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Army Leadership Essay Fm 6 22 Essays and Research Papers. sustain the drive in others. This becomes apparent when leaders share the hardships. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? When a unit prepares for essay an emergency deployment, all key leaders should . be involved to share in the hard work to get the equipment ready to ship. This includes leadership presence at night, weekends, and in all locations and the unitarian or trophoblastic, conditions where the troops are toiling. Democrats? OPERATING 1-15. Operating encompasses the actions taken to of cancer influence others to accomplish missions and to set the stage for future operations. Frequantly Questions For Research Paper? One example. Better , Fiedler contingency model , Leader 1359 Words | 4 Pages.
Most Significant Change Made to Adrp 6-22 Army Leadership. change made to the unitarian of cancer ADRP 6 - 22 Army Leadership (AUG 2012) from FM . 6 - 22 Army Leadership (OCT 2006) 1. Losing Member? References: a. FM 6 - 22 , Army Leadership : Competent, Confident, and Agile, 12 October 2006. b. ADRP 6 - 22 , Army Leadership , August 2012 2. The Unitarian? I do not believe that there is one single significant change made to the Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 6 - 22 from the FM 6 - 22 . The FM 6 - 22 establishes the Army leadership principles that apply to all members of the Army , military and civilian. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1065 Words | 4 Pages. ArmyA?a‚¬a„?s Field Manual 6 - 22 . This manual covers, with precise detail, what a leader, both military and otherwise, truly is. And Secondary? . In this interpretation of what I feel leaders and leadership are, I will give the basic characteristics of leadership , what qualities are exemplified by the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, leaders, and describe the homework grids, effectiveness of good leadership in todayA?a‚¬a„?s modern military. It should be known, that A?a‚¬A“good leadershipA?a‚¬A? is of cancer often a combination of multiple types of leadership that a A?a‚¬A“good leaderA?a‚¬A?. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 2054 Words | 6 Pages. In the army there are 3 main FM's that cover leadership . They are FM 7-0, FM 7-1, and . FM 6 - 22 . The Army's definition of leadership is the process of homework grids influencing people by providing purpose, direction and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization. An army leader is anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people to or trophoblastic accomplish organizational goals. Army leaders motivate people both inside and homework grids, outside the chain. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1491 Words | 5 Pages.
Eric L. Crist In our history as the United States Army , we have overcome tremendous and various obstacles that have led to the unitarian or trophoblastic defining . moments as well as benchmarking what true leadership is and what unity can achieve. In defining unity in the Army history we generally tend to think of cohesion as a mutual alliances among several of white squall essay Americans serving for or trophoblastic thesis of cancer a common purpose and as so, all due credit is due. Yet when defining leadership in history we tend to take a more individualized point of. Continental Army , Fidel Castro , LDRSHIP 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Leadership and the Army Stephen Goodwin Ashford University Dr. Donny Bagwell BUS 610 April 14, 2008 Abstract We are . at a critical point in frequantly asked questions for research paper our history in America. Of Cancer? For the second time in a century we have been attacked on our own soil and forced to defend ourselves against a global threat.
Due to this treat our soldiers have been able to essays against democrats lead abroad; and here in the homeland giving them a variety of thesis of cancer ways to give purpose direction and motivation to accomplish any mission given to them. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Leadership development 2337 Words | 7 Pages. Homework Grids? Abstract Almost all leadership theories are based on the relative importance assigned to or trophoblastic the leader versus the follower in homework grids mission . accomplishment. Those who believe that leaders are sufficiently enlightened or heroic examples of bold leaders such as Napoleon, Alexander, and Frederick the Great favor the authoritarian model of leadership . Leadership remains the most baffling of arts as long as they do not know exactly what makes leaders get up out of a hole in the ground and go forward in the face. Hero , Leadership , Leadership development 2511 Words | 7 Pages. s t r i but i oni sunl i mi t ed. Or Trophoblastic Thesis? HEADQUARTERS,DEPARTMENTOFTHEARMY This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online . (https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html).
Foreword Leadership is paramount to homework grids our profession. It is integral to our institutional success today and tomorrow. As we transition to meet the challenges of an increasingly complex and uncertain environment, our Army requires intelligent, competent, physically and or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, mentally tough leaders of character. Decentralized operations. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 5252 Words | 26 Pages. White Squall? s t r i but i oni sunl i mi t ed. HEADQUARTERS,DEPARTMENTOFTHEARMY This publication is the unitarian thesis of cancer available at Army Knowledge Online . (https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html). Foreword Leadership is paramount to our profession. It is losing member integral to our institutional success today and thesis of cancer, tomorrow. As we transition to meet the challenges of an increasingly complex and member, uncertain environment, our Army requires intelligent, competent, physically and mentally tough leaders of character. Decentralized operations. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 5252 Words | 26 Pages.
Respect RESPECT HAS BEEN a distinctive US Army value since 1778 when Frederick William Baron von Steuben noted that a US officer.s first . objective should be to treat his men .with every possible kindness and the unitarian thesis, humanity..1 So it was not surprising when the US Army identified respect as oneof its seven values. In 1998 respect language gave the Army a powerful way to organize ongoing discussions about discrimination and harassment.2 The previous year.s headlines had been filled with allegations of. Continental Army , Human , LDRSHIP 1337 Words | 4 Pages. Emory? What or who is a leader? The Army defines a leader as, “anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and thesis, influences . people to accomplish organizational goals.” ( FM 6 - 22 , 2006, par. 1-2) So, how does an officer become a good leader? There are three tools, the homework grids, Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback (MSAF), and Individual Development Plan (IDP), that all officers must use in taking steps to become a good leader. The MBTI is designed to help. Carl Jung , David Keirsey , Isabel Briggs Myers 1101 Words | 3 Pages. The Unitarian Of Cancer? Running head: LEADERSHIP ESSAY Leadership Essay Sharon Golston Grand Canyon University Theories . of Leadership CHL-520 P Clifford Eason December 12, 2011 Leadership Essay Thousands of definitions have been written to identify characteristics that effective leaders should possess; however it is impossible for leaders to be effective if they are unable to understand that true leaders are called by Christ, are servants to Christ, and must seek the vision of a family essay Christ. Through Christ, leaders.
Fiedler contingency model , Jesus , Leader 1633 Words | 5 Pages. Of Cancer? today…being in the Army is one of the wisest choices I’ve made in my life, many people take being in the Army for granted and . have no clue how beneficial the army can be. Your rent is against democrats guaranteed paid every month, money for the unitarian or trophoblastic food and your basically approved for anything in homework grids the world as long as you serve in the Army or any branch of service. You also gain free knowledge and experience that many outside people in the civilian world do not have the chance or opportunity to be a part of. Or Trophoblastic? The Army has a lot to. Corporal , Leadership , Non-commissioned officer 2016 Words | 4 Pages. L200 Essay - Crucible Experience The purpose of this essay is to identify, describe, and justify a crucible experience from . Essay? my life; discuss how that experience influenced my personal leadership style, beliefs, philosophy, or behaviors; and explain how it will influence me as an organizational leader. To lay the ground work to do this, I believe it is important to first define what a crucible experience actually is.
According to Warren G. Bennis and the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, Robert J. Thomas, in their article titled. Fiedler contingency model , Leader , Leadership 1887 Words | 5 Pages. Army Planning and Orders Production. C121 Notes FM 5-0, Army Planning and Orders Production (2005), Chapter 2 excerpts provides a perspective on essays, problem solving and or trophoblastic thesis, . decision making, including that which is losing a family essay done in groups. A seven-step problem solving model is also described.
While this version of of cancer FM 5-0 is not current, it provides a detailed explanation of the Army problem solving process. (NOTE: The current Army problem solving model ( FM 5-0, C1) has only six steps; the step of specifying a criteria was not included.) The paper “Problem. Against Democrats? Cognition , Critical thinking , Decision making 1093 Words | 4 Pages. Leadership Essay Do I possess the or trophoblastic thesis, traits and homework grids, behaviors associated with leadership ? If not, can I now learn how . to be a leader at this stage of my life? What kind of leader am I? Is that the kind of leader I want to be? What do my superiors, co-workers, friends, and family think of my leadership style and ability? Why am I sometimes uncomfortable talking about myself as a leader? Working my way through the text, interviewing colleagues, and checking into other resources, I can form a personal. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1729 Words | 5 Pages. the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, United States Army we are taught to live by the Seven Army Values.
They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’ which . is short for Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and asked, Personal Courage. We are all taught these 7 Army values repeatedly from the unitarian of cancer, day one in the United States Army . First we memorize these values. Then we are trained to live by them. Against? All of the unitarian thesis these 7 values coincide with each other, and squall, play an important roll in our Army lives. Of Cancer? These 7 Army Values also play. Continental Army , LDRSHIP , Respect 1817 Words | 4 Pages.
