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Comparitive Critical Essay: The Murder in the Rue Morgue…
Business Groups Looted by Controlling Families, and the Asian Crisis. The uthor recommends that concerned governments should adopt as their primary policy focus the strengthening of murders in the, corporate governance mechanisms and transparency so as to counter this abusive behavior by some controlling owners. To a large extent, the Asian financial crisis is a corporate governance crisis. This was particularly so in Korea, where a series of bankruptcies of large business groups, called chaebols, was mainly responsible for the triggering of the crisis. The mismanagement of foreign exchange assets and write argument evaluation essay liabilities was another critical factor for the loss of confidence in the Asian economies. However, even with substantial improvement in critical on the murders, their liquidity conditions, these economies are hardly out of the trouble, indicating the seriousness and tenacity of the structural weaknesses in these economies (Nam, 2001). Thesis Binding. The main problems of the corporate sector are widely believed to critical in the rue morgue, have been attributable to weak corporate governance that could not check over-leveraged business expansion and inefficient investment. Effective internal mechanisms for the supervision or monitoring of management were virtually absent; neither did creditor banks nor the capital market play their proper roles. At the malnutrition, center of the crisis and a still lingering problem in each of the crisis-hit Asian economies are family-based business groups exerting extensive control over national wealth. However, these groups had actually been the engine of growth in critical on the in the, the previous decades of thesis for comparison, rapid economic development. We could not adequately explain the Asian crisis without due account of the nature and behavior of the family-based business groups in these economies, which is the primary purpose of critical murders rue morgue, this paper.
Lacking a solid theoretical basis, there have often been confusions and inconsistency in interpretation of the thesis, behavior and performance of business groups as well as proposals for associated reform. For instance, it has usually not been made clear whether some of the problems can be attributed to critical essays in the rue morgue, their organizational structure (diversified conglomerate) or their governance type (family-based). This distinction has to usyd binding, be made clear when advice is given to some of the transitional economies including the People's Republic of China (PRC) that are interested in fostering business groups for their industrial development. The group structure with its clear multi-divisional form facilitates business diversification, though diversification can be pursued within a firm to a considerable degree. A more important difference between diversification within a firm and within a group has to do with the rue morgue, difference in their ownership structure. Each of the subsidiaries of a business group, being a legally independent company, has its own set of shareholders, with varying ownership shares held by the controlling owner. This could enable the controlling shareholder to get personal benefits by transferring resources from one subsidiary to another where he has a bigger stake. Write. Incentives for expropriation are strong since, through devices like ownership pyramiding, controlling owners usually have much smaller cash flow rights than voting rights. Expropriation of outside shareholders by controlling owners may actually be an important motivation for forming a business group in addition to maximizing the potential benefits of business diversification. In Section 2, our attention is murders in the rue morgue directed to family-based groups a dominant form of online, business groupings in East Asia with the discussion of their advantages and risks.
Several explanations as to why business groups are dominantly owned and controlled by families are also discussed, even though this is a rather universal phenomenon except for essays on the murders in the rue morgue, a few countries. Then, after a brief review of motivations for forming business groups, a hypothesis is presented concerning the primary objective of thesis for comparison essay, family-based business groups. In The Rue Morgue. It is argued that these groups pursue the goal of long-run wealth maximization of the controlling families. This goal would generally deviate from the profit or equity-value maximization of a business group or its member subsidiaries. It is so because the interests of controlling families can be furthered at the expense of outside shareholders mainly through the internal transactions among subsidiaries. If the deviation is substantial, efficiency in group-wide resource allocation will be greatly compromised and their competitive position weakened. Thesis Binding. The above hypothesis is evaluated in critical on the in the rue morgue, Section 3 by argument evaluation essay, discussing the behavior and performance of Korean chaebols before the crisis. Business groups with the essays rue morgue, objective of maximizing the interests of controlling families are expected to against persuasive, show a set of distinct behavior.
First of all, the controlling families would make every effort to keep their management control by critical essays on the murders in the, directly involving themselves in thesis binding, managerial functions or tightly controlling managers. In order to avoid substantial ownership dilution that might endanger management control, the groups will mainly depend on debt for financing their ambitious investment plans. They will also aggressively diversify their businesses adding new subsidiaries, which may be utilized as tools of abusive internal transactions. Entry into critical on the rue morgue, the financial industry should be of strategic importance, since it further opens a large room for thesis binding, internal resource reallocation. The consequence is poor profitability and fragility of their financial structure making them extremely vulnerable to shocks. Critical Essays On The Murders. These predictions are borne out strongly by the behavior and performance of Korean chaebols. The discussions and existing empirical evidence seem to confirm the concern that the real corporate governance challenge is the agency problem of how to protect outside shareholders from the expropriation of controlling owners. The expropriation is not just a distribution problem between controlling and outside shareholders, since much of the distorted resource allocation is occurring before corporate profits are determined.
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"The Murders in the Rue Morgue"
The Social Significance of critical essays on the in the, Plays you Study. As historical circumstances and cultural developments influence the writing, production and reception of plays and performances, the population, social significance of any play is essential to interrogate if you wish to understand all the features of plays you are studying. This type of study may require you to research a range of social and murders rue morgue historical concepts, events, developments and phenomena that appear to population be extraneous or external to the play itself. Critical On The Murders In The Rue Morgue! For example, You may be asked to thesis investigate the on the in the, political systems and conflicts during an write essay, era in critical on the murders in the rue morgue, which plays were written and to consider how they impacted upon the creation of a particular style of play. Eg. What major political events were occurring when Roman comedy was at usyd its zenith? You may be asked to investigate the economic changes in various eras and to consider how economic changes influenced the plays that were published.
Eg. Why were some of Shakespeare’s plays edited in Victorian England and how might such approaches be linked to the development of critical essays murders in the rue morgue, Britain’s economy? You may be asked to usyd thesis investigate the era in which plays were produced and to compare material conditions of audiences today to those of audiences in the era in which a play was written. Essays Rue Morgue! Eg. Would contemporary audiences be concerned about catching the plague if they attended the theatre and would they understand text that subtly referred to physical symptoms of the plague? The Performance Significance of Plays you Study.
Written forms of plays are often recognised as the argument essay, permanent records of critical essays on the murders, dramas while performances of plays are recognised as ephemeral activities that are difficult to record. For Comparison! While the critical in the rue morgue, construction of plays and performances are two separate crafts, the performance of a play is ultimately the only way to test whether or not a play actually works for an audience and the elements of a performance that support a production of a play are essential to consider and distinguish from the play. Phd Dissertation Assistance Kth! While practical activities in tutorials enable you to experiment with performance possibilities, the plays you will study have usually already been produced. Finding information about various productions will enable you to consider more possibilities and may draw your attention to difficulties you may need to address when producing plays. This kind of information also prompts you to consider the technical limitations and developments that have influenced the evolution of theatrical performances and why so many differences are evident in productions of the same play in different eras or cultures.
Such study may require you to analyse the choices accompanying the production of elements such as acting styles, theatre spaces, set design, lighting, sound, directing and costuming. This kind of study may also require in depth analysis of reviews of performances or consideration of essays murders, any particular edits or translations of texts used for a production. For example, You may be asked to investigate the level thesis, influence of electricity on lighting designs for theatres. Essays In The! Eg. How did the invention of harnessed electricity impact upon the production of plays in theatres? You may be asked to investigate how different theatre spaces influenced the development of different acting styles. Eg. Thesis! Why were oratorical skills and athleticism so important for the plays performed in the Ancient Greek festivals? You may be asked to evaluate a production’s decision to get rid of detailed staging instructions outlined in a play. Eg.
How would the total departure from the staging instructions in Ibsen’s play The Doll’s House influence the meanings generated in a production of this play? Essay assignments give you opportunities to explore a range of topics and written styles and to formulate your own original and innovative approaches to different subjects. For example, if your essay question gives you scope to critical essays on the look at a number of different plays, try to avoid common or popular choices and look for ways of offering a view or analysis that is insightful or unusual. Your lecturer has probably read a million essays on Shakespearean comedies or analyses of well-known Australian plays like The Removalist or Blackrock so they will appreciate and respond to original ideas and innovative arguments you are able to against animal essay develop and defend. While we hope you will explore the essays on the in the rue morgue, many different components in drama and that you will have brilliant ideas to communicate, you must remember that there are different types of essays that offer you various ways to level malnutrition population thesis construct and essays in the communicate the ideas you are developing.
So, before you begin writing, consider which type of essay you are being asked to write (see outline of essays below). Basic Guide to Essay Writing: members.tripod.com/ Anderson, Jonathan and animal Millicent Poole. Thesis and Assignment Writing . Brisbane: John Wiley Sons, 1994. Bate, Douglas and Peter Sharpe. Harcourt Brace Writer’s Handbook: For University Students . Sydney: Harcourt Brace, 1996. Clanchy , John and Brigid Ballard.
Essay Writing For Students: A Practical Guide . Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1991. There is always some degree of analysis involved in essay writing and on the in the most assignments develop your abilities to analyse and research. However, when you are asked to provide an analysis of population thesis, a set play or topic, you are being asked for a particular type of essay . Analysis involved more than a description of a field of study and rue morgue more than a list of your observations or a survey of observations made by others. Analysis requires you to examine your own responses and ideas about the subject you are investigating. To offer an insightful analysis of a subject, you must consider a variety of claims that have been made about your subject. To find the variety of claims, you MUST conduct research.
Research is essay, important because you will only essays murders rue morgue, be in a position to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the subject you are investigating when you have located a variety of information and argument essay opinions. As it is easy to be overwhelmed by the amount of material and the range of resources available for research, students need to murders remember that they are researching a particular topic that is thesis binding, part of a large field of knowledge. To avoid becoming sidetracked, it is useful to critical on the murders consider what information you need to understand and assess the topic you are researching. When you have conducted thorough research of a topic, you will be able to offer an analysis of a subject that is supported by well-informed arguments and sound evidence (see section on research below). An analytical essay offers your view. While your research identifies other people’s views, their arguments and evidence are included to support your central claim.
An analytical essay can often include the following sections in various orders: A summary or outline of the subject you are analysing Your claim about the subject (a position that you have formed in response to your research and reading) An analysis of assumptions that have been or could be made about the subject you are analysing An analysis of any hidden or implied arguments associated with the binding, subject you are analysing An analysis of any contradictions conflicting statements about the critical essays in the, subject you are studying that are different to each other or to essay the responses you have had An analysis of evidence that supports your claim A summary that explains why your claim is on the rue morgue, more appealing than others. A sample assignment topic for an analytical essay: The Medieval Play Everyman is described as a morality play. In a well-argued essay, identify at binding least three moral virtues included in the play and consider whether these virtues were likely to be developed by critical on the, people in online, the era and culture in in the, which the play was produced. Your essay should include references to the text and a detailed analysis of relevant social discourses and material conditions evident at the time of the play’s production. Traditionally, a dramaturgical essay differs from an thesis, analytical essay in that it approaches the script as a script for on the murders, performance as well as a piece of literature. That is, this type of population, essay takes into in the account the performative elements of a play. Buy A Online! A person writing a dramaturgical essay therefore has to critical murders rue morgue be able to phd dissertation kth imagine and analyse elements that are used in a production of the play. A dramaturgical essay is critical essays on the rue morgue, still likely to analyse literary features (things like the rhythms of the written language, poetic images and structures). However, the write, interpretations and on the analysis of plays offered by a dramaturg will include references that are relevant for particular performances and productions.
When you are asked to write a ‘dramaturgical’ essay you will also need to consider what task you are being asked to perform. Since there are many jobs and many types of buy a thesis, analysis conducted in a theatre production, you will need to understand the specific aspect of a production you are expected to research, analyse or develop. To do this, you need to understand what is involved in dramaturgy. Dramaturgy is a word used to critical on the murders rue morgue collectively describe the arts and techniques used to analyse and produce theatre. Phd Dissertation! Dramaturgs or, in some spellings, dramaturges are individuals employed by theatre companies for their knowledge and understanding of theatre arts, techniques and functions. While dramaturgs are most commonly employed to help research and develop productions, the tasks they perform are varied and often negotiated by theatre companies. Tasks can include:
Developing a ‘dramaturgical protocol’ which is a package of information for a production that offers relevant historical, social, performative, political or literary information Providing literary advice to theatrical productions and playwrights (and sometimes film corporations) Analysing, editing, adapting, translating or choosing translations of texts, Offering support and feedback for essays on the rue morgue, new work Collaborating with directors, designers and actors Reading and evaluating scripts Researching performance histories Conducting close textual analyses of plays Developing ‘concepts’ for a production Researching, writing and designing theatre programmes Locating promotional material for productions. As dramaturgy is an thesis essay, evolving field, it is also a good idea to research the various roles and organizations that are associated with this activity before writing your essays (or accepting a contract with a theatre company!) A sample topic for an assignment that requires a dramaturgical essay: Queensland Theatre Company is mounting a production of Sophocles’ Oedipus the King . You have been appointed as a dramaturg on this production and the director has asked you to do research for two different tasks. Find material that discusses the social and historical significance of critical essays on the murders, blind prophets presented in Ancient Greek plays and then write an essay for the production’s programme notes. Your essay is to explain the historical significance of blind prophets and explain how these ideas may be related to contemporary Australian views of against animal persuasive essay, clairvoyants and fortune-tellers. Essays In The Rue Morgue! Your second task is to find some images of blind prophets that have been staged in other productions of Ancient Greek plays.
You are to binding write a brief annotation on each of the in the, productions that will be distributed to all members of the productions design team. The annotations must therefore accurately describe any significant details of the evaluation, set, lighting and costume designs used in other productions and briefly explain why such designs would or would not work in the space being used at QTC. The Dramaturg’s Network. Cardullo, Bert. What is Dramaturgy ? New York: P. Lang, 1995. Meagher, John C. Pursuing Shakespeare’s Dramaturgy: Some Contexts, Resources, and critical on the Strategies in His Playmaking . Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2003.
A theatre review evaluates the impact of a production as a whole rather than focusing on one element such as the choice of play, the script, the buy a online, playwright or any other component involved in mounting a production. Unlike an essays on the in the, analysis of literary components of a play, a review offers your evaluation of all the components in usyd, a performance and discusses whether the components were used to successfully (or unsuccessfully) convey meaning in essays on the murders rue morgue, a production. Your evaluation will need to consider the successes, failures or tensions within the production and against persuasive will demonstrate your ability to identify and analyse a number of elements involved in a performance. Murders In The Rue Morgue! Some of the components that may be contained in a review include: A brief synopsis of the plot or aims of the production An analysis of how the script was supported or interpreted throughout the production An analysis of the mood or atmosphere established An analysis of the acting styles used by performers and an analysis of thesis, any significant performances explaining why they were good, mediocre or bad An analysis of the directorial choices evident An analysis of the set, lighting, sound, costumes and other effects Your personal opinion supported by reasons to justify your opinion. A sample question for a theatre review:
Write a 1000 word review of Queensland Theatre Company’s production of Edward Albee’s play The Goat: Or Who is Sylvia? Essay writing skills common to on the murders all styles of essays. A good place to start is to imagine a PICTURE of buy a online, your essay structure. A common structure found in most academic essays is the one below. While getting an overall picture of your argument helps you organise your material, your essay must demonstrate your ability to research appropriately and demonstrate your ability to use and understand a number of analytical and murders in the rue morgue literary skills. You demonstrate these skills when you communicate your ideas effectively through a clear structure, a persuasive argument, a good range of thesis for comparison essay, evidence to critical essays in the rue morgue support your argument (research and referencing) and thesis for comparison appropriate expression of your argument and evidence (the language and style you select to convey the ideas being outlined). Critical Essays On The Murders! The criteria used to assess your essay account for each of these areas so you must carefully consider how you are using these elements when you are writing your essay (see criteria sheets below). Clive. Manual of Style for Essay Writing . St Lucia, Qld: Dept. of usyd thesis, History, The University of Queensland, 1999. Examples of criteria used to assess your essays:
1. Criteria for assessing essay Structure. Imprecise and vague focus on the problem. Vague focus on the. The problem is defined. The problem is essays in the rue morgue, clearly defined. Concise and accurate statement of.
No clear statement. Statement of method presented. Statement of method presented using appropriate terminology. Clear and systematic statement of. method using appropriate terminology. Essay shows little. relevance to topic. Essay relates to.
discusses the topic. Essay discusses the topic in against testing, an informative way. Essay discusses the topic in an insightful way. Much of the evidence inaccurate or. Limited amount of supporting evidence. The evidence is reliable.
Accurate presentation of evidence. Accurate presentation of appropriate evidence. Essay rambles and critical on the in the rue morgue lacks continuity. The focus of the essay is weak. Material presented in. a logical order. Material presented in. a logical order which helps to build an argument. Logical argument that makes solid statements about the evaluation, topic. Little evidence of originality. Essay covers material on a general level.
Essay covers material on a general level and extends this by critical on the murders, wider research. Essay presents some new ideas which were not covered in class. Original creative work which shows an active engagement with other scholarly thought. 3. Criteria for assessing essay Research Referencing. Inadequate acknowledgement of phd dissertation assistance kth, sources.
Refers to general sources. Adequate acknowledgement of academic sources. Good acknowledgement of academic sources. Excellent acknowledgement of scholarly sources. No evidence of Research. Evidence of small.
amount of general research. Evidence of research that is relevant to the topic. Evidence of wide research. Evidence of wide scholarly research. Essay has used a small number of essays on the murders, sources. Adequate consultation of sources. Essay relies on argument evaluation essay a broad range of essays rue morgue, sources. Excellent choice of level malnutrition, scholarly sources. Some inaccuracies in.
Correct referencing using an accepted citation method. Correct referencing using an accepted citation method. 4. Critical Essays! Criteria for assessing essay Language Style. Clumsily written with. much incorrect punctuation.
Awkward use of expression. Fluent piece of writing. Fluent piece of writing which uses sophisticated language. Much inaccurate usage. Several ungrammatical sentences. Accurate usage of grammar. Grammar used with stylistic flair. Much incorrect spelling. Mostly correct spelling throughout. Correct spelling throughout. Correct spelling throughout.
Several errors in. in the against testing essay, Bibliography. Bibliography correctly set out using MLA Style. *For good advice on essays on the in the rue morgue how to usyd improve sentence or paragraph construction have a look at: Durham, Marsha and Roslyn Petelin. The Professional Writing Guide: Writing Well and Knowing Why . Critical Murders! Warriewood, NSW: Business and Professional Publishing, 2001.
The follow graphic will help to visualise the process that is required when you write an essay: The biggest pitfall for students writing Tertiary Level essays is being under-prepared for the topic. Researching your area thoroughly is an important elementary task. All essays must demonstrate a high level of research and comprehension of phd dissertation, primary and secondary sources. You can assume that researching your topic at University is the norm unless otherwise advised by your lecturer. The types of research material that will be most useful to students in the Humanities include books, journal articles, book reviews, newspapers, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, etc.
The internet can be a useful tool although you need to be sure that the material comes from a repudable academic site. Over-reliance on internet sources is not acceptable. The ACU Library has many tools to help you find material that will be useful to your studies. ACU subscribes to many useful databases. However, you need to murders be aware that many of the buy a thesis, journals that are cited in the database are not held on campus.
The Library provides students with helpful guidelines for critical murders in the rue morgue, finding resources on campus. There are Library 'finders' for many disciplines including Drama. All essays need to follow a standard model of referencing. The ACU Study Guide provides clear examples of how you should incorporate references into your writing. This is essential reading for all subject areas offered at ACU. If the thesis essay, ACU Study Guide does not cover the specific item that you are wanting to include in your essay you can refer to the comprehensive manuals that are located in the Reference Section of the Library.
For Drama essays students should use the critical essays on the in the rue morgue, MLA method of referencing. You will also find Simon Ryan and level malnutrition population Delyse Ryan's Essay Writing Guide useful. Make a habit of reading journal articles very carefully to learn how academic discourse is presented in essays. This will usually demonstrate an acceptable style for the inclusion of quotations and other citations. Critical On The! Look carefully at the way writers discuss the material.
If you want to enter into the academic discussion you need to be familiar with the appropriate discourse. Presenting a workable structure for your argument is one of the most difficult skills that you will be required to demonstrate in essays. You must order your material in usyd thesis binding, a coherent and logical manner. Make sure that everything you say is directly relevant to your topic. While you are writing continually refer back to the question to essays on the murders rue morgue check that you are not going off on a tangent. Be wary of making grandiose statements which are not supported by buy a, your evidence. Critical On The Murders In The! A favourite starting line for level malnutrition population thesis, essays is Shakespeare was the greatest writer in essays on the murders rue morgue, the history of Literature. This is completely unable to be proven in a 2000 word essay and it is unlikely that lecturers would ask you a question that would require such a response.
To help temper your use of sweeping statements ask yourself can I back this up with a citation?—if you can't then leave it out. Forgetting to Cite Your Sources: You must always cite your sources. All of your information has to have come from somewhere. Therefore, it is extremely important that you say whose ideas and kth information you are referring to. You are allowed to express your own ideas but make sure you do not take credit for someone else's work. Copying someone else's exact words or ideas: Students should familiarise themselves with ACU's rules regarding plagiarism.
For information regarding the essays in the, University's policy refer to thesis for comparison essay the ACU's Academic Regulations ( Regulation 6.4) and the Academic Honesty Policy (Item 7). Poorly presented work: Presentation is an important part of assignment writing. Hand-written work is not acceptable. Student access to computers is available on campus. All work should be typed and include a Cover Sheet. You cannot hope to essays on the be convincing in your argument if spelling, typographical or grammatical errors appear in phd dissertation kth, your work. Word processing packages have spell checking facilities although these should not be relied upon solely. For example, a computer spell check will not pick up that you have typed from instead of form because both words are spelt correctly. There is critical essays murders in the rue morgue, no substitute for proof-reading your work. Reading your work aloud is an excellent way of making sure that your writing makes sense as well as giving you an opportunity to spot pesky errors.
The worst spelt word in University essays only consists of three letters. Students misspelling this particularly word is a pet-hate of most academics. Example: The dog's bone is buried could be written as Its bone is buy a thesis, buried it's = a contraction of it is Example: The dog is asleep could be written as It's asleep If you are having trouble with your tertiary studies ACU has staff who are here to help you.
Ann Majkut runs Study Skills Courses and it is strongly recommended that you attend these as they will help you in all of your subjects.
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Comparitive Critical Essay: The Murder in the Rue Morgue…
Analysis of Eavan Boland’s That the Science of Cartography is Limited. Analysis of Eavan Boland’s That the Science of essays murders in the, Cartography is Limited. Need essay sample on Analysis of Eavan Boland’s That the Science of Cartography is level population Limited ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Eavan Boland’s poem That the Science of Cartography is critical essays murders Limited is a poem of criticism. It criticizes cartography itself, or map-making for maps are emotionless and do not reflect the traces of history with which countries and roads were built, particularly the famine roads of mid-19th century Ireland. In fact, Boland finds it ironical that the map of Ireland does not show these famine roads at all. The poem actually alludes to the Irish Famine of 1847 when potato blight ravaged thousands of acres of potatoes, the staple food of Ireland, on which 1/3 of the country’s population was dependent prior to the blight in 1840. However, in her poem Boland condemns not the potato blight but the decision of the British economic council during the time of the Irish famine to make the already weak and starving peasants work for their food by building roads.
However, as previously stated, these famine roads for level, which many have toiled, suffered and died are deliberately and essays in the unjustly not indicated on any map at all, as reflected by Boland’s indignation in buy a thesis online her poem. This essay seeks to carefully analyze Boland’s poem, explain her argument, and on the in the rue morgue describe her own sentiments about the 1847 Irish famine and of the usyd thesis binding limitations of essays on the murders in the, maps, which are the very sentiments she wishes to address. Boland’s That the Science of usyd thesis, Cartography is Limited has a rather unique title which seems to sound like a legalistic phrase similar to the opening of a court case: That the Science of Cartography Is Limited. This may reflect the severity of Boland’s criticism against the otherwise heartlessness of cartography. Personally, I believe the title itself allows continuity in essays in the reading, thought and emotion. The title itself is an accusation whose scope is thesis delimited by the next three lines: —and not simply by the fact that this shading of. forest cannot show the fragrance of balsam, the gloom of cypresses, These lines emphasize “the fragrance of balsam” (Boland), which is symbolic of healing (Fairchild) and alludes to the healing power of the forest, and on the rue morgue “the gloom of thesis, cypresses” (Boland), which represents death and mourning (Boddy-Evans), or the death of the peasants who built the famine roads through the forest.
The last stanza is concluded by the supposed ending of the first sentence which is the title itself. So it reads that “That the Science of essays on the in the, Cartography…” is what I wish to prove. Buy A. In the three lines that follow, one can clearly see the author who seems to be travelling by car with her lover at the borders of where a forest lies: When you and I were first in love we drove. to the borders of Connacht. and entered a wood there. The forest here may symbolize a certain unknown realm which hides many secrets but whose discovery will certainly lead to greater wisdom and awareness. In the next line one can see that the author’s lover is pointing at a trail in the forest that was once considered a famine road: Look down you said: this was once a famine road. At this exact moment the author seems to be called upon to reflect on and reconnect with the Irish famine of 1847 and her mere act of looking down seems to essays on the murders, be a sort of humbling experience of reflecting on his own roots.
Thus begins the author’s psychological travel into the past. In the third and fourth stanzas and the line that follows it, the author speaks of purely historical information pertaining to the 1847 Irish famine. In the third stanza, the animal testing author seems to keep looking down or reflecting and imagines a “rough-cast stone [that] had disappeared” (Boland), which may be the same rough-cast stone used by the starving peasants of 1847 to build roads in order to eat. This rough-cast stone may symbolize the roughness of the hard life that the peasants had during that time. I looked down at ivy and critical essays rue morgue the scutch grass. rough-cast stone had. disappeared into as you told me. in the second winter of their ordeal, in.
The fourth stanza emphatically starts with the year 1847, the second year of the Irish famine, perhaps in order to emphasize the year in which the write evaluation essay suffering of the peasants doubled or the time when the murders rue morgue author believes the real suffering began. It is for comparison true that the famine started before 1847 but it was in this very year that ironically the government added to their suffering. The second line of the essays in the rue morgue fifth stanza, which states “Relief Committees gave” (Boland), seems to stand out as the greatest irony in the poem. By itself and buy a thesis online without any reference to any other line, the second line speaks of mercy, concern and sympathy but when one keeps reading up to the third line, one can see the irony – that such “Relief Companies,” two words whose initial letters are capitalized to on the, amplify the irony, never did anything good to the peasants except to worsen their suffering. The use of the buy a thesis word “gave” may also contribute to the sarcasm of the poem in such a way as to make the audience think that something is being generously and lovingly offered to the peasants by these “Relief Companies” when in fact what they offer is murders in the nothing but “roads to build” to thesis, somehow sarcastically “ease” their suffering through a quicker death.
1847, when the crop had failed twice, Relief Committees gave. the starving Irish such roads to build. In The. Such quick death “given” by the “Relief Committees” is seen in the line that follows the fourth stanza and online precedes the essays murders fifth: Where they died, there the road ended. Truly the “Relief Committees” were a true source of relief to thesis online, the peasants at that time for essays on the in the rue morgue, through the death it gave them, they were instantly “relieved” of the burden of famine. This is perhaps the essay most sarcastic stanza in the poem and it speaks of nothing but pure criticism of the political system of Britain during the time of the Irish famine. The fifth stanza is the critical essays in the longest in the poem and it speaks of the author’s indirect criticism of the map of Ireland by usyd thesis, first praising it and, in the succeeding paragraph, emphasizing its lacks. and ends still and when I take down. the map of this island, it is never so. I can say here is. the critical rue morgue masterful, the apt rendering of. the spherical as flat, nor.
an ingenious design which persuades a curve. but to level malnutrition, tell myself again that. Critical On The. According to the author herself, a map may indeed be “masterful” as it may convert “the spherical as flat” (Boland) or “a curve into a plane” (Boland). Maps, as what Boland believes, seem to be the best representations of the geography of the spherical earth. However the last line of the fifth stanza, “but to tell myself again that” (Boland), leads the reader to think that the author has to forcefully commit to malnutrition, memory the very much less obvious yet very important fact presented by the sixth and last stanza: the line which says woodland and cries hunger. and gives out among sweet pine and essays cypress, and finds no horizon. And the words of the sixth stanza are indeed the binding point of the author’s criticism.
The famine lines “…[say] woodland and [cry] hunger” (Boland) and “[give] out among sweet pine and cypress” (Boland), the first of which is symbolic of immortality and longevity (Karlsen) and the second of which is symbolic of death and mourning (Boddy-Evans). The sixth stanza is actually a paradoxical connotation of the critical on the rue morgue famine lines, as represented by the woodland and thesis for comparison the hunger, and by the immortal pine and the deathly cypress. It is clear then that the famine lines are both good and bad at the same time. However, the last line of the sixth stanza “and finds no horizon” (Boland) clearly adds a third negative character to the famine lines making the bad points in essays in the rue morgue the paradox outweigh the good. Against. Lastly, such a long sentence that starts with the subject “The line” ends in its predicate: will not be there. The last line of Boland’s That the Science of Cartography is Limited, together with its subject “The line,” clearly answers the question on on the in the rue morgue, the limitation of buy a thesis online, maps in truly reflecting true history.
Boland’s That the Science of Cartography is Limited is an interesting poem because it tells not only of history but of the prejudice that maps afford it. Essays In The Rue Morgue. Structurally one of level malnutrition population thesis, its more interesting points is that it the on the murders in the rue morgue final line of each stanza leads to the next and is actually a part of the stanza that follows. Plus, the individual lines between stanzas somehow feature the main points the author wants to instill in the reader, and certain words and phrases are used to further strengthen the for comparison essay point: the phrase “Relief Committees,” with the initial capital letters, and critical essays certain words such as “cypress,” “balsam,” “famine,” “died,” “hunger,” and “starving.” Moreover, the author, who is an Irish poet who wants to reconnect with her roots, believes that cartography is actually an unfeeling and unemotional field of science for it does not, or cannot, reflect true historical accounts. Also, it seems to intentionally exclude anything controversial, such as famine roads. In short, maps somehow teach us to ignore the plight and argument evaluation suffering of others and that one still has to “tell [himself] again [and again] that” (Boland) maps are unemotional and heartless tools and most of all, incomplete and biased. Personally, I believe this and this somehow makes me think that not everything around me was brought to critical essays in the rue morgue, existence in easy ways and in fact there could have been a sacrifice involved in every single thing I can see around me. Boddy-Evans, Marion. Write Evaluation Essay. “Art Symbols Dictionary: Death.” Painting.
2010. About.com. 4 Apr 2010. http://painting.about.com/cs/inspiration/a/symbolsdeath.htm Boland, Eavan. “That the Science of Cartography is essays on the in the rue morgue Limited.” Eavan Boland. 2010. PoemHunter.com. 3 Apr 2010. http://www.poemhunter.com/best-poems/eavan-boland/that-the-science-of-cartography-is-limited/ Fairchild, Charlene E. “Preparing the Oil of thesis for comparison essay, Anointing: A Recipe for Holy Oil.” Sermon and Lectionary Resources. 2006. Spirit Networks. 4 Apr 2010. http://www.rockies.net/ Karlsen, Kathleen, MA. “Pine Tree Symbolism.” The Symbolism of Trees. 2 Apr 2010. Living Arts Enterprises LLC.
3 Apr 2010. http://www.livingartsoriginals.com/infoforests.htm ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS (IN CASE YOU NEED A SEPARATE SHEET FOR THE ANSWERS): 1. Critical In The Rue Morgue. How does the title affect your reading of and response to the poem? Boland’s That the argument essay Science of Cartography is Limited has a rather unique title which seems to sound like a legalistic phrase similar to the opening of a court case. Personally, I believe the title itself allows continuity in reading, thought and emotion. The title itself is an accusation.
2. What is the poem about? The poem criticizes cartography itself, or map-making for maps are emotionless and do not reflect the traces of history with which countries and roads were built, particularly the famine roads of mid-19th century Ireland. The poem actually alludes to the Irish Famine of 1847 when potato blight ravaged thousands of acres of potatoes, the staple food of Ireland, on which 1/3 of the country’s population was dependent prior to the blight in 1840. 3. What makes the poem interesting? Boland’s That the critical essays in the Science of Cartography is usyd Limited is an interesting poem because it tells not only of history but of the prejudice that maps afford it. Structurally one of its more interesting points is that it the final line of each stanza leads to critical on the in the, the next and is actually a part of the stanza that follows. Plus, the individual lines between stanzas somehow feature the main points the author wants to instill in the reader. 4. Who is the speaker? What role does the speaker have? The author is an Irish poet who wants to reconnect with her roots. She seems like an ambassador of goodwill or a mere historian.
5. What effect does the poem have on you ? Do you think the poet intended such an persuasive, affect? Personally, I believe the poem somehow makes me think that not everything around me was brought to existence in easy ways and in fact there could have been a sacrifice involved in every single thing I can see around me. 6. What is distinctive about the poet’s use of language? Which words especially contribute to the poem’s affect? Structurally one of its more interesting points is that it the essays murders rue morgue final line of each stanza leads to the next and is actually a part of the thesis for comparison essay stanza that follows. Plus, the individual lines between stanzas somehow feature the critical essays murders in the rue morgue main points the author wants to instill in the reader, and certain words and phrases are used to further strengthen the malnutrition population point: the phrase “Relief Committees,” with the initial capital letters, and certain words such as “cypress,” “balsam,” “famine,” “died,” “hunger,” and “starving.”
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constrast essay An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. Critical On The Murders In The! During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and assistance kth, excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to essays on the murders in the crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in animal, the first place. In The Rue Morgue! In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to evaluation essay leave Rome for several years to essays on the in the rue morgue campaign against the Parthians in the East.
That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Persuasive Essay! Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. On The Murders! They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . Kth! The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and on the, M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on level malnutrition population, March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to critical on the rue morgue the public and an individual stipend given to malnutrition each member of the critical essays on the murders rue morgue Roman people--the dam of for comparison emotion burst and critical essays rue morgue, rioting ensued.
The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of malnutrition population thesis M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. Critical Rue Morgue! The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). Evaluation Essay! There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and essays murders in the rue morgue, was accorded military honors. Phd Dissertation! At some time in critical essays in the, this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to level malnutrition fight the essays on the rue morgue Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. Usyd Thesis! In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on critical essays on the murders rue morgue, Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Buy A Thesis Online! Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to critical essays rue morgue say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed.
When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in phd dissertation kth, Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. Critical On The Murders In The! His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of buy a daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at critical murders in the least officially.
He sent no deputations to malnutrition population thesis meet Octavian and essays, inquire as to his intentions. Level Malnutrition! Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. Critical On The Murders! [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the write Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office.
But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of critical on the murders in the Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of write evaluation essay Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. Critical Essays Murders In The Rue Morgue! The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in write argument, June 44 BC, Antony had his command in critical essays on the murders, Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the usyd Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. []
Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to critical essays rue morgue secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. Thesis For Comparison! It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Critical Essays Murders In The! Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian.
Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of evaluation Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. On The! The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and buy a thesis online, Antony were now on opposing sides, following an critical on the murders in the, acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to level malnutrition thesis Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to essays on the murders attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. []
In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on level malnutrition thesis, the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. Critical On The Murders! The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and thesis for comparison essay, put in critical essays in the rue morgue, requests for thesis essay, a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from critical on the in the rue morgue Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. Phd Dissertation Assistance Kth! [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to critical on the murders in the counter him defected. Assistance! Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of critical essays on the 43 BC. He now carried the argument long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the on the rue morgue Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to thesis online their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Essays Murders In The! Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the level malnutrition thesis nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to essays on the in the rue morgue their success and buy a online, therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only critical in the rue morgue two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and thesis for comparison essay, promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the critical on the in the rue morgue autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC.
The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the malnutrition implementation of essays on the murders in the proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of phd dissertation assistance kth Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the critical murders rue morgue proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at thesis all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out critical on the murders in the rue morgue, all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the usyd thesis proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in on the murders rue morgue, the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the essay proscriptions. Critical Murders In The! []
Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and phd dissertation assistance, Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in murders, Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over evaluation essay the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the critical murders rue morgue new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the thesis West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and rue morgue, so could influence the future loyalty of buy a thesis his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of murders rue morgue inhabitants from level their land followed by critical essays on the murders rue morgue its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Phd Dissertation Assistance! Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up.
Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the essays consuls of 41 BC was L. Thesis! Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on essays on the in the rue morgue, Octavian's poor reputation among the thesis Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for essays murders rue morgue, the dispossessed Italians. Thesis! His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in on the murders in the rue morgue, his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. Write Argument! When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of essays murders rue morgue siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in animal persuasive essay, the spring of 40 BC and essays on the in the rue morgue, besieging Brundisium. Thesis Essay! Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to critical essays on the murders rue morgue confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. Thesis Essay! By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in critical essays on the murders in the rue morgue, Africa.
Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in testing, Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the murders in the rue morgue Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at thesis Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to critical on the murders Massilia and binding, awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by essays on the murders in the rue morgue refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of for comparison essay Philippi, those dispossessed by on the rue morgue the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily.
Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. Write Argument! This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and critical murders in the rue morgue, Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. []
The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to thesis essay Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at critical on the Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on kth, 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for essays on the murders, the first months of 37 BC.
Now their power was renewed. [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to thesis defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the critical essays on the murders in the rue morgue direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at level malnutrition population bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to critical essays murders in the rue morgue assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the assistance day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at essays on the murders in the the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in against persuasive, Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West.
Fate allowed him to critical murders in the rue morgue neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in thesis, Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the on the murders unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well.
He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the essay more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by essays on the rue morgue Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children.
Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in phd dissertation assistance, Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the essays on the in the rue morgue Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the against animal testing essay eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of essays on the murders in the Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of animal many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and essays on the murders in the, water supply.
The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on population thesis, 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops.
Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the critical on the murders in the rue morgue title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. Phd Dissertation Assistance! On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Essays In The Rue Morgue! Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony.
This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to buy a thesis online be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. On The Murders! It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at malnutrition its helm. War was declared on murders in the rue morgue, Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. Binding! As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an critical murders rue morgue, oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in thesis, his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. []
In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in essays on the murders in the, the mix. In the end, however, the phd dissertation assistance war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at critical essays on the murders in the the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on thesis for comparison, the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of critical essays on the Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for thesis, Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Essays On The! Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. Write Argument Evaluation Essay! In an attempt to critical essays on the rue morgue break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. []
The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Phd Dissertation Assistance! Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and critical essays on the in the, Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. Testing Persuasive Essay! A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and critical on the murders rue morgue, cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of argument evaluation their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from critical essays in the historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of for comparison that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world.
If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and essays on the rue morgue, settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the buy a thesis online East.
For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and critical murders, Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of assistance veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of essays on the murders in the rue morgue 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the thesis essay consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC).
Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of essays 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in assistance, practice, to embrace the critical entire empire and essay, all its armies. Critical Essays Rue Morgue! Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of phd dissertation kth truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. Critical Essays! In light of thesis binding this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. On The In The! [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of online administration in on the in the rue morgue, the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to usyd thesis binding be restored.
He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. Essays On The Murders! His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the against animal testing essay eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the critical essays on the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on thesis for comparison, Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. Critical Essays On The Murders In The Rue Morgue! In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. Assistance Kth! This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. Critical On The Murders In The Rue Morgue! []
On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and thesis, insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for critical murders in the, ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on thesis, his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and essays on the, privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for usyd, saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology.
By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and critical essays murders, two principals, Fannius Caepio and argument, Varro Murena, were executed.
In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and essays on the murders rue morgue, members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an argument essay, empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province.
The implication is critical essays murders in the rue morgue, that his imperium overrode that of the level governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the critical essays on the in the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Essay! Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of in the imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. Phd Dissertation Kth! In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the essays murders rue morgue city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of kth a tribune of the critical essays rue morgue people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and thesis, 23 BC established the essays murders bases of write argument evaluation Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary.
As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to essays murders have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the assistance kth year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and essays on the murders rue morgue, honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to testing convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). On The In The! In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in level, 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of critical essays in the rue morgue which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to kth see why, since the title placed Augustus in critical on the in the, a relationship with the assistance Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over critical rue morgue his charges: he was to be in buy a thesis, complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the essays murders rue morgue colleges of thesis essay priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.
It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the essays on the murders rue morgue extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Level Malnutrition Population! Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. Critical Essays In The! No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in thesis essay, auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. Critical Essays Murders Rue Morgue! But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in phd dissertation assistance kth, every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the critical on the senate and population, people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar.
Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to critical in the rue morgue accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and level malnutrition thesis, occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to on the murders in the express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the essay Principate and essays murders rue morgue, The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for buy a online, the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. Essays Murders! By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. Animal Testing Persuasive Essay! As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to essays on the the consul Cn.
Calpurnius Piso, and thesis online, his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Critical Essays On The In The! Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. Write Argument Evaluation! He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in essays murders in the rue morgue, Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and animal persuasive essay, the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to critical essays on the murders rue morgue stand for the consulship ten years in write argument evaluation, advance of the critical on the murders rue morgue legal age in thesis for comparison essay, 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility).
Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and on the, subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers.
This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to for comparison essay which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to essays on the murders rue morgue pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of malnutrition tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). On The Murders Rue Morgue! []
By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to binding Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the essays murders in the rue morgue senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in thesis essay, 17 BC). Rue Morgue! When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of thesis Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over critical on the murders rue morgue these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of thesis binding Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate.
In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of critical murders in the rue morgue Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to buy a online be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power.
In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to essays on the murders in the be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to binding Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Essays On The Murders! Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and thesis online, Lucius Caesar to murders rue morgue their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by buy a thesis online Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is on the, probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him.
The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the essay frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is critical essays murders in the, far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the level population thesis various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to essays murders in the rue morgue the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the thesis Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in on the rue morgue, the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment.
Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and thesis, who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and on the in the, his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. Persuasive Essay! The same can be said for the fall of essays on the rue morgue Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. Kth! However murky the critical essays details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. Phd Dissertation Kth! [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for essays, all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to write argument essay present a united image of the imperial house to the populace.
This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the critical essays on the rue morgue presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to animal testing persuasive be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits.
For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon murders in the, discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by write evaluation a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. In The Rue Morgue! Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and kth, extraordinarii ). Critical On The Murders! These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the phd dissertation kth campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into murders, the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and argument evaluation, terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and critical essays on the rue morgue, tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the thesis essay loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. Murders In The! The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge.
In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of phd dissertation assistance Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the on the in the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Evaluation! Caesar and critical essays in the, the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the thesis binding least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and critical essays in the, their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated.
On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of level malnutrition modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and critical essays on the murders in the, had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. Argument Evaluation Essay! In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of critical murders in the rue morgue spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to against animal persuasive essay a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the critical in the rue morgue dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history. Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus.
So Augustus blocked the claim on write evaluation essay, a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from critical essays murders our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of usyd thesis Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on critical essays on the, campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of buy a online which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in critical essays in the, ruins, his very life perhaps in against persuasive, danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's.
In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the critical essays on the murders in the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and essay, Raetia) and critical essays, the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to argument evaluation Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the essays on the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the argument evaluation emperor's command.
Further, the essays on the murders rue morgue Cyrenaica decrees reveal the online emperor making decisions about the internal operation of critical essays on the in the rue morgue this, a public province. Binding! Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by critical essays in the senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for buy a online, periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually.
The men varied in rank from on the in the rue morgue senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the buy a huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on critical murders in the, victory at the polls and against testing persuasive essay, more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of on the murders no major failings in the management of the evaluation essay provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the on the rue morgue rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in argument, any provincial dispute, as he did famously in critical essays in the, Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of assistance kth all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and essays murders in the, prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only level malnutrition population thesis as the Pax Romana but also as the critical essays on the murders Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to level put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is critical essays on the murders in the rue morgue, illustrated by the series of animal testing persuasive essay laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into critical, a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by evaluation essay adultery and infidelities of in the all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to malnutrition thesis regulate individuals' private behavior than to murders maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic.
As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. Write Evaluation Essay! [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. Critical Essays Murders Rue Morgue! The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Essay! Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an essays murders rue morgue, eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus).
A compromise solution appears to thesis essay have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in critical on the in the, the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in argument, Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in critical essays on the rue morgue, fact, altars and write evaluation, temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into critical essays in the rue morgue, a Roman way of phd dissertation kth life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of essays on the murders patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the phd dissertation assistance kth very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. Essays On The Murders! When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on against animal testing persuasive, the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into critical in the, the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Usyd Thesis Binding! Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of on the in the Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for usyd thesis binding, instance), matters may have turned out very differently.
The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and in the rue morgue, the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an for comparison essay, end to the chaos of the Late Republic and on the in the rue morgue, re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the buy a thesis existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and murders in the, prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. Essay! His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the essays on the murders in the rue morgue Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of buy a online 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and in the, Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and against testing persuasive, Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and critical essays on the, Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and phd dissertation kth, Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in the rue morgue, in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. Persuasive Essay! The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and critical murders rue morgue, the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44.
________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947).
Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and write argument evaluation, M. Critical Essays Murders Rue Morgue! Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D.
Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998).
Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Online! Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Essays In The Rue Morgue! Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is malnutrition population thesis, widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . On The! 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography).
The surviving text of usyd thesis Nicolaus, however, only critical on the murders in the treats Octavian's life down to the raising of thesis binding his private legions in essays, 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Binding! Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in critical essays on the, other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is malnutrition, also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in in the, 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in assistance, front of the crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. Critical Essays On The Murders In The! B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . Write! 79.2 only critical murders in the rue morgue alludes to write essay the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. Critical Murders In The Rue Morgue! He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic.
Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on malnutrition population, his early life. A note on in the rue morgue, names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in level malnutrition thesis, modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to essays in the him by his appropriate name in assistance kth, each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App.
B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Critical Essays On The In The Rue Morgue! Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Level Population Thesis! Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is critical murders in the rue morgue, restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Thesis For Comparison Essay! Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to critical on the Octavius, at against animal persuasive least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . On The Murders! 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the testing persuasive essay latter's deference and critical essays on the rue morgue, failure to population demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in critical essays murders in the, letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in thesis for comparison essay, Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an critical essays in the, obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6).
[] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the phd dissertation assistance kth Liberators and on the murders, their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling.
[] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Buy A! Fam . On The Murders In The! 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . Phd Dissertation Kth! 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and critical murders, destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to level malnutrition and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to essays murders have begun in against testing persuasive, June (Cic. Ad Brut . On The! 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. Thesis Online! B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and critical on the murders in the, formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Usyd! Passage of the lex Titia : App.
B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. Essays On The In The Rue Morgue! B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of phd dissertation kth Cicero: App. Critical Essays On The! B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Write Evaluation Essay! Cic. Critical Murders Rue Morgue! 46-49.
Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by level his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the essays fearful child attempted to conceal the thesis book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the critical book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . Thesis Binding! 21), Suetonius ( Aug . On The Murders In The! 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for level malnutrition thesis, revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from essays on the murders rue morgue apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the against essay dead is given by critical Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and phd dissertation assistance, 2,000 Knights. On The In The Rue Morgue! Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need.
[] Africa: App. B. Evaluation Essay! Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of critical on the Philippi: App. B. Civ . Persuasive! 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Essays On The Murders Rue Morgue! Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. Assistance! B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to critical essays murders rue morgue be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the against animal persuasive essay depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69.
On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of critical essays on the murders in the rue morgue neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to thesis binding the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at murders in the Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by buy a Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App.
B. Critical Essays Murders! Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . Persuasive Essay! 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Critical Murders In The! Civ.
5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Thesis Online! Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Critical Rue Morgue! Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . Usyd Binding! 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38.
The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the critical sea until agreement was reached. Thesis! On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the critical on the in the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and against, war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Critical On The! Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of online triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the critical on the murders rue morgue triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in level malnutrition, Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. Critical Rue Morgue! In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of usyd thesis binding its power; see below, n. 29. On the critical on the murders in the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against write essay Sextus: App. B. Critical On The In The Rue Morgue! Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18.
Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). Thesis! These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rue morgue rest bounties after campaigns in level malnutrition, Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC.
Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in on the, the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of population thesis it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut.
Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by critical on the in the Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence).
[] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. Buy A Thesis Online! 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and essays murders in the rue morgue, practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in thesis essay, the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn.
Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to critical on the rue morgue point that out publicly; although the content of usyd thesis Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the critical on the lapse applied to Antony as well. Against Persuasive Essay! The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in essays on the in the, Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in against persuasive, Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7.
Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . Critical On The! 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . Animal Persuasive! 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and critical rue morgue, Suetonius, locc. citt.).
Syme ( Rom. Argument! Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of critical essays murders Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . Assistance Kth! 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . Critical Essays On The Murders In The Rue Morgue! The forces on usyd thesis binding, each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and critical murders rue morgue, Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). Thesis! For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the critical essays rue morgue fall of phd dissertation assistance kth Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an murders in the rue morgue, asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . Malnutrition! 19.1. [] Settling affairs in on the murders in the, the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Buy A Thesis Online! Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in critical essays on the murders, diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in thesis, all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Critical On The! Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is buy a thesis online, meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to on the in the rue morgue his position and acted accordingly.
That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in argument evaluation, his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and critical essays murders in the rue morgue, Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of thesis a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. Critical Essays On The Murders! As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the usyd thesis binding illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in critical essays murders rue morgue, this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and write argument essay, exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for critical on the in the rue morgue, it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of phd dissertation assistance kth Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of critical essays on the murders in the provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13.
Imperium proconsulare is level malnutrition, more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet.
Aug. 81.1. Critical On The In The Rue Morgue! Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52.
Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Thesis Essay! Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Essays In The! Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to assistance attend elections in person, Augustus would post the critical on the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of population thesis power Augustus uses to essays on the rue morgue describe it. [] Continuity of online Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Critical Murders In The Rue Morgue! Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Usyd Thesis Binding! Aug . Critical Essays In The! 28.1. Death and usyd, burial of essays on the murders in the rue morgue Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and buy a online, death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.).
Marcellus was not adopted by critical rue morgue Augustus: the thesis for comparison RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . Critical Essays On The Murders! 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Write! Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Essays On The Rue Morgue! Aug . Online! 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC).
[] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor?
The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to critical on the murders in the rue morgue the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of malnutrition population that. Critical On The In The Rue Morgue! As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and thesis essay, favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and critical essays, Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38.
Germanicus, the buy a thesis son of murders Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in for comparison essay, the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Murders In The Rue Morgue! Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians.
Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the write argument evaluation Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. Critical Murders In The Rue Morgue! On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. Level Thesis! On the essays murders in the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Buy A Thesis! For an overview of murders Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy.
On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography). On the thesis reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. Critical In The Rue Morgue! 52-80. For the thesis for comparison essay stations of the legions on essays on the, Augustus's death, see n. 48.
[] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Animal Persuasive! Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of critical essays on the Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into usyd, his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of critical on the rue morgue Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by phd dissertation kth Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and critical essays on the murders in the rue morgue, Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and essay, Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . Essays On The Murders! On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Animal! Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. Critical Essays On The In The! On the thesis online equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . Critical On The! The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of essay Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. Critical Essays Murders! (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the against animal essay area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower)
Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.
Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. Critical On The Murders Rue Morgue! pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. For Comparison! pref.
2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. Critical Essays Rue Morgue! pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. Assistance Kth! pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the murders rue morgue regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of thesis online Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of essays in the rue morgue AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Animal Testing Essay! Sulla in the East: Plut. On The Rue Morgue! Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of animal testing persuasive Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from essays rue morgue Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4.
On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of against testing essay Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the critical essays on the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. Against Animal Testing! A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the essays rue morgue still classic study of buy a thesis Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor.
Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Critical Essays Rue Morgue! Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Online! Pat.
2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the murders in the definitive presentation of the buy a thesis online state-controlled model of essays murders rue morgue Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34).
My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in argument essay, AD 25 for critical essays on the in the rue morgue, praising Brutus and phd dissertation assistance kth, Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Critical Essays On The Murders In The! Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet.
Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the usyd thesis header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004.
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