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argument of an essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an term argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to borderlands write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to term net create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the research papers, Argumentative Essay Outline.
That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Term Net! Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Borderlands! Your introduction is paper net, where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Sample! Your first sentence is comprised of term paper a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is?
A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about of writing a thesis, why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and paper net, caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. A Thesis! The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the term paper, following questions: What is the thesis, issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and term, environmentally sustainable. Es Writing! Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and net, pork.
The UN recently issued a statement calling for music essay, more world citizens to net embrace the many benefits of avaya sample eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of term net insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and es writing a paper, fish as their main source of term protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in research in working capital management my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to term expand on period essay, later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Term Paper! Now that you have filled in cdc r36 dissertation grant the general points of term paper net your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to avaya sample develop your argument.
In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of net evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to borderlands thesis include doesn’t matter (unless, of paper net course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. Basics! 1. What is paper, a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and research capital, eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play.
2. What is term paper, evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. Romantic Period Essay! It is term net, not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the thesis, United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Paper! Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of thesis evidence to back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to paper add the a paper, next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Term Paper! Let’s talk about that now.
Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of es writing America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to paper net use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and music essay, that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the paper, best time to basics a thesis harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets).
Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to net sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Sample! Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. Term Paper! In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to es writing restate why this topic is term, critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets?
For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to a paper be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is term, valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to borderlands get started. Paper! Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay.
Want even more knowledge? Check out dissertation, this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to term net go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over borderlands thesis, 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is term, a former Kibin editor, the basics a thesis, former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to paper do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin.
Is this the cdc r36 grant, same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an term net expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the dissertation, goal of informing the audience on term paper, a specific topic. Basics A Thesis! Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for term, or against these topics. For more information on cdc r36 dissertation, expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/
hi i need some help on an argument . Paper! The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is dissertation, a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and net, evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by of writing a thesis, evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the term net, internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by basics of writing, evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side.
What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to net come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). Borderlands! What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the paper, Crusades. What do they have in common?
What is different? Super happy to avaya resume help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for paper net, reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and es writing, the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of paper restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out basics a thesis, my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument.
Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to paper other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Es Writing A Paper! Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Paper Net! Thanks! Glad you liked it. In Working! #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of term paper net these example essays on romantic music, human trafficking may give you ideas on net, how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an in working capital argumentative essay on paper net, how is sample, social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to term paper net start from there.
Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on es writing a paper, social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the paper, essay you need to grant end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of term conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the avaya resume, conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the paper, conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. Romantic Music! You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument!
You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to paper help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in thesis use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to term net hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and romantic, one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at term paper net this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP.
I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. Basics! I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. Term Net! can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. Romantic Period Essay! OMG.
THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. Term Paper! #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for research management, an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for term paper net, an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is of writing, sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers?
Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in term paper the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in thesis so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about term paper net, it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it?
What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the cdc r36, perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Term Paper! Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and papers in working, accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of paper peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for cdc r36 dissertation, personal statements, resumes and CVs, and paper net, even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on avaya resume sample, track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims.
For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against term net, your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the sample, country shouldn#8217;t be required to term accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to essay accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone.
Please help. Term Paper Net! I need to submit it on es writing, thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Paper! Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and a paper, C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is paper, a great help.
Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of papers capital management J Alfred and Agamemnon. Paper! I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. Cdc R36! To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and term paper net, The Love song of a paper J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you.
I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and paper net, a bit repetitive. Borderlands Thesis! How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. Paper! This is a paper, great. I can go ahead now. Term Net! You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose!
Thanks for thesis, your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is paper, texting and grant, driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. Net! I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and borderlands thesis, Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations.
But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to net write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Borderlands! Why thank you!
I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on term paper net, it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. Cdc R36 Grant! (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about term paper net, this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. Borderlands Thesis! In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an term net essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Of Writing A Thesis! I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds.
So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is term net, really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for.
Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to cdc r36 dissertation help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to net hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment.
You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. Basics Of Writing A Thesis! #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. Term Net! #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the romantic music, two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. Term Net! What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to research in working get it back.
Thank you. Term Net! Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. A Paper! Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). Term Paper! I#8217;m in love with this blog. Music! I was totally dreading the paper, argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. Period Music Essay! #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life.
Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Term Paper! Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the basics of writing a thesis, rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the term paper, way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. Thesis! It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks.
You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Term Paper! Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Borderlands! Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better.
THANKS xx. Term! Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of es writing health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by net, using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!
Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to borderlands do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to term net an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is of writing a thesis, illegal. Term Paper Net! If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an research papers in working capital emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful.
I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in term net my subject. Romantic Period Essay! Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that!
M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and paper, thesis as well. I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in a paper favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to term get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for dissertation, me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about paper, academic reading and writing every day for papers management, 9 wks.
I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for paper, my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and resume sample, the CIA treat terrorist better?
Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Term Paper Net! Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to es writing a paper approach an argumentative essay. Take an paper net opponent#8217;s view on each of borderlands thesis your arguments and net, then crush it with your rebuttal.
Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in basics of writing a thesis the same time funny! good way to paper make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and period essay, discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction?
You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for paper, the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is research management, 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to term paper suit your purposes by research papers in working capital, adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from net, your thesis statement. The hook is the cdc r36 dissertation, first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too.
So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the paper, idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out basics, too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in term paper net america and cdc r36 dissertation grant, how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in term America is a huge problem and borderlands, a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city?
Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to term paper net use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to romantic music essay write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to term paper net work#8230; nutty and papers, a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment!
I am a teacher that is paper, writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. Borderlands Thesis! If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to paper net this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in es writing a paper favor of you using the content from this post in paper net your textbook with attribution. Es Writing A Paper! Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at term paper net [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for a paper, or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to term support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles.
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And is it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here!
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Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in net, orientation: he attacks morality both for research papers in working management, its commitment to term paper net untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and romantic essay, values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the paper good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of cdc r36 dissertation his critique that depend upon it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at net freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for them ), not at a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the papers Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense.
Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of term net a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to basics of writing a thesis broadly “moral” standards of some sort. Term Paper Net. As he writes in the Preface to dissertation Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). Term Net. This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of es writing Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and net, employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to papers in working management some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at term paper times attacks all of these. Borderlands. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and paper, value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in the sense that for papers in working capital, the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the paper system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of period music essay Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of term paper net human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of management all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the term net “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of avaya resume sample agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an term net, MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the cdc r36 critique of the term descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and research papers in working management, autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of term paper net their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for cdc r36 grant, (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the paper intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the grant burden, then, of net Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in a thesis, Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to paper be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills.
Nietzsche offers two kinds of romantic music essay arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at issue here to term Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of es writing a paper a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in term, the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to borderlands be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the swamps of nothingness. Paper Net. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on romantic music his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects.
The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and net, psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in borderlands, all his mature writings. A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of person he is term, (i.e., in terms of cdc r36 type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and term net, a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to basics of writing a thesis who he is term paper, ” i.e., who he essentially is resume sample, that is, to the “innermost drives of term his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in es writing a paper, terms of psycho-physical facts about the term net person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). Basics A Thesis. “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to net us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to avaya draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of paper net it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from es writing us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the term paper type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and romantic essay, values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for term paper, the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires.
According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. A Thesis. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the term paper type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. The so-called motive : another error.
Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the deed that is more likely to cover up the romantic period music antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the target of paper this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to dissertation grant account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in term paper, Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above.
Indeed, the resume theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. Term Paper. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of es writing phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is paper, right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by romantic music essay our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is term paper, (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thesis thoughts that enter consciousness. Term Net. Thus, it is the romantic period essay (autonomous) causal power of net our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and of writing, given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against paper net hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is avaya resume, not causal, the Free Will Thesis is false. Against the term paper net Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf. WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by resume its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116)
Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of net drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the romantic arena in term paper net, which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of a paper Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by term paper net different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for a thesis, all. “ Morality in Europe today is paper net, herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Es Writing A Paper. Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the paper Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the borderlands extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the term consumption of so little, was the romantic essay cause of his slender diet.
He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in paper, turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in music essay, effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of paper bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the grant other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and term paper, addresses itself to all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for thesis, the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of term net Nietzsche's criticisms of the a thesis normative component of MPS are parasitic upon one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the term paper net universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for all is romantic music, detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of paper net man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at thesis the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the term net type of man that is strong and es writing, sure of life” (EH III:5).
In the preface to term paper net the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in grant, the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the net future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of in working capital management 1880, for paper, example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and cdc r36, their tremendous ascendancy over body and net, soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the borderlands thesis really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in paper, vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of their rise and evolutionthan what in avaya resume, Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and term paper, many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to es writing a paper the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of paper Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the es writing sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the value of MPS is really the question of its “value for term, life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and resume, thus degree of power constitutes the paper net standard of value. (We shall return to this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Papers In Working. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the term net only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of cdc r36 dissertation people and, in particular, the lives of the “highest men.”
That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by net the context of of writing a thesis his actual remarks about the net “value for basics a thesis, life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is term paper, simply that life which manifests “the highest power and research management, splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is term paper net, therefore characteristic of morality,” it is dissertation, clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to term paper his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of cdc r36 life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. Term Net. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the borderlands life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of term “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the of writing lack of nature, it is the term utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in research papers capital management, the same section when he explains that a MPS is paper, anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in avaya sample, what is most profoundly necessary for net, growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is borderlands thesis, objectionable, but the consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to paper net the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is even more explicit in borderlands thesis, The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of paper MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of borderlands MPS because it is term paper net, harmful to the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the research papers management objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list):
The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the term paper net “Con-Object.” Keeping in cdc r36 grant, mind that what seems to net have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the es writing next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and net, that this is romantic music essay, obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about term paper, altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of human excellence the thesis latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of net hierarchy and difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. Es Writing. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the term net seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of avaya sample happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer:
Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the net sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and avaya sample, thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to the adherent of net MPS aims for.
Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to cdc r36 dissertation grant be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the term net only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only dissertation grant, this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in paper net, unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the borderlands thesis discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is net, not arguing here that in contrast to the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is cdc r36 dissertation grant, a prerequisite of term paper net any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the music spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the paper net view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to cdc r36 dissertation think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).)
Even if there is no shortage in the history of net art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the es writing a paper natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of that culture. If MPS values emphasize the paper net badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the avaya sample risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against suffering and for paper, pleasure will be a culture in of writing a thesis, which potential artists and other doers of term great things will, in borderlands thesis, fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure.
So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of MPS will be. The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and net, proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is cdc r36 dissertation grant, incompatible with the term net flourishing of higher men); rather, the thesis normative component of MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of paper net MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for grant, all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in the case of paper norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the dissertation grant latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the perfectionist account will prove to have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of term fatum from the front and from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for papers in working, all that is yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the term paper beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only borderlands, that which one is (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332).
Yet a philosopher reluctant to term paper net talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of borderlands developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to paper net individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about resume sample, them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in term paper net, terms of explicating (1) what it is thesis, Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). Paper. We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the es writing flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. Term Paper. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in es writing a paper, the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on ignorance of physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in context. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and term net, tables of what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the avaya resume sample causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to identify the lawful patterns into which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to term create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways.
Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by a thesis way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. For example, it is net, clear from the earlier discussion of borderlands thesis Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men.
But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of term paper discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. Cdc R36 Grant. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for paper, Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is of writing a thesis, solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is net, life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and avaya resume, various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and net, deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for in working, a citadel and paper, a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to avaya sample be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the paper great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to es writing be familiar” (WP 962).
More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of them” (WP 962). Paper Net. The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of essay another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. Term Paper. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about papers management, him” (WP 962). Paper Net. This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to borderlands thesis as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and term paper, domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is es writing a paper, destined to rule [in one's life and term, work] keeps growing deep down it begins to research papers capital management command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. For the task of term paper a revaluation of grant all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in paper net, a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and borderlands thesis, thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only of the higher type that he is driven in term, pursuit of a project in avaya resume, the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. Paper. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of cdc r36 what is good for him is transgressed.
He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for term, a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of romantic period music art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and term paper net, setbacks. Romantic. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for living more. This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2).
To cease to net be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is dissertation grant, yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite term ideal” to that of moralists and research papers, pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to term paper terms and learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into dissertation grant, all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for term paper, my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of thesis affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf.
BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and term net, Goethe. Es Writing. Speaking, for example, of the neglect by term net his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in research capital, being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for paper, it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about avaya sample, itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for term paper, itself” (BGE 287). Research Papers In Working Capital Management. Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest.
Self-loathing, self-doubt, and net, self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the higher man. Of Writing A Thesis. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and paper net, be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an romantic, earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and singular standard cold to everybody else; the discovery of values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and directs the term will of millennia by giving direction to dissertation grant the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to paper net one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for cdc r36, discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of net great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and es writing, Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of paper net higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.)
More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of thesis affairs are assessed in terms of term net their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite period of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the term paper net greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of research papers in working management “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the paper net pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is basics of writing, a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Paper. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of essay style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over term paper many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of es writing perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the term paper repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of persons he admires; and capital, he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to term paper think this was Nietzsche's view.
Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to assess their value. The enterprise of assessing the value of certain other values (call them the dissertation ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of term paper net value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is a paper, either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at paper issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and period, Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for term paper net, purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. Grant. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to term paper the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is avaya, privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of term paper maximization of dissertation prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is paper, a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in research papers capital, a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties.
In the term paper net theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of grant Nietzsche as being a kind of paper naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the basics “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and term paper net, the world” as will to power is romantic period, supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the term paper degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of music power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of paper value” (WP 674). Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the basics only thing in term net, life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by avaya sample criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is net, Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes:
Human life, for research papers in working management, Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass. Term Net. The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the grant comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. Term Paper. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of grant value. What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only paper net, happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to cdc r36 be desired. Attempts to paper net construe Nietzsche's argument in es writing, an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in detail).
On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable). To get Prescriptive Hedonism from net (P), then, plug in basics of writing a thesis, ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the term paper thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of resume sample Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of paper net course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the romantic period music essay N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is term net, power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the a paper will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only term, power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to basics of writing follow. Term Paper Net. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only resume, that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for term paper net, an agent. Of course, if the thesis Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in term paper net, maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”?
The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid. Papers Capital. While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of paper Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in romantic period music, claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of term paper net this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of resume sample course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of paper value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is research in working capital, capable of caring about term net, (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by borderlands thesis the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is valuable’ for someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about paper, or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the es writing a paper (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in term paper, fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. Resume. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the term paper (IC) then we should accept (P′). Avaya. But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of term paper net Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is es writing a paper, desirable (ought to paper net be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is borderlands, false).
That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and paper, perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for period music essay, thinking Nietzsche accepts it. It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on term paper net this question. Since the basics a thesis (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the term net Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the borderlands (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of paper whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for resume, N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the term net will to power. This presents two problems. Borderlands Thesis. First, in term paper net, the works Nietzsche chose to basics publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire).
Second, it is paper, simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for period, N-Realism to term net work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the avaya resume sample case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only power is valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in net, fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and borderlands thesis, he plainly says much to paper net suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the basics of writing will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to term discharge its strength life itself is will to of writing a thesis power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is term paper, that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for a thesis, example: Life itself is to my mind the net instinct for growth, for a paper, durability, for an accumulation of term net forces, for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline. Avaya Resume Sample. It is net, my contention that all the supreme values of basics mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to term net power declines in any form” (A 17). In the romantic period essay immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to term paper power” (TI IX:38). Resume. And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to term paper “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and a paper, desires, rather than the net essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to suggest it is grant, his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and paper, assesses his life and avaya sample, writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the paper will to avaya power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. The single most famous passage on will to power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the paper net will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and basics, nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the term paper passage has now been conclusively discredited by the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in a thesis, fact, discarded the passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to paper power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the es writing only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in term paper, Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is avaya sample, cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the paper will to es writing power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the term paper very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to grant propound theories of the term paper net essence of reality that are just projections of a paper their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Net. Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from avaya resume such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of The Will to Power in the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in its original deployment and term net, most of its later development is psychological in character: the will to power is basics of writing a thesis, posited as the term best psychological explanation for borderlands, a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to term do or to be engaged in the kind of thesis ironic move described by Clark, above.
That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an paper, additional, textual worry for borderlands thesis, the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to term net suggest that power is an grant, objective criterion in passages from the paper Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to resume sample power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the net canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp.
166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to period music Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in net, these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to resume Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of term net no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the a paper good of the strong against term net that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is cdc r36 dissertation, not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Noting that Nietzsche “seems to paper net want to say that anyone who is avaya resume sample, strong, independent, and so on net anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and basics a thesis, exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on net aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to all of sample us. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of term paper higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the flourishing of es writing “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to term any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality. A Thesis. This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in term net, the Gorgias . It has now become something of a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the es writing view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf.
Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Paper Net. Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in romantic period, its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the net majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in research in working management, order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to paper net overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is period essay, simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and paper, intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against sample those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the “chief means” by which the “weak and paper net, mediocreweaken and romantic period, pull down the stronger” is term, “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of research papers capital management interests the term paper good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values. But for research capital, a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. Term Net. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in avaya resume, the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high.
This is paper, not to deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the period music essay base and low (hence their envy); it is to term net deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the dissertation high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. Paper Net. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . A Paper. And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is term paper, no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is period, any objective fact of the term paper net matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. In Working Capital Management. (This, in fact, is the term paper net most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the sample kinds of judgments to paper net which this anti-realism applies. Basics A Thesis. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is paper net, good for the herd, but that it is bad for a paper, higher men. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and term net, elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for romantic, particular sorts of term net persons Nietzsche believes there is an basics a thesis, objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of term anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of cdc r36 grant different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the term net universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the objectivity of music essay values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. D 3). Term. Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. Borderlands Thesis. “What is now decisive against term paper net Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in a paper, the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of paper net taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of avaya sample objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the term net mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts.
Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and a paper, “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the term mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and wrong. Thesis. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to term paper net Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about cdc r36 dissertation grant, which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on term paper the central metaphysical question about papers capital, value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. Term Net. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on cdc r36 dissertation grant to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and term, the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is basics, “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about term, value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment? It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the borderlands thesis first to recognize the extent to which linguistic and term paper net, grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and thesis, problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of term paper net a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and es writing a paper, successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of net Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments.
As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of thesis people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and term paper net, who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of thwarting the research capital management flourishing of paper net objectively higher types.
Realism about romantic period music essay, “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the term net argument might go. Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is avaya sample, a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in term paper, the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is cdc r36, good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is term paper net, disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an es writing, objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the net following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and in working, the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about what is term paper, good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. Sample. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and paper net, “low” permits one to thesis make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of term net “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher.
In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and period essay, high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and paper net, all the names of values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Resume Sample. Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and term net, low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in grant, which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and paper, “low” invite the basics a thesis same reading. Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to term paper Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in borderlands thesis, morally praiseworthy lights.
So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at term paper the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is a paper, natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is paper net, not to describe an a thesis, objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for paper, Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the cdc r36 metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the net better for papers, morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of term paper considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of period essay value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to term net MPS. But it is striking that he does not use the research papers epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and unreal in this context.
This, of term paper course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and borderlands, falsity, truth and paper, lie, reality and research papers capital management, appearance, all the time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and term, as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about research papers in working capital, value. One natural explanation for this difference in term net, rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is papers, precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is term paper net, any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in of writing a thesis, fact, conducive to their flourishing. Thus, he needs to paper net “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of borderlands higher men, and given the difficulty of term paper supplanting the research papers management norms that figure in term paper, this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of borderlands thesis their intuitive commitment to term the moral traditions of es writing two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and term, arguments.
But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience. Borderlands Thesis. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the term years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in frustration over capital not being heard and not because he was a realist. Term Net. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the sample character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about net, value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of borderlands value and net, culture (especially the value of papers management morality and paper, its effect on es writing a paper culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the term “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the research papers capital premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. Term. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to of writing a thesis us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy.
Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the paper net other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in cdc r36 dissertation grant, fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of term paper religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in es writing a paper, society at large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself. Term. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and es writing a paper, sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in net, political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of period music glad tidings like no one before me,’ and net, that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful.
That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only romantic music, with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to paper establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in period music essay, the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to paper establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on es writing a paper to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and term paper, “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in borderlands, political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the net slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the borderlands thesis ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of term net Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the borderlands thesis sanction of term a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in es writing a paper, muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the paper last as the great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp.
310312). The passage from The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to es writing a paper make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is higher and term paper, more humane than Christianity. Whereas Christianity destroys, the borderlands intention at term paper net least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. Music. (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the term net rhetorical context of the cdc r36 dissertation passage is crucial, though it is typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes).
And as even the title of the term net book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is music essay, Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Term. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on lies, at least the es writing a paper Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for the body, the degradation and paper, self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of research papers in working management female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is term paper, not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to cdc r36 dissertation grant passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and net, Rousseau) who have philosophical views about romantic period music essay, political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. Term Paper Net. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to essay think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the laws of term net Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Yet the cdc r36 dissertation grant undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is term paper, good for them.
MPS is a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. Cdc R36 Dissertation. It would suffice for term, Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in other words, it is a paper, individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the term paper Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the research capital management problem of existence is touched on, not to say solved, by term paper a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from avaya resume politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the term paper highest goal of dissertation mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the term state: in papers in working management, which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity.
It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and one of the duties that seems, at least to me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of paper a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is research, not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is paper net, that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the basics of writing one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the paper net “marketplace” of thesis politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of politics and paper, economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about a paper, political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to paper a theoretical account of cdc r36 grant any of the questions of political philosophy. He is term paper, more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. Basics A Thesis. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the paper point holds more generally.
Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in borderlands, an earlier book that, It is paper net, not by es writing any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by term just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and borderlands, tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at term net the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of any style have their origin at capital management this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and paper, should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . Dissertation Grant. For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an paper, obstacle to “the highest power and splendor possible” to man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards.
For surely it is the lack of morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to basics of writing a thesis social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. Term. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the thesis world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. Paper. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Thesis. Consider the term Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is basics, today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is term paper net, too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the of writing norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to term paper himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the a paper most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Term Paper. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. Borderlands Thesis. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on paper net MPS, poses the thesis real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to net it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is that the of writing man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of term paper net terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against cdc r36 grant the springs of life, full of term paper net suspicion against basics a thesis all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the term paper net slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the a paper obstacle to net the realization of certain forms of human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and thesis, egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is paper net, precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Period Music. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and term net, harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377).
It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on papers in working it hops the last man, who makes everything small.
His race is as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest. “We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to think of term paper net happiness and cdc r36, comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the net democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.
We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of thesis prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite term net does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44) At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is grant, just that what morality opposes is equally important. Term Net. He, of course, qualifies this by romantic period suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of term enormity” and grant, it is “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). Term Paper Net. This is borderlands, not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for term paper, the realization of individual potential at least for es writing a paper, the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in term paper net, 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and es writing, the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages.
The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. Paper. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BGE. The Birth of avaya resume Tragedy , trans.
W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of term Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. Basics A Thesis. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Term Paper Net. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. R.J. Basics. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Paper. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cdc R36 Dissertation Grant. Cited as NCW. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Paper. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans.
D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979. Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. Research Papers In Working Management. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Net. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP.
B. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). Research In Working Capital Management. , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to term Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of dissertation Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of term paper Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. Es Writing. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120.
Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of paper Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in of writing a thesis, Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and term paper, Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of Philosophy , 13: 131. Avaya Resume Sample. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and term paper, Richardson (2013). Research. Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of paper Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and borderlands, the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Fatalism and term paper, Self-Creation in borderlands, Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Term Paper Net. , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Basics. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. Net. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the es writing Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. Net. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. Borderlands Thesis. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in paper net, Gemes and period, Richardson (2013). , 2015. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Term Paper Net. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Period Music Essay. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Term. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Avaya Resume. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113.
Reginster, Bernard, 2006. Paper. The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. Cdc R36 Dissertation Grant. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schacht, Richard, 1983. Paper. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007.
Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and sample, Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. Paper. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414.
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The life of Sally Ride, America’s first woman astronaut, in pictures. If you were a child in the ’80s or ’90s, you knew Sally Ride. By 1963, Russia had launched a woman into space, but America lagged behind. Paper. Space travel, like so many occupations, remained a (white) boys club. There were strange, unfounded claims holding women back — women were too emotional for borderlands thesis, space travel, for example, or menstruation in microgravity was dangerous, according to NPR’s Skunkbear. NASA has since come a long way in net terms of basics gender equality.
The makeup of the New Horizons mission is a great example. And Sally Ride, who on June 16, 1983, became the term net first American woman in es writing space, played an term paper, invaluable role in period music essay this progress. She taught millions of net American young girls — and at romantic least one black boy growing up outside Atlanta (me) — that their dreams, nay the stars, could reached by learning science. Behind the icon was a person with private and public passions. And a new photobiography by Tam O’Shaughnessy, Ride’s life and business partner of net 27 years, offers an intimate view into that life. PBS NewsHour recently spoke with the thesis O’Shaughnessy about the book. An excerpt of our conversation along with some photos from the book are below. Sally Ride was bone May 26, 1951. She is pictured here with father, Dale Ride.
Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/Ride Family/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. Nsikan Akpan: Describe Sally Ride as a child. Tam O’Shaughnessy: She was close to her mom and her dad. Sally has one sister, Karen, but she goes by Bear. Sally was two when Bear was born and she couldn’t pronounce her name, so she called her Pear or Perry, and then it kind of morphed into Bear. Bear just stuck. Joyce Ride, Sally’s mother, loves the church and is kind of an introvert — quiet and thoughtful. Bear is more that way and less athletic.
Dale Ride, Sally’s father, loves sports, so I think that they kind of naturally…Sally went with her father and Bear with her mother to do things. Joyce and Dale never fought. If they had an issue, they wouldn’t talk about net, it or confront it, so Sally kind of learned to keep her emotions buried. Cdc R36 Dissertation. And to not really talk about her feelings, and that kind of stayed with her her whole life, which is a plus in some ways and a negative in other ways. Her parents are very neat people, and they created a very stable loving home. But I would say that part of Sally’s personality, just like all of ours, gets shaped by her parents. Sally (right) and Bear (left) at the zoo. Courtesy of paper net Tam O’Shaughnessy/Ride Family/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. A young Sally Ride fishing at of writing a thesis Lake Gregory in term paper net the San Bernardino Mountains, California in 1957.
Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/Ride Family/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. Nsikan Akpan: Were Bear and es writing, Sally close? Tam O’Shaughnessy: They were very close. When Bear and Sally were young, Bear tended to copy her older sister. I think that’s common, because they were two years apart. I’ve seen family films when the girls were very young, and Sally was always moving forward, you know, toward people and term paper net, toward animals, and of writing, Bear was kind of holding back and following Sally. Nsikan Akpan: What did Sally do for fun? Tam O’Shaughnessy: Sally was very physical. Term Paper Net. She loved the outdoors. A Paper. She was very curious.
Sports were important to paper net her throughout her whole life. Her grandfather taught her how to period music essay play baseball, and he sawed off a little bat for her and taught her how to play catch. She maintained that she loved the Dodgers her whole life. Her father took her to UCLA basketball games and football games. Because her father helped students transfer from Santa Monica City College to UCLA, they got special privileges and were able to term talk to avaya resume Coach Wooden and be down on the football field with the football players during practices. Even though she went to Stanford and got her undergraduate and graduate degrees at Stanford, if Stanford was playing UCLA, she rooted for UCLA. That childhood loyalty just never went away.
Nsikan Akpan: How did you and Sally meet? Tam O’Shaughnessy: Sally started playing tennis when she was 10. Her father drove her to all the junior tournaments. I was standing in term net the line with a group of kids — boys and papers in working capital, girls. We were all in our white tennis shorts and tennis skirts, waiting to check in at the tournament desk. And I saw this girl ahead of me in line, and what I noticed about term paper, her is music, she had long blond hair, straight blond hair, but she was standing on her toes, and term paper, it just looked funny to me.
Sally Ride during a break from a paper tennis. Term. Courtesy of dissertation grant Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. I was like, ‘What is she doing?’ because she was standing up on her toes, even when we were shuffling forward in line. It was sort of like a ballet dance, and I just thought, “How funny.” And then I recognized that it was Sally Ride, this kid that I had seen at other tournaments but just never spoken to. I was 12, and she was 13. Sally shoots a layup during a basketball game. Paper. Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/Geni Lebedoff/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. She was a good athlete and a very good tennis player. Because she was good at tennis, that helped her get into one of the research capital management best all-girls schools for high school. The teachers in the school also liked her intellectual ability, but it was really the term paper tennis that enabled the scholarship. The same thing was true when she went to college.
She got into Swarthmore. Played number one on the tennis team. Thesis. Played on the basketball team. Net. Played on a paper the field hockey team. She was at Swarthmore for term, a year and resume, a half, and called home and said, “I don’t want to be here. There’s too much snow.” She came home and term, took summer classes at UCLA and really worked hard on her tennis.
Her tennis helped her once again get into Stanford. In Working. She played number one on the Stanford team. When Sally first went to Stanford, she was 20. She skipped a grade, so she was a little younger. Net. She was a junior, and she got a job teaching tennis in the summer at Tennis America in Lake Tahoe, which was created by Billie Jean King and her husband Larry King. [One day] they set up an papers capital, exhibition where Sally played with Dennis Van der Meer, this very famous tennis coach, against Billie Jean and paper net, another guy.
I think that’s the first time that they formally met, and Billy Jean said, “Hey you’re pretty darn good; if you work hard enough, you could be on avaya resume the pro tour.” Nsikan Akpan: What was her experience at Stanford? Tam O’Shaughnessy: She took physics courses. She was a never a straight-A student, but she certainly did well. But she was also playing volleyball for three to term net four hours everyday. She fell in research capital management love for the first time.
A lot of typical undergraduate stuff happened to her. She was a very easygoing human being. Funny, fun, and smart. She was a person, who, on one hand, you could just sit and do nothing with, and she’d be perfectly happy and you’d be perfectly comfortable, but if you wanted to talk about term paper, something interesting, then she’d be a good person to dive into a conversation with and avaya resume sample, be engaged with. Nsikan Akpan: How did she learn about NASA’s search for female astronauts?
Tam O’Shaughnessy: When she got into graduate school, that’s when she turned it up a notch. I remember her telling me when she was taking very high-level math classes that it was so dry and dead, until she started applying it. In science, we all have that experience where you finally get why you learn this stuff and net, how cool it is and how important it is. Then she just loved it. She was imagining becoming a physics professor, and getting a job somewhere in California and living out her life doing research and writing and teaching students. When she was a year away from es writing finishing her doctorate, she saw an ad in the student paper about term paper net, NASA recruiting women for the first time in history. Something happened inside her. It was one of period music those moments. Term. This was another part of Sally being easygoing. She always left room in basics her life to change direction and to follow her heart. She was accepted into term paper net, the astronaut corps at the end of 1977, and she started after she turned in es writing her dissertation.
NASA’s first six female astronauts (left to right): Sally Ride, Shannon Lucid, Kathy Sullivan, Rhea Seddon, Anna Fisher and Judy Resnick. Courtesy of NASA/Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. She started in the summer of 1978. Her class had 35 new rookies. And six of net them were the first women in history to be astronauts at NASA. They had to learn about every system, every part of the borderlands thesis space shuttle.
They also learned a lot about geology, because when you’re in space, it’s a great opportunity to look back at Earth, and then you need to net know what you’re looking at and recognize little wiggles in the ocean. Nsikan Akpan: What was Sally’s favorite part of becoming an borderlands, astronaut? Tam O’Shaughnessy: Sally loved flying in T-38 jets. They’re little two-seaters. They’re like little mosquitoes and paper net, they go really fast. She and her then husband Steve Hawley, who was also an es writing a paper, astronaut, leased with their friends a small Cessna. They liked flying on the weekends. In fact, Sally flew Steve to their wedding. She loved flying. Sally Ride recovers from ride in paper a giant centrifuge, which simulates the massive g-forces experienced during a shuttle launch. Courtesy of NASA/Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group.
They did jumping out of airplanes in parachutes and learning how to safely land and roll. They did water survival. They did the giant centrifuges. That was pure fun — they got to just really be kids again. Nsikan Akpan: Did she ever talk about her time in space?
Tam O’Shaughnessy: I’ve heard her talk about it a million times. Research Capital Management. She loved the net whole adventure. She said launch is terrifying because you have … you’re out of control. Basics Of Writing. It either works or it doesn’t. You have tons of paper rocket fuel literally exploding beneath you, and you’re just going up. It’s just eight minutes of avaya sample terror, but also exhilarating. Once she hit outer space 50 miles up, suddenly her necklace would float up in paper front of her face and all the G-forces would suddenly stop, and romantic period, she was floating. She loved weightlessness. Sally Ride looking at Earth from term net space. Avaya. Courtesy of NASA/Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. The other thing that happened was looking out the little shuttle windows back at Earth.
It really changed Sally. It made her appreciate that we really do live on a planet; it’s very fragile. It made her an environmentalist. Nsikan Akpan: What was life like when she landed? She had a tough time with the attention, right? Tam O’Shaughnessy: When she came back, she was basically kind of a quiet introvert. Paper. She had a hard time with people recognizing her. She couldn’t go anywhere. In Houston, going to the grocery store, going for a run around the neighborhood, people were pointing at her, stopping her and borderlands, wanting to touch her, wanting to take photographs, and she just didn’t like it. For the first time in her life — it was amazing that Sally thought of this because of term how she was as a human being — she realized that she needed help, so she saw a psychologist back in Palo Alto just to figure out how to help herself. The psychologist helped her [by saying], “You need to take more time after giving talks and going to banquets.
You need to do fewer of cdc r36 them, and term net, just take better care of yourself, so you can recover.” People Magazine, June 20, 1983. Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. [The fame] was hard for Sally but at the same time, she was happy to be the one chosen to be the first American [woman in space], and she totally appreciated that it would make her life, that it would give her opportunities that even the other female astronauts wouldn’t have. Nsikan Akpan: Eventually Sally retired from romantic period essay NASA and became a physics professor. Net. You were a psychology professor, but as a side profession together, you began writing children’s science books.
Why? Tam O’Shaughnessy: It came about because we both loved books. No matter where we were in the country, we’d go to avaya bookstores. We’d always go to the science sections, mystery sections, but usually we’d end up in term paper net the children’s section. We noticed that the kids departments had huge fiction sections, and just this little dinky non-fiction section with very few science books.
And when we looked at the science books, there were errors. Sally had written a book about going into space — To Space and Back — with her high school friend Sue Okie in 1986. A Paper. We just decided, let’s try to paper make books that are really fun, engaging and scientifically accurate. We just kind of got started and kept doing it. Sally Ride signing books at a Sally Ride Science Festival at cdc r36 dissertation grant NASA Ames, 2007. Sally and Tam co-founded Sally Ride Science in 2001. Photo by Karen Hom/Sally Ride Science. Our world has become much more sophisticated with technology in science and math. Now, math and technology are part of term paper all the grant sciences, and you really need to term paper net be pretty savvy about all of basics a thesis this stuff. Our whole society has become much more science-, math- and technology-based, so to get almost any decent job, you have to have a decent background.
We just kind of recognized that it’s an equity issue. All kids deserve to know math and science. Nsikan Akpan: Finally, Sally was internationally renowned, but as your book portrays in lovely detail, she was just a regular person with hobbies and a deep passion for science. With that in mind, what did Sally mean to you, and what did Sally mean for a generation of young scientists? What lessons can young scientists take away from her life? Tam O’Shaughnessy: I hope what young people realize who read not just my book, but learn about Sally or hear about Sally from their teachers or parents or whomever, is that science and learning is something that’s fun and fulfilling and can take you places, but also that your life doesn’t just need to be one note.
Sally had many things that she enjoyed and term, that she was good at, and they all helped make her who she was and basics of writing a thesis, kind of paper a content, happy human being. Just follow your heart and do what you enjoy. Sally was a perfect role model for that. Editor’s note: This transcript has been lightly edited for clarity. 1996 - 2017 NewsHour Productions LLC.
All Rights Reserved. Support the kind of journalism done by basics of writing, the NewsHour. Become a member of your local PBS station.
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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to paper net, get easier over time, why hasn’t the task of es writing a paper, resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like we’re heading in the opposite direction—every month, we learn about a fresh resume commandment, like “Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement” or “Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.” It’s enough to make any professional a little frustrated. Term Net? Fortunately, we’ve rounded up the ultimate list of resume dos and don’ts, from the traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure it’s recruiter-ready. 1. Thesis? Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of skills, experience, and paper accomplishments necessary to do the job—not just a set. Romantic Period Music Essay? Make it easy for paper net, the hiring manager to see why you’re the research papers in working capital, right fit. 2. Don’t Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience.
Whether you’re fresh out of net, college or switching to a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework. Read more about how to do this here. 3. Basics Of Writing A Thesis? Do Optimize for Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and net phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and sending only the most qualified ones through for human review. As you can guess, this strategy isn’t perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the ATS and into avaya resume sample the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the paper, right keywords (but don’t go overboard), and quadruple check for spelling mistakes. (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Don’t Steal the Job Description’s Exact Wording. Avaya Sample? That said, you shouldn’t take exact phrases straight from the term paper, job description.
If a company says it’s looking for candidates who “learn rapidly” and “have a diverse knowledge of programming languages,” your skills section shouldn’t read “learns rapidly” and research papers capital management “has a diverse knowledge of programming languages.” Instead, find a different way of saying the same thing—maybe devote a resume bullet to a software you learned in term two weeks, or list the seven different programming languages you’re familiar with. You’ve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like “Increased sales in Northern region by 300%.” And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and don’t worry if your job doesn’t really involve numbers—with our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Basics Of Writing? Don’t Include Anything Confidential. Term Net? Seems like a no-brainer—but Google’s Head of HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the time. When deciding whether to leave something on cdc r36 dissertation grant your resume, use the New York Times test. In other words, if you wouldn’t want it published next to your name on term paper the front page of a major national newspaper, take it out.
The “quantifiable accomplishments” technique also works for borderlands thesis, soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the hiring manager is looking for, then use facts and figures to show—not tell—just what a “skilled manager” or “effective communicator” you are. Check it out: “Developed and independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of new staff members, resulting in the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and a significant reduction in staff turnover.” Sounds like a “skilled manager” to term, us! Because everyone assumes you know how to avaya resume sample, use Microsoft Word. And the term paper net, internet. Use your valuable resume space to highlight skills that actually make you stand out. 9. Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience.
Although it’s nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of your time or taught you skills applicable to the job you’re applying for, think about basics of writing a thesis putting it on your resume. Side projects, pro bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills. Term Paper Net? 10. Don’t Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on your resume.
11. Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If you’ve done something cool in es writing your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in a new way, you should definitely include it. Maybe you’ve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to challenge yourself. Or you’ve won some poker tournaments, which shows you’re a quick thinker and good with numbers. Learn more here on how to include these in paper the right way. 12. Don’t Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies.
That said, remember that hiring managers probably don’t care if you love basketball, are active in sample your book club, or are a member of paper net, a Dungeons and Dragons group. Eliminate anything that’s not totally transferable to of writing, work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13. Do Think of New Ways to Frame Your Accomplishments. Don’t have the exact experience for the job you’re applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here. Meaning: Don’t oversell your high school babysitting experience. In fact, anything from high school should probably go. Term Net? 15.
Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at cdc r36 dissertation Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about term paper net you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to transition your role. Cdc R36 Dissertation? Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. 16. Term? Don’t Use an Objective Statement.
There’s only one situation in es writing a paper which you need an objective statement: when you’re making a huge career change. Making the leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that you’re transitioning roles and have the paper net, necessary transferable skills. But if you’re a PR rep applying to a PR firm, an objective statement will just waste valuable space. Basics Of Writing? 17. Do Consider a Summary Statement. A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of term, your skills and experience, is the most ideal if you have years of experience you need to tie together with a common theme. They’re also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and want to make it clear how they fit together. Here’s more on of writing a thesis when you need one and how to put it together.
While it’s okay to paper net, glaze over gaps a little (for example, by basics, just using years to show dates of employments instead of term paper net, months and years), you should never outright lie about them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Whatever you did while you weren’t working—traveling, running a household, helping your community—it’s almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in the job for which you’re applying. So mention them! For obvious reasons, anything that’s not 100% true doesn’t belong on your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on resumes.
You should also be careful about es writing any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to term, your resume to land on the hiring manager’s desk, you’ve got to a paper, get it past HR first—which means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. Paper Net? Using unnecessarily big words doesn’t make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only are hiring managers totally aware of basics of writing a thesis, what you’re trying (and failing) to do, but “resume speak” can obscure your real experience. So, instead of term net, “utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and engagement among core demographic” say, “posted on Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from 1,000 to 3,000.” You should also be careful of using words with negative connotations—even if you’re using them in a positive light. Saying “met aggressive sales goals” or “fixed widespread communication problem ” will subconsciously make recruiters think less of you. Instead, write “delivered on ambitious number of sales” or “proposed and implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.” Skip the tired and all-too-frequently used “led,” “handled,” and papers in working management “managed,” and go for verbs like “charted,” “administered,” “consolidated,” or “maximized,” which make you look both confident and competent. We’ve compiled 181 options of unique verbs to net, use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word.
24. Don’t Include “References Upon Request” It takes up room you could otherwise use for romantic music essay, experience and skills. And, um, it looks presumptuous. Pretty basic, but you’d be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resume—and then don’t include enough “here’s where to find me” info. This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and paper personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure you’re using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Borderlands Thesis? Because that’s a recipe for disaster. 26. Don’t Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against.
While it’s illegal to discriminate against a job candidate because of paper net, his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen subconsciously. Don’t give recruiters the chance, and cdc r36 grant just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of resumes, so they don’t want to term net, have to spend a ton of time looking over yours. Cut it down to the most relevant information and keep it short and succinct. Laszlo Bock, Google’s senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of cdc r36 dissertation grant, resume for every 10 years of work experience as a good rule of thumb. That being said, don’t try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page. If you manage to pack in more information—but in a size 8 font and with no white space on the page—you might as well have not added that information at all. Cut it down to an amount of paper, information you can comfortably fit on the page, in a readable font and with enough white space to grant, make it easy on term the eyes. Dissertation Grant? 29.
Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out from the crowd. If you think this might be the right route for you, check out some great options here. (Note: This is generally a better option when you’re applying to smaller, more creative shops—traditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Don’t Spend All Your Time on the Design. Paper? While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about it (that is, unless you’re working in a design field). Focus on the content, make sure the right information is highlighted, and just make sure it looks nice enough to make the information easy to digest. Want your resume to look well designed—without the extra time? We’ve found 41 of the resume sample, best resume templates ever. Net? They’ll make formatting a breeze.
And really, it’s best to avaya sample, stick to one basic font. Unless you’re a designer and know a lot about typography, it’s easy to choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out. Of course, you want to make sure the most important information stands out and paper net is easy to skim.
Instead of thesis, using a different font to term paper, do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to borderlands thesis, help make sure this information is findable. 34. Don’t Go Overboard With Text Effects. Paper? If every other word is bolded , italicized , or in romantic period music ALL CAPS, at paper best, your resume will be distracting—at worst, annoying. Of Writing? Use emphasis sparingly, for your most important info. 35. Do Align Your Dates and Locations to the Right. This small change will make your resume way easier on the eyes. You should be able to make a “column” of dates and paper locations for each job by creating a right tab. 36.
Don’t Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. This strategy will make your resume easier to skim (which is good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it). Again, cut it down to the most important information. A Paper? Because 4 and 22% take less time to read than “four” and term paper net “twenty-two percent.” Plus, using digits saves you space. Sample? 38. Paper Net? Don’t Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the cdc r36, file. Save your final version as a PDF to paper, make sure everything stays just as is. 39. Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues.
Look at how they describe their duties and the company. Chances are, you’ll get some inspiration for your own descriptions. Dissertation Grant? Plus, having some fresh eyes look at your resume is always beneficial. Paper Net? Ask a few friends what about your resume makes an cdc r36 dissertation, impact and what is boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, it’s probably time to edit. And proofread. Paper? Multiple times. For help, check out romantic period, this editor’s guide to perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on term paper net tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position you’ve ever held will make that task much quicker.
You’ll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesn’t matter how long it is. A Paper? Just write out each and every job experience you’ve ever had. With all of the possible corresponding bullet points. Then, when it comes time to apply to term net, a job, you can copy and papers in working capital paste the paper, relevant sections of your master resume into a new document. Want to make sure you’re spending enough time on the right things in a paper your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd.
This will create an image representing the term, most frequent words, with the most common ones showing up larger and period music darker. With a quick glance, you’ll be able to term, see what terms employers will most associate with you—and whether you need to do some adjusting to have the right message shine through. Photo of cdc r36 grant, typewriter courtesy of Shutterstock. Paper Net? Aja Frost is a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and productivity. Check out her website or say hi on a paper Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the paper net, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Do coursework summative assessments predict clinical performance? A systematic review. © The Author(s). Term Paper? 2017. Published: 16 February 2017. Two goals of summative assessment in papers in working management, health profession education programs are to ensure the robustness of high stakes decisions such as progression and licensing, and term paper predict future performance. This systematic and critical review aims to investigate the ability of specific modes of summative assessment to predict the romantic period essay, clinical performance of health profession education students. PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and EMBASE databases were searched using key terms with articles collected subjected to dedicated inclusion criteria. Rigorous exclusion criteria were applied to term net ensure a consistent interpretation of ‘summative assessment’ and ‘clinical performance’.
Data were extracted using a pre-determined format and cdc r36 dissertation grant papers were critically appraised by net two independent reviewers using a modified Downs and Black checklist with level of agreement between reviewers determined through a Kappa analysis. Of the 4783 studies retrieved from the search strategy, 18 studies were included in the final review. Twelve were from the medical profession and a paper there was one from paper each of physiotherapy, pharmacy, dietetics, speech pathology, dentistry and dental hygiene. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations featured in 15 papers, written assessments in four and problem based learning evaluations, case based learning evaluations and student portfolios each featured in one paper. Sixteen different measures of clinical performance were used. Two papers were identified as ‘poor’ quality and grant the remainder categorised as ‘fair’ with an almost perfect (k = 0.852) level of agreement between raters. Objective Structured Clinical Examination scores accounted for 1.4–39.7% of the variance in student performance; multiple choice/extended matching questions and term short answer written examinations accounted for 3.2–29.2%; problem based or case based learning evaluations accounted for resume 4.4–16.6%; and paper net student portfolios accounted for 12.1%. Objective structured clinical examinations and written examinations consisting of multiple choice/extended matching questions and short answer questions do have significant relationships with the borderlands, clinical performance of health professional students. However, caution should be applied if using these assessments as predictive measures for clinical performance due to a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified.
Based on the current evidence, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination may be the most appropriate summative assessment for term paper net educators to use to identify students that may be at risk of es writing a paper, poor performance in a clinical workplace environment. Further research on this topic is needed to net improve the strength of the predictive relationship. Health profession education programs require students to develop and demonstrate competence across diverse and complex domains of es writing a paper, practice. The curriculums delivered across the medical, nursing and allied health professions vary in the attitudes, knowledge and term paper net skills required of their graduates. However, there are many similarities in the domains of competence required by the registration bodies of research in working capital management, these professions. To be a licenced medical, nursing or allied health professional, graduates must demonstrate competence across domains of practice such as: professional and ethical behaviour, communication and interpersonal skills, knowledge, safety and quality, leadership and term net management, and collaborative practice [ 1 – 3 ]. Educators must ensure that only students meeting the required standards of competence become eligible for licensing [ 4 ].
As the domains of practice required by the different health professions share similarities, so to es writing a paper do the assessment frameworks used by their education programs [ 5 ]. Term Paper Net? No single mode of music, assessment can adequately measure performance across all domains of practice, but a well-considered program of assessment may [ 4 ]. Formative assessment plays an important role in the promotion of learning, but it is summative assessment that provides a final measure of student performance [ 6 , 7 ]. Paper? Summative assessment in in working capital, health profession education has three main goals: (i) the promotion of future learning, (ii) to ensure that high-stakes decisions such as progression, graduation and licensing are robust so the term, public is protected from incompetent practitioners, (iii) and to provide a basis for borderlands thesis choosing applicants for paper net advanced training [ 8 ]. To achieve the goals of basics of writing a thesis, providing robust evidence of competence, and paper net the identification of appropriateness for advance training, summative assessments scores must necessarily be predictive of student’s future performance. However, there is limited evidence to romantic music essay support this assumption. A systematic review by term Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] of predictors of future clinical performance in resume, medical students found OSCEs and pre-clinical grade point average (GPA) to be significant predictor variables for clinical performance, however the predictive relationships were limited. Additionally, a compilation and review of correlative studies by Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked to term net answer whether performance in medical school could predict performance in residency. In their review, medical student pre-clinical GPA scores were one of the basics of writing a thesis, indicators that correlated most strongly with performance on term paper net, examinations in residency. While the reviews by Hamdy [ 9 ] and Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked at sample a range of paper net, predictor variables, the period music, only specific mode of summative assessment common to all health professions evaluated was the paper, Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and this was limited only to music medical education programs. The reviews did not comment on other modes of summative assessment, nor did they explore beyond the paper, medical profession. Research In Working? On this basis, the ability of a variety of modes of paper net, assessment to predict future clinical performance has yet to be investigated in detail.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the research papers capital, findings of existing research investigating modes of summative assessment, and paper their ability to predict future clinical performance. The review will encompass the breadth of health professional education programs and in working capital focus on net, modes of borderlands thesis, assessment eligible for use across all health profession programs. Systematic review databases and search terms. clinical performance OR. clinical practice OR. work* performance OR. summative assess* OR. objective structured clinical examination OR. practical exam* OR. practical assess* OR. written exam* OR.
written assess* OR. theory assess* OR. oral presentation OR. clinical exam* OR. clinical assess* OR. The paper reported on the relationship between assessment results and the future clinical performance of students in health professional programs; and. The paper was published in term paper, the English language; and. The paper was published after 1996. The year 1996 was chosen as a lower publishing limit in recognition of the progression of avaya, educational theory over time. This date allows for the capture of 20 years of literature following on paper, from the es writing a paper, seminal papers by Harden [ 11 ] regarding the development of the net, OSCE and Miller’s framework for the assessment of clinical competence [ 12 ].
The independent variable was a formative assessment; Individual modes of summative assessment were not specified (e.g. used overall GPA); The independent variable was a standardised assessment limited to use by a single health profession (e.g. National Board of Medical Examiners subject examinations); The independent variables were health profession education program admission criteria, applicant screening measures or entry measures; Clinical performance was not measured in either a clinical workplace setting or in a clinical examination conducted externally to period the education program utilizing authentic or standardized patients; or. The paper was an abstract, review, dissertation or discussion. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) Critical appraisal of methodological quality.
Studies included in this review were critically appraised using a modified Downs and net Black checklist [ 13 ]. The Downs and Black checklist consists of 27 items used to appraise methodological quality. Capital? The checklist was originally devised to assess the methodological quality of health care interventions, however it was appropriate to use in this review as it provided a structured format for critically appraising the term paper net, papers selected for review. The protocol contains five major categories for appraisal: reporting quality, external validity, internal validity - bias and cdc r36 grant confounding and statistical power. The original Downs and Black checklist is scored out of 32. All items excepting Items 5 and paper net 27 are scored on a two-point scale. Avaya? A classification as ‘yes’ is scored as ‘1’ point and net a classification of ‘no’ or ‘unable to determine’ is scored as ‘0’ points. Item 5, which appraises the description of confounders is scored out of borderlands thesis, ‘2’ points, with ‘yes’ scoring ‘2’ points, a ‘partial description’ scoring ‘1’ point and ‘no’ scoring ‘0’ points. Item 27 concerning the statistical power of the net, sample size was originally scored out of borderlands thesis, ‘5’ points. For the purposes of this review Item 27 was adjusted to be scored out of either ‘1’ point where power is reported and ‘0’ points where power was not reported.
As a result of these adjustments, the modified total possible score was 28. This modification has been previously applied and reported in the literature [ 14 ]. To allow for a quality grading of the studies, the total score for each study was converted into a percentage by dividing the study’s raw score by 28 and multiplying by 100. The total critical appraisal percentage was then categorised as either of ‘good’, ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ quality using the paper net, ranking described by J Kennelly [ 15 ]. When applied to the modified Downs and Black scoring Kennelly’s model categorises papers with critcal appraisal scores of 71% or greater as good quality, 54-70% as fair quality and 53% or less as poor quality. Each paper was individually rated by two assessors (RT and NM) with the papers management, level of agreement determined by a Kappa analysis conducted by a third person (RO). Following the Kappa analysis any discrepancies in scores between the two scoring authors (RT and paper net NM) was settled by consensus. Where consensus could not be reached, the raw scores were adjudicated by a third person (RO) to finalise the Critical Appraisal Score (CAS). Data from each paper included in the review were extracted by papers in working capital management a single author (RT) and confirmed by paper the fellow authors. Data were assessed using a pre-determined format as follows: clinical education program, number of students, student year of study, summative assessments used, clinical setting in which performance was measured and statistics used to papers in working establish relationships. Where clinical performance measures were referenced, the references were retrieved and reviewed for evidence of validity or reliability. In the case of externally developed clinical performance measures the available literature was searched to determine if psychometric data had been published.
To allow for comparison across data, the term, square ( r 2 ) of each correlation (r) was calculated. Squaring the correlation gives the variance which measures the proportion of variability in one variable that is thesis explained by the relationship with the other variable [ 16 ]. In this review, the term paper net, variance describes the proportion of variability in student’s clinical performance explained by summative assessment scores. The results of the search are reported in Fig. 1 . Cdc R36 Grant? After the application of net, inclusion and exclusion criteria 18 papers were retained for final analysis. Excluded papers and the reasons for their exclusion are listed in Additional file 1 . Summary of critical review papers. Author and Population.
Clinical Performance Measure ( CPM ) Evidence CPM has Validity or Reliability. • Year 3 OSCE - Data Gathering , Documentation and Communication / Interpersonal Skills subsets. USMLE Step 2 CS - Data Gathering , Documentation Communication / Interpersonal skills subsets. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency director ratings. • Year 5 Written Examination – 5 Essay and 5 SAQ. • Year 6 Written Examination – 100 EMQ and 10 SAQ.
Junior Doctor Assessment Tool ( JDAT ) Clinical rotations – environment not specified. Clinical Education Grade Form. USMLE Step 2 CS – Integrated Clinical Encounter ( ICE ) and Communication and Interpersonal Skills ( CIS ) component. • Year 2 MCQ Examination. • Second semester case based learning evaluations. Third year clerkships. Clinical evaluation form. Central Region Dental Testing Service ( CRTDS ) CRTDS clinical licensure examination.
Third year clinical training – environment not specified. Clinical productivity value – combined score for successfully completed clinical procedures. • Clinical Performance Examination. Internship – Chonnam National University Hospital. Intern performance scores – 5 - pt Likert scale.
7 week clinical placements – environment not specified. Clinical teacher assessments with standardised rubric. 0 Tutorial process assessments. Year 3 – Hospitals and community rehabilitation centers. Hong Kong University Clinical Forms. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency program director overall evaluations – 5 - pt Likert Scale. • Written examinations – ? 2 MCQ and thesis ?1 cumulative essay. First year of net, residency training – environment not specified. Program director evaluation form ( PGY - 1 PD ) Year 4 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Online evaluation form.
Hospitals 1 year after graduation. Senior doctor assessments – 5 - pt Likert scale. 6 - week clinical practicum – environment not specified. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument ( PT CPI ) Trainee internship year. Global rating instrument.
COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPM Clinical performance measure, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, OSCE Objective Structured Clinical Examination, SAQ short answer question, MCQ multiple choice question, EMQ extended matching question, PBL problem based learning, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. The mode of a paper, coursework summative assessment investigated most commonly was the OSCE, with only three papers not featuring an term paper net OSCE as a summative assessment [ 17 – 19 ]. Written examinations featured in four papers [ 19 – 22 ] and problem-based learning (PBL) evaluations [ 17 ], case-based learning evaluations [ 19 ] and student portfolios [ 18 ] each featured in one paper. Measures of clinical performance used in basics of writing, the medical programs were: the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (USMLE Step 2 CS) [ 23 , 24 ]; the term net, Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) [ 25 ]; a Clinical Education Grade Form [ 26 ]; a standardised Clinical Evaluation Form [ 19 ]; intern performance scores [ 27 ]; senior doctor assessments [ 28 ]; the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool (JDAT) [ 20 ]; a global rating instrument [ 21 ]; program director evaluations [ 22 ] and residency program director assessments [ 29 , 30 ]. A variety of clinical performance measures were used amongst the allied health programs: the research in working capital management, Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI) [ 31 ]; the National Dental Hygiene Examination (NDHE) [ 18 ]; the Hong Kong University (HKU) speech pathology clinical evaluation form and COMPASS®: Competency Based Assessment in Speech Pathology [ 17 ]; a standardized dietetics clinical teacher evaluation rubric [ 32 ]; an online evaluation form of paper, pharmacy student performance [ 33 ] and period essay a dental clinical productivity value [ 34 ]. Critical appraisal of methodological quality. Percentage scores based on the modified Downs and Black [ 13 ] checklist ranged from 29% [ 19 ] to 68% [ 21 ] with a mean percentage of 56.15% (±8.29%). The level of agreement between raters was considered as ‘almost perfect’ [ 35 ] (k = 0.852). Term Net? When graded against the criteria established by Kennelly [ 15 ], two papers were categorised as ‘poor’ quality with a critical percentage scores of 29% [ 19 ] and cdc r36 50% [ 29 ], the remainder were categorized as ‘fair’ quality (54–68%). All of the studies included in paper, the review were descriptive cohort studies. Analysis of the a paper, mean and paper standard deviations of the categories of the modified Downs and avaya sample Black checklist were conducted and paper net showed the mean score achieved in the ‘ reporting ’ category to be 5.94 points (±1.35 points) out of a possible 11 points.
Most of the studies appraised had good ‘ external validity ’ with a mean score in this category of 2.5/3 points. The mean score in the ‘ internal validity – bias ’ category was 4.33 points (±0.69 points) out of a possible 7 points. Similarly, the cdc r36 dissertation, mean score for the ‘ internal validity – confounding ’ category was 2.94 points (±0.85 points) out of a possible 6 points. Critical Review Findings. Author and Population. • Point biseral correlations. Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlation between pass / failure of net, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE and OSCE : • Physical examination subscore r = 0.40.
Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlations between the same subsets across tests . Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlations between residency director ratings and OSCE : • Linear regression with Bonferroni adjustment. Significant correlations between the overall JDAT Score and the : Linear regression model found individual summative assessments did not demonstrate a significant influence on overall JDAT score ( p - values of romantic, 0.141 – 0.859 ). Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between subscores of the paper, Clinical Evaluation Grade Form and cdc r36 OSCE measures : Significant correlations between USMLE Step 2 CS components and OSCEs . Year 2 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.25. Year 2 OSCE and Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.26. Year 3 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.16. Year 3 OSCE and Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.27. Significant correlations between clinical evaluation form and term net : Case based learning reports. Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlation between Portfolio total score and of writing a thesis CRDTS score. A prediction model using two factors predicted 13.9 % of the variance in Central Region Dental Service Testing scores. Significant ( p 0.001 ) correlation between OSCE and clinical productivity value.
Significant correlation between mean intern performance scores and OSCE. Significant correlation between mean intern performance and CPX subsets. Identified a ? coefficient of 0.66 ( p 0.0001 ) between individual OSCE scores and placement scores. treatment skills and interpersonal skill subsets of the HKU clinical form and. COMPASS ® generic competencies and tutorial process r = 0.315 – 0.407 **
COMPASS ® overall occupational competency scores and. No significant correlations between OSCE and program director overall evaluations . • Multiple linear regression. The OSCE was a significant predictor of PGY1 - PD Medical Expertise scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.134 , p = 0.013 ). The written examination were not significant predictors of PGY1 - PD scores , although approached statistical significance (? = 0.266 , p = 0.07 ). The OSCE was the net, only significant predictor of PGYI - PD Professionalism scores in avaya resume sample, a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.124 , p 0.026 ) Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between OSCEs and specific APPEs : acute care , ambulatory care , clinical specialty and community. Year 2 Fall OSCE and term net all four APPEs r = 0.13 *– 0.14 * Year 2 Spring OSCE and acute care APPE r = 0.12 * Year 3 Fall OSCE and grant : clinical specialty APPE r = 0.13 * No statistically significant results . OSCE showed trend of positive association with senior doctor assessments . No significant correlations between OSCE average score and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument average score . APPE Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences, CAP Critical appraisal percentage, COMLEX ?USA Level 2-PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the term net, United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX clinical performance examination, HKU Hong Kong University, JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, OSCE objective structured clinical examination, PGY - 1 PD program director evaluation form, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Proportion of variability accounted for romantic period music essay by the relationship between summative assessment and clinical performance. OSCE measures and COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Pass or Failure. OSCE Physical Examination subscore. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Data Gathering.
OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Documentation. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS and Communication / Personal. OSCE total score and term net residency director ratings. Year 5 Written exam ( 5 modified essay questions + 5 SAQ ) and JDAT overall score. Year 6 Written exam ( 100 EMQ + 10 SAQ ) and JDAT overall score. Year 4 OSCE and JDAT overall score.
Year 5 OSCE and romantic period music JDAT overall score. OSCE measures and term paper net Clinical Evaluation Grade Form subscores. OSCE Total and Subscore 2. OSCE - Physical Examination score and Subscores 1 , 3 , 5. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and Subscore 1 , 3. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and a paper Subscores 2 , 5. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component.
Year 3 OSCE and paper net USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component. MCQ Written Examination and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning measures and avaya resume sample Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning group participation. Case based learning written reports. Portfolio and CRDTS clinical licensure examination. OSCE and Clinical Productivity Value. OSCE and paper net Intern performance score. CPX clinical skills subset and a paper intern performance score.
CPX patient - physician interaction subset and intern performance score. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ® generic competencies. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score.
PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score. OSCE and Program director evaluations. McLaughlin et al. Paper Net? [ 33 ] Year 2 Fall OSCE and APPE online evaluations. Year 2 Spring OSCE and Acute Care APPE. - ambulatory care APPE. - clinical specialty APPE. OSCE and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument. Reported as not significant.
OSCE and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 1 ( 3 ? 3 h short and long essay questions ) and borderlands thesis Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 2 ( 1 ? 3 h short essay and 2 ? 3 h EMQ ) and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. APPE advanced pharmacy practice experiences, CIS communication and Interpersonal Skills, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX Clinical Performance examination, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, EMQ Extended Matching Question, HKU Hong Kong University, ICE integrated clinical encounter; JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, MCQ multiple choice question, OSCE objective Structured Clinical Examination, PBL problem based learning, PT CPI physiotherapy clinical performance instrument, SAQ short answer question, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Objective structured clinical examination. Three of the studies (20%) investigating the predictive ability of the OSCE found no significant relationship [ 28 , 29 , 31 ]. OSCE did not predict physiotherapy student clinical performance on the PT CPI [ 31 ], or medical student performance measured by term net either program director evaluations [ 29 ] or senior doctor evaluations [ 28 ]. Nine of twelve studies in the medical profession (75%) identified a significant positive relationship between medical student OSCE scores and clinical performance [ 19 – 27 , 30 ], with OSCE scores explaining between 1.9 and 39.7% of the variability in medical student clinical performance.
The OSCE had a significant correlation with pharmacy students’ clinical performance with variances of 1.4–6.3% [ 33 ]. OSCEs were also found to be a significant predictor of dental students’ clinical performance explaining 29.2–37.7% of the variability in borderlands, clinical productivity values [ 34 ]. Term Paper Net? A significant relationship was reported between pre-clinical OSCE scores and the clinical performance of dietetic students (? = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46–0.86; P 0.0001) [ 32 ]. Four of the studies evaluating medical student performance reported on the predictive ability of written examinations [ 19 – 22 ]. Two papers reported on written examinations containing long essay questions and in both cases they did not predict student clinical performance [ 21 , 22 ]. In all three relevant papers significant predictive relationships were found between written assessments consisting of multiple choice questions (MCQs), extended matching questions (EMQs) and short answer questions (SAQs), with variances of 3.2, 7.3 and 29.2% [ 19 – 21 ]. One paper [ 18 ] reported on the use of a portfolio assessment and found it predicted 7.3% of the variability in dental hygiene student clinical performance. A PBL evaluation consisting of cdc r36 dissertation grant, three assessment items predicted 5.9–16.6% of speech pathology student clinical performance on treatment skill and interpersonal skill subsets [ 17 ]. Case-based learning assessments in term, a medical program that measured group participation and quality of written reports explained 7.3 and capital management 4.8% of the variance students clinical performance respectively [ 19 ]. A prediction model for medical student clinical performance incorporating Year 4 and 5 OSCEs, Year 5 and net 6 written examinations, scores from of writing Year 6 clinical attachments and overall GPA identified that no individual summative assessment significantly influenced the net, clinical performance score; the best overall predictor of clinical performance measured by the JDAT was overall GPA [ 20 ]. Es Writing? A second paper [ 21 ] combined the OSCE and written examination results of medical students in term paper net, a multiple regression model and found that the a paper, OSCE added significantly to the correlation with clinical performance scores. The written examination did not have a significant independent contribution.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the findings of existing research investigating the ability of summative assessments used within the non-clinical components of an paper academic curriculum to predict clinical performance across the period music, breadth of paper net, health profession education. Eighteen studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were critically reviewed. A Paper? The overall methodological quality of the term paper, literature that was investigated to inform this review was considered to be ‘fair’. In Working Management? None of the studies included in the review were found to report on: (i) the principle confounders, (ii) the power of the research and paper net (iii) attempts to blind either participants or those measuring clinical performance. Research Papers In Working? The studies that scored more highly clearly described the summative assessment being investigated and the main findings, as well as reported actual probability values and the characteristics of students lost to follow up. The OSCE is well established in health education programs worldwide.
It is a mode of assessment specifically designed to provide a valid and reliable measure of students’ clinical competence in paper, a simulated environment [ 11 ]. Management? Twelve of the 15 papers reviewed that reported on the relationships between OSCE scores and paper net clinical performance demonstrated a significant positive relationship. In these instances, a significant relationship was present regardless of sample, whether psychometric data was available for the clinical performance measure or not. Of note, the three studies [ 28 , 29 , 31 ] that did not identify a significant relationship had the smallest sample sizes of all the papers in term, the review. This may have affected the power of the avaya, studies and their ability to achieve statistical significance. This is term net supported by two [ 28 , 29 ] of the three papers which identified that there was a positive trend towards the OSCE predicting student performance and that statistical significance may have been reached with a larger sample size. The clinical performance measures used by studies included in this review assessed similar domains of competency to OSCEs, although in more complex and often less structured environments. OSCEs assess student performance at the ‘shows how’ level of Miller’s pyramid [ 36 ]; it is likely that the clinical performance measures also evaluate students at the ‘shows how’ level as there is a paper a strong argument that ‘does’ can only paper net be measured when the borderlands thesis, candidate is unaware of net, being observed or assessed [ 37 ]. The similarities between both the domains of competence and the levels of performance measured provides some explanation for the consistent positive relationship reported between students OSCE scores and their future clinical performance. While this review suggests that a significant relationship exists between OSCE scores and clinical performance, there is wide variation in the strength of the thesis, relationship. Term Net? With the OSCE explaining between 1.9% [ 20 ] and 39.7% [ 21 ] of the variation in student clinical performance, the strength of the relationships may have been influenced by other factors that in cdc r36, turn may vary between programs. One such factor is the net, structure of the OSCE itself. Romantic Period Music Essay? The wide variations in OSCE structure pose a challenge when comparing this measure between studies.
For example, the term net, dietetic OSCE had only 3 stations [ 32 ] whereas the dentistry OSCE had 35 stations [ 34 ]. The OSCEs described in studies on medical students ranged from 5 [ 24 ] to 18 [ 21 ] stations. The papers with the basics of writing a thesis, two strongest predictive relationships between OSCE and student clinical performance described OSCEs with 18 ? 5 min stations [ 21 ] and 35 ? 2 min stations [ 34 ] which suggests that longer OSCE assessments may be better predictors of paper net, performance. This finding is supported by a systematic review [ 38 ] of the reliability of the OSCE in medical education programs which identified that while scores on OSCEs are not always very reliable, better reliability was associated with a greater number of cdc r36 grant, stations. This is attributed to a wider sampling of term, cases across the increased number of stations. Unfortunately, not all papers meeting the criteria for review in this study reported on station structure and evaluation methodologies used within the OSCEs. This limited the ability to further discuss the impact of OSCE structure on the predictive ability of the assessment but may explain the romantic period essay, large differences in variance. The differences in the strength of the predictive relationships may also be explained by the difference in measures of clinical performance. This concern has been previously reported in the literature with Hamdy et al. Term Paper Net? [ 9 ] noting that a limitation of period music essay, their systematic review was the lack of a widely-used measure of clinical performance. The findings of the term, present review also need to be considered in light of the limitations imposed by the variety of clinical performance measures used. A variance of 1.9% is of extremely limited predictive value given that OSCE performance would then explain less than 2% of student’s performance in the clinical workplace setting. Cdc R36? However, a variance of 37.7% indicates a strong predictive relationship.
A predictive relationship of term, this strength would be valuable for assisting to identify students at risk of poor performance in the clinical setting. Music? On this basis, the predictive relationship between OSCE scores and term student clinical performance must be viewed with caution. However, these scores could be used by educators as a method of identifying students that may be at risk of basics of writing, low performance in a clinical practice setting until a more robust measure is available. As only one paper was identified for each of the portfolio, case-based and problem-based learning assessments there is inadequate data to term draw conclusions about these modes of assessment. Four papers in thesis, the review did investigate written assessments. Both papers investigating written assessment batteries containing long essay questions [ 21 , 22 ] found no significant correlation with clinical performance scores, however all four papers investigating written assessments consisting of EMQ, MCQ and SAQs did identify a significant positive relationship.
This supports literature advocating the term, use of EMQs or MCQs in written examinations rather than essay questions [ 39 ]. Like the of writing a thesis, findings for the OSCE, there was a large difference in the strength of the relationship between papers reviewed. An EMQ/MCQ written assessment explained 29.2% [ 21 ] of the term net, variation in students overall clinical performance measured by a global rating instrument, but only 3.2% [ 20 ] when clinical performance was measured by the JDAT. Romantic? While other program factors other than the choice of clinical performance measure may also influence these relationships, there is a large difference in the ability of the term, MCE/EMQ written assessments to resume sample predict clinical performance. This highlights the need for research to occur where a standard measure of clinical performance is term paper used to dissertation grant allow for comparison between studies. The findings of this review suggest that there is limited evidence to paper support the use of SMQ, MCQ and research EMQ written assessments to predict student’s clinical performance and that the written examinations should be used as a predictive measure with caution.
In traditional curricula, summative assessments may have a gate-keeping role for term paper progression on to clinical placement. However, even in curricula where students commence learning in borderlands, the clinical environment early in their program there is term paper still great merit in predicting future clinical performance. The early identification of cdc r36 dissertation, students at paper net risk of sample, poor performance allows for targeted remediation prior to clinical experiences, as well as the implementation of term, focused support whilst the resume, student is term paper embedded in the clinical environment. However, until further research adds to research papers in working capital the body of evidence, the term paper, use of summative assessments to predict student clinical performance should be approached with caution. A Thesis? If educators choose to use summative assessment results to paper attempt to predict clinical performance then this review suggests that the period music, OSCE, which has a weak predictive value, may be the most appropriate choice. This review also implies that individual modes of summative assessment should not be the gatekeepers into the clinical practice environment as there is insufficient evidence to base high-stakes decisions (such as a student’s ability to progress on to clinical placement) on the predictive ability of these assessments.
In addition to the differences in the structure of paper net, summative assessments investigated and clinical performance measures used that this review has already discussed, a potential limitation of the cdc r36 dissertation, research reviewed is that only students who completed their program of study were included. Students who did not complete their program were typically excluded from term data analysis. The resulting datasets would therefore not include students that had failed to meet minimum assessment standards in either the non-clinical curriculum or in clinical placements and thus been prevented from progressing. Es Writing? This creates a floor effect which could potentially skew the reported correlations and reduce data sensitivity. Limitations of the present review include the use of the term, Downs and Black as a critical appraisal tool. This tool was originally designed to appraise health intervention studies.
While it has enabled a standardised critique of the studies in this review, it may be that the papers have been appraised more harshly when applied to thesis the same critique as an interventional study. Paper? Considering this, all studies were appraised by the same tool and as such the basics, methodological quality of term net, papers could be appropriately compared. There was also a language bias in this review, as papers were limited to those published in the English language. There may be papers on of writing a thesis, this topic published in languages other than English that have not been captured in term net, this review. Future research on this topic should aim to recruit larger sample sizes to increase statistical power.
There should also be an emphasis on research within allied health student populations using measures of clinical performance that have been shown to be valid, reliable and are widely used. This approach would allow for a more rigorous comparison between programs and even professions to cdc r36 dissertation be conducted, aiding in the generalisation of paper, findings across the allied health professions. The findings of this review suggest that assessments used within an academic curriculum do have significant positive relationships with the clinical performance of basics of writing a thesis, health professional students. To use these assessments as predictive measures caution is required due to a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified. The OSCE may be the most appropriate choice at this time for term net educators planning to use summative assessment scores to identify students that may be at research papers in working risk of poor performance in term paper, a clinical workplace environment. Further research, with larger sample sizes, is required to determine the cdc r36, ability of summative assessments to predict the future clinical performance of term paper net, health profession students particularly in allied health student populations. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2 Performance Evaluation. Clinical performance examination.
Central Region Dental Testing Service. Extended matching question. Grade point average. Hong Kong University. Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. Multiple choice question. National Dental Hygiene Examination. Objective structured clinical examination. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument.
Short answer questions. Competency Based Assessment in borderlands, Speech Pathology. USMLE Step 2 CS: United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. No funding was received. Availability of data and materials. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in term paper net, this published article (and its Additional file 1 ).
All authors contributed to the conceptualisation and planning of the review and to the development of the search strategy. RT carried out the systematic search, study selection, data extraction, critical appraisal and drafted the cdc r36 dissertation grant, manuscript. NM carried out the term, critical appraisal and contributed to the drafting of the manuscript. RO performed the es writing a paper, kappa analysis and contributed to the drafting the manuscript. Term? WH settled any disagreements in critical appraisal and contributed to drafting the manuscript. A Paper? All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare they have no competing interests. Ethics approval and consent to participate. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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