Defining Effective Leadership James B. Beaty Post University Abstract The following essay will attempt to frequantly questions for research paper define effective . leadership . The Unitarian Of Cancer? It will also show that there is not a clear cut definition that can be used. The author will share personal experiences to show how all effective leaders have one similar trait, resiliency. Losing Member Essay? Resilient leaders use five different dimensions of strength: emotional, social, spiritual, family, and the unitarian, physical. Keywords: effective leadership , resiliency, strength . Definition , High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle , Iraq War 1102 Words | 4 Pages. Essay? Management and Leadership: Military. Management and Leadership ? PAGE ?1? Running Header: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP Management and Leadership : . Military W5 Individual Assignment University of Phoenix Gary Stafford July 12, 2008 Management and thesis of cancer, Leadership : Military Introduction Though popular consensus is that management and leadership are interchangeable terms with the same purpose and meaning nothing could be further from the truth. Management can be defined as influencing one or more person's actions and activities through. Army , Leadership , Management 1913 Words | 7 Pages. Leadership and Systematic Change Essay. Leadership and Systematic Change Essay Stephanie Boxler Grand Canyon University EDA-575 April 24, 2013 . Leadership and Systematic Change An article about leadership by Forbes magazine sums it up best by homework grids, saying that leadership is simply “someone who has followers” (Frobes.com, 2013). The Unitarian Thesis Of Cancer? The school subject is Innovations International Charter School of Nevada (IICSN), and in white this facility there is only one administrator.
This administrator will be referred to the unitarian thesis as Dr.M throughout this. Education , Grammar school , High school 1553 Words | 4 Pages. Organizational Leadership versus Tactical Leadership. Democrats? ? Tactical Leadership versus Organizational Leadership SGM Carole Puskedra United States . Army Sergeants major Academy Class 40 SGM John Drawbond – Class 40 facilitator 13 Nov 2013 Abstract This paper on Leadership will compare the primary differences and the unitarian, characteristics between the tactical leader and the organizational leader. I will provide you with the emory, basics for development, characteristics. Leader , Leadership , Management 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Behavior and Communication in the unitarian thesis the U.S.
Army. to write about the US Army . The reason I chose the losing a family member essay, US Army for my topic is because I have a brother in the Army . that is or trophoblastic thesis being deployed to Iraq in the next couple of months. Squall Essay? Therefore, I thought this would be a very educational topic to research. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? The US Army’s vision is to provide the country with prompt combat commanders that are well-trained, well-led, and can achieve any operation they are needed for. The Army’s soldiers will always be their primary focus. The US Army takes their mission seriously. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , Continental Army , LDRSHIP 1023 Words | 3 Pages. Direct vs. Indirect Leadership The term leadership is a word taken from the asked for research paper, common vocabulary and incorporated into thesis of cancer, the . technical vocabulary, of a scientific discipline without being precisely redefined. As a consequence, it carries extraneous connotations that create ambiguity of meaning (Janda, 1960). Leadership has been described as the essay, “process of social influence, in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. Social.
Army , Leadership , Management 721 Words | 3 Pages. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis? ? LEADERSHIP ESSAY #1 Julio Bermudez Florida International University Author Note This Paper was prepared for SPC . 4445, Communication for rapid growth Effective Leadership , Fall 2014, taught by Professor Christine Donaldson Abstract On September 11, 2001, James Parker, then CEO of Southwest Airlines, faced a difficult situation when the government ordered them to ground their entire fleet and shut down. Although, all the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, other U.S. airlines were faced with the same difficult situation, Southwest. Airline , ATA Airlines , Leadership 979 Words | 6 Pages. Army Leadership Competencies Leadership competencies are groups of related actions that the losing member, Army . The Unitarian? expects leaders to do. The three categories are leads, develops, and achieves. The Army leader serves to squall essay lead others; to develop the the unitarian of cancer, environment, themselves, others and the profession as a whole; and to achieve organizational goals.
Core competencies are those groups of essay actions universal to thesis leaders, across cohorts and throughout organizations. Asked For Research Paper? They provide a clear and consistent way of conveying. Leadership , Leadership development , Management 1027 Words | 4 Pages. The term ‘ leadership ’ has no definition, for it is defined different ways in the minds of people. A leader will ingrain a sense of positivity . and necessity towards the set goal using the power of written and spoken word. The qualities of a leader differentiate between between each society.
At the the unitarian thesis of cancer, height of its power (16th-17th century), the essays against, Ottoman Empire spanned three continents long. The Ottoman Empire controlled Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. It contained twenty-nine provinces. African National Congress , Istanbul , Leadership 932 Words | 3 Pages. Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? ? Leadership Essay 2 Leadership 06/03/2012 Academic Year 2013/2014 Semester: Fall I hereby . certify that I am the author this paper and all sources I used have been reported. Rapid In India? ------- ---------------- Signature © Kozminski University 2013 Between the three styles of leadership , it’s the democratic style that comes easier for me. Because I’m a very open minded person and the unitarian, I like to a family member listen to everyone ideas in a working project, in order to pick in each ideas the best. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 753 Words | 3 Pages. In my opinion being a responsible soldier is a man or woman who attempts to or trophoblastic thesis live and apply the questions for research paper, army values to everyday life. By placing the . mission first soldiers automatically put themselves second to the unitarian or trophoblastic everything they do; meaning selfless service. Regardless of rank they know how to act in situations where they must present a professional and military image.
They also take pride in what they do every day for essay their country. Thesis? Responsible soldiers take full responsibility for all actions preformed by. American Revolutionary War , Army , Continental Army 536 Words | 2 Pages. Leadership is the white, ability to get people to willingly follow you. The Unitarian? The measure of frequantly for research paper leadership is thesis of cancer not in the quality of the emory and secondary, head but . the tone of the body. The signs of outstanding leadership appear primarily among their followers. The Unitarian Of Cancer? (Publishers amp; Perry, 2009) This depends of course on whom they are leading and what their goals are. A business leader may need to do different things and have different goals then in the military or on a sports team, where you have someone who is leading men into “battle”. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1132 Words | 3 Pages. made” When referring to emory and secondary essay leadership , the or trophoblastic, most influential figures come immediately in minds, like for examples Martin Luther King, Hitler . or Mother Theresa.
In business, leadership is often associated with the concept of management. The question here is, are people born with the makings that make them leaders, or do people acquire these makings once they have been placed into a leadership position? Are leaders born, not made? In this essay , a definition of leadership and management would be appropriate. Big Five personality traits , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 817 Words | 3 Pages. seen that accountability is the most important asset here for work. In doing so it makes sure that everybody is on the same page at the same time in order to . do that you have to follow orders that were given to you. I may have made mistakes but the army also teaches us that we are a family and and secondary essay, if anything stick together and help the other person out if you see that there is the unitarian thesis something wrong or them not getting up for formations. Well it has been a hard time her e but in all aspect of things I have. Army , Military , Need to essays against democrats know 1035 Words | 3 Pages. LEADERSHIP ; A STEPPING STONE TO SUCCESS By: Raymond C. Abello Mark John M. Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? Esteban Sean Kevin B. White Squall? Villanueva Norman Posadas . Reynaldo F. Galos Joseph V. Declaro Bern Desilos For: Dr. Ma.
Junithesmer D. Rosales ENGL 1023- Writing in the Discipline Acknowledgements We would like to give thanks for all the people who took a part for the completion of this research paper. We really express our great gratitude for the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis all their contributions in this research. Fiedler contingency model , Kurt Lewin , Leader-Member Exchange Theory 1755 Words | 7 Pages. Homework Grids? Mr. Call Eng 111 D42 September 20, 2013 Leadership in History Throughout history there have been countless inspiring leaders due to acts . of courage, and or trophoblastic of cancer, pure bravery. In this essay I will discuss the traits and qualities and of some of my favorite documents written by and secondary essay, some of these regarded leaders in history. Such as, Dr. Martin Luther King Junior’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, and Chief Seattle’s 1854 Speech.
Martin Luther King Jr. The Unitarian? was born on homework grids, January. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Civil disobedience 931 Words | 3 Pages. ? “We Were Soldiers” Leadership Essay Throughout the novel “We were soldiers”, it shows exactly what combat . leadership is all about. I believe that there are many NCO’s and Officers but fewer True combat leaders. The effectiveness of leadership throughout the Battle of IA Drang is remarkable and inspirational. Its shows how a strong leader is important when dealing with hard choices, adversity, diversity and being in a position where people’s lives are in the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer stakes of your decisions. My favorite quote.
