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Aortic valve stenotic area calculation from phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance: the importance of short echo time. Business. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can potentially quantify aortic valve area (AVA) in aortic stenosis (AS) using a single-slice phase contrast (PC) acquisition at valve level: AVA = aortic flow/aortic velocity-time integral (VTI). First Presented Sitchin Study. However, CMR has been shown to pastry business underestimate aortic flow in turbulent high velocity jets, due to co term intra-voxel dephasing. This study investigated the effect of decreasing intra-voxel dephasing by reducing the echo time (TE) on AVA estimates in patients with AS. 15 patients with moderate or severe AS, were studied with three different TEs (2.8 ms/2.0 ms/1.5 ms), in the main pulmonary artery (MPA), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and 0 cm/1 cm/2.5 cm above the aortic valve (AoV). PC estimates of stroke volume (SV) were compared with CMR left ventricular SV measurements and PC peak velocity, VTI and AVA were compared with Doppler echocardiography. Pastry Business Plan. CMR estimates of AVA obtained by direct planimetry from cine acquisitions were also compared with the echoAVA. With a TE of edit and college essays, 2.8 ms, the pastry business plan mean PC SV was similar to blake essay the ventricular SV at the MPA, LVOT and AoV 0 cm (by Bland-Altman analysis bias Ī 1.96 SD, 1.3 Ī 20.2 mL/-6.8 Ī 21.9 mL/6.5 Ī 50.7 mL respectively), but was significantly lower at AoV 1 and business, AoV 2.5 (-29.3 Ī 31.2 mL/-21.1 Ī 35.7 mL). PC peak velocity and VTI underestimated Doppler echo estimates by questions, approximately 10% with only moderate agreement.

Shortening the TE from 2.8 to 1.5 msec improved the agreement between ventricular SV and PC SV at AoV 0 cm (6.5 Ī 50.7 mL vs 1.5 Ī 37.9 mL respectively) but did not satisfactorily improve the PC SV estimate at AoV 1 cm and AoV 2.5 cm . Agreement of CMR AVA with echoAVA was improved at TE 1.5 ms (0.00 Ī 0.39 cm 2 ) versus TE 2.8 (0.11 Ī 0.81 cm 2 ). The CMR method which agreed best with echoAVA was direct planimetry (-0.03 cm 2 Ī 0.24 cm 2 ). Agreement of CMR AVA at the aortic valve level with echo AVA improves with a reduced TE of 1.5 ms. However, flow measurements in the aorta (AoV 1 and 2.5) are underestimated and 95% limits of agreement remain large. Further improvements or novel, more robust techniques are needed in the CMR PC technique in the assessment of AS severity in plan patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of co term, this article (doi: 10.1186/1532-429X-11-49 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Accurate assessment of lesion severity is central to surgical decision making for patients with aortic stenosis. Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment is typically used to make this assessment; however, poor image quality due to limited acoustic windows and the experience of the pastry plan operator may have a larger impact on reliable measurements than with other modalities [ 1 ]. For example poor jet alignment may cause the underestimation of jet velocities [ 2 ], the echo continuity equations assumes that the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is circular when it is ovoid and edit and college, the tracing of the pastry Doppler velocity envelope and estimation of the LVOT's diameter are dependent on the analyst's experience. Currently, when transthoracic echo results are equivocal an invasive investigation such as cardiac catheterisation or transoesophageal echo may be required to college questions estimate aortic valve area (AVA). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) may be a useful alternative non-invasive modality. Because CMR can measure flow volume and velocity, it is theoretically possible to estimate AVA using the continuity equation [ 3 ] or more directly from the flow volume and velocity-time integral (VTI) [ 4 ] sampled from a single acquisition at business plan the valve level.

To be accurate, the velocity and flow data obtained in these turbulent, high velocity jets must be accurate. Whilst small preliminary studies have been promising [ 1 , 2 ], lesion severity can be systematically underestimated in patients with severe AS [ 3 ]. Furthermore, in one of the largest cohort of AS patients studied with CMR to co term papers date, aortic flow sampled just above the stenotic aortic valve (AoV) systematically underestimated left ventricular stroke volume (SV) [ 5 ]. This underestimation was greater with increasing AS severity and business plan, was postulated to be due to papers intravoxel dephasing [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ]. Pastry Business Plan. In vitro experiments confirmed this flow error at longer TEs, and found reduced intravoxel dephasing and improved flow estimates at shorter TE [ 5 ]. Shortening TE reduces the co term inherent higher order motion encoding [ 15 ], decreases the time available for the detrimental mixing of fast and pastry business, slow moving spins, reduces the risk of turbulent velocity fluctuations disrupting the expected phase shift and thus improves the measured velocity's reliability and accuracy [ 5 ]. In a severely stenotic jet all of wlagreen co term papers, these effects are enhanced. The aims of the study were to systematically study the reliability of PC aortic flow, peak velocity VTI and AVA estimates by CMR in patients with moderate or severe AS, and to investigate the in vivo effect, on these parameters, of reducing TE. We hypothesized that reducing the pastry business plan TE would improve the agreement between CMR echocardiographic estimates of papers, AVA. 15 patients with isolated moderate or severe aortic stenosis (peak aortic velocity ?3 m/s) were studied. Patients were excluded if they had left ventricular impairment (ejection fraction 50%), atrial fibrillation, more than trace mitral or aortic regurgitation or other significant valvular disease, congenital heart disease, poor echocardiographic images, inability to undergo a CMR scan, or contraindications to CMR.

Echo data was obtained using a Philips IE33 ultrasound system (Philips, Best, Netherlands). All patients underwent a comprehensive 2D and Doppler echo within 1 hour of the CMR scan. Meticulous attention was paid to obtain the optimal velocity envelope and true peak trans-AoV velocity by sampling using continuous wave Doppler from pastry plan, multiple imaging windows (apical, right parasternal and suprasternal). Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity profile was obtained by careful placement of the pulsed wave Doppler sample volume in the LVOT immediately below the presented AoV in an apical 5-chamber view. The LVOT diameter was measured by plan, imaging the LVOT using the parasternal long axis view. Blake Essay. LVOT area was estimated by assuming a circular orifice. Analysis was performed off-line by business plan, a single experienced echocardiographer (AJK) blinded to the patients' CMR findings. Presented. Measurements were made according to American Society of Echocardiography guidelines [ 18 ] and plan, averaged from 3 to 5 cycles. The velocity time intervals for the LVOT (VTI LVOT ) and and college essays, trans-AoV (VTI AoV ) flow were obtained.

The peak AoV velocity and VTI were reported from the window yielding the pastry business plan highest velocity signal. Mean trans-AoV gradients were calculated using the modified Bernoulli equation. Echo LV stroke volume was estimated by the product of VTI LVOT and the LVOT area. All MR data were collected on a Siemens 1.5 Tesla Avanto MRI scanner (Siemens Medical, Erlangen, Germany). 15s in duration.

Typical image parameters for each experiment. Phase Contrast variants. Co Term. 3 long axis, 6-8 short axis. MPA, LVOT, 0 cm, 1 cm, 2.5 cm. 0 cm, 1 cm, 2.5 cm, 0 cm, 1 cm, 2.5 cm. SSFP = Steady State Free Precession, TR = Repetition Time, TE = Echo Time, FOV = Field of View, VENC = Velocity Encoding, MPA = main pulmonary artery. Business. LVOT = Left ventricular outflow tract, 0 cm/1 cm/2.5 cm = distance distal from aortic valve. For quantitative flow measurements, PC images were obtained using the college app essay questions commercially released retrospectively gated breath-hold through plane velocity-encoding/velocity compensation technique with velocity compensation on pastry business, the readout direction.

Breath-hold acquisitions took ?20 s, and calculated 25 phases. The standard TE was 2.79 ms. This sequence was modified to enable a TE of 2.0 ms by using the improved performance of write, current gradient hardware (45 and 200 T/m/s), halving the duration of the RF excitation pulse, and increasing the readout bandwidth from 390 Hz to pastry 490 Hz. The TE was further reduced to 1.5 ms by maximising the gradient hardware and readout bandwidth (1530 Hz) and acquiring two averages to compensate for the reduced SNR. The in-plane resolution of the modified sequences was also adjusted (reduced base matrix size and increased phase resolution) to make the papers voxels more isotropic whilst maintaining a similar volume. Typical image parameters can be found in Table 1 . Business. Through-plane flow was obtained in how to write a mla the following order: AoV leaflet tips (AoV 0 cm ), 1 cm beyond the AoV tips (AoV 1 cm ) in the aortic root, 2.5 cm beyond the AoV tips (AoV 2.5 cm ) just beyond the business plan sino-tubular junction, LVOT, and main pulmonary artery (MPA). Both MPA and LVOT/AoV images were planned from paired orthogonal long axis SSFP cine images through the MPA and AoV respectively. Aortic valve cine and flow imaging method: A standardised approach was followed to obtain short axis cine imaging for i) aortic valve planimetry, and, ii) to plan the optimal short-axis slice position for flow measurement (AoV 0 cm ). i). SSFP cine imaging of aortic valve: Paired long-axis SSFP cine images through the aortic valve were obtained - 3-chamber and the orthogonal LVOT view. Proofreading. The operator positioned the initial cine slice (6 mm slice thickness) at pastry business the AoV at end-diastole using the paired long axis cines. Our experience is proofreading that in moderate or severe AS when the valve opens in systole and moves down towards the apex it descends through this slice, which is therefore a useful initial position for obtaining cine images for planimetry of the limiting valve orifice.

When images did not appear optimal the slice was repeated Ī 6 mm. ii). Aortic valve phase contrast flow (AoV 0 cm ): The optimal short-axis slice position for business measurement of peak trans-valvular velocities is at the vena contracta just at how to write a mla or beyond the anatomic valve orifice in systole. In straight pipes with planar circular orifice plates the vena contracta occurs about business plan, one orifice diameter downstream from the essays orifice [ 19 ]. Plan. To choose an appropriate slice location the operator started with the slice position corresponding to the minimal valve orifice on the SSFP cine image. Appropriate positioning was confirmed by blake essay, checking in the paired long axis cines that the slice transected the proximal AS jet in mid systole immediately above the aortic valve leaflets. If necessary the slice position was adjusted to achieve this. This position was taken as AoV 0 cm . Business Plan. A VENC scout sequence with VENC of write, 3.5 m/s, 4.0 m/s and 4.5 m/s was used to choose the plan appropriate VENC in the AoV 0 cm , AoV 1 cm and AoV 2.5 cm acquisitions. When aliasing occurred at 4.5 m/s, flow was acquired at higher VENCs in 0.5 m/s steps. The CMR SV was determined by interactively fitting a 3D LV finite element model to the images using the presented software package, CIMv4.6 (Auckland MRI Research Group, University of Auckland, New Zealand).

This method has been previously validated in patients with cardiac disease, post mortem results from business plan, animal studies, and against PC velocity estimation of SV [ 20 ]. The PC data was analyzed by manually tracing around the LVOT, aortic root and MPA in each frame using ARGUS syngo MR 2004V (Siemens Medical Systems). The contours were exported to customised software, written in edit and college essays Matlab (Math-Works, South Natick, MA, USA), to apply the linear surface background phase correction process previously described by Lankhaar et al [ 21 ]. An estimate of the background phase was obtained by manually removing anatomically wrapped regions (due to spatial aliasing) and identifying stationary tissue using the suggested temporal velocity standard deviation threshold of 25%. Plan. Matlab's standard least squares algorithm was used to fit a linear plane to the background phase. Background phase correction was performed by subtracting the surface from the papers original velocity phase map. The flow at pastry business plan each frame was calculated by multiplying the average velocity within each contour by its area. A PC estimate of SV (PC SV) was determined by summation of the proofreading papers net forward flow through the cardiac cycle. Peak velocity for business plan each frame was obtained as the maximum velocity of all pixels within the blake essay vessel. Business Plan. No neighbourhood averaging was used for peak velocity estimation, instead, as previously suggested by Nayler et al [ 22 ], the edit and college essays magnitude image's pixel value for the peak velocity must be above a certain threshold. Signal loss is an indicator of intravoxel dephasing and a loss of reliability in the PC estimate of pastry plan, velocity [ 5 , 22 ]. How To. Normalised signal intensity (NSI) for each pixel was obtained by dividing their magnitude value with the average magnitude across the plan whole vessel obtained over the last 10 frames of diastole. (Diastolic blood, though not stationary, is the blake essay best representation of the minimum expected signal intensity when a pixel's velocity is reliable.) Only pixels with signal enhancement relative to diastolic flow of NSI 2 were considered for peak velocity estimation [ 3 ]. The velocity time integral was calculated by numerically integrating, using Simpson's rule, the business area under the peak velocity versus time curve during systole. The highest peak velocity (V ,pk ) was chosen to coincide with the highest phase contrast estimate of VTI (VTI pk ) between AoV 0 cm and AoV 1 cm . Essays. Aortic valve area estimation using echo and CMR.

Two CMR methods for estimating the pastry business AVA, both using the highest VTI estimate (PC VTI pk ), were investigated. As an additional validation the CMR aortic valve area was also estimated by direct planimetry. The maximal visible aortic valve orifice in the short axis SSFP image obtained at the leaflet tips was manually traced as previously described. Wlagreen Co Term. [ 24 ] Severe AS was defined as AVA 1 cm 2 , or peak velocity 4 m/sec by echo [ 23 ]. Business. Statistical analysis was performed with R for windows, v2.6.2 (The R foundation for and college essays statistical computing). Paired 2-tailed T-test was used to test differences between volumetric and PC estimates of SV and the effect of background phase correction. p .05 was considered statistically significant. Pearson linear regression (r 2 ) was used to: a) compare the CMR SV with the PC SV at each level; b) to compare the peak velocity, VTI and AVA calculated using Doppler echo with CMR estimates. Agreement between methods was also assessed by Bland-Altman analysis (bias (mean of the differences between pairs of measures) and 95% limits of agreement (Ī 1.96SD of the pastry plan difference between pairs of measures)). Fifteen patients with moderate or severe AS were studied (11 men, age 71 Ī 10.5 years). Ten patients had calcific aortic stenosis with trileaflet AoVs and and college essays, five had bicuspid valves. By echo the mean aortic peak velocity was 4.2 m/s (range 3.3 m/s to 5.5 m/s), mean gradient 44.7 mmHg (range 25.6 mmHg to 75.2 mmHg) and AVA 0.85 cm 2 (range 0.52 cm 2 to 1.50 cm 2 ). 12 patients (80%) had severe AS.

The effect of the background phase correction on PC SV estimation is shown in Additional file 1 . For TE 2.8 there was a statistically significant difference between the SV error before and after correction at business plan the MPA and the LVOT; however, the mean SV errors were small (1.6% and 4.8% respectively) and essays, no significant difference was observed at the AoV (AoV 0 cm , AoV 1 cm and AoV 2.5 cm ). The TE of pastry business plan, 2.0 ms estimations showed modest improvement after correction; however, the TE of 1.5 ms showed large corrections and statistical significance across all levels. Therefore only the blake essay TE 1.5 ms data were phase corrected in subsequent analyses. Comparison of the mean CMR SV with that obtained by plan, PC in the MPA, LVOT and at serial AoV levels for blake essay various TEs. Ü Paired T-test with Bonferroni correction, comparison of PC SV at each level with the plan CMR SV. * Bias and presented, the 95% limits of pastry business plan, agreement determined by Bland-Altman analysis. Proofreading. CMR SV = left ventricular stroke volume by pastry business, cardiac magnetic resonance, MPA = main pulmonary artery, LVOT = left ventricular outflow tract, AoV = aortic valve. The Bland-Altman bias Ī 1.96SD, the paired T-test and the linear regression statistics between CMR SV and PC SV estimates are shown. Presented. Comparison of the echo Doppler peak velocity and echo Doppler VTI with the VTI PC, max (a), V PC, pk (b) and PC SV determined from the location of VTI PC, max in pastry the aorta with CMR SV (c) for three TEs, TE = 2.8 ms, TE = 2.0 ms, TE = 1.5 ms . Mean AVA, SVs, peak trans-AoV velocities and VTIs estimated by CMR and Doppler methods. PC SV at proofreading papers VTI pk level. Ü p-value .05 for pastry business comparison in each column with Doppler data (V pk , VTI pk and AVA) or CMR SV (SV) The Doppler AVA is papers derived using the business continuity equation. PC peak velocity, and PC SV data are from the same AoV level that the PC VTI pk was obtained. CMR vs echo for peak velocity, velocity-time integral, SV, and AVA.

Left ventricular SV by echo and CMR (Table 3 , 4 ) Bland-Altman and college app essay, linear regression analysis between echo and pastry, CMR methods for AVA estimation. Bland-Altman bias Ī 1.96SD. College Questions. Pearson linear regression r 2 /p-value. Pastry. PC estimates of V pk , VTI pk and wlagreen co term, AVA were compared to echo data and SV estimates were compared against CMR SV. Business Plan. The mean CMR SV and Doppler echo SV were similar (87 mL and 81.8 mL, respectively) but with relatively poor agreement at blake essay individual patient level, Table 4. Peak velocity and VTI data (Table 3 , 4 Figures 2 , 3 ) Comparison of echo and CMR estimates of the AVA using the volumetric (a) and flow method (b) with three different TEs, TE = 2.8 ms TE = 2.0 ms TE = 1.5 ms . The peak velocity and VTI PC estimates generally occurred at the same location and they were predominantly found at the AV 0 cm level (see Additional file 2 ). The range of image quality in business cine images obtained for AVA planimetry, and the corresponding planimetry are illustrated . How To Write. These range from good quality (A), to cases where images were sub-optimal due to poorly defined borders (B, C) or in-plane flow artefacts (D), to one case where planimetry was not considered possible (E). Pastry Business. Two CMR methods of estimating AVA are compared with echo AVA. The agreement on Bland-Altman analysis is papers relatively poor between echo and both CMR methods with the pastry 95% limits of agreement between the methods of at least 0.39 cm 2. Papers. Compared with echo, the pastry business CMR AVA vol method systematically overestimated echo AVA. The AVA flow method showed better agreement with echo at the shorter TEs. However at all TEs examined, both components of the wlagreen calculation (PC SV and plan, PC VTI pk ) were systematically underestimated compared with echo data.

The CMR method which agreed best with echo AVA was direct planimetry of the valve from essays, SSFP images. The Bland-Altman bias was -0.03 cm 2 with 95% limits of pastry business, agreement Ī 0.24 cm 2 in the 14 of proofreading papers, 15 patients with technically adequate images. Pastry. In this CMR study using a contemporary magnet and sequences, we found important inaccuracies in the measurement of aortic flow volume by phase contrast both at, and beyond, the stenotic AoV. The PC SV had poor individual agreement with the CMR SV at and college the aortic valve level and the flow became underestimated beyond the aortic valve. The 95% limits of pastry, agreement were reduced when the TE was shortened to 1.5 ms; but agreement between echo and CMR AVA remained sub-optimal. We have also observed a relatively small but systematic underestimation of peak AoV velocities and VTIs obtained by CMR compared with echo. Stroke volume flow measurement in aortic stenosis. Day Essay Sitchin. The comparisons of the gold standard CMR SV with the flows measured by PC at AoV level were highly variable, and those measured beyond the stenotic AoV were underestimated by between 20 to 30%. At the AoV level and at the level corresponding to the PC VTI pk , the 95% limits of agreement reduced with shorter TEs; however, although the pastry business plan correlations improved with shorter TEs, they were at wlagreen least twice that observed in the MPA. Prior to the jet's vena contracta the flow experience large spatial accelerations and is converging; after the business vena contracta the flow begins to diverge and decelerate [ 25 ]. Accelerations have a stabilising effect on turbulence, thereby the turbulence's intensity is greatest distal from the how to a mla vena contracta [ 10 , 25 , 26 , 27 ]. Shortening the TE, therefore reducing the higher order motion encoding, reduces the intravoxel dephasing and most probably explains the improved results close to the AoV with a TE 1.5 ms. At AoV 1 cm and AoV 2.5 cm , the presence of business plan, turbulence with a greater intensity ensures significant intravoxel dephasing errors were still present in-vivo even with the TE of 1.5 ms.

If possible, further reduction in the TE would be beneficial in decreasing the intravoxel dephasing and therefore improving the standard deviations of the flow measurements in the aorta towards those observed in regions relatively free of intravoxel dephasing such as the MPA. Shorter TEs should also help to wlagreen papers remove the underestimation of PC SV distal to the AoV. Comparison between echo and CMR for peak velocity and VTI. Pastry Business Plan. Peak trans-AoV velocities and VTI PC underestimated that observed by blake essay, Doppler echo by about 10% on average. CMR PC peak velocity and pastry, PC VTI pk may always underestimate Doppler echo, due to spatial and how to, temporal averaging.

More specifically, beat-to-beat variations of the stenotic jet's orientation within the pastry business desired slice may violate PC's assumption of identical flow patterns. In comparison, Doppler echo is an instantaneous measurement whose signal intensity (therefore the planimetry of the Doppler echo's velocity envelope) is dependent on the number of proofreading papers, red blood cells moving at the same velocity [ 28 ]. Assessment of pastry plan, AVA by blake essay, CMR compared with echo. The CMR AVA vol overestimates echo AVA because the VTI PC is underestimated by CMR. The CMR AVAs flow are better calibrated to echo but only because both the PC SV and VTIs are proportionately underestimated. Decreasing the TE to 1.5 ms did not show clear improvement in the accuracy of the PC peak velocity and VTI pk, ; however it did exhibit some improvement in the variability of CMR AVA flow . This was likely due to the improved variability of the PC SV estimate. In contrast to business our study, Caruthers et al [ 3 ] and Yap et al [ 4 ] obtained a better correlation between echo and 2014, PC AVA. This is in part because they included patients with mild AS. Plan. Yap et al [ 4 ], in patients with aortic stenosis secondary to a bicuspid AoV, report a good correspondence between CMR SV measured by volumetric analysis and phase contrast (TE of blake essay, 2.9 ms). Business. But, their 95% limits of agreement increased from edit and college essays, 0.1 Ī 23.1 mL prior to the AoV to 1.5 Ī 31.4 ml distal from the AoV, consistent with intravoxel dephasing induced inaccuracies. Several patients with moderate to severe AS showed marked variation between echo and PC methods and the volumetric (-0.01 Ī 0.37) and pastry business plan, flow CMR (0.02 Ī 0.45) AVA methods had similar 95% limits of agreement to those reported in this study. Caruthers et al [ 3 ] (TE of 3.1 ms) do not report flow or CMR SV comparisons.

Only five patients had Doppler echo VTI estimates in excess of 0.8 m, all whom were underestimated with PC. Papers. The 95% limits of agreement (Ī ?0.4 cm 2 ) in their study are similar to those of the current study. Pastry Plan. It is also possible that the type of valve lesion is important. In the current study 10 of 15 patients had calcific AS which may cause more turbulent flow than in proofreading a bicuspid valve. Subtle differences in pastry business plan slice location may also be important. Yap et al [ 4 ] placed their slices at the AoV leaflet at end-systole which is further towards the apex than in our study where it was placed at the AoV tips in a mla mid-systole. Business Plan. In straight pipes with planar circular orifice plates the vena contracta occurs about one orifice diameter downstream from the orifice making the edit optimal position likely to be at or just beyond the aortic valve leaflet tips during early to pastry mid-systole. Blake Essay. In practice this is difficult to achieve precisely due to valve plane movement during the pastry cardiac cycle and breath-hold variation. Papers. We used long axis cine imaging to plan short axis planimetry of the aortic valve and then optimised the slice position for flow at the aortic leaflet tips using both short axis and long axis cine images. If only flow information, without additional planimetry is required, a simplified method using just the pastry long axis cines and transecting the visible jet in early to mid systole would probably lead to 2014 similar results.

Caruthers et al in a study using free breathing PC found subtle differences in slice position made no difference but it is possible that with the more accurate slice positioning with breath-hold sequences that position is important. Slice positioning either just upstream or too far downstream from the business plan AoV would lead to blake essay underestimation of peak velocities and VTI and corresponding overestimation of AVA. We compared results from the AoV 0 cm and business, AoV 1 cm slice position to test whether a significant difference occurs due to accurate positioning, and found that although 70% of the peak velocities were found in the AoV 0 cm slice, the edit and college essays peak velocities and pastry, VTIs were very similar, Table A2, suggesting that inter-acquisition variation due to factors such as breath-hold variation may be more important than small changes in position. In this study we did not have an first study, intermediate slice half way between AoV 0 cmand AoV 1 cm . Further investigation is pastry plan needed to understand whether such small differences in slice location are important, if they do it would potentially limit the generalisability of the how to a mla technique. In clinical practice a critical decision to be made when imaging aortic stenosis is to distinguish patients with moderate versus severe aortic stenosis.

Before CMR PC AVA estimates are used clinically, improved techniques to measure PC SV are required. Despite erroneous flow data it is possible to obtain peak velocities, VTIs and/or AVAs which correlate moderately well with Doppler echo. However in business plan this study the PC method does seem to systematically underestimate peak velocity and VTI by approximately 10% compared with Doppler echo. Although this is a relatively small calibration error it could lead to a clinically important misclassification of some patients with severe AS as having moderate AS if only the peak velocity is used to how to a mla make this decision. Further study is needed to better understand the relationship between PC CMR and Doppler echo derived velocity data. In this study the best agreement with echo AVA was obtained by direct planimetry of the plan AVA from SSFP images. Taken together with other published studies [ 1 ] this may be the best current CMR method for AVA estimation in clinical practice. Despite good results this technique is critically dependent on accurate tracing of the slit-like orifice in bicuspid aortic valves and how to write, the more complex Mercedes sign shape of business plan, stenotic tricuspid valve orifice.

The boundary definition can be poor due to questions partial voluming effects, signal voids due to business severe calcification and app essay questions, turbulence, and development of pastry business plan, a robust flow based method is desirable (Figure 4 ). Write A Mla. Further studies to optimise cine imaging of irregularly shaped stenotic orifices, perhaps using phantoms, are also justified. The larger gradients used to reduce TE to pastry 1.5 ms exacerbate background phase error [ 7 ]. Recent studies have reported improvement after phase correction by either imaging a stationary phantom after the patient [ 29 ] or applying surface fits to presented stationary tissue [ 21 ]. The surface approach applied in this study showed significant improvement in the SV data only at TE 1.5 ms (see Additional file 1 ). The best approach for background phase correction has yet to be determined, the imaging of a phantom is pastry business time consuming and surface fits may be susceptible to stationary tissue identification. The requirement to perform background phase correction may also be scanner and proofreading, sequence dependent. Thus the findings presented in pastry plan this paper are representative of a Siemens Avanto scanner only. Estimation of peak velocity and VTI PC estimates by college app essay 2014, CMR are likely to pastry be less susceptible to intra-voxel dephasing as accurate information in each pixel is not required. Even one pixel per phase with good signal intensity in blake essay the core of the business jet could theoretically provide an accurate estimate; however, aberrant low signal intensity pixels should be excluded to prevent inaccurate peak velocity estimates [ 22 ]. If the magnitude threshold method was not performed, the results shown would be worse. Unfortunately for flow measurements, data from every pixel is required. The inclusion of day essay, voxels with low signal makes the flow estimate more prone to intra-voxel dephasing errors.

Shortening the TE reduces the intra-voxel dephasing, improving the signal and therefore increasing the reliability of the plan PC SV estimate. On most clinical systems, a magnitude thresholding technique and the velocity encoded magnitude images, where the signal loss may be more apparent, are not available. App Essay Questions. We recommend that these be made available to clinicians for better assessment of CMR PC data. The lack of business plan, a true gold standard makes comparisons between Doppler echo and PC CMR measurements difficult. However we did find that echo AVA corresponded reasonably well with AVA obtained by a mla, manual planimetry of the anatomic valve orifice. This finding is similar to that reported in business plan prior studies comparing echo and CMR planimetry suggesting that the echo is a reasonable external gold standard. An important consideration in using Doppler echo as a gold standard comparison is that for accurate estimation the Doppler echo beam needs to be well aligned with the blake essay jet direction or peak velocity and pastry business plan, the VTI will be underestimated. Because of inter-subject variability in aortic stenotic jet direction in how to a mla relation to standard echo windows, accurate estimation is dependent on plan, an experienced sonographer systematically sampling multiple echo windows (as was done in this study). Accuracy of echo assessment of AVA is edit limited by business plan, difficulties in accurately measuring the LVOT area which is required for Doppler echo's estimation of AVA. A hybrid approach [ 30 ] utilising the most reliable data from echo and CMR may provide the most robust assessment of wlagreen co term, AVA until PC methods improve. The strength of echo is in instantaneous measurement of peak velocities and the VTI using Doppler.

CMR can provide the plan most reliable estimate of SV in the absence of mitral regurgitation or by phase contrast flow estimation in the LVOT or MPA (in the absence of aortic regurgitation). AVA estimation using a CMR SV estimate and how to, the Doppler echo VTI is likely to be the most reliable current non-invasive flow-based method. PC derived SV measured in the stenotic jet was unreliable, underestimated and not satisfactorily corrected by reduction in echo time to 1.5 ms in this study. Despite this the AVA by pastry plan, CMR correlated better with echo with a reduction in TE to 1.5 ms probably due to reduced 95% limits of agreement of the flow estimates. However, for estimation of AVA in more severe AS, improved techniques to and college essays measure this flow are required.

Furthermore, the PC method does seem to business systematically underestimate velocity and VTI data by approximately 10% compared with Doppler. Further study is papers needed to better understand the relationship between CMR and Doppler derived velocity data. This study was supported by a grant from the pastry business plan National Heart Foundation of New Zealand. We are grateful to Helen Walsh and Gillian Whalley for their expert echocardiography, and to proofreading papers Anna Lydon and pastry business plan, Sandra Winsor our expert CMR technologists. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. KOB participated in the design of the study and blake essay, analysis procedure, performed statistical and Background phase analysis, interpreted results and drafted the manuscript.

RG coordinated and designed the study, supervised the data acquisition and performed the analysis of the MR images. AG modified the PC sequences to achieve shorter TEs and provided technical advice on the design of the protocols. BC helped to design the study, the pastry business analysis procedure and in the interpretation of the proofreading results. AY assisted in the interpretation of the results and drafting the manuscript. AK conceived the pastry study, analysed the Echo data, participated in the data acquisition, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript. Blake Essay. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is pastry business properly cited. Blake Essay. Kieran R O'Brien 1 Ruvin S Gabriel 2 Andreas Greiser 3 Brett R Cowan 4 Alistair A Young 5 Andrew J Kerr 2 Email author 1. Auckland Bioengineering Institute University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand 2. Cardiology Department Middlemore Hospital and University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand 3. Siemens AG Healthcare Sector Erlangen Germany 4. Centre for Advanced MRI University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand 5. Department of Anatomy and Radiology University of business, Auckland Auckland New Zealand. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. And College. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.

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ou edu resume Doctor of Philosophy, October 1998, University of Minnesota. Major: Computer Science. Minor: Cognitive Science. Advisors: Professor James Slagle and Professor Maria Gini. Dissertation Title: Connectionist Reinforcement Learning for Control of Robotic Systems. Bachelor of Science, May 1988, Iowa State University. Major: Computer Science. Minors: Mathematics and business, Philosophy. Associate Professor, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2007-present. Member of the Graduate Faculty, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2006-present.

Assistant Professor, School of Computer Science, University of how to, Oklahoma, 2001-2007. Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1998-2001. Instructor and Member of the Graduate Faculty, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 1997-1998. Instructor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1996-1997. Graduate Assistant, Department of Computer Science and Engineering and business, The Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing, University of Minnesota, 1996-1997. Graduate Assistant, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1995-1996. Graduate Assistant, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1990-1995. Graduate Assistant, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1989-1990.

Founding Laboratory Director, Artificial Intelligence Research (AIR) Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of first, Oklahoma, 2004-present. Founding Laboratory Director, Robotics, Evolution, Adaptation, and Learning Laboratory (REAL Lab), School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2004-present. Founding Laboratory Director, Robotic Intelligence and Machine Learning Laboratory (RIML Lab), School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2001-2010. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, (Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Director), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1998-2001. Laboratory Director, Digital UNIX Laboratory, John Joseph Moakley Center for Technological Applications, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Bridgewater State College, 1997-1998. Christan Grant and Dean F. Hougen. Learner Data Management.

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National Science Foundation. $206,632. First Study? September 2009-August 2011. Andrew H. Fagg, Amy McGovern, Dean F. Hougen, Rafael Fierro, and Terran Lane. Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site: Integrated Machine Learning Systems. National Science Foundation. $310,954. February 2008-January 2011.

Thomas L. Landers, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, James Sluss, Seshadri Commuri, Monte Tull, John Antonio, and Dean F. Pastry Business? Hougen Inter-Modal Containerized Freight Security. Federal Highway Administration. $3,613,458. June 13, 2006 - August 15, 2007. Dean F. Hougen, Qi Cheng, Amy McGovern, Yifei Dong, and Andrew Fagg. Computer Science Graduate Fellowship Program. Graduate College and College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma. Wlagreen? $230,000. Plan? August 2006-May 2015. Michael Mumford, Frederick Carr, Mary Connelly, Teri Murphy, Morris Foster, Dean F. Hougen, Marguerite Keesee, and Robert Palmer. Proofreading Papers? Development and Evaluation of a Work Practices Approach for Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. National Science Foundation. $209,776.

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Co-Awardee, Professor of the Year, School of business, Computer Science, College of Engineering, University of a mla, Oklahoma, 2014-2015. Nominee, John E. Fagan Award for Support of Experiential Learning, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2015. Nominee, Brandon H. Griffith Award for plan Outstanding Faculty Member, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2014. Awardee, Teaching Scholars Award, Teaching Scholars Initiative, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2013. Nominee, Brandon H. Griffith Award for Outstanding Faculty Member, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2013.

Awardee, Best Paper Award, International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, International Society for Artificial Life, 2012. Finalist, Best Paper Award, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, 2010. Nominee, Brandon H. Griffith Award for Outstanding Faculty Member, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2005. Nominee, Dean's Outstanding Teaching and Service Award, American Society for Engineering Education, Midwest Section, 2004. Nominee, Outstanding Faculty Advisor, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2004. Awardee, AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition Scholarship, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, 2000.

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Proceedings of the edit essays, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation , pages 501-507, April 2000. Dean F. Hougen, Jordan C. Bonney, John R. Budenske, Mark Dvorak, Maria Gini, Donald G. Plan? Krantz, Fred Malver, Brad Nelson, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Paul E. Rybski, Sascha A. Co Term? Stoeter, Richard Voyles, and pastry business, Kemal Berk Yesin. Reconfigurable Robots for Distributed Robotics. Blake Essay? Government Microcircuit Applications Conference , pages 72-75, March 2000. Dean F. Hougen, Paul E. Rybski, and Maria Gini. Repeatability of Real World Training Experiments: A Case Study. AAAI Spring Symposium on Integrating Robotics Research: Taking the Next Leap , unnumbered, March 1998. Dean F. Hougen, Maria Gini, and James Slagle. Partitioning Input Space for Reinforcement Learning for Control. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks , pages 755-760, June 1997. Dean F. Pastry Business Plan? Hougen, Maria Gini, and James Slagle.

Rapid, Unsupervised Connectionist Learning for Backing a Robot with Two Trailers. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on proofreading papers, Robotics and Automation , pages 2950-2955, April 1997. Dean F. Hougen, John Fischer, Maria Gini, and James Slagle. Fast Connectionist Learning for Trailer Backing using a Real Robot. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation , pages 1917-1922, April 1996. Dean Hougen, John Fischer, and Deva Johnam. A Neural Network Pole-Balancer that Learns and Operates on plan, a Real Robot in college app essay, Real Time. Business? Proceedings of the and college essays, Machine-Learning Conference-Conference on pastry plan, Learning Theory, Workshop on presented sitchin, Robot Learning , pages 73-80, 1994. Pierre Robert and Dean Hougen. SOIL7: Soil Information Module for the EPPL7 GIS.

Minnesota GIS/LIS Consortium, 1994 Fourth Annual Conference and Workshops , page 34, 1994. Dean Hougen. Use of an Eligibility Trace of pastry business, Self-Organize Output. Science of Artificial Neural Networks II, Proceedings of SPIE 1966 , pages 436-447, 1993. Kimberly S. Hester, Issac C. Robledo, Jamie D. 2014? Barrett, David R. Pastry? Peterson, Dean F. Hougen, Eric A. Day, and and college essays, Michael D. Mumford. Causal Analysis to pastry, Enhance Creative Problem-Solving: Performance and Effects on app essay questions, Mental Models. Annual Convention of the plan, American Psychological Association , Washington, D.C., August 4-7, 2011. David R. Peterson, Issac C. Robledo, Jamie D. Edit And College Essays? Barrett, Kimberly S. Hester, Dean F. Hougen, Eric A. Day, and Michael D. Pastry Plan? Mumford. Constraint Analysis, Mental Models, and Creativity. Proofreading? Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association , Washington, D.C., August 4-7, 2011.

Issac C. Robledo, Kimberly S. Hester, David R. Pastry Business? Peterson, Jamie D. Barrett, Eric A. Day, Dean F. Hougen, Michael D. Mumford. Errors and Understanding: The Effects of Error Management Training on Creative Problem-Solving. Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association , Washington, D.C., August 4-7, 2011. Jamie D. Barrett, Michael D. Mumford, Kimberly S. Hester, Issac C. Robledo, David R. Peterson, Eric A. Day, and Dean F. Hougen. Mental Models and day essay presented study, Creative Problem-Solving: The Relationship of Objective and Subjective Model Attributes. Business? Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association , Washington, D.C., August 4-7, 2011. Dean F. Hougen, Sascha A. Stoeter, Paul E. Rybski, Michael D. Erickson, Maria Gini, and app essay, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos.

Behavioral Decomposition of Robotic Exploratory Missions. International Conference for Smart Systems and Robotics for Medicine and Space Applications , Houston, Texas, September 6, 2000. Dean F. Hougen and Maria Gini. The Assessment of business plan, Student Writing in proofreading papers, Computer Science Classrooms. Fiftieth Annual Convention, Conference on College Composition and Communication, Workshop: Visible Results in WAC: Assessing Students and Programs , Atlanta, Georgia, March 24, 1999. Dean F. Hougen, Paul Rybski, Maria Gini and James Slagle. TBMin2: Trailer-Backing Mini-Robot 2. Fourteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Providence, Rhode Island, Poster Session, July 27-31, 1997. Brad Kratochvil, Ian Burt, Tom Dahlin, Andrew Drenner, Maria Gini, Dean Hougen, Colin P. McMillen, Bradley Nelson, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Paul E. Rybski, Sascha A. Stoeter, Kristen Stubbs, David Waletzko, and pastry business plan, Kemal Berk Yesin. And College Essays? A New Generation of Scout Robots with Multiple Mobility Modes.

Video Proceedings, IEEE International Conference on business, Robotics and Automation , May 2002. Brad Kratochvil, Ian Burt, Tom Dahlin, Andrew Drenner, Maria Gini, Dean Hougen, Colin P. McMillen, Bradley Nelson, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Paul E. Rybski, Sascha A. Stoeter, Kristen Stubbs, David Waletzko, and Kemal Berk Yesin. A New Generation of Scout Robots with Enhanced Sensing and Mobility. Video Proceedings of the SPIE International Symposium on Aerospace/Defense Sensing, Simulation, and Controls , April 2002. Paul E. Rybski, Dean F. Hougen, Saifallah Benjaafar, Jordan Bonney, John R. Write? Budenske, Mark Dvorak, Maria Gini, Howard French, Donald G. Krantz, Perry Y. Li, Fred Malver, Bradley Nelson, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Sascha A. Stoeter, Richard Voyles and Kemal Berk Yesin. A Robotic Reconnaissance and Surveillance Team. Video Proceedings, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation , April 2000.

Dean F. Pastry Plan? Hougen, Paul Rybski, Maria Gini, and James Slagle. TBMin2: The Second Generation of day essay first presented sitchin study, Trailer-Backing Mini-Robots at plan the University of Minnesota. Fourteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Providence, Rhode Island, Video Session, July 27-31, 1997. John Fischer, Dean F. Hougen, Maria Gini, and James Slagle. College? Connectionist Control of pastry plan, Mini-Robots. Video Proceedings, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation , April 1996. Dean F. Hougen. Mobile Robots for Port Security.

Center for Infrastructure Protection and Hardening (CIPHER), University of Oklahoma, 2007. Vykinta Kligyte, Rich T. Marcy, Sydney T. Sevier, Elaine S. How To Write? Godfrey, Merideth G. Beaton, Michael D. Mumford, Morris W. Foster, and Dean F. Hougen. Development and Evaluation of a Work Practices Approach for Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. Pastry Plan? Center for Applied Social Research, University of Oklahoma, prepared for the National Science Foundation, 2007. Vykinta Kligyte, Rich T. Marcy, Sydney T. Sevier, Elaine S. Blake Essay? Godfrey, Michael D. Mumford, Morris W. Foster, and Dean F. Hougen. Multi-Level Organizational Climate Report. Pastry Business? Center for Applied Social Research, University of Oklahoma, prepared for the National Science Foundation, 2006.

Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Dean F. Hougen, and Rafael Fierro. 24/7 Remote Monitoring of Work Zones and a mla, Intelligent Decision Support System for the Safety of business, Motorists and Highway Construction Workers. Oklahoma Transportation Center, 2002. Paul E. Rybski, Sascha A. Stoeter, Maria Gini, Dean F. Hougen, and day essay first presented study, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos. Pastry Business? Performance of a Distributed Robotic System Using Shared Communications Channels. Technical Report 01-031, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2001. Dean F. Hougen and Maria Gini.

Writing for Computer Science Students. The Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing, University of day essay presented, Minnesota, 1997. Student Publications and Presentations Supervised (Most Refereed) Sam Bleckley, Juan Herrera and Lawrence Kincheloe. Asterias: A Study in Human Robotic Interaction. Student Research and Performance Day , Honors College, University of Oklahoma, March 2008. Correy A. Kowall and Brian J. Krent.

A Simulation of pastry business, Evolved Autotrophic Reproduction. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference , pages 2781-2786, July 2007. (Refereed) Dennis Ferron, Warren Moseley, and Dean F. Hougen. Development of a Control System for Ground-Based Mobile Robots. Oklahoma Research Day , April 2007. (Abstract and Poster) Gerardo Gonzalez and papers, Dean F. Hougen.

Variable Mutation Rates and pastry business plan, Genetic Resilience in Evolutionary Computation. Oklahoma Research Day , April 2007. (Abstract and proofreading papers, Poster) Nathaniel Troutman, Brent Eskridge, and Dean F. Hougen. Evolving Artificial Neural Networks with Genetic Algorithms to Play Tic-Tac-Toe. Oklahoma Research Day , April 2007. (Abstract and Poster) Lawrence Kincheloe and Dean F. Hougen. Robotics Testbed. Business? Undergraduate Research Day , Honors College, University of Oklahoma, March 2007. Pedro A. Diaz-Gomez and Dean F. Hougen.

Choosing Characteristics for 2014 Binary Genetic Algorithms. The Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Doctoral Consortium, July 2006. Business Plan? (Refereed) Jason M. Black and Dean F. Hougen. A Benchmark for Cooperative Learning Agents. The Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Student Poster Session, pages 1855-1856, July 2006. (Refereed)

Jason M. Black with Dean F. Hougen. Towards a Cooperative Machine Learning Simulator. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges , 21(6): 273-274, June 2006. Student Poster Abstract from edit Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges Northeastern Conference, April 2006. (Refereed) Lawrence Kincheloe and Dean F. Hougen. Robotics Testbed. Second Annual Computer Science Research Conference , University of pastry, Oklahoma Computer Science Graduate Student Association, April 2006. (Refereed)

Pedro A. Diaz-Gomez and Dean F. Hougen. Pseudo-Random Generation of the Initial Population in Genetic Algorithms: An Experiment. Second Annual Computer Science Research Conference , University of Oklahoma Computer Science Graduate Student Association, April 2006. (Refereed) Brent E. Eskridge and Dean F. Hougen. Prioritizing Behaviors in a Fuzzy Behavior Hierarchy. Second Annual Computer Science Research Conference , University of Oklahoma Computer Science Graduate Student Association, April 2006. (Refereed)

Pedro A. Diaz-Gomez and Dean F. Hougen. A Case Study in Genetic Algorithms Applied to Off-line Intrusion Detection Systems. First Annual Computer Science Research Conference , University of Oklahoma Computer Science Graduate Student Association and Association of day essay first presented sitchin, Computing Machinery---University of pastry, Oklahoma Student Chapter, April 2005. (Refereed) Josh Beitelspacher with Dean F. Hougen. College Questions? Global Localization with Computer Vision. Undergraduate Research Day , Honors College, University of Oklahoma, April 2005.

Roy Roring with Dean F. Pastry Business Plan? Hougen. An Investigation of the Human-Like Qualities of a Chess Playing Algorithm Based on first sitchin study, Reinforcement Learning Methods. Plan? Undergraduate Research Day , Honors College, University of Oklahoma, April 2003. Dean F. Hougen. Edit? AIR REAL.

Stephenson Research Technology Center, University of Oklahoma, Interdisciplinary Mini-Symposium, February 23, 2007. Dean F. Hougen. Robotics, Evolution, Adaptation, Learning and Research Experiences for Undergraduates. Southwestern Oklahoma State University Computer Science Club Meeting, September 26, 2006. Dean F. Hougen. Oklahoma AIR: Artificial Intelligence Research. Dexterous Robotics Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Seminar, May 23, 2006. Dean F. Hougen. Robotics and Machine Learning Research at pastry OU.

Student Chapter, Association for Computing Machinery, School of proofreading papers, Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, Seminar, February 23, 2006. Dean F. Pastry? Hougen. Learning to Predict for Robot Control. Interdisciplinary Prediction Engineering Center Proposal Workshop, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, November 29, 2006. Dean F. Hougen. Learning with Holes. Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on Embedded Machine Learning Systems, Seminar, October 31, 2005. Dean F. Hougen. How to Give a Good Technical Presentation. Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on Embedded Machine Learning Systems, Seminar, September 19, 2005.

Dean F. Hougen, Pedro A. Diaz-Gomez, Brent E. Eskridge. Evolutionary Computation. Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on Embedded Machine Learning Systems, Seminar, July 19, 2005. Dean F. Hougen. Write A Mla? Robotics, Evolution, Adaptation, and Learning Laboratory (REAL Lab) Overview. Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on Embedded Machine Learning Systems, Seminar, June 15, 2005. Dean F. Pastry Business Plan? Hougen.

The Robotics, Evolution, Adaptation, and and college, Learning Laboratory (REAL Lab). Stephenson Research and Technology Center Colloquium, University of Oklahoma, March 21, 2005. Dean F. Hougen. Robotic Intelligence and Machine Learning. School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, September 13, 2004. Dean F. Hougen. Robotic Intelligence. Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on business, Human Technology Interaction, University of Oklahoma, Seminar, August 24, 2004. Dean F. Hougen. Memetic Learning.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Robotics Seminar, April 2, 2004. Dean F. Papers? Hougen Robotic Intelligence and Machine Learning Computer Science Graduate Student Association, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, Seminar, March 26, 2004. Dean F. Hougen. Learning in Robotics. Adaptation and Learning at All Levels in Intelligent Robot Teams for Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Battlefield Assessment, Graduate Seminar, November 7, 2003. Dean F. Hougen, Sesh Commuri, and Rafael Fierro. Design and Development of Intelligent Mobile Robot Teams. Adaptation and pastry business plan, Learning at All Levels in Intelligent Robot Teams for Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Battlefield Assessment, Graduate Seminar, November 7, 2003.

Dean F. Hougen. First Presented? Using the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems Laboratory for Feedback-Intensive Applications. Pastry Business Plan? Intelligent Manufacturing Systems Laboratory Seminar, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, October 24, 2003. Dean F. Hougen. Robotic Intelligence and Machine Learning. Facultad de Ingenieria de Sistemas, Universidad el Bosque, Bogota, Columbia, Seminar, September 4, 2003. Dean F. Hougen, Roy Roring, and Joseph Carmer. Robotic Intelligence and Machine Learning. Board of Visitors Meeting, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, April 18, 2003.

Dean F. Hougen. Edit Essays? Intelligent Robotics. Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on Human Technology Interaction, University of Oklahoma, Seminar, June 21, 2002. Dean F. Hougen. Distributed Robotics Research at the University of Minnesota. Pastry Business? University of a mla, Oklahoma Robotics Club, Meeting, October 24, 2001. Dean F. Hougen. Behaviors in a Distributed Brain.

The Center for Cognitive Sciences, University of pastry plan, Minnesota, Proseminar, November 3, 2000. Dean F. Hougen. Learning Sensory-Motor Maps: Reinforcement Learning, Connectionism, and Robotics. Cognitive Science Colloquium, Augsberg College, September 29, 2000. Dean F. Hougen, Nikolaos P. Papanikolopoulos, Sarbjit Singh, and Martin Eriksson. Detecting Driver Fatigue Through the Use of Advanced Face Monitoring Techniques. Intelligent Transportation System Institute, University of Minnesota, Annual Research Program Review, August 10, 2000.

Maria Gini and Dean F. Hougen. College App Essay? A Connectionist Approach to Reinforcement Learning for Robotic Control: The Advantages of Indexed Partitioning. Computational Learning Laboratory, Center for pastry plan the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, Seminar on Computational Learning and Adaptation, May 18, 2000. Dean F. Hougen. Connectionist Reinforcement Learning for blake essay Control of Robotic Systems. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Colloquium, October 12, 1998. Dean F. Hougen.

Connectionist Reinforcement Learning for Control of pastry, Mini-Robotic Systems. The Center for Cognitive Sciences, University of Minnesota, Proseminar, May 15, 1997. Maria Gini and Dean F. Hougen. Fast Connectionist Learning for first presented study Trailer Backing using a Real Robot. The Center for Research in Learning, Perception, and Cognition, University of Minnesota, Colloquium, January 25, 1996. Graduate School in Computer Science, Oklahoma Computing Conference, Computing Research Association Committee on pastry, the Status of Women in edit essays, Computing, September 15, 2006. Technical Writing for Theses and pastry business, Dissertations, Second Annual Computer Science Research Conference, Computer Science Graduate Student Association, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, April 1, 2006. Preparing for Graduate School, Research Experience Symposium 2005, Research Experiences for college questions Undergraduates Site: Embedded Machine Learning Systems, University of Oklahoma, October 15, 2005. Learning in Multi-Robot Systems, International Workshop on Multi-Robot Systems, Naval Research Laboratory, March 18, 2003.

Informal Presentations (Not Refereed) Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab Tours for Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps Cadets, May 25, July 25, and pastry plan, July 26, 2006. Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of college app essay, Oklahoma. Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab Virtual Field Trip, K20Connections, K20 Center for Education and Community Renewal, University of Oklahoma, January 27, 2006. Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of pastry business plan, Oklahoma.

Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab VIP Tour, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, November 12, 2005. Essays? Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of pastry business, Oklahoma. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Research Overview, School of Computer Science, University of blake essay, Oklahoma, September 26 and October 24, 2005. Assistant Professor, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma. Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab Audio Tour, College Connection, Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, July 30, 2005. Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma.

Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab Tours for Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps Cadets, July 19, July 20, and pastry, August 3, 2005. Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma. Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab Virtual Field Trip, K20Connections, K20 Center for Education and Community Renewal, University of Oklahoma, June 13, 2005. First Sitchin? Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma. Robotics and Intelligent Systems in Computer Science at plan the University of college, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Engineering Fair, February 23, 2005. Pastry Business? Assistant Professor, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma. Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab VIP Tour, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, February 17, 2005. Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma.

Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Research in Computer Science, College of Engineering Open House, November 5, 2004. Director, Robotics, Evolution, Adaptation, and Learning Laboratory, School of Computer Science, University of day essay presented sitchin study, Oklahoma. Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab Technical and Facility Tour, College of Engineering General Faculty Meeting, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, October 29, 2004. Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma. Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab Overview, College of Engineering Board of Visitors Reception, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, September 30, 2004. Director, Artificial Intelligence Research Superlab, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma. Robot Research Presentation, IT Week Tour, Institute of Technology, University of business plan, Minnesota, April 11, 2001. College App Essay Questions? Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Biomorphic Explorer Demonstration, The Second Biomorphic Explorers Workshop: Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems, December 4, 2000. Associate Director, Center for business Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and blake essay, Engineering, University of Minnesota. Robot Capability Demonstration, Distributed Robotics PI Conference 2000, Arlington, Virginia, October 17, 2000.

Associate Director, Center for plan Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Robot Exhibition, The Fifth International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotics Systems, Knoxville, Tennessee, October 4, 2000. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of day essay first presented sitchin, Computer Science and pastry plan, Engineering, University of Minnesota. Robot Exhibition, International Conference for Smart Systems and Robotics for Medicine and Space Applications, Houston, Texas, September 6, 2000. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Sesquicentennial Celebration, University of Minnesota, Minnesota State Fair, Saint Paul, Minnesota, August 24, 2000. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition, Seventeenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Austin, Texas, July 30-August 2, 2000.

Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and blake essay, Engineering, University of Minnesota. Science Day Exhibition, Science Day 2000, The Science Coalition, Washington, D.C., July 12, 2000. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Technology Exhibition, Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation, Epcot, Orlando, Florida, June 22-24, 2000. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. University Technology, Campaign Minnesota, President's Club, University of plan, Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 12, 2000. Associate Director, Center for first sitchin study Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Scout Robot Exhibition, International Conference on plan, Robotics and college, Automation, San Francisco, California, April 25-28, 2000.

Associate Director, Center for business plan Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and write a mla, Engineering, University of Minnesota. Scout Robot Demonstration, Science Fest 2000, Bell Museum of Natural History, Minneapolis, Minnesota, March 4, 2000. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Robotics Research Presentation, House Committee on Higher Education, Minnesota State House, Saint Paul, Minnesota, February 2, 2000. Plan? Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of day essay first study, Minnesota. Robot Capability Demonstration and Testing, Distributed Robotics PI Conference 1999, Quantico, Virginia, September 14, 1999. Associate Director, Center for Distributed Robotics, Department of pastry plan, Computer Science and Engineering, University of blake essay, Minnesota. Robot Demonstration, Workshop on Robot Learning, Machine Learning Conference-Conference on Learning Theory, Newark, New Jersey, 1994.

Team Leader, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and pastry plan, Vision Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and first presented sitchin, Engineering, University of Minnesota. AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition, Eleventh National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, Washington, 1994. Team Leader, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Vision Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Introduction to Research in Computer Science (Graduate). Artificial Neural Networks and Evolution (Graduate). Device Programming (Graduate/Undergraduate). Evolutionary Computation (Graduate). Empirical Methods in Computer Science (Graduate).

Introduction to Intelligent Robotics (Graduate/Undergraduate). Software Fundamentals of pastry business, Computer Science (Graduate Preparation). Applied Logic for Hardware and Software. Artificial Intelligence I (Graduate/Undergraduate). Artificial Intelligence II (Graduate/Undergraduate). Artificial Intelligence II, Writing Intensive (Graduate/Undergraduate). Automata, Computability, and Formal Languages (Graduate).

Freshman Engineering Experience. Honors Research (Undergraduate). Independent Studies (Graduate/Undergraduate). Introduction to Intelligent Robotics (Graduate/Undergraduate) Introduction to Operating Systems (Undergraduate). Introduction to Robotics (Undergraduate). Operating Systems Principles (Graduate). Programming Structures and blake essay, Abstractions (Undergraduate). Programming Language Concepts. Senior Reading and Research (Undergraduate).

Software Fundamentals of Computer Science (Graduate Preparation). Structure of Computer Programming II (Undergraduate). Structure of Higher Level Languages (Graduate/Undergraduate). Systems Programming (Graduate/Undergraduate). Robotics: Artificial Intelligence Meets the Real World (Oklahoma Scholar-Leadership Enrichment Program Class taught by Illah Nourbakhsh) Joohee Suh, Computer Science, 2014-2017 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: The Context-Aware Learning Model. Ryan Ralston, Computer Science, 2010-2016 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Translating Clojure to ACL2 for business Verification. Co-Advisor: Rex Page.

Benjamin P. Carlson, Computer Science, 2005-2016 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Phenotype Operators for Improved Performance of co term papers, Heuristic Encoding within Genetic Algorithms. Mr. Mrs. W. O. Wethington Fellow, 2005, 2014. Patrick L. Business? Foster Graduate Fellow, 2015-2016. Syed Naveed Hussain Shah, Computer Science, 2009-2015 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Nurturing Promotes the Evolution of Learning in proofreading, Changing Environments.

Mark Woehrer, Computer Science, 2002-2011 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Sexual Selection, Resource Distribution, and Genetic Drift in Simulated Ecological Speciation. Graduate Assistance in business plan, Areas of National Need (GAANN) Fellow, 2002-2004. Brent Eskridge, Computer Science, 2004-2009 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Effects of blake essay, State and Action Abstraction on Development of Controllers for plan Concurrent, Interfering, Non-Episodic Tasks. Pedro Diaz-Gomez, Computer Science, 2004-2007 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Optimization of Parameters for Binary Genetic Algorithms. Jeremy Rand, Computer Science, 2015-present. Bryan Hoke, Computer Science, 2013-present.

Christopher Fenner, Computer Science, 2013-2014 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Artificial Neural Network-Assisted Heuristic Tree Search in Computer Dominion. Gerardo Gonzalez, Computer Science, 2007-2009 (Graduated). Theses Title: Elitism, Fitness, and Growth. Shawn McCarroll, Computer Science, 2007-2009 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Compression Strategies for Super Resolution WSR-88D Radar Data. Co-Advisor: Mark Yeary. Cason Clagg, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006-2009 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Comparison of Topology and Weight Evolving Artificial Neural Networks by Evolving Two-Card Poker Agents.

Josh Beitelspacher, Computer Science, 2005-2006 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Implicit Robot Localization Through Prediction. Sreedevi Chandrasekaran, Computer Science, 2005-2006 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Control of Bio-Nano Robots. Pedro Diaz-Gomez, Computer Science, 2003-2004 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Evolutionary Computation applied to Intrusion Detection.

Brent Eskridge, Computer Science, 2003-2004 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Imitating Success in Genetic Programming with Memetic Crossover. Matthew Collier, Geography and Environmental Sustainability, 2013-present. Advisor: Aondover Tarhule. Co-Advisor: Amy McGovern. Ying Zhang, Geoinformatics, 2012-present. Advisor: May Yuan. Husnu Narman, Computer Science, 2012-present. Advisor: Mohammed Atiquzzaman. April Martin, Psychology, 2011-2014 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: HiMean: A HyGene Approach to Semantic Analysis in proofreading papers, a Medical Decision-Making Task.

Advisor: Rick Thomas. Emre Tokgoz, Industrial Engineering, 2011 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Separation and Fenchel-Type Duality Theorems for business plan Functions with Integer and Real Variables. Advisor: Hillel Kumin. Khondker Hasan, Computer Science, 2010-2014 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Prediction Models for Estimating the blake essay, Efficiency of business plan, Distributed Multi-Core Systems. Co-Advisors: John Antonio and Sridhar Radhakrishnan. Thomas Palmer, Computer Science, 2010-2015 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Learning Action-State Representation Forests for Implicitly Relational Worlds. Advisor: Andrew Fagg. MD Shohrab Hossain, Computer Science, 2010-2012 (Graduated).

Dissertation Title: Survivability, Scalability, and app essay questions 2014, Security of Mobility Protocols. Advisor: Mohammed Atiquzzaman. Amber Walker, Aerospace Engineering, 2010-2013 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Attitude Aware Smartphones for Tele-Operated Robot Control. Advisor: David Miller.

Moshe Gutman, Computer Science, 2010-2012 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Continuous and Adaptive Cartographic Generalization of River Networks. Advisor: Chris Weaver. Jamie Barrett, Psychology, 2010 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Predicting Scientific Creativity: The Role of Adversity, Collaborations, and Work Strategies.

Advisor: Michael Mumford. Zachary L Jurgensen, Philosophy, 2009-present. Advisor: Sherri Irvin. Yoe Antonio Herrera Jaramillo, Mathematics, 2009-2013 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Intersection Numbers in a Hyperbolic Surface.

Advisor: Kasra Rafi. Abu Zafar M. Shahriar, Computer Science, 2009-2012 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Evaluation of Network Mobility Schemes for Terrestrial and Satellite Networks. Advisor: Mohammed Atiquzzaman. Haifeng Ji, Computer Science, 2008-present. Advisor: Mohammed Atiquzzaman. Matthew Bodenhamer, Computer Science, 2008-2014 (Graduated).

Dissertation Title: Learning Relational Concepts with the Spatiotemporal Multidimensional Relational Framework. Advisor: Andrew Fagg. Emre Tokgoz, Mathematics, 2007-2011 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Separation and Fenchel-Type Duality Theorems for Functions with Integer and Real Variables. Advisor: Kevin Grasse. Matthew J. Roman, Mechanical Engineering, 2005-2011 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Effects of Perception Range on Mobile Robot Path Efficiency. Advisor: David Miller. Rich Marcy, Psychology, 2005-2008 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Leader Cognition: Improving Leader Performance through Causal Analysis. Advisor: Michael Mumford.

Jazmine Espejo, Psychology, 2004-2006 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Is a Different Perspective Helpful? Assessing the Validity of pastry, Peer Ratings of day essay first presented sitchin, Goal Orientation. Advisor: Eric Day. Kui Xie, Educational Psychology, 2004-2006 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: Scaffolding Online Peer Collaboration to Enhance Ill-Structured Problem Solving with Computer-Based Cognitive Support. Advisor: Amy Bradshaw. Shaojian Fu, Computer Science, 2003-2005 (Graduated). Dissertation Title: SIGMA: A Mobility Architecture for Terrestrial and Space Networks. Advisor: Mohammed Atiquzzaman.

David Rice, Computer Science, 2013-2015 (Graduated). Thesis Title: GenSynth: Collaboratively Evolving Novel Synthetic Musical Instruments on the Web. Advisor: Deborah Trytten. Morgan Robertson, Computer Science, 2013-2014 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Learning Ensembles of Linear Gaussian Networks with Spatial Data.

Advisor: Amy McGovern. Mohammad Dibay Moghadam, Computer Science, 2013-2014 (Graduated). Thesis Title: (VeriVis) Effective Spam Verification using Highly Interactive Multi-Dimensional Visualization. Advisor: Chris Weaver. Thibault Lucidarme, Computer Science, 2013-2014 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Automatic Recognition of Supercells Thunderstorms in Numerical Weather Data. Advisor: Amy McGovern. Scott Hellman, Computer Science, 2012 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Learning Ensembled Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

Advisor: Amy McGovern. Tristin Forbus, Computer Science, 2011-2012 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Using Evolutionary Algorithms to Generate Multi-View Visualization Layouts. Advisor: Chris Weaver. Zack Tidwell, Computer Science, 2011-2012 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Expert Move Prediction for Computer Go using Spatial Probability Trees. Advisor: Amy McGovern. Peter Reid, Computer Science, 2011 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Automatic Differentiation in ACL2. Advisor: Rex Page.

Nathaniel Troutman, Computer Science, 2009-2010 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Enhanced Spatio-Temporal Relational Probability Trees and Forests. Advisor: Amy McGovern. Kiran Kafle, Computer Science, 2009-2011 (Graduated). Adaptive Art through Asymmetric Hebbian Learning. Advisor: Andrew Fagg. Matt Martin, Computer Science, 2009-2010 (Graduated). Deadlock Avoidance in Distributed Service-Oriented Architectures. Advisor: John Antonio.

Gregorio Balandran, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2009 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Intelligent Manufacturing Approach to pastry plan, Flexible Problem Solving. Advisor: Sesh Commuri. Ryan Ralston, Computer Science, 2008-2009 (Graduated). Thesis Title: An AVL Tree with Mathematically Verified Properties. Advisor: Rex Page. Esther Lo, Zoology, 2008-2012 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Neuromodulation in Artificial Systems.

Advisor: Thomas Ray. Di Wang, Computer Science, 2007 (Graduated). Thesis Title: A 3D Feature-Based object Recognition System for Grasping. Advisor: Andrew Fagg. Malaykumar Patel, Computer Science, 2006-2007 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Modeling and blake essay, Reconfiguration of Fault-Tolerant Satellite Formation Flying System. Advisor: Yifei Dong. Lee Sliger, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2005-2006 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Framework for Designing and Implementing Hardware and pastry, Software Architectures with Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration to Produce Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems. Advisor: Sesh Commuri. Matthew J. Roman, Mechanical Engineering, 2005 (Graduated).

Thesis Title: Design and Analysis of how to write a mla, a Four Wheeled Planetary Rover. Advisor: David Miller. Justin Beitelspacher, Computer Science, 2004 (Graduated). Thesis Title: Parallel Pseudorandom Number Generators. Advisor: Rex Page. Deji Fajebe, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2003-2005 (Graduated). Thesis Title: A Software Methodology for Embedded Intelligent Systems. Honors College Liaison, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2015-present.

Faculty Advisor, Lunch Buddi, Software Studio, School of Computer Science, University of pastry, Oklahoma, 2015-2016. Faculty Advisor, Radar Aeroecology, Software Studio, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2014-2015. Faculty Advisor, Siren, Software Studio, School of study, Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2013-2015. Faculty Advisor, SadBoy, Software Studio, School of Computer Science, University of business, Oklahoma, 2013-2014. Chair, Programming Team, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2012-2013. Co-Chair, Programming Team, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2010-2012. Faculty Advisor, Student ACM Chapter, University of Oklahoma, 2007-2008. Co-Principal Investigator, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on Embedded Machine Learning Systems, University of Oklahoma, 2005-present. Faculty Mentor, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site on Human Technology Interaction, University of Oklahoma, 2002-2004. Faculty Advisor, Robotics Club, University of Oklahoma, 2001-present. Research Mentor, Minority Undergraduate Research Program, Office of Multicultural and Academic Affairs, University of Minnesota, 2000.

Faculty Advisor, Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, University of Minnesota, 2000. Faculty Co-Advisor, Computer Science Club, Bridgewater State College, 1997-1998. Chair, Undergraduate Advising Committee, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2014-present. Member, Strategic Planning Committee, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2013. Member, Program Committee, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence - Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2013.

Member, Undergraduate Advising Committee, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2012-2014. Member, Graduate Studies Committee, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2012-2014. Member, Committee A, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2012-2014. Member, Review Panel, National Science Foundation, 2012. Member, Review Panel, National Science Foundation, 2012. Member, Review Panel, National Science Foundation, 2011.

Member, Accreditation Committee, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2009-2012. Member, International Student Services Advisory Board, University of Oklahoma, 2009-present. Member, OU2GO Advisory Board, University of Oklahoma, 2009-2011. Member, Steering Committee, This View of Life: Darwin 2009 at OU, University of Oklahoma, 2008-2010. Member, Dean's Evaluation Committee, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2008-2009. Associate Editor, Conference Editorial Board, International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Robotics and Automation Society, Institute of Electrical and blake essay, Electronics Engineers, 2008-2009. Chair, Publicity, Recruitment and Special Events Committee, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2008-present. Member, Committee A, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2008-2010.

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Member, Program Committee, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2006. Member, Graduate Committee, School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, 2004-2006. Member, Review Panel, National Science Foundation, 2005. Member, Website Review Committee, School of Computer Science, University of pastry plan, Oklahoma, 2005. Member, Dean's Evaluation Committee, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2004-2005. Member, Program Committee, International Association of Science and Technology for Development - International Conference on Robotics and Applications, 2003-2004. Member, Intelligent Systems Search Committee, College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 2002-2005. Member, Technical Committee on write, Robotics, International Association of Science and Technology for Development, 2001-2004.

Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. Control and Intelligent Systems. Discrete Applied Mathematics. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - International Conference on pastry plan, Neural Networks. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - International Conference on Networking, Sensing, and Control. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - International Symposium on Intelligent Control. Institute of 2014, Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Transactions on Computers.

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American Association for edit Artificial Intelligence. American Society for Engineering Education. Association for Computing Machinery. Association for Computing Machinery - Special Interest Group in Artificial Intelligence. Association for Computing Machinery - Special Interest Group in Computer Science Education. Institute of business, Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Communications Society. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Computational Intelligence Society. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Computer Society.

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Guest Instructor, Did You Ever? Spring Break Camp, Science Museum of questions 2014, Oklahoma, 2011. Judge, Oklahoma State Science and Engineering Fair, 2011. Consultant, Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics (OSSM) team, Junior Engineering and Technical Society (JETS) Test of Engineering Aptitude in Mathematics and pastry business plan, Science (TEAM+S), 2011. Head Referee, Oklahoma Regional, FIRST Robotics Competition, 2008-2011. Judge, International Tournament, Botball Robotics Program, KISS Institute for how to Practical Robotics, 2008. Member, Regional Planning Committee, Oklahoma Regional, FIRST Robotics Competition, 2007-present. VIP Judge Coordinator, Oklahoma Regional, FIRST Robotics Competition, 2007-present. Judge, Oklahoma State Science and Engineering Fair, 2007.

Judge, Oklahoma Regional Tournament, Botball Robotics Program, KISS Institute for Practical Robotics, 2006-2007. Judge, National Tournament, Botball Robotics Program, KISS Institute for plan Practical Robotics, 2002-2003. Judge, Oklahoma Regional Tournament, Botball Robotics Program, KISS Institute for Practical Robotics, 2002-2003. Instructor, Gifted and Talented Enrichment Classes - Robotics, Norman Public Schools Precollegiate Programs, University of Oklahoma, 2002. Consultant, Machine Learning Exhibit, Science Museum of Minnesota, 2002. Contributor, Books that Inspire Exhibit, Bizzell Memorial Library, University of Oklahoma, 2002. OU2GO: The Official University of wlagreen papers, Oklahoma iPhone Application. Project Lead and Inventor of Record, School of Computer Science Center for the Creation of pastry plan, Economic Wealth, University of Oklahoma, 2009. Writing in Computer Science.

Graduate Assistant, Department of Computer Science and Engineering and The Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing, University of Minnesota, 1996-1997. Nitro: Nitrogen Fertilization Application Expert Decision Support System. Graduate Assistant, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1994-1995. SOIL7: Soil Data Geographic Information System using EPPL7. Graduate Assistant, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1993-1994. InterPro: Combined Expert Systems and Geographic Information System Package. Graduate Assistant, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1992-1993. WeedSoil: Herbicide Application Expert Decision Support System with Geographic Information System. Graduate Assistant, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1991-1992. PLPLeach and PLPSurf: Pesticide Loss Potential Expert Systems. Graduate Assistant, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1990-1991.

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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and pastry business plan, other helpful information related to APA. If youíre looking for first, MLA format, check out Citation Machineís MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machineís homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an pastry plan APA citation generator. See more across the how to, site. Being Responsible While Researching. When youíre writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individualís work to help develop your own project.

A good researcher or scholar uses another individualís work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is pastry included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. Edit! The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individualís work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone elseís work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by plan, including APA format citations in your research project.

Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in blake essay, research projects anytime you use another individualís work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from anotherís work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when youíre adding text, word for word, from another individualís work into business plan your own project. If you donít use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in presented sitchin, your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at pastry the end of your research project, usually on wlagreen the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research.

These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of plan, citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the edit and college, last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and pastry, the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process.

When you include citations, youíre being a responsible researcher. Youíre showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in day essay presented study, the psychology field. Plan! With close to proofreading 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Pastry Business! Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently.

Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in blake essay, 1929 in pastry business plan, order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about write, a source, in business plan, a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to proofreading papers look at a few different pieces of research and determine the business plan, types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. College Questions 2014! Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. Pastry! APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. App Essay Questions 2014! In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if itís an international publisher, is included in the citation.

In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in pastry, the body, or text, of a research project. Theyíre included after a direct quote or paraphrase. Day Essay Sitchin! See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the business, sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Authorís Last name, First initial. (Date published).

Title . Retrieved from college app essay 2014 URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that theyíre using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the pastry plan, proper format for the source youíre trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machineís APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and proofreading papers, scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and plan, include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons.

Sometimes, another authorís words are so eloquently written that there isnít a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the authorís words can help prove a point or establish an blake essay understanding for something in your research project. When using another authorís exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to pastry plan using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. How To Write! Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in business, your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an college app essay 2014 in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Authorís Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when youíre simply referring to another source.

Hereís are some examples of in-text APA citations: ďWell, youíre about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I donít know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someoneĒ (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the authorís names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the ďReference List.Ē While this guideís intent is to business plan help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components.

As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for proofreading papers, all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in business, alphabetical order by the authorís last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in college app essay questions, half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Authorís Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in business, reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period.

When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last authorís name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. Blake Essay! V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on pastry plan using Citation Machineís APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the and college, authorís name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for pastry plan, magazine articles, and only the first, year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for ďno date.Ē Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of business plan, 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. College Questions! The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machineís APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out plan titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the questions, first letter capitalized. For books and pastry, reports, italicize the college app essay questions 2014, title in business plan, an APA citation.

Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 2014! Roots: The saga of an pastry business American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. Wlagreen! They are either placed in italics or not. Pastry! Hereís a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of blake essay, a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machineís APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines.

Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and pastry business plan, capitalize the college questions, first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture].

USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machineís APA formatter, additional information about the title is pastry business plan automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the wlagreen co term papers, publisherís location. Pastry Business! Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher.

It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisherís names, keep these words in edit, the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and pastry plan, others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. Blake Essay! The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). Pastry Business! A study on the role of computers in how to a mla, adult education.

Educational Research and business plan, Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the schoolís information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machineís homepage to learn more. Day Essay Study! For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of pastry business plan, a citation. Papers! DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.

When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is business plan static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the sourceís URL. Co Term Papers! For DOIs, include the number in pastry, this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write, write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. Plan! - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machineís APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of write, APA. APA Citation Examples for pastry business, Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Proofreading Papers! Dickens, C. (1942).

Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. Pastry Business! (2008). The race between education and co term, technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and pastry, museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial.

Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. App Essay Questions 2014! xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in plan, Edited Books in app essay, Print: De Abreu, B.S. Pastry Business Plan! (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and how to write a mla, the library. Business Plan! In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp.

39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of blake essay, chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of pastry, zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp.

65-89). Papers! Retrieved from https://books.google.com. Pastry Business! If youíre still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machineís APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. How To Write! (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. Business! http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx.

Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in blake essay, an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is business basically a number that links a source to how to its location on pastry plan the Internet. This number isnít always provided, but if it is, itís very important to include it in essays, your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. Pastry Business! (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. Wlagreen Papers! E. (2007).

Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the ďBookĒ form on Citation Machineís APA generator, click on ďManual entry mode,Ē and click the ďE-bookĒ tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article.

Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of business, war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is college questions basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isnít always provided, but if it is, you should include it in pastry business plan, your citation rather than including a URL.

Unlike previous editions of blake essay, APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ĎRetrieved fromí is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of pastry business, article.

Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Brocaís area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for wlagreen, you. Page numbers: If article is business plan only one page long, use Ďp.í For any article longer than one page, use Ďpp.í If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published).

Title of article. Co Term Papers! Title of pastry, Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to first presented do if you find your newspaper article on pastry plan a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published).

Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . App Essay 2014! Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Pastry! Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Blake Essay! Quammen, D. Business Plan! (2008, December).

The man who wasnít Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. And College Essays! I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. Business Plan! (2015, March 3). Blake Essay! How long can a spinoff like ĎBetter Call Saulí last?

Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of pastry business, blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. Blake Essay! (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machineís APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel.

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