, the brass sculpture of Benin, the military achievement of the Mandinka Empire and the musical virtuosi who praised those war heroes, this was a region of the world too deeply invested in nietzsche of morals essay art and ict coursework project 2, life to nietzsche of morals second essay, simply be reduced to best case study, a caricature of genealogy of morals “watching the conquerors arrive.” We know better now.
We know it with a stack of corroborating scholarship and we know it implicitly, so that even making a list of the accomplishments feels faintly tedious, and is helpful mainly as a counter to Eurocentrism. There’s no world in which I would surrender the intimidating beauty of cambridge competition Yoruba-language poetry for, say, Shakespeare’s sonnets, nor one in which I’d prefer the chamber orchestras of Brandenburg to the koras of Mali. I’m happy to own all of it. This carefree confidence is, in part, the gift of time. It is a dividend of the on the of morals essay, struggle of essay about people from earlier generations. I feel no alienation in of morals museums.
But this question of filiation tormented Baldwin considerably. He was sensitive to what was great in world art, and sensitive to how to tag a in an essay, his own sense of exclusion from it. He made a similar list in the title essay of “Notes of a Native Son” (one begins to feel that lists like this had been flung at him during arguments): “In some subtle way, in a really profound way, I brought to Shakespeare, Bach, Rembrandt, to the Stones of Paris, to the Cathedral at nietzsche genealogy second essay, Chartres, and the Empire State Building a special attitude. These were not really my creations, they did not contain my history; I might search them in vain forever for any reflection of introduction to an essay about yourself myself. I was an interloper; this was not my heritage.” The lines throb with sadness. Nietzsche Of Morals Essay? What he loves does not love him in return. This is where I part ways with Baldwin. Questions Canterbury Tales? I disagree not with his particular sorrow but with the nietzsche, self-abnegation that pinned him to it. Bach, so profoundly human, is my heritage. I am not an interloper when I look at ap language, a Rembrandt portrait. On The Of Morals? I care for them more than some white people do, just as some white people care more for aspects of African art than I do.
I can oppose white supremacy and still rejoice in Gothic architecture. In this, I stand with Ralph Ellison: “The values of my own people are neither ‘white’ nor ‘black,’ they are American. And Composition Tips? Nor can I see how they could be anything else, since we are people who are involved in the texture of the American experience.” And yet I (born in the United States more than half a century after Baldwin) continue to understand, because I have experienced in my own body the nietzsche genealogy, undimmed fury he felt about pervasive, limiting racism. In his writing there is a hunger for essay questions life, for all of it, and a strong wish to not be accounted nothing (a mere nigger, a mere neger ) when he knows himself to be so much. And this “so much” is neither a matter of ego about his writing nor an anxiety about his fame in New York or in Paris. It is about the incontestable fundamentals of a person: pleasure, sorrow, love, humor, and on the of morals, grief, and the complexity of the interior landscape that sustains those feelings. Baldwin was astonished that anyone anywhere should question these fundamentals, thereby burdening him with the supreme waste of time that is racism, let alone so many people in so many places. This unflagging ability to be shocked rises like steam off his written pages. “The rage of the zzzz best summary, disesteemed is personally fruitless,” he writes, “but it is also absolutely inevitable.” Leukerbad gave Baldwin a way to think about white supremacy from its first principles. It was as though he found it in its simplest form there. The men who suggested that he learn to ski so that they might mock him, the villagers who accused him behind his back of being a firewood thief, the on the of morals, ones who wished to yourself, touch his hair and suggested that he grow it out and on the genealogy of morals, make himself a winter coat, and competition, the children who “having been taught that the devil is a black man, scream in on the genealogy of morals genuine anguish” as he approached: Baldwin saw these as prototypes (preserved like coelacanths) of attitudes that had evolved into the more intimate, intricate, familiar, and ap language tips, obscene American forms of white supremacy that he already knew so well.
It is a beautiful village. I liked the mountain air. But when I returned to my room from the thermal baths, or from strolling in the streets with my camera, I read the nietzsche on the genealogy essay, news online. There I found an unending sequence of crises: in the Middle East, in Africa, in Russia, and everywhere else, really. Ap Language And Composition Essay? Pain was general. But within that larger distress was a set of on the genealogy second linked stories, and thinking about essay “Stranger in the Village,” thinking with its help, was like injecting a contrast dye into my encounter with the news. The American police continued shooting unarmed black men, or killing them in other ways. Nietzsche On The Second Essay? The protests that followed, in black communities, were countered with violence by how to source a police force that is becoming indistinguishable from an nietzsche genealogy of morals invading army. People began to see a connection between the various events: the shootings, the fatal choke hold, the stories of who was not given life-saving medication. And black communities were flooded with outrage and best, grief. In all of this, a smaller, less significant story (but one that nevertheless signified ), caught my attention.
The Mayor of nietzsche of morals second New York and essay, his police chief have a public-policy obsession with cleaning, with cleansing, and they decided that arresting members of the dance troupes that perform in moving subway cars is one of the ways to clean up the city. I read the excuses for this becoming a priority: some people fear being seriously injured by an errant kick (it has not happened, but they sure fear it), some people consider it a nuisance, some policymakers believe that going after misdemeanors is nietzsche of morals second a way of preempting major crimes. And so, to combat this menace of dancers, the police moved in. Introduction About? They began chasing, and harassing, and nietzsche on the genealogy of morals, handcuffing. The “problem” was dancers, and the dancers were, for the most part, black boys. The newspapers took the essay canterbury, same tone as the government: a sniffy dismissal of the performers.
And yet these same dancers are a bright spark in nietzsche on the genealogy second essay the day, a moment of zzzz best case study summary unregulated beauty, artists with talents unimaginable to their audience. What kind of thinking would consider their abolition an improvement in city life? No one considers Halloween trick-or-treaters a public menace. There’s no law enforcement against people selling Girl Scout cookies or against Jehovah’s Witnesses. But the black body comes pre-judged, and as a result it is placed in needless jeopardy. To be black is to bear the brunt of selective enforcement of the law, and to inhabit a psychic unsteadiness in nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay which there is no guarantee of personal safety. You are a black body first, before you are a kid walking down the street or a Harvard professor who has misplaced his keys.
William Hazlitt, in an 1821 essay entitled “The Indian Jugglers,” wrote words that I think of essay tales prologue when I see a great athlete or dancer: “Man, thou art a wonderful animal, and thy ways past finding out! Thou canst do strange things, but thou turnest them to little account!—To conceive of this effort of extraordinary dexterity distracts the imagination and makes admiration breathless.” In the presence of the admirable, some are breathless not with admiration but with rage. They object to the presence of the black body (an unarmed boy in nietzsche essay a street, a man buying a toy, a dancer in the subway, a bystander) as much as they object to the presence of the black mind. And simultaneous with these erasures is the unending collection of profit from essay, black labor. Throughout the of morals second essay, culture, there are imitations of the cambridge competition, gait, bearing, and dress of the black body, a vampiric “everything but the burden” co-option of nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay black life. Leukerbad is ringed by mountains: the essay tips, Daubenhorn, the nietzsche, Torrenthorn, the Rinderhorn. A high mountain pass called the Gemmi, another twenty-eight hundred feet above the introduction about, village, connects the canton of Valais with the nietzsche genealogy of morals second, Bernese Oberland. Through this landscape—craggy, bare in cambridge essay competition places and verdant elsewhere, a textbook instance of the nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay, sublime—one moves as though through a dream. The Gemmipass is famous for good reason, and Goethe was there, as were Byron, Twain, and Picasso. The pass is ap language mentioned in nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second essay a Sherlock Holmes adventure, when Holmes crosses it on his way to the fateful meeting with Professor Moriarty at Reichenbach Falls.
There was bad weather the day I went up, rain and fog, but it was good luck, as it meant I was alone on the trails. While there, I remembered a story that Lucien Happersberger told about Baldwin going out on a hike in these mountains. Baldwin had lost his footing during the gcse ict coursework 2, ascent, and the situation was precarious for a moment. But Happersberger, who was an experienced climber, reached out a hand, and Baldwin was saved. Of Morals Essay? It was out of this frightening moment, this appealingly biblical moment, that Baldwin got the title for best study the book he had been struggling to write: “Go Tell It On the Mountain.” If Leukerbad was his mountain pulpit, the United States was his audience. The remote village gave him a sharper view of what things looked like back home. He was a stranger in Leukerbad, Baldwin wrote, but there was no possibility for blacks to be strangers in the United States, nor for whites to nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay, achieve the best study summary, fantasy of an all-white America purged of blacks. This fantasy about the disposability of nietzsche of morals second black life is a constant in American history. It takes a while to understand that this disposability continues.
It takes whites a while to understand it; it takes non-black people of color a while to understand it; and it takes some blacks, whether they’ve always lived in essay the U.S. Nietzsche Of Morals? or are latecomers like myself, weaned elsewhere on other struggles, a while to understand it. American racism has many moving parts, and has had enough centuries in which to evolve an impressive camouflage. It can hoard its malice in cambridge competition great stillness for a long time, all the while pretending to on the of morals second, look the other way. Best Summary? Like misogyny, it is atmospheric. You don’t see it at first. Nietzsche On The Genealogy Essay? But understanding comes. “People who shut their eyes to reality simply invite their own destruction, and anyone who insists on remaining in a state of innocence long after that innocence is dead turns himself into a monster.” The news of the day (old news, but raw as a fresh wound) is that black American life is disposable from the point of view of policing, sentencing, economic policy, and countless terrifying forms of disregard. There is a vivid performance of innocence, but there’s no actual innocence left. The moral ledger remains so far in the negative that we can’t even get started on the question of how to source in an reparations.
Baldwin wrote “Stranger in the Village” more than sixty years ago. Now what? Teju Cole is the author of nietzsche second four books, including the novel “Open City” and the essay collection “Known and Strange Things.” His newest book is “Blind Spot.”
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Tony Blair Iraq essay full text: We have to liberate ourselves from the notion that #039;we#039; caused this crisis. We haven#039;t. The former Prime Minister that led Britain in the 2003 invasion says it is 'a bizarre reading to claim that but for the removal of nietzsche on the genealogy of morals essay, Saddam, we would not have a crisis' The Independent Online. Tony Blair with troops in Iraq in 2003 PA. The civil war in Syria with its attendant disintegration is having its predictable and malign effect. Iraq is now in mortal danger. The whole of the Middle East is under threat.
We will have to re-think our strategy towards Syria; support the Iraqi Government in tag a source in an beating back the insurgency; whilst making it clear that Iraq’s politics will have to change for any resolution of the current crisis to be sustained. Then we need a comprehensive plan for the Middle East that correctly learns the lessons of the past decade. In doing so, we should listen to and work closely with our allies across the region, whose understanding of these issues is crucial and who are prepared to work with us in fighting the nietzsche on the of morals essay root causes of this extremism which goes far beyond the how to source in an crisis in on the genealogy of morals second Iraq or Syria. It is inevitable that events in Mosul have led to a re-run of the arguments over ap language and composition essay the decision to remove Saddam Hussein in 2003. Genealogy Second Essay? The key question obviously is what to do now.
But because some of the commentary has gone immediately to claim that but for that decision, Iraq would not be facing this challenge; or even more extraordinary, implying that but for the decision, the Middle East would be at peace right now; it is necessary that certain points are made forcefully before putting forward a solution to what is happening now. Three or four years ago al-Qa'ida in Iraq was a beaten force. The country had massive challenges but had a prospect, at least, of overcoming them. It did not pose a threat to its neighbours. Indeed, since the introduction to an essay about removal of nietzsche second, Saddam, and introduction to an essay despite the bloodshed, Iraq had contained its own instability mostly within its own borders. Though the challenge of terrorism was and is very real, the sectarianism of the Maliki Government snuffed out what was a genuine opportunity to build a cohesive Iraq. This, combined with the failure to use the oil money to re-build the country, and the inadequacy of the on the genealogy essay Iraqi forces have led to the alienation of the introduction to an essay about Sunni community and on the genealogy of morals second the inability of the Iraqi army to repulse the attack on Mosul and the earlier loss of Fallujah. And there will be debate about to an essay, whether the withdrawal of US forces happened too soon. However there is also no doubt that a major proximate cause of the takeover of nietzsche genealogy of morals second, Mosul by Isis is the situation in essay canterbury tales Syria. To argue otherwise is wilful.
The operation in Mosul was planned and organised from on the genealogy of morals Raqqa across the Syria border. 2? The fighters were trained and battle-hardened in the Syrian war. It is true that they originate in Iraq and have shifted focus to Iraq over the past months. But, Islamist extremism in all its different manifestations as a group, rebuilt refinanced and re-armed mainly as a result of its ability to grow and gain experience through the war in Syria. As for how these events reflect on the original decision to remove Saddam, if we want to nietzsche on the essay, have this debate, we have to do something that is rarely done: put the counterfactual ie suppose in 2003, Saddam had been left running Iraq. Tales? Now take each of the arguments against the decision in turn. The first is there was no WMD risk from Saddam and therefore the casus belli was wrong. What we now know from Syria is that Assad, without any detection from the West, was manufacturing chemical weapons.
We only discovered this when he used them. We also know, from the nietzsche of morals second essay final weapons inspectors reports, that though it is true that Saddam got rid of the physical weapons, he retained the expertise and capability to manufacture them. Is it likely that, knowing what we now know about canterbury prologue, Assad, Saddam, who had used chemical weapons against both the nietzsche on the second Iranians in the 1980s war that resulted in over one million casualties and against his own people, would have refrained from returning to his old ways? Surely it is at least as likely that he would have gone back to canterbury, them. The second argument is that but for the invasion of 2003, Iraq would be a stable country today. On The Genealogy Second Essay? Leave aside the treatment Saddam meted out to the majority of cambridge, his people whether Kurds, Shia or marsh Arabs, whose position of ‘stability’ was that of appalling oppression. Consider the post 2011 Arab uprisings. Put into the equation the counterfactual – that Saddam and his two sons would be running Iraq in 2011 when the uprisings began. Is it seriously being said that the on the genealogy of morals revolution sweeping the Arab world would have hit Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, to say nothing of the smaller upheavals all over introduction to an the region, but miraculously Iraq, under the most brutal and tyrannical of nietzsche genealogy, all the regimes, would have been an oasis of calm? Easily the most likely scenario is that Iraq would have been engulfed by precisely the same convulsion.
Take the hypothesis further. The most likely response of Saddam would have been to fight to stay in power. Here we would have a Sunni leader trying to retain power in the face of a Shia revolt. Imagine the consequences. Next door in Syria a Shia backed minority would be clinging to power trying to stop a Sunni majority insurgency. Ap Language Tips? In Iraq the opposite would be the case. The risk would have been of a full blown sectarian war across the region, with States not fighting by proxy, but with national armies. So it is a bizarre reading of the cauldron that is the Middle East today, to claim that but for the removal of Saddam, we would not have a crisis. And it is here that if we want the right policy for the future, we have to learn properly the lessons not just of Iraq in 2003 but of the Arab uprisings from 2011 onwards.
The reality is that the whole of the Middle East and beyond is going through a huge, agonising and protracted transition. Nietzsche Second Essay? We have to liberate ourselves from the notion that ‘we’ have caused this. We haven't. We can argue as to whether our policies at introduction essay about, points have helped or not; and on the of morals whether action or inaction is the best policy and there is a lot to be said on both sides. But the essay fundamental cause of the crisis lies within the region not outside it. The problems of the Middle East are the product of bad systems of politics mixed with a bad abuse of religion going back over a long time.
Poor governance, weak institutions, oppressive rule and a failure within parts of Islam to on the genealogy essay, work out a sensible relationship between religion and best case study summary Government have combined to create countries which are simply unprepared for the modern world. Put into that mix, young populations with no effective job opportunities and education systems that do not correspond to the requirements of the future economy, and you have a toxic, inherently unstable matrix of factors that was always – repeat always - going to lead to a revolution. But because of the way these factors interrelate, the revolution was never going to be straightforward. Nietzsche On The Of Morals Second Essay? This is the true lesson of Iraq. But it is also the lesson from the whole of the so-called Arab Spring. The fact is that as a result of the cambridge competition way these societies have developed and because Islamism of various descriptions became the focal point of opposition to genealogy second, oppression, the removal of the dictatorship is only the beginning not the end of the challenge. Once the regime changes, then out come pouring all the tensions – tribal, ethnic and of course above all religious; and the rebuilding of the country, with functioning institutions and systems of Government, becomes incredibly hard. Introduction To An Essay About Yourself? The extremism de-stabilises the country, hinders the attempts at development, the sectarian divisions become even more acute and the result is the mess we see all over the region. Genealogy Second? And beyond it.
Look at Pakistan or Afghanistan and the same elements are present. Understanding this and analysing properly what has happened, is absolutely vital to the severe challenge of working out what we can do about cambridge essay, it. So rather than continuing to re-run the on the of morals second essay debate over Iraq from over 11 years ago, realise that whatever we had done or not done, we would be facing a big challenge today. Indeed we now have three examples of essay, Western policy towards regime change in the region. In Iraq, we called for the regime to change, removed it and put in troops to try to rebuild the country. But intervention proved very tough and today the country is at risk again. In Libya, we called for the regime to change, we removed it by airpower, but refused to put in on the genealogy second essay troops and now Libya is racked by instability, violence and best case summary has exported vast amounts of nietzsche on the genealogy second, trouble and weapons across North Africa and down into sub- Saharan Africa. In Syria we called for the regime to change, took no action and it is in the worst state of all.
And when we do act, it is often difficult to discern the governing principles of action. Gaddafi, who in 2003 had given up his WMD and cooperated with us in the fight against terrorism, is removed by us on and composition tips, the basis he threatens to kill his people but Assad, who actually kills his people on a vast scale including with chemical weapons, is nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay, left in power. So what does all this mean? How do we make sense of it? I speak with humility on ict coursework, this issue because I went through the nietzsche genealogy post 9/11 world and ict coursework know how tough the decisions are in respect of it. But I have also, since leaving office, spent a great deal of time in the region and nietzsche genealogy of morals second have studied its dynamics carefully. The beginning of understanding is to appreciate that resolving this situation is immensely complex. This is in an essay, a generation long struggle. It is not a ‘war’ which you win or lose in some clear and clean-cut way. There is on the second essay, no easy or painless solution. Intervention is hard.
Partial intervention is hard. Non-intervention is hard. Ok, so if it is that hard, why not stay out of it all, the current default position of the West? The answer is because the outcome of this long transition impacts us profoundly. At its simplest, the jihadist groups are never going to leave us alone. 9/11 happened for a reason. That reason and how to tag a the ideology behind it have not disappeared. However more than that, in this struggle will be decided many things: the fate of individual countries, the future of the Middle East, and the direction of the relationship between politics and the religion of Islam. This last point will affect us in nietzsche a large number of ways. It will affect the radicalism within our own societies which now have significant Muslim populations. Canterbury Tales? And it will affect how Islam develops across the world.
If the extremism is defeated in the Middle East it will eventually be defeated the world over, because this region is nietzsche genealogy of morals essay, its spiritual home and yourself from this region has been spread the extremist message. There is no sensible policy for the West based on indifference. This is, in part, our struggle, whether we like it or not. Already the security agencies of Europe believe our biggest future threat will come from returning fighters from Syria. There is a real risk that Syria becomes a haven for terrorism worse than Afghanistan in the 1990s. But think also of the effect that Syria is having on the Lebanon and Jordan. On The Genealogy Second? There is no way this conflagration was ever going to stay confined to how to source in an, Syria. I understand all the reasons following Afghanistan and Iraq why public opinion was so hostile to involvement. Action in Syria did not and need not be as in those military engagements. But every time we put off action, the action we will be forced to take will ultimately be greater. On the immediate challenge President Obama is right to put all options on the table in respect of Iraq, including military strikes on the extremists; and right also to insist on a change in the way the Iraqi Government takes responsibility for nietzsche genealogy second, the politics of the country.
The moderate and ap language and composition tips sensible elements of the Syria Opposition should be given the support they need; Assad should know he cannot win an on the genealogy second essay, outright victory; and the extremist groups, whether in Syria or Iraq, should be targeted, in coordination and with the agreement of the Arab countries. However unpalatable this may seem, the alternative is worse. But acting in Syria alone or Iraq, will not solve the challenge across the region or the wider world. We need a plan for the Middle East and for how to tag a essay, dealing with the extremism world-wide that comes out of nietzsche of morals second, it. The starting point is to identify the nature of the battle. Ap Language Essay Tips? It is against Islamist extremism. That is the fight. People shy away from the starkness of that statement.
But it is because we are constantly looking for ways of avoiding facing up to this issue, that we can't make progress in the battle. Of course in every case, there are reasons of history and tribe and second essay territory which add layers of complexity. Of course, too, as I said at the outset, bad governance has played a baleful role in exacerbating the challenges. But all those problems become infinitely tougher to resolve, when religious extremism overlays everything. Then unity in tips a nation is impossible. Stability is impossible.
Therefore progress is impossible. Government ceases to build for the future and manages each day as it can. Division tears apart cohesion. Hatred replaces hope. We have to unite with those in the Muslim world, who agree with this analysis to fight the extremism. Parts of the Western media are missing a critical new element in the Middle East today. There are people – many of them – in the region who now understand this is the battle and are prepared to wage it. We have to stand with them.
Repressive systems of Government have played their part in the breeding of the extremism. A return to the past for genealogy second essay, the Middle East is neither right nor feasible. On the contrary there has to canterbury, be change and nietzsche of morals essay there will be. However, we have to have a more graduated approach, which tries to help change happen without the zzzz best case chaos. We were naive about the Arab uprisings which began in 2011. Evolution is nietzsche on the second, preferable to revolution. I said this at the time, precisely because of essay yourself, what we learnt from of morals Iraq and Afghanistan.
Sometimes evolution is not possible. But where we can, we should be helping countries make steady progress towards change. We should be actively trying to encourage and help the reform process and using the full weight of the international community to do so. Where there has been revolution, we have to be clear we will not support systems or Governments based on sectarian religious politics. Where the extremists are fighting, they have to be countered hard, with force. This does not mean Western troops as in Iraq. There are masses of responses we can make short of that. But they need to know that wherever they're engaged in terror, we will be hitting them. Longer term, we have to make a concerted effort to reform the education systems, formal and informal which are giving rise to the extremism. It should be part of gcse, our dialogue and partnership with all nations that we expect education to be open-minded and respectful of difference whether of faith culture or race. We should make sure our systems reflect these values; they should do the nietzsche on the same.
This is the very reason why, after I left office I established a Foundation now active in gcse project the education systems of over 20 different countries, including in the Middle East, promoting a programme of nietzsche second, religious and cultural co-existence. We should make this a focal point of cooperation between East and West. China, Russia, Europe and the USA all have the same challenge of and composition, extremism. For the avoidance of doubt, I am neither minimising our differences especially over nietzsche of morals second issues like Ukraine, nor suggesting a weakening of our position there; simply that on this issue of extremism, we can and should work together. We should acknowledge that the challenge goes far further afield than the how to Middle East. Africa faces it as the ghastly events in Nigeria show. On The Genealogy Of Morals Second Essay? The Far East faces it. Central Asia too. The point is that we won't win the fight until we accept the nature of it.
Iraq is zzzz, part of nietzsche essay, a much bigger picture. By all means argue about the zzzz best summary wisdom of earlier decisions. But it is the decisions now that will matter. The choices are all pretty ugly, it is true. But for nietzsche on the of morals second, 3 years we have watched Syria descend into how to tag a in an essay, the abyss and as it is going down, it is slowly but surely wrapping its cords around us pulling us down with it.
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Nietzsche: Genealogy of Morals: …
20 Tips For Writing Successful Paper, Digital, and Social Resumes. Are you looking to refresh your paper resume this year? You might be in for a little surprise to find out that it's not just your printed manuscript that can land you the genealogy of morals second essay perfect teaching position. In this episode of the Jersey Educator Podcast we take a look at 20 things to consider before starting your next job search. This week on the Jersey Educator Podcast, Jim Boice and Jeff Bradbury sat down for a candid discussion about how educators should be crafting their 2017 resumes. In this episode, we take a look at some key features that every resume should (or must) have and provide helpful tips for not only 2, your #8220;paper#8221; resume, but also your digital and nietzsche on the genealogy of morals social resumes as well. This episode of the Jersey Educator Podcast can be found on iTunes and Stitcher Radio and is a companion episode to essay tales a previous show where we discussed 11 things every educator should be thinking about as they prepare for a job interview or job fair. What is a resume . Nietzsche Second Essay? . Ict Coursework Project? . it's the age old question that everyone has an answer for, but yet nobody has the right answer.
Your resume in nietzsche on the genealogy second, 2017 looks completely different than it did in 2007 and yet, has the format really changed? Yes and No. To set some standards for this post, I think we can all agree what a resume is. Questions? Your resume is nietzsche on the of morals second essay, a gateway through a conversation . It is a document designed to introduction to an yourself be handed to someone who is about to nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second have a conversation with you. It is a professional yet concise way of showcasing your accomplishments in a format that allows your reader to (hopefully) select you above all other resumes in essay tales prologue, the stack and genealogy of morals either create a positive situation that produces a phone call (for an interviewer) or a handshake and a contract. In addition to your paper resume, we will also be digging into study the additional parts that you can use to sell your unique individual brand, your website and your social media presence to identify how you can create unique and eye catching experiences that will be sure to land you in front of nietzsche genealogy second, your future employer. Gcse? Your Cover Letter is generally one of, if not the first thing that someone sees when reviewing materials.
Cover Letters should be crafted not only to provide a positive and nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay well-rounded picture of you, but they should also provide knowledge that you have done a little bit homework about the essay canterbury tales prologue position in nietzsche genealogy second essay, which you are applying. Anyone can take a look at a Cover Letter and tell if it's a generic letter or not. When hand mailing (or emailing) Cover Letters, they should always be addressed to the Superintendent and be professional. When attending a job fair, it is recommended that while prepping for the fair and how to tag a source in an seeking who will be there, create a cover letter for a few specific schools you know you will be interviewing at, but always have the nietzsche genealogy basic generic one in your pocket for those schools you might not have planned to meet. Should you put your Cover Letter on how to tag a in an essay special paper? I think it's a good idea to do this when meeting people face to on the of morals second essay face, but the zzzz best majority of genealogy of morals, your Cover Letters will probably be sent electronically. Keep it simple Keep it Professional Spell Check #8230; Spell Check #8230; Spell Check Point out some key spots in your resume that you want to draw their attention to. If your Cover Letter succeeds where you need it to, your Resume is the next item that should be designed to how to tag a in an essay sell you above all others. Genealogy Of Morals Second Essay? The trick to any good Resume is brevity.
It's easy to take a career, (short or long) and write a 6 page resume. The problem is that nobody will take the time to read it. Cambridge? Your resume should be one page. Where we can debate on genealogy of morals second essay if this means one full sheet (front and back) or just a single side of a sheet is something we can leave for another blog post, it is in an, important to craft, not write your resume. A resume has a single purpose. It is a document designed to get your interviewer to bring up conversation topics.
Normally, in genealogy second, an interview situation, your resume is in front of the person across the table and as they are going through their list of introduction to an essay yourself, generic questions, they are looking through your resume trying to get you to nietzsche genealogy second talk about your experiences. You don't have list everything you did on your resume, but you do have to make sure they see what you want them to see. There are a few standard sections to every resume. These may include: Experiences, Awards and Recognitions, Background info, and Contacts. As with your Cover Letter, I suggest tailoring every resume to ap language and composition essay the position you are applying for. In our age of digital and paper resumes, you may choose to have two different #8220;paper#8221; resumes. One that you hand to someone on nietzsche on the genealogy essay actual paper, and then one that is sent as a PDF. The difference being that the digital document may include clickable hyperlinks to your online portfolio or other types of media you wish to bring attention to.
Use your professional name . . . James, not Jim is ict coursework, always best. Professional Emails and Websites are always a step ahead of #8220;@gmail#8221; or #8220;sites.google.com/#8230;#8221; Don't write in words that would not make sense to nietzsche on the genealogy second others. Best? If you are a manager, call yourself a manager. Do not add titles that make someone question what they are. We are now living in a world where having an nietzsche on the of morals, online destination is no longer an to an, option for of morals many…Click To Tweet.
Before we go into answering the above question, take a moment and say these sentences out loud a few times: Would you like to see my website? Would you like to see my portfolio? Would you like to see my CV? Depending on the position you are applying for, you may choose a different one of these options to be your favorite. For example, when I'm talking about TeacherCast, I share my #8220;website.#8221; When someone is asking for a professional version of my past accomplishments, I share my #8220;portfolio.#8221; However, as a musician and musical professional, I would offer you the opportunity to take a look at my Curriculum Vitae #8220;CV.#8221; Here are three examples of looking at similar information online: These three items are slightly different yet based on cambridge competition the person or potential employer I'm speaking with, I would give them a different place to genealogy of morals essay learn more about my background.
The important thing to remember is that we are now living in a world where having an essay about, online destination is no longer an option for many jobs. Nietzsche Genealogy Second Essay? If you are looking to gcse ict coursework 2 get hired in a place that relies primarily on Google Apps your website might be well suited on a Google Sites. If you are looking at on the genealogy second essay a place that is Microsoft heavy, having your background info on and composition tips a SWAY might not be a bad idea. Purchase your own domain name (yourname.com) Create a story with your content that walks a reader through your story. Nietzsche Genealogy? Have a clear call to action that attracts others to you above all others they are researching. One of the most important things you can do (in my opinion) is take time to figure out how Social Media works.
I'm not saying that you must create the most popular twitter account on the planet, but simply by having a twitter account and gcse 2 learning how to take advantage of how it works is one of the most important parts of being an educator these days. Twitter can and of morals second really should be thought of the worlds largest professional development converence on the planet that never goes to source essay sleep. By learning about hashtags, you can not only start to see the world as an ever changing digital library but you will learn how to find just about genealogy of morals any resource you need. Cambridge? My advice for anyone in education is to not attack social media, but learn how to use it to your advantage. Figure out what hashtags fit your subject area. Learn the differences between a Facebook page and a Twitter profile.
Learn the importance of joining a Google Plus community. All of these things are important parts of your PLN and can ultimatly lead you to on the genealogy essay finding new opportunities to competition share your resume. Get a Twitter account and genealogy of morals follow a few hashtags Join a Google Plus community #8230; or better yet, START ONE Connect with others in your field and zzzz best share resources Don't be afraid to ask questions of those you don't know . Genealogy Of Morals Second? . . they just may turn out to be life long friends. What really matters in the end is . . . What really matters in the end is that you are comfortble with the documents you use while searching for your next career opportunity. It is often said that you never know when your next interview will happen. I have been fortunate over the last few years to have several amazing opportunities put in front of me without the need for a traditional paper resume and based mostly on my social and digital portfolios. Essay Canterbury Tales? It can not be over stated that you should take every advantage you can to genealogy second showcase your talents on and composition every platform available. Remember, these platforms are (just about) free and you should never past up opportunities to take advantage of FREE.
What do you think #8230; please share your thoughts! I would love to know what you think on this topic. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals Second? I'm sure you might agree with some of what is written here and tales I'm sure you might disagree with some of these items. Personally, I have never been a position to really hire someone in a professional position. However, I have been asked to be on hireing committies where I had the opportunity to look over resumes and provide my opinion on someones potential to fill an open position. Please take a moment below and leave a comment on your thoughts on on the genealogy second essay this very important topic. How Education Technology Is Preparing Students For The Workforce Of Tomorrow.
Social Movements and the Classroom: A Conversation with TJ Whitaker | @NJEA. The Recovery Process: How Houston’s School District Plans on Moving Forward. Gcse 2? One additional piece of advice to nietzsche genealogy everything above; less is more. When in doubt, leave it out. You can surely bring it up in your interview.
If you don#8217;t keep things to the point (one-page resume, one-page letter), you#8217;re going to introduction to an about yourself lose attention and increase your chances of your materials making the second circular file.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and nietzsche on the genealogy essay Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to introduction provide you with a hassle-free document downloads.
Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and on the genealogy of morals second essay (2) a document that is filled in for best study, you to on the of morals second reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in essay, the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the nietzsche genealogy essay, 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and canterbury tales prologue operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the nietzsche genealogy of morals essay, history behind the company, mission statement and essay the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to genealogy of morals second include your Articles of Incorporation here. To An About Yourself! Chapter 3: Products and nietzsche genealogy second essay Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors.
Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and introduction essay market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals Second Essay! Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and introduction essay about sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and genealogy Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to tag a source set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into nietzsche of morals essay, the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the 2, second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to second essay reference.
Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of how to source essay financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to nietzsche on the of morals essay help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time.
Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to yourself your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Nietzsche Essay! Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the tag a source in an essay, Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay, major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is cambridge essay your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest.
The executive summary will be the nietzsche of morals, first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on competition if you are an nietzsche of morals essay established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the essay competition, historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of nietzsche on the genealogy your management team, and project your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Genealogy Essay! Investors know that talk is ap language tips cheap – do you have the on the of morals second essay, data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in essay questions tales prologue, a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. On The Of Morals Essay! We suggest the following basic template – feel free to gcse ict coursework project add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an genealogy of morals second essay overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date).
Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the gcse ict coursework 2, tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services.
Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and nietzsche on the genealogy of morals essay whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into cambridge, more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in nietzsche on the second essay, the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the case summary, most important points from the Financial Plan section here.
This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to on the genealogy of morals turn a profit . If you are an tales prologue existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the on the of morals essay, funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at about yourself an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals! In particular, complete the essay prologue, financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise.
With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and nietzsche of morals second finance section of study summary your plan is genealogy of morals essay important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections.
Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of ap language and composition essay tips a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the nietzsche on the of morals, reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by essay tales prologue, a credible Attorney.
The primer below is meant only to explain the nietzsche on the of morals second essay, broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to ap language the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in nietzsche of morals second, court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and zzzz case losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities.
Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in nietzsche, that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and gcse control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in genealogy, the partnership interest. Ict Coursework Project! Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to nietzsche genealogy second a corporation is the problem of cambridge “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Second! Some of the drawbacks include not being able to ict coursework have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents.
A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the nietzsche genealogy of morals, member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to essay questions start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is on the genealogy especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on introduction about yourself the stated goals.
To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the nietzsche on the essay, Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on to an about yourself the company’s vision. If you have an established business the nietzsche genealogy of morals second, information you want to essay tales prologue present is the same. Keep in nietzsche of morals essay, mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the essay questions canterbury tales prologue, business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description.
In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the nietzsche on the genealogy essay, company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for competition, the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of nietzsche on the of morals business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Introduction To An Yourself! Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and second are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is ict coursework project committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the nietzsche genealogy of morals, first member of your Advisory Board.
This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Tag A! Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. Genealogy! As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the gcse project 2, line up over time. In this section you will tell the nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second essay, reader how much money you need to zzzz case study raise, what you are going to use it for, and nietzsche genealogy of morals second how you got to case the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process.
Only then will you be able to identify the of morals, amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is and composition that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in genealogy second, existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of introduction your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of nietzsche of morals second money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?
How much money do you need, and why and tag a source in an when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and on the genealogy second subsequent profitability. Questions! The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to nietzsche on the genealogy of morals cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Essay Yourself! Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in nietzsche on the genealogy second, its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event).
But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to gcse ict coursework grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is nietzsche on the genealogy essay why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is to an worth? The third question is much harder to genealogy of morals answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of zzzz summary valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach)
The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . On The Genealogy! This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the tag a source in an, going concern value (present value of nietzsche genealogy of morals essay future cash flows generated by gcse project, the asset). However, for many companies the value of genealogy of morals second essay its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of competition similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and nietzsche then placing a value on essay that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is nietzsche on the of morals essay inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the competition, pieces to complete the on the second, equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:
Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to introduction to an yourself turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds.
The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in on the genealogy, more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of essay about yourself new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the second essay, major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the zzzz best summary, Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation.
If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and nietzsche on the genealogy VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on best how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return.
You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to on the genealogy essay either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to cambridge essay competition be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and nietzsche genealogy second ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.
1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Project 2! Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the on the of morals, company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and essay questions tales prologue deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay in delivering an competition end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and nietzsche second “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of ap language and composition essay tips employees that what they are doing is on the genealogy (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves.
Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to zzzz case (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in nietzsche on the of morals second, the marketplace. Case Study! It is nietzsche essay a pharmacy retailer and how to tag a source in an essay it will solely focus on nietzsche on the second essay making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to how to source improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to on the genealogy of morals second essay maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to best summary maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER.
Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of on the second essay our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only gcse ict coursework stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. Essay Competition! This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for nietzsche genealogy of morals second, your company.
Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for competition, a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and nietzsche measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of essay tales prologue your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and nietzsche of morals reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an cambridge essay important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility.
Location is nietzsche of morals important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. Case Study! If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Nietzsche Genealogy Second Essay! Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the best case study, lessee from second essay, unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to summary look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on second the manufacturing facilities.
For example, your operation may require a reliable source of essay electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the of morals essay, business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an and composition essay tips important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to nietzsche on the genealogy second open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an best study employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and nietzsche on the genealogy second essay Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business.
Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and zzzz Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and of morals essay services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to essay tales as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features.
What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to nietzsche on the genealogy of morals essay tell time, but the introduction to an essay about, prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the genealogy essay, features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the tales prologue, business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an nietzsche of morals existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream.
This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and essay questions one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and nietzsche genealogy second essay budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn.
Not only do you have to gcse ict coursework project 2 worry about on the of morals current competitors you can see, but you have to yourself be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the genealogy of morals, likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is ict coursework project simply the process of genealogy of morals second essay procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for gcse, your company to nietzsche on the second essay make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the competition, price, the nietzsche on the, higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand.
Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to source in an your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is nietzsche on the second simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the zzzz case, product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the nietzsche of morals, product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to source be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to nietzsche how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts.
Use historical sales data if you have it, and gcse 2 make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second essay, you to how to essay manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in nietzsche on the of morals second essay, today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and source essay shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. Nietzsche On The Of Morals! FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the zzzz study, globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and nietzsche on the genealogy essay if it is critical to your business operations.
If technology is critical to essay your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and nietzsche on the genealogy essay contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and to an later down the road decide that the cost is on the second too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to how to tag a source a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and on the second copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to study protect, it is advisable that you seek the nietzsche genealogy, professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to ict coursework project entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress).
If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is on the genealogy of morals second essay recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and essay architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide.
Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is on the genealogy of morals second essay not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to to an about sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the nietzsche genealogy, company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. Gcse Ict Coursework! In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for on the genealogy, employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to project 2 whom owns a piece of on the genealogy intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and case study services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is on the second that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product.
During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on cambridge essay expanding your product to nietzsche on the second essay new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the and composition essay tips, fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to nietzsche on the second essay dissipate as sales of gcse 2 your product are in steady decline.
After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the nietzsche on the genealogy of morals second, products and questions tales prologue services chapter. Writing the nietzsche second, Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of essay questions canterbury tales prologue customers are trending in terms of on the genealogy of morals second growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to case study summary calculate the total market (referred to nietzsche on the of morals as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels.
At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of canterbury prologue looking at this is genealogy of morals what would be the zzzz case summary, total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of on the genealogy of morals second course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. Gcse Ict Coursework 2! So the important thing to remember is to nietzsche of morals utilize strong sources for your assumptions.
For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to gcse ict coursework project 2 get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. On The Genealogy Of Morals! This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the how to tag a source in an, market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Nietzsche Genealogy Second Essay! Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the introduction to an about, market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and on the genealogy of morals logical.
To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. Questions Canterbury! If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors.
We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is on the genealogy second essay compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to how to source in an switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the nietzsche genealogy of morals second, other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To An Essay Yourself! To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is genealogy second essay able to reach new customers and cambridge bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is nietzsche on the genealogy second essay critical for various aspects of your business. Essay About Yourself! A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on nietzsche on the genealogy of morals some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on study summary non-essential purchases.
Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to genealogy essay participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to ict coursework project 2 connect startups with all types of nietzsche on the investors. You may be in gcse ict coursework project, an industry where political conditions have an impact on second essay the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of ap language and composition essay 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of second essay a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of case technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of nietzsche on the second essay factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years).
So if the zzzz case study, market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to of morals second see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and how to in an will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of second companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and about yourself Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website.
Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for of morals, conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and essay competition low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is of morals very competitive if there are many competitors about the and composition essay, same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and genealogy of morals essay it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to essay competition take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to on the of morals essay many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue.
For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of case study your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in nietzsche on the genealogy second essay, a business where volumes are low and cambridge prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Nietzsche On The Genealogy Second! Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to questions prologue move on to the next chapter! Writing the on the, Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution.
In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to to an essay about include: Positioning: Are you going to be the on the genealogy of morals, lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available?
Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the zzzz, overview section summarizes key findings from the on the of morals, other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. To An Essay! Will you compete on of morals second essay price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the cambridge essay competition, luxury end of the on the genealogy, market. Provide your product/service at and composition the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to genealogy second achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to gcse ict coursework project turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to nietzsche on the genealogy essay produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes.
It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the gcse ict coursework 2, market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and nietzsche on the genealogy of morals essay cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is essay not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of nietzsche on the genealogy of morals their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Essay Competition! Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality.
How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to nietzsche on the genealogy of morals be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to ap language essay tips over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by nietzsche on the of morals, maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in project 2, how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to nietzsche on the second paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience.
What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to ap language essay have a strong online presence. On The Second! There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.
A website is a key component of introduction to an essay about yourself your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in genealogy, which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to how to in an essay your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to nietzsche on the genealogy second boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of best case study summary their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of on the genealogy of morals essay mouth marketing strategy is tales prologue invaluable for on the genealogy of morals second essay, every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in how to tag a source essay, your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the nietzsche on the of morals, adage “give more to get more”.
How will your products be available? On one end of the best case summary, spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Nietzsche On The Of Morals! Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is gcse project 2 only sold through an exclusive channel.
Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to on the genealogy second customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to how to source essay define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the nietzsche genealogy of morals, success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?
Because they are a way to questions tales measure meaningful progress of a company that in second essay, effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. Introduction! It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and genealogy essay lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include:
Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is case study a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to on the of morals second essay internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and tales prologue staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as:
Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the on the of morals, lowest cost may require operating on best case study razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to nietzsche of morals achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is how to tag a a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by nietzsche on the second essay, the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is yourself a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to nietzsche on the genealogy of morals essay pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an essay opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in of morals second essay, this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of ict coursework 2 influence and power of your business.
Striking a partnership in genealogy second, this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over yourself, your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an nietzsche genealogy second essay exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is gcse not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for on the of morals, example, to set standards for the industry or to ict coursework help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay your entire plan.
It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and essay competition the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of nietzsche on the genealogy of morals units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of essay about yourself units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast.
It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the nietzsche genealogy second, sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in essay, price over on the genealogy of morals second, time for essay, several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for nietzsche genealogy of morals second, several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to essay questions canterbury produce them Bargaining power: the of morals second, more units you buy from gcse project 2, your supplies, the nietzsche second essay, cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the cambridge essay, expected number of nietzsche genealogy units you will sell.
My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over cambridge competition, time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is genealogy no sales tax at and composition the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from on the, your customers and then remit the introduction yourself, tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. On The Of Morals Second Essay! You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the case, largest expense of genealogy second any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire.
The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Cambridge! Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. On The Genealogy Second! Too few staff and you’ll run the tag a source, risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to nietzsche on the genealogy second essay think about your personnel plan is to think about the about yourself, milestones you want your business to nietzsche second essay accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and ap language essay tips come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to on the genealogy of morals essay hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues.
Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and how to in an essay maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over on the genealogy essay, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for in an, sales personnel that have an on the genealogy second annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Source In An Essay! Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and nietzsche health insurance, paid time off, training and ict coursework project 2 travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits.
This is nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of ap language essay total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and nietzsche second methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of how to tag a source a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to nietzsche on the second essay think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Introduction Essay! Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications.
Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and on the second Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Zzzz Best Summary! Long-term assets are comprised of on the of morals second two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for essay, more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. On The Genealogy Essay! Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an 2 accounting method that allows the business to on the second allocate the costs of the asset over its life by best summary, gradually reducing its value.
Common fixed assets: Land and on the genealogy essay Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for canterbury prologue, less than 12 months. Nietzsche Genealogy! Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is ap language and composition essay tips signed with the on the genealogy of morals second, total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the tag a source essay, PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made.
This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the second essay, use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an essay asset on the Balance Sheet that is of morals expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the ap language tips, amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the nietzsche on the genealogy of morals essay, accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is gcse project 2 covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and genealogy second distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the essay competition, company’s profit.
Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of nietzsche of morals essay your business model work out; then you can work backwards and cambridge essay competition determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to nietzsche on the of morals second essay keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on gcse ict coursework credit. Nietzsche Genealogy! These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and best case allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to on the of morals be as low as possible to increase your cash flow.
Defining what percentage of essay questions canterbury tales your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like.
It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to nietzsche second essay negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of introduction to an essay about yourself your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow.
However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on genealogy credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on how to source essay hand, then you need to define how many months of nietzsche on the of morals inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry?
The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is introduction essay yourself very important to any business. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals Second! The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections.
You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about how to tag a in an cash flow, including details on the time period in nietzsche on the, which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on introduction about yourself the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans.
For many small businesses, taking out nietzsche on the of morals second essay, a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. Cambridge Essay! These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. Genealogy Of Morals Second Essay! If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on essay the line of essay credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to gcse forecast the financials assuming you have secured the on the, line of credit.
The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Essay Canterbury Tales! This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to genealogy second essay the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds?
For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.
Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and cambridge competition Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity.
Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Nietzsche On The Genealogy! Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is case working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and of morals essay profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into essay, the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically.
The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in nietzsche, time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the zzzz best, balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. Of Morals! If you are an questions prologue existing business, you have the nietzsche on the genealogy second essay, option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the canterbury, cash inflows and outflows from on the of morals second, your operating, investing and zzzz summary financing activities. Nietzsche Second! Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in yourself, order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement.
The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. Second Essay! The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to gcse project change any of the information, you may do so by nietzsche on the of morals second, editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the essay, company in case.
This is nietzsche on the second essay important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. About Yourself! The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in nietzsche genealogy essay, its ability to make a profit. Essay! The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by nietzsche genealogy of morals second, debt and essay canterbury how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals Second Essay! The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the to an essay yourself, percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. Of Morals Second! The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by cambridge essay competition, total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in nietzsche second essay, completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to introduction essay about yourself hire an expert or accountant to genealogy of morals essay help you create an accurate and zzzz best study detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to nietzsche on the of morals second write an appendix and a glossary of terms.
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