Army , Battalion , Battle of Ia Drang 1858 Words | 7 Pages. Resilience in Leadership Abstract Some leaders seem to remain calm when faced with disaster, while others fall apart. Against? The leaders who . are able to keep their composure have resilience. These types of leaders are able to make use of the unitarian thesis their skills and strengths to deal with Soldier issues, stressful missions, and/or personal concerns that may easily effect their performance and ability to deal with situations in a professionally and in a timely manner. The purpose of this paper is. Coaching , Leadership , Management 1135 Words | 3 Pages. | What Standard Army Management Information System is the primary automation system used by Army Direct Support and General . Support supply units? | | | | | | | | | | Unit Level Logistics System - Aviation Enhanced | Question #3 of 23 3. | Which of the following sources would you use to democrats determine the Accounting Requirements Code (ARC)? | | | | | | | | FEDLOG | | | 4. | Enforcement of good supply discipline is the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis accomplished by emory and secondary essay, leadership , training, administrative. English-language films , Following , Management 486 Words | 5 Pages. IMPORTANCE OF SETTING THE EXAMPLE AS AN NCO Leadership is the highest quality that the or trophoblastic, military holds dear. Frequantly Asked Questions For Research Paper? Leadership is . defined by several dictionaries as the ability to guide and direct. As a future non-commissioned officer (NCO), I feel the most important duty is to do just that --- guide and direct soldiers.
It is certainly a passion of mine to or trophoblastic be able to increase overall readiness of the Army by successfully leading my soldiers. One part of leadership , guiding soldiers, is a very involved task. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 851 Words | 3 Pages. And Secondary Essay? Army values: These are put forth as guidelines. Guidelines as to thesis of cancer what a soldier in the United States Army should utilize to keep . in good order and losing essay, conduct while serving their Army . Not utilizing these values could put you at risk, at risk of acting in or trophoblastic a way that is unbecoming of a soldier in the United States Army . Without these values it could not be possible to complete the white essay, mission or task at hand. It can also create a hostile and the unitarian of cancer, untrustworthy work experience within your unit, platoon , or even. Frequantly Questions? Ethics , Integrity , Military 1401 Words | 4 Pages. ? Leadership Styles When looking at what makes a great leader we often see qualities that were instilled in them overtime, . and some that is natural to of cancer the human. Building on these styles can be from homework grids, previous mentors where someone wants to or trophoblastic of cancer learn good and bad styles of leadership to help build a success range in a family member essay all projects and objectives in life. Something that is learned in the military is that the importance of leadership comes from focusing on teamwork and the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, willing to be a. Army , Coaching , Leadership 999 Words | 3 Pages. Grand Canyon University: LDR-800 October 23, 2013 Dr.
Casey Reason Comparison Matrix Article 1 Article 2 Title/Author(s) Managing Diversity and in india, . Enhancing Team Outcomes: The promise of the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer Transformational Leadership Kearney Gebert Title/Author(s) Embracing Transformational Leadership : Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance Persistent GCU Library Permalink: http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=pdhAN=2009-00697-020site=eds-livescope=site . Leadership , Psychology , Sociology 1123 Words | 4 Pages. United States Army and Selfless Service. even Army Values In The Acronym ‘Ldrship’ make the correct choices and homework grids, do the right thing. Thesis Of Cancer? I was told to write this essay about . the army values, focusing on paper, Integrity and Honor. I must have started 15-20. The Army Values encompasses discipline, self-control and faith in the system.Live up to all the Army values. The Unitarian Thesis Of Cancer? According to FORSCOM G8, Selfless service leads to in india organizational.
Values Essay Essay is to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis explain the Army Values and how they pertain to the mistake I made. White Essay? In the US army we are. LDRSHIP , Non-commissioned officer , Sergeant 909 Words | 3 Pages. Tele Mil : 6991 Civ Tele : 0361-2640134 Army Recruiting Office, Narangi PIN-900328 c/o 99 APO 20 Apr 11 1837/R/ FOR BRIGHT YOUNG MEN . TO JOIN THE ARMY OPEN RECRUITMENT RALLY AT GOALPARA 1. Army Recruiting Office, Narangi will carry out an Army Recruitment Rally for MALE CANDIDATES of Baksa, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Chirang, Darrang, Dhubri, Goalpara, Kamrup, Kokrajhar, Nalbari and Udalguri districts of Assam is being organized from or trophoblastic thesis, 17 –29 May 11 at DN Singha Sports Stadium, Goalpara (Assam) with. 1939 , 1970 , 1981 985 Words | 4 Pages. ? LEADERSHIP Bill Gates once said, “As we looked into questions for research paper, the next century, leaders will be those who empower others”. This quite sufficiently . describes what is, in my opinion, the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis, new leadership . The way to describe how the old leadership differs from the new leadership can be summed up in one word: sustainable. Compared to the old leadership with a very rigid, tip down approach, the new leadership style is more sustainable and holistic, with power flow in all directions and flexible way of carrying.
Externality , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 1050 Words | 4 Pages. Member? Management and leadership are not the same. Explain in the unitarian thesis of cancer detail. Many different leaders and white, managers will come and or trophoblastic of cancer, go through out an . organizations time, and homework grids, they together will create a legacy for the organization. In the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis, book The Leadership Experience, written by Richard Daft, the difference between leadership and management is described outside the position that a person may hold. To be a leader means that you help to guide people or groups. The US Army defines leadership as “influencing people. Employment , Interpersonal relationship , Leadership 767 Words | 3 Pages. ? LEADERSHIP Q/A It’s my pleasure to have this opportunity for a conversation with you. Could you please give us your brief . introduction. Name: Ajay Mathema Address: Currently working: 1. Could you please tell us your current projects that u are engaged in?
Effective leadership is the ability to inspire followers to listen to and follow a vision; the ability to innovate and drive an organization or people towards new ideas and directions. Leadership may be difficult to define. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1236 Words | 5 Pages. focuses on the Art of Leadership . Homework Grids? In particular, this essay begins by summarizing various approaches to leadership . and other key features and the unitarian of cancer, characteristics of effective leaders. Democrats? The remainder of the paper considers which characteristics or approaches to leadership I should adopt in the future and why. Additionally, I discuss my career plans and the steps that I must take in order to thesis achieve my goals. The Current Environment of the Art of Leadership A leadership approach is a “coherent. Leader , Leadership , Management 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?The archaeological discovery of the Terracotta Army has greatly impacted the homework grids, understanding of China’s past, specifically the Qin Dynasty in . around 200BC.
Evidence at the site has provided historians and the unitarian of cancer, archaeologists with a great deal of information about the Emperor himself, Qin Shihuangdi, and the features of government and society at the time, as well as giving insight into frequantly asked questions for research, the weaponry of this civilisation. Thesis Of Cancer? The Terracotta Army provides many details of the Emperor’s life and beliefs, including. China , Great Wall of China , Han Dynasty 827 Words | 2 Pages. Essay? Leadership This essay will analyze the topic of or trophoblastic thesis of cancer transformational leadership . The development of the . transformational leadership theory will be illustrated in a family member the beginning. Then, it will put emphasis on what kinds of behaviors good transformational leaders should have, and how they motivate their followers.
At last, it is worth talking about the issue that why might someone resist following a transformational leader. This essay will demonstrate and clarify the discussion of transformational leadership. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? Fiedler contingency model , Leader , Leadership 1721 Words | 6 Pages. Leadership and Discipline in asked questions paper the United States Army. Leadership and Discipline in the United States Army The tasks of an infantryman can range from or trophoblastic, mundane activities like scraping . White? wax off of floors to adrenaline pumping activities like jumping out of the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer airplanes or avoiding enemy gunfire. Whether a United States Army Infantryman is conducting area beautification in garrison or clearing a landing zone during a deployment, the common denominator in all infantryman tasks is leadership and the discipline of the soldier to squall follow the directives and orders. Artillery , Cavalry , Infantry 976 Words | 3 Pages. piece of the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer a puzzle on its own is meaningless. Emory? But when all the pieces come together, a picture takes shape, and thesis of cancer, the puzzle makes sense.
The same is true in . studying leadership . White Essay? If you try to learn leadership by only looking at a single theory or approach, you only get one piece of the overall picture. That's why Practicing Leadership , Third Edition features contributions from a variety of the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis disciplines, including psychology, management, communications, military science, the quality movement, political. Bankruptcy in the United States , Intelligence , Leadership 632 Words | 4 Pages. com 5 Md. Jabed Hossain 71311035 01819467085 [email protected] 6 Mahbubur Rahman 71311055 01819432504 [email protected] 7 Ahmed . White Squall? Aman Ullah 71311072 01819432504 [email protected] 8 Ishtiaque. M. Siddique 71312059 01746443348 [email protected] Acknowledgement At first, we would like to express our gratitude to or trophoblastic thesis almighty Allah then thanks the person who provides us the assignment “ Leadership ” Prof. Nazmul Karim sir. We express our gratefulness to our parents. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Liberation War , Dhaka 590 Words | 4 Pages. Squall? Accountability in the Army Essay 7. In case something happens and someone needs t know where a soldier is accountability comes into play. Army Regulation 600-20 IAW Discipline. . Why is the unitarian discipline so important? Because to be accounted for questions for research is a part of disciplinary actions, and a part of or trophoblastic thesis being a professional and a soldier is by living the army values none more overpowering then the other.
So yes Discipline along with the other Army Values is frequantly asked questions very important. A good leader should always have accountability for their soldiers but it. Army , Artillery , Court-martial 1050 Words | 3 Pages. By attempting to cover up an event as significant as an operational security breach, one can also infrindge on or trophoblastic thesis, the Army Values. Emory And Secondary? The . army values are a guide line for behavior and conduct. As follows are the defenition of each values and a brief description as how each are affected by attempted cover ups; Loyalty Bear true faith and allegiance to the unitarian thesis the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers. Be loyal to the nation and its heritage. By not reporting critical information, one is emory and secondary essay indirectly. Lewis and Clark Expedition , Morality , Operations security 1249 Words | 4 Pages. ?Edmond Ma Mr. Thesis Of Cancer? Krekeler ENG3U1-32 6 June 2014 Armies of the Night: Armies of the Night is evidently written as a . And Secondary? fiction novel despite the fact that it is a historical non-fiction. Norman Mailer uses himself as the main character for this literature and narrates himself like a fiction story.
Armies of the night has certain characteristics that make it a fiction novel rather than a historical literature. Characteristics shown in the book that supports it as a novel are character development, use. Character , Fiction , Literature 1156 Words | 4 Pages. Of Cancer? The Doctrine 2015 Army Study Guide Mission Command Center of Excellence, Doctrine 2015 . http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/MCCOE/Doctrine2015Tables.asp Doctrine 2015 is transforming the Army's doctrinal base to losing a family member essay deliver doctrine - clear, concise, current and accessible - to the point of need. This process accelerates the implementation of new doctrine across the force by providing the Army with a completely revised structure of manuals. Doctrine 2015 captures the essential lessons learned from of cancer, 10+. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Army , Brigade 8916 Words | 54 Pages. Homework Grids? herrenhouse could be denied credit, which could put it out of of cancer business. White Squall Essay? ( 22 -1) William and sons last year reported sales of $10 . The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis? million and an inventory turnover ratio of 2. the company is now adopting a new inventory system.
If the new system is growth of population essay able to reduce the the unitarian or trophoblastic, firm inventory level and squall, increase the the unitarian thesis of cancer, firms inventory turnover ratio to 5, while maintaining the same level of against democrats sales, how much cash will be freed up? 22 -1 Sales = $10,000,000; S/I = 2?. Inventory = S/2 = = $5,000,000. If. Accounts payable , Accounts receivable , Asset 1212 Words | 5 Pages. Leadership Research Essay Leadership Research Essay Introduction . Leadership is a process of influencing activities of a particular group of people with the aim of attaining certain stipulated goals. In defining leadership there is need to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis consider a particular group, the common goals and the duties that are allocated to specific members of the group depending on their abilities (Fiedler 1976). Leadership therefore cannot successfully occur unless members of the group are given. Fiedler contingency model , Fred Fiedler , Kurt Lewin 1797 Words | 5 Pages. Rapid Growth Of Population Essay? scholars the opportunity to dissect how leadership is developed in the military.
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Resumen de la sentencia caso Manuel Cepeda Vargas vs. Thesis Of Cancer? Colombia. Miercoles 23 de junio de 2010, por Prensa - Colectivo. Por considerarlo de vital importancia anexamos un resumen sobre la sentencia del caso Manuel Cepeda Vargas Vs Colombia. • Derecho a la vida. Para la Corte, el Estado colombiano tenia un “deber especial de proteccion” respecto del senador Cepeda Vargas; “es evidente para el Tribunal que las autoridades se abstuvieron injustificadamente de protegerlo, o que las pocas medidas adoptadas fueron claramente insuficientes, en un contexto de violencia contra miembros y dirigentes de la UP lo que imponia al Estado una obligacion especial de prevencion y proteccion“(parr.
100). “La ejecucion del Senador Cepeda fue propiciada, o al menos permitida, por el conjunto de abstenciones de varias instituciones y autoridades publicas de adoptar las medidas necesarias para proteger su vida, entre las cuales destaca la falta de investigacion adecuada de las amenazas en el marco de un alegado plan de exterminio de dirigentes de la UP. Growth Of Population In India Essay? Es claro que, en este caso, la ejecucion de un senador de la Republica no podria haberse llevado a cabo sin la planificacion y coordinacion necesarias (parr. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic? 102)”. La Corte estima que la responsabilidad del Estado por la violacion del derecho a la vida del Senador Cepeda Vargas no solo se encuentra comprometida por la accion de los dos suboficiales ya condenados por su ejecucion, sino tambien por la accion conjunta de grupos paramilitares y agentes estatales, lo que constituye un crimen de caracter complejo, que debio ser abordado como tal por las autoridades encargadas de las investigaciones, las que no han logrado establecer todos los vinculos entre los distintos perpetradores ni determinar a los autores intelectuales. Homework Grids? La planeacion y ejecucion extrajudicial del Senador Cepeda Vargas, asi realizada, no habria podido perpetrarse sin el conocimiento u ordenes de mandos superiores y jefes de esos grupos, pues respondio a una accion organizada de esos grupos, dentro de un contexto general de violencia contra la UP (parr. Or Trophoblastic Thesis? 124) “Los agentes estatales no solo faltaron gravemente a sus deberes de prevencion y proteccion de los derechos del Senador Cepeda Vargas, (…) sino que utilizaron la investidura oficial y recursos otorgados por el Estado para cometer las violaciones. Emory And Secondary? En vez de que las instituciones, mecanismos y poderes del Estado funcionaran como garantia de prevencion y proteccion de la victima contra el accionar criminal de sus agentes, se verifico una instrumentalizacion del poder estatal como medio y recurso para cometer la violacion de los derechos que debieron respetar y garantizar, lo que se ha visto favorecido por situaciones de impunidad de esas graves violaciones, propiciada y tolerada por el conjunto de investigaciones que no han sido coherentes entre si ni suficientes para un debido esclarecimiento de los hechos y, en consecuencia, no han cumplido satisfactoriamente con el deber de investigar efectivamente la violacion del derecho a la vida (parr. Thesis Of Cancer? 125)”. En el presente caso, la Corte advierte que habiendo transcurrido 16 anos de ocurridos los hechos, el proceso penal continua abierto, sin que se haya procesado y eventualmente sancionado a todos los responsables, lo cual ha sobrepasado excesivamente el plazo que puede considerarse razonable para estos efectos (parr.
128). En lo que tiene que ver con los procedimientos disciplinario y contencioso administrativo, aunque no sustituyen el proceso penal, se estima que son utiles como complemento para establecer la verdad, determinar los alcances y dimensiones de la responsabilidad estatal y reparar integralmente las violaciones (parr. And Secondary Essay? 130) En este sentido, la Corte valoro que la sancion de “reprension severa” en el proceso disciplinario fue desproporcionada (parr. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic? 137) . Emory And Secondary Essay? , en tanto el fallo contencioso administrativo, no contribuyo “de manera sustancial al cumplimiento del deber de investigar y esclarecer los hechos”, en este tipo de procesos “las autoridades encargadas (…) estaban llamadas no solo a verificar las omisiones estatales sino a determinar los alcances reales de la responsabilidad institucional del Estado. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis? (parr. Frequantly Asked For Research Paper? 140)” 1. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic? El deber de investigar frente a casos complejos. La debida diligencia en las investigaciones implicaba tomar en cuenta los patrones de actuacion de la compleja estructura de personas que cometio la ejecucion extrajudicial, ya que esta estructura permanece con posterioridad a la comision del crimen y, precisamente para procurar su impunidad, opera utilizando amenazas para causar temor en quienes investigan y en quienes podrian ser testigos o tener un interes en la busqueda de la verdad, como es el caso de los familiares de las victimas. Growth In India Essay? El Estado debia haber adoptado las medidas suficientes de proteccion e investigacion para prevenir ese tipo de intimidaciones y amenazas (parr. Or Trophoblastic Thesis? 149).
En atencion a la regla de proporcionalidad, los Estados deben asegurar, en el ejercicio de su deber de persecucion de esas graves violaciones, que las penas impuestas y su ejecucion no se constituyan en factores de impunidad, tomando en cuenta varios aspectos como las caracteristicas del delito y la participacion y culpabilidad del acusado(parr. And Secondary Essay? 150). The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? La imposicion de una pena apropiada en funcion de la gravedad de los hechos, por la autoridad competente y con el debido fundamento, permite verificar que no sea arbitraria y controlar asi que no se erija en una forma de impunidad de facto(parr. Homework Grids? 153). Con relacion a los beneficios penales (rebaja de penas) obtenidos por los autores materiales, asi como su reclusion en establecimientos militares, la Corte senalo que el “el otorgamiento indebido de estos beneficios puede eventualmente conducir a una forma de impunidad, particularmente cuando se trate de la comision de violaciones graves de derechos humanos, como en el presente caso (parr. Or Trophoblastic Thesis? 152)”. 2. Questions For Research? El proceso de desmovilizacion paramilitar.
Con relacion a las diligencias adelantadas en el procedimiento de “Justicia y Paz”, la Corte constato que uno de los autores materiales de la ejecucion del senador Cepeda se desmovilizo colectivamente bajo el Decreto 3360 de 2003, sin ser vinculado a la investigacion penal por el crimen, aunque desde 1994 se tenia noticias de su participacion, por ello la Corte considera “que, tratandose de delitos graves y de una grave violacion de derechos humanos, constituia parte del deber de debida diligencia que las autoridades colaboraran entre si, a fin de identificar e individualizar plenamente a las personas sospechosas o imputadas de haber cometido estas violaciones graves (parr.. Of Cancer? 163). Respecto a los beneficios derivados de la “ley de justicia y paz” la Corte senala que “un Estado no puede otorgar proteccion directa o indirecta a los procesados por crimenes que impliquen violaciones graves de derechos humanos mediante la aplicacion indebida de figuras legales que atenten contra las obligaciones internacionales pertinentes (parr. A Family Member Essay? 166)”. Ahora bien frente a la extradicion de paramilitares que se acogieron a la ley de justicia y paz, adopto la decision de la sala de casacion de la Corte Suprema de Justicia que niega la extradicion de un paramilitar para proteger los derechos de las victimas y evitar que esta figura se convierta en un mecanismo que favorezca la impunidad. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? Por esta razon la Corte en su parte resolutiva declaro que el Estado de Colombia debe “asegurar que los paramilitares extraditados puedan estar a disposicion de las autoridades competentes y que continuen cooperando con los procedimientos que se desarrollen en Colombia.
Igualmente, el Estado debe asegurar que los procedimientos en el extranjero no entorpezcan ni interfieran con las investigaciones de las graves violaciones ocurridas en el presente caso ni disminuyan los derechos reconocidos en esta Sentencia a las victimas, mediante mecanismos que hagan posible la colaboracion de los extraditados en las investigaciones que se adelantan en Colombia y, en su caso, la participacion de las victimas en las diligencias que se lleven a cabo en el extranjero (parr. White? 217 literal g)”. • Honra y dignidad, derechos politicos. La Corte constato que las declaraciones formuladas por funcionarios publicos sobre la supuesta vinculacion de la UP con las FARC, desconocieron el derecho del Senador a la honra y a la dignidad (parr. Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? 170). • Libertad de expresion. “La Corte ha establecido que es posible que la libertad de expresion se vea ilegitimamente restringida por condiciones de facto que coloquen, directa o indirectamente, en situacion de riesgo o mayor vulnerabilidad a quienes la ejerzan. Essay? Por ello, el Estado debe abstenerse de actuar de manera tal que propicie, estimule, favorezca o profundice esa vulnerabilidad (parr. Thesis Of Cancer? 172)”, tal como acontecio en el presente caso. • Derechos politicos, Libertad de Asociacion y Libertad de pensamiento y expresion. En el presente caso la Corte Interamericana valoro de manera conjunta estos derechos considerando “que estos derechos son de importancia fundamental dentro del Sistema Interamericano por estar estrechamente interrelacionados para posibilitar, en conjunto, el juego democratico.
Ademas, el Senador Cepeda Vargas era, a la vez, dirigente de la UP y del PCC, comunicador social y parlamentario, por lo que no es necesario escindir sus actividades para determinar cual de ellas fue origen o causa de cada una de estas violaciones alegadas, pues ejercia esos derechos en un mismo periodo, contexto y situacion de desproteccion ya senalada (parr. Losing Member Essay? 171)”. En relacion con la libertad de expresion la Corte establece que “es posible que la libertad de expresion se vea ilegitimamente restringida por condiciones de facto que coloquen, directa o indirectamente, en situacion de riesgo o mayor vulnerabilidad a quienes la ejerzan. Or Trophoblastic Thesis? Por ello, el Estado debe abstenerse de actuar de manera tal que propicie, estimule, favorezca o profundice esa vulnerabilidad y ha de adoptar, cuando sea pertinente, medidas necesarias y razonables para prevenir violaciones o proteger los derechos de quienes se encuentren en tal situacion. Essays Against Democrats? Igualmente, la libertad de expresion, particularmente en asuntos de interes publico, garantiza la difusion de informacion o ideas, incluso las que resultan ingratas para el Estado o cualquier sector de la poblacion […] una afectacion al derecho a la vida o a la integridad personal atribuible al Estado podria generar, a su vez, una violacion del articulo 16.1 de la Convencion, cuando la misma haya sido motivada en el ejercicio legitimo del derecho a la libertad de asociacion de la victima (parr.172)”. Valorando la afectacion a los derechos politicos establece la importancia de la participacion politica de partidos de oposicion senalando que sus voces “resultan imprescindibles para una sociedad democratica, sin las cuales no es posible el logro de acuerdos que atiendan a las diferentes visiones que prevalecen en una sociedad. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? Por ello, la participacion efectiva de personas, grupos y organizaciones y partidos politicos de oposicion en una sociedad democratica debe ser garantizada por los Estados, mediante normativas y practicas adecuadas que posibiliten su acceso real y efectivo a los diferentes espacios deliberativos en terminos igualitarios, pero tambien mediante la adopcion de medidas necesarias para garantizar su pleno ejercicio, atendiendo la situacion de vulnerabilidad en que se encuentran los integrantes de ciertos sectores o grupos sociales (parr. Homework Grids? 173)”. En este sentido la Corte considera que la violacion a estos derechos se deriva de la continuidad en su ejercicio con un pensamiento critico y de oposicion, y que fue lo que genero su ejecucion extrajudicial, “precisamente porque el objetivo de esta era impedir su militancia politica, para lo cual el ejercicio de esos derechos era fundamental. Thesis? Por ende, el Estado no genero condiciones ni las debidas garantias para que, como miembro de la UP en el contexto referido, el Senador Cepeda tuviera una oportunidad real de ejercer el cargo para el que fue democraticamente electo, en particular mediante el impulso de la vision ideologica que representaba a traves de su participacion libre en el debate publico, en ejercicio de su libertad de expresion. Essay? En ultima instancia, su actividad fue obstaculizada por la violencia ejercida en contra del movimiento politico al que el Senador Cepeda Vargas pertenecia y, en este sentido, su libertad de asociacion tambien se vio afectada (parr.
176)”. Senala que la ejecucion extrajudicial “de un oponente por razones politicas no solo implica la violacion de diversos derechos humanos, sino que atenta contra los principios en que se fundamenta el Estado de Derecho y vulnera directamente el regimen democratico, en la medida que conlleva la falta de sujecion de distintas autoridades a las obligaciones de proteccion de derechos humanos reconocidos nacional e internacionalmente y a los organos internos que controlan su observancia (parr. Thesis? 177)”. Rapid Of Population Essay? Sino que ademas establece que el asesinato tenia tambien como fin amedrantar e intimidar a las personas que “militaban en el partido politico o que simpatizaban con su ideario (parr.178)”. • Violaciones a los Derechos a la integridad personal, honra y dignidad y circulacion y residencia de los familiares. En este apartado, la Corte valora las amenazas realizadas en contra de Ivan Cepeda Castro y su familia con ocasion a las actividades que adelantaron despues de la muerte del Senador Manuel Cepeda, en busca de la verdad y la justicia como victimas. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic? Asimismo, establece la relacion existente entre las amenazas recibidas por ellos y su salida del pais. Losing A Family? Senalado por lo anterior que “el derecho de circulacion y de residencia puede resultar afectado cuando una persona es victima de amenazas u hostigamientos y el Estado no provee las garantias necesarias para que pueda transitar y residir libremente en el territorio de que se trate, incluso cuando las amenazas y hostigamientos provienen de actores no estatales (parr. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? 197)”.
Ahora bien con relacion a la violacion del derecho a la honra y dignidad de los familiares del Senador Manuel Cepeda Vargas, en especial de su hijo Ivan Cepeda, la Corte valora los pronunciamientos emitidos durante la campana de reeleccion presidencial de Alvaro Uribe Velez en el ano 2006 y trae a colacion el pronunciamiento de la Corte Constitucional Colombiana (T-959) “la que reconocio que la difusion de ciertos mensajes a traves de medios masivos de comunicacion menoscabo el buen nombre y la honra del senor Ivan Cepeda Castro, en cuanto hijo de una de las victimas de la violencia politica del pais y que los mencionados derechos tambien se han violado a sus familiares (parr. Essays? 206)”. Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? La Corte realiza la valoracion de la sentencia referida y establece la responsabilidad del Estado por la violacion de este derecho (parr.210), senalando que: “Este Tribunal ha analizado la referida sentencia de la Corte Constitucional, en el sentido que declaro la violacion del derecho a la honra y la dignidad del senor Ivan Cepeda Castro y sus familiares por el mencionado mensaje publicitario, y que ademas dispuso reparaciones pertinentes a nivel interno (parr. White Squall Essay? 208)”. The Unitarian? De igual manera la Corte condeno este tipo de estigmatizaciones ya que expone a los familiares del Senador Cepeda, a nuevos actos de amenazas y hostigamientos.
La Corte Interamericana ordeno al Estado Colombiano a adoptar varias medidas con el fin de reparar integralmente al Senador Cepeda y a sus familiares, entre las cuales se encuentran: 1. Losing A Family Essay? Investigacion completa, determinacion, enjuiciamiento y eventual sancion de todos los responsables materiales e intelectuales. “El Estado debera utilizar los medios que sean necesarios, de acuerdo con su legislacion interna, para continuar eficazmente y con la mayor diligencia las investigaciones abiertas, asi como abrir las que sean necesarias con el fin de individualizar, juzgar y eventualmente sancionar a todos los responsables de la ejecucion extrajudicial del Senador Cepeda Vargas, y remover todos los obstaculos, de facto y de jure, que puedan mantener la impunidad este caso.” (parr. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis? 216) Adicionalmente, la Corte ordeno al Estado colombiano que frente a la expedicion de la presente sentencia, este debe “garantizar la seguridad de los familiares del Senador Cepeda Vargas, y prevenir que deban desplazarse o salir del pais nuevamente como consecuencia de actos de amenazas, hostigamientos o de persecucion en su contra,…”. Emory Essay? (parr. Thesis? 218) 2. Homework Grids? Reconocimiento publico de responsabilidad internacional. La Corte senalo la importancia de actos que recuperen la memoria y dignidad de las victimas, como una medida de satisfaccion y garantia de no repeticion. The Unitarian Of Cancer? Por esta razon le ordeno al Estado de Colombia la realizacion de un acto publico de reconocimiento de responsabilidad, el cual “debera ser realizado en el Congreso de la Republica de Colombia o en un recinto publico prominente, con la presencia de miembros de las dos camaras, asi como de las mas altas autoridades del Estado” (parr. Homework Grids? 224) En dicha ceremonia, se debera hacer referencia a “a) los hechos propios de la ejecucion del Senador Manuel Cepeda Vargas, cometida en el contexto de la violencia generalizada contra miembros de la UP, por accion y omision de funcionarios publicos; y b) a las violaciones de derechos humanos declaradas en la presente Sentencia.” (parr.
223) 3. Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? Medidas de conmemoracion y homenaje a la victima. Por la importancia que tiene la recuperacion de la memoria historica en una sociedad democratica, la Corte ordeno “que el Estado realice una publicacion y un documental audiovisual sobre la vida politica, periodistica y rol politico del Senador Cepeda, en coordinacion con los familiares” (parr. Squall? 228) 4. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer? Creacion de la beca “Manuel Cepeda Vargas” para periodistas del semanario la Voz. Como una medida de satisfaccion, rehabilitacion y garantia de no repeticion, la Corte “dispone que el Estado debera otorgar, por una sola vez, una beca con el nombre de Manuel Cepeda Vargas, la que sera administrada por la Fundacion Manuel Cepeda Vargas, para cubrir el costo integral, incluidos los gastos de manutencion, de una carrera profesional en ciencias de la comunicacion o periodismo en una universidad publica de Colombia elegida por el beneficiario, durante el periodo de tales estudios.” (parr. Asked Paper? 233). Más artículos sobre Defensores de derechos humanos. Más artículos sobre Genocidio de la UP.
Estatus Consultivo en la OEA. Nace en Medellin el 1 de julio de 1913 en el seno de una familia de profundas convicciones religiosas y bajo los parametros de la ideologia del partido conservador. The Unitarian Of Cancer? Realiza sus estudios en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Antioquia, donde se gradua de Abogado con una brillante tesis titulada: Conflictos del trabajo: la huelga Ed. Homework Grids? Avianca: Calle 16 No.
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Day 1: Learning the Basics of PL/SQL. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an extension to standard SQL to provide a way to execute procedural logic on the database. Here's how to get started using it. Congratulations on your decision to read this book, Sams Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days, Second Edition ! If you are new to the unitarian of cancer the Oracle environment, this book will help you learn and emory, master Oracle's built-in procedural language quickly. Knowledge of PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is becoming a fundamental necessity no matter which of Oracle's many products you use. Today, on the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis, your first day of homework grids, this PL/SQL tutorial, you will accomplish these tasks:
Learn what PL/SQL is and why you should master it. Learn how PL/SQL relates to or trophoblastic other Oracle products. Learn what resources you need to finish this book. Write your first PL/SQL function. Over the remaining 20 days, you'll delve deeper into the power and capabilities of this language and learn how to leverage its power in your applications regardless of whether you are doing client/server programming with Oracle's tools (such as Developer/2000), using other front-end tools (such as PowerBuilder), or simply writing some batch jobs that run on questions for research paper, the server. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an extension to standard SQL to provide a way to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer execute procedural logic on the database. New Term - If you have worked with relational databases in the past, you are no doubt familiar with SQL, which stands for and secondary Structured Query Language . Or Trophoblastic Thesis? SQL itself is losing a powerful declarative language. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic? It is declarative in the sense that you describe the results that you want but not how they are obtained. This is rapid of population good because you can insulate an application from the specifics of how the data is physically stored. Of Cancer? A competent SQL programmer can also push a great deal of processing work back to the server level through the creative use of SQL.
There are limits, though, to what you can accomplish with a single declarative query. The real world is seldom as neat and clean as we would like it to be. Developers often find themselves needing to execute several queries in succession and process the homework grids, specific results of one query before going on to the next. This leads to two problems in a client/server environment: The procedural logic, that is, the definition of the process, resides on client machines. The need to look at the data from one query and use it as the the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, basis for the next query results in an increased amount of network traffic. Why are these problems? The procedural logic on client machines can quickly become out of sync if the software is upgraded. It can also be implemented incorrectly, resulting in a loss of database integrity. The need to pull down large amounts of intermediate data to a client results in a long wait for the end users who must sit there staring at the hourglass while the data is transferred to homework grids their machines. The cumulative effects of the unitarian of cancer, a number of clients pulling large amounts of data across the network further decrease performance.
PL/SQL provides a mechanism for developers to add a procedural component at the server level. And Secondary? It has been enhanced to the point where developers now have access to all the features of a full-featured procedural language at the server level. Of Cancer? It also forms the basis for programming in Oracle's continually evolving set of client/server development tools, most notably Developer/2000. If you are developing with Oracle products, Developer/2000 for asked questions for research paper example, the answer to this question is simple. You need to know PL/SQL because those products use PL/SQL for any procedural code. But what if you don't develop with Oracle's products? What if all you use is Oracle's database engine? Is PL/SQL of thesis of cancer, any use to you? Yes! Absolutely it is.
Regardless of the front-end tool that you are using, you can use PL/SQL to rapid perform processing on the server rather than the client. You can use PL/SQL to encapsulate business rules and the unitarian or trophoblastic, other complicated logic. It provides for modularity and abstraction. You can use it in database triggers to code complex constraints, which enforce database integrity; to log changes; and to replicate data. PL/SQL can also be used with stored procedures and functions to provide enhanced database security. Finally, it provides you with a level of platform independence.
Oracle is implemented on many hardware platforms, but PL/SQL is the same on all of them. It makes no difference whether you are running Personal Oracle on a laptop or Oracle8i Enterprise on UNIX. Regardless of what development tools you use, if you are developing in an Oracle environment, your knowledge of PL/SQL and your ability to apply it will give you a competitive advantage against losing member those who do not have that knowledge. With PL/SQL you have the power to thesis of cancer make your applications more robust, more efficient, and more secure. SQL, SQL*Plus, PL/SQL: What's the Difference? This question has bedeviled many people new to Oracle. Against? There are several products with the letters SQL in the title, and these three, SQL*Plus, SQL, and or trophoblastic of cancer, PL/SQL, are often used together. Because of losing a family, this, it's easy to or trophoblastic of cancer become confused as to which product is doing the work and where the work is being done. This section briefly describes each of these three products. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. This has become the lingua franca of database access languages.
It has been adopted by essay the International Standards Organization (ISO) and has also been adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). When you code statements such as SELECT , INSERT , UPDATE , and DELETE , SQL is the thesis of cancer, language you are using. It is a declarative language and is always executed on the database server. Often you will find yourself coding SQL statements in a development tool, such as PowerBuilder or Visual Basic, but at runtime those statements are sent to the server for rapid growth of population in india essay execution. PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL. It, too, usually runs on the database server, but some Oracle products such as Developer/2000 also contain a PL/SQL engine that resides on the client. Thus, you can run your PL/SQL code on either the client or the server depending on which is more appropriate for the task at hand. Unlike SQL, PL/SQL is procedural , not declarative. This means that your code specifies exactly how things get done. As in SQL, however, you need some way to send your PL/SQL code up to the server for execution.
PL/SQL also enables you to the unitarian of cancer embed SQL statements within its procedural code. This tight-knit relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and frequantly asked questions for research paper, SQL*Plus is the cause for some of the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis, confusion between the products. SQL*Plus is an interactive program that allows you to type in rapid and execute SQL statements. It also enables you to type in PL/SQL code and of cancer, send it to questions the server to be executed. SQL*Plus is one of the most common front ends used to develop and the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, create stored PL/SQL procedures and functions. What happens when you run SQL*Plus and type in a SQL statement?
Where does the processing take place? What exactly does SQL*Plus do, and what does the database do? If you are in a Windows environment and you have a database server somewhere on the network, the following things happen: SQL*Plus transmits your SQL query over the network to the database server. SQL*Plus waits for a reply from the database server. The database server executes the query and transmits the results back to SQL*Plus. SQL*Plus displays the query results on your computer screen. Even if you're not running in a networked Windows environment, the same things happen. The only difference might be that the database server and SQL*Plus are running on the same physical machine. This would be true, for against democrats example, if you were running Personal Oracle on the unitarian thesis of cancer, a single PC. PL/SQL is asked questions for research paper executed in much the same manner.
Type a PL/SQL block into SQL*Plus, and the unitarian of cancer, it is transmitted to the database server for execution. If there are any SQL statements in the PL/SQL code, they are sent to the server's SQL engine for execution, and the results are returned back to the PL/SQL program. The important thing is that SQL*Plus does not execute your SQL queries. SQL*Plus also does not execute your PL/SQL code. SQL*Plus simply serves as your window into the Oracle database, which is where the real action takes place. Essays? Figure 1.1 illustrates this relationship. Relationship of SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle. Several other tools besides SQL*Plus can serve as your window to the database. Server Manager, which has an interface similar to SQL*Plus, is one such tool, although Oracle plans to stop supporting it sometime in the future. If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed, you should take a look at SQLPlus Worksheet.
SQLPlus Worksheet is thesis a GUI tool that is fully compatible with SQL*Plus but is much easier to use. If you are a Developer 2000 programmer, you'll have access to Oracle's Procedure Buildera tool designed for developing and debugging PL/SQL code. Emory And Secondary? You'll read more about the unitarian, SQLPlus Worksheet and Procedure Builder later in this chapter. SQL*Plus is essay used for most of the or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, examples in this book because of its universal availability to developers. Asked Questions Paper? It is perhaps still the most widely used tool to develop, test, and create PL/SQL stored subprograms and SQL queries.
Note - In addition to Oracle's tools, several third-party vendors also have tools that can be used to develop PL/SQL code. Some of the major products in the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis this space are. SQL-Programmer by Sylvain Faust Inc. Web address: http://www.bmc.com/ SQL-Station by Platinum Technology Inc.
Web address: http://www.cai.com/ SQL-Navigator by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/ Tool for Oracle Application Developers (TOAD) by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/
What You Need to Finish This Book. In order to try the examples and complete the essays against democrats, exercises in this book, you will need access to. An Oracle8i database (the Personal Edition will work) SQL*Plus or SQLPlus worksheet. Note - Where possible, the exercises and examples in this book have been designed to run equally well under both Oracle8 and the unitarian thesis of cancer, Oracle8i. Homework Grids? Many, especially those in the first nine days, will even run under Oracle7. However, Oracle8i contains many new features that are not available in previous releases. Days 10, 11, 12, 20, and 21, in particular, are heavily focused on the new 8i features.
If you do not currently have access to or trophoblastic of cancer an Oracle database, there are at least two ways to get your hands on one. Squall? For a nominal cost, you can visit Oracle's online store and or trophoblastic of cancer, purchase a 30-day evaluation version of almost any Oracle product, including the database. You can get to rapid essay the online Oracle Store from Oracle's home page, http://www.oracle.com. Another option is to join the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). OTN members can download developer-licensed copies of Oracle's database software at no charge.
OTN members also have the option of subscribing to various technology tracks in order to get regular shipments of Oracle software CDs. You can register as an the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis, OTN member at no cost. The URL to visit is http://technet.oracle.com. You will need these database privileges roles: The following Oracle-supplied packages should be available: Your database administrator can help you verify that these packages are available to you. If you are using Oracle8i Personal Edition, you can verify the existence of squall, these packages by logging on as the user SYSTEM and issuing the the unitarian thesis, following query: The resulting list will show you all packages in the database owned by the user SYS. The packages named in emory this chapter should be in that list.
Of those, the DBMS_OUTPUT is the most essential and is used throughout most of the exercises and examples to display results. The other packages are discussed only in specific chapters. Caution - I recommend that you do not use a production database and that you create the sample tables in a schema that is not shared with other users. If you are using Personal Oracle on your own PC, you won't have a problem with this. If you are using an employer's facilities, you might want to the unitarian thesis of cancer discuss use of the database with your employer's database administrator, or DBA, as they are often called.
There is nothing inherently dangerous in essays democrats any of the exercises or examples, but there is always the risk that a coding mistake, such as an infinite loop, might tie up CPU or I/O resources. It's always good etiquette to minimize the potential impact of your mistakes on other developers and end users. By now you should have a basic understanding of what PL/SQL is and how it relates to other Oracle products. You should have access to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis an Oracle database environment either at work or at home. A Family Essay? During the rest of this chapter, you will learn some of the basics of thesis, PL/SQL, and you will write your first Oracle stored function.
New Term - PL/SQL is referred to as a block structured language A PL/SQL block is a syntactical unit that might contain program code, variable declarations, error handlers, procedures, functions, and even other PL/SQL blocks. In this syntax, variable_declarations are any variables that you might want to define. Homework Grids? Cursor definitions and nested PL/SQL procedures and the unitarian, functions are also defined here. program_code refers to the PL/SQL statements that make up the essay, block. exception_handlers refers to program code that gets triggered in or trophoblastic thesis of cancer the event of a runtime error or exception. The declaration section of a PL/SQL block is optional, although in practice it is emory and secondary essay unusual not to have any declarations at all. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis? The exception handler portion of a PL/SQL block is also optional, and you won't see much of frequantly questions for research, it until Day 7, Procedures, Packages, Errors, and Exceptions. Note - When you're defining PL/SQL functions, procedures, and triggers, the keyword DECLARE is not used. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? When defining a function, the function specification, or function header as it is sometimes called, begins the democrats, block. Thesis Of Cancer? Similarly, procedure and trigger specifications begin procedure and trigger blocks. Losing Member Essay? Function, procedure, and trigger blocks are covered in more detail on Day 2, Writing Declarations and Blocks.
New Term - Any variable declarations must immediately follow DECLARE and come before BEGIN . The BEGIN and END keywords delimit the procedural portion of the block. This is where the code goes. The EXCEPTION keyword signifies the thesis of cancer, end of the main body of frequantly asked for research, code, and begins the section containing exception handling code. The semicolon at the end of the block, and at the end of each statement, is the PL/SQL statement terminator , and signifies the or trophoblastic thesis, end of the block. Tip - Omitting the semicolon at member essay the end of the unitarian thesis, a block is a common oversight. Leave it off, and you'll get a syntax error. Essays? Remember to include it and you will save yourself lots of aggravation.
Blocks such as the one shown in The Syntax for a PL/SQL Block form the basis for all PL/SQL programming. An Oracle stored procedure consists of one PL/SQL block. An Oracle stored function consists of one PL/SQL block. An Oracle database trigger consists of one PL/SQL block. It is not possible to the unitarian of cancer execute PL/SQL code except as part of a block.
PL/SQL blocks can be nested . One block can contain another block as in frequantly questions paper the following example: Nesting of blocks is often done for error-handling purposes. You will read more about error handling on Day 7. Compiling and Executing a Simple Block. Are you ready to try writing your first PL/SQL code? Good. Remember that for the unitarian of cancer this and all other examples in essay this book, you will be using SQL*Plus to the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer send the emory and secondary, PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for execution.
Begin by running SQL*Plus and connecting to your Oracle database. Your initial SQL*Plus screen should look like the or trophoblastic of cancer, one shown in losing a family Figure 1.2. Next, type in the following lines of code from Listing 1.1 exactly as shown. Notice the slash at the end. It must be typed in as well, exactly as shown. Relationship of the unitarian thesis of cancer, SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle.
Initial SQL*Plus screen. Listing 1.1 Your First PL/SQL Block. Tip - The slash at the end tells SQL*Plus that you are done typing PL/SQL code. SQL*Plus will then transmit that code to the Oracle database for execution. The slash has meaning to SQL*Plus only, not to homework grids PL/SQL. Tip - The slash character must be typed on a line by itself, and it must be the first character on that line; otherwise, it will get sent to or trophoblastic thesis the database and losing a family essay, generate an error message. After you type the slash, SQL*Plus transmits your code to of cancer Oracle for execution. After your code executes, your output should look like the following: The code you just executed was probably not very exciting, possibly because there was no output.
PL/SQL does have some limited output facilities, and rapid growth of population in india essay, next you will learn how to produce some simple screen output. When it was originally designed, PL/SQL had no output facilities at all. Or Trophoblastic? Remember that PL/SQL is not a standalone language. Essays Against Democrats? It is of cancer almost always used in conjunction with some other program or tool that handles the input, output, and other user interaction. Oracle now includes the member essay, DBMS_OUTPUT package with PL/SQL, which provides you with some limited output capabilities. You will learn more about packages during Day 8, Using SQL, but for now it's enough to know that you can use the dbms_output.put_line procedure as shown in Listing 1.2.
Listing 1.2 PL/SQL Block Showing the Use of the dbms_output.put_line Procedure. The dbms_output.put_line() procedure takes exactly one argument and generates a line of text as output from the the unitarian, database server. In order for you to see that line of text, you must tell SQL*Plus to display it. This is done with the SQL*Plus command: Type the preceding command now. It needs to be executed only rapid of population in india essay once per session, so you won't need to reissue it unless you exit SQL*Plus and get back in again. Next, type in the PL/SQL code from Listing 1.2. The Unitarian Thesis Of Cancer? The resulting output from SQL*Plus should look like that shown below. Note - It is SQL*Plus that prints the server output on the screen for homework grids you to see. You must remember to execute the SET SERVEROUTPUT ON command, or you won't see any output.
You also can use the SET SERVEROUTPUT OFF command to thesis of cancer turn off output when you don't want to see it. Until now, you have been retyping each PL/SQL block as you tried it. If you made a mistake, you had to type the code all over again. There are some alternatives to typing PL/SQL straight into SQL*Plus. Depending on your personal preferences, and on a family member essay, what you are trying to do, there are three basic ways to go about the unitarian, this: Cut and paste from Notepad. Execute a text file using the SQL*Plus @ command.
Use the SQL*Plus EDIT command. The first method involves running Windows Notepad, typing your PL/SQL code (or SQL queries) into white it, and then copying and pasting from Notepad into SQL*Plus to execute the desired code. This method is ideal for experimenting with short snippets of PL/SQL code and SQL queries. You can keep several related items in the same text file where you can easily call them up when you want to work on them. The second method makes use of a SQL*Plus command to execute a file. For example, if you have a text file named test.sql with the code from Listing 1.2, you could execute that file by thesis of cancer typing this command: The resulting output would look like: Note - When you're executing a file, the default file extension is .SQL . SQL*Plus looks for the file first in the default directory and then follows a search path that you can define. Homework Grids? How you define this path is operating systemspecific and outside the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, scope of this book.
For details, you should consult the SQL*Plus User's Guide and also your operating system documentation. Executing commands from a file like this is most useful in cases where you are re-creating a stored procedure, function, or database trigger and essay, you have the definition already stored in its own text file. The third option involves using the SQL*Plus EDIT command to invoke your system's text editor. Under Windows, this will be Notepad unless you have specifically defined a different editor. When you issue the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, EDIT command, SQL*Plus will launch Notepad and automatically place in it the text of the most recently executed PL/SQL block or SQL statement. See Figure 1.3 for an example of this. Using the SQL*Plus EDIT command. After you've brought up Notepad, you can edit the PL/SQL block to your satisfaction and then exit from Notepad, being sure to save the file.
When you save your file, SQL*Plus will not immediately reexecute it. Asked Questions For Research? It is merely placed in an internal buffer. The Unitarian Thesis Of Cancer? You must use the / command, by homework grids typing / on a line by or trophoblastic itself, in order to execute the code you just edited. Using the EDIT command works well as long as you keep in mind one important thing. SQL*Plus remembers only the most recent SQL statement or PL/SQL block. If you have been working on a PL/SQL block, and you execute just one SQL statement, that statement will replace the PL/SQL block you have been editing. Caution - Do not allow the SQL*Plus buffer to contain your only losing a family copy of a long procedure.
It's too easy to enter a SQL command without thinking and or trophoblastic thesis, wipe out the much longer PL/SQL procedure you have been developing. Which of these three methods you choose is up to you, and emory and secondary essay, depends in part on your personal preferences. You are likely to find the first method, copying and or trophoblastic, pasting between Notepad and SQL*Plus, most useful during the first few chapters of losing a family member essay, this book. As you write larger PL/SQL functions and procedures, you will find yourself gravitating toward keeping each in its own file. Perhaps one of the most useful things you can do with your knowledge of PL/SQL is to the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer use it to write stored functions and stored procedures. Encapsulating the code you wrote earlier into a stored function enables you to compile it once and store it in the database for losing a family member future use. The next time you want to run that PL/SQL block, all you need to do is invoke the the unitarian thesis of cancer, function.
Using SQL*Plus, type in emory essay the input code shown in Listing 1.3, which will create a PL/SQL function to return the the unitarian of cancer, value that was output by Listing 1.2. Listing 1.3 The SS_THRESH Function. Compare the code in Listing 1.3 to that in against democrats Listing 1.2. Notice that the or trophoblastic, keyword DECLARE has been replaced in lines 1 and 2 by the words CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh RETURN NUMBER AS . This will be explained further in Day 3. Also notice that the calls to homework grids dbms_output.put_line() have been replaced by the RETURN command (line 6), which returns the value of the variable X to the caller. Thesis Of Cancer? The only output from rapid of population Listing 1.3 is the unitarian or trophoblastic a confirmation that the function has been successfully created, which is shown in democrats line 9. Notice that Oracle has created the function. SQL*Plus indicates this by displaying the words Function created . You probably were able to type in the code from Listing 1.3 and the unitarian or trophoblastic, create the frequantly questions, SS_THRESH function with no errors. However, that might not have been the case.
To show you how to deal with an error, Listing 1.4 contains the same code as Listing 1.3, but with one small error. Listing 1.4 The SS_THRESH Function with an Error. Unlike most compilers, which will display a listing of errors found in source code, Oracle stores any errors it finds in a database table named USER_ERRORS . The Unitarian Of Cancer? If you want to see the specific details, and and secondary, you may well, you need to retrieve the error listing yourself. Use the SQL*Plus command SHOW ERRORS , as shown in Listing 1.5, to do this. Listing 1.5 The SHOW ERRORS Command. As you can see, the error listing has two columns of output. The first column contains the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, line number where the losing member, error occurred and of cancer, also the character position within that line. Squall? The second column contains the specific error message. In this example, the error occurred in line 5 at the fifth character position. The error message tells you that Oracle encountered an equal sign when it was really expecting something else.
That something else, in this case, is the assignment operator, represented by := . Figure 1.4 shows the SQL*Plus screen as it would look after executing Listings 1.4 and 1.5. Error listing for SS_THRESH . Tip - Typing = instead of := is a common mistake to make, especially if you also program in the unitarian thesis of cancer other languages that do use = for against assignment. Displaying the Function's Return Value. Now that you have written and compiled the function, it's time to execute it and see the results. The easiest way to do this using SQL*Plus is to issue the following SQL command: The SS_THRESH function does not have any parameters, so be sure not to add any parentheses when you call it. In other words, don't use SS_THRESH() because Oracle will return an the unitarian thesis, error. The table DUAL is a special Oracle table that always exists, always has exactly one row, and always has exactly one column. It's the perfect table to use when experimenting with functions.
Selecting the function from the DUAL table causes the against democrats, function result to be displayed. Can Even This Simple Function Be Useful? The SS_THRESH function is a very simple function, and you might rightly wonder if something so absurdly simple can be useful. The value this function returns is the Social Security Contribution and the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer, Benefit Base, a value that changes from white squall essay year to year. If you were a programmer working on a payroll system and needed to write several queries using this value, you could use a function like this to encapsulate this information. To encapsulate information means to embed it within a function so that values like this don't need to be replicated all through your code, and so that any changes can be made in one central place. There's another benefit to this approach. Your queries become more self-documenting. It's a bit easier to remember six months later what you meant when you see. than if you had simply hard-coded the value.
Executing PL/SQL Using Developer 2000's Procedure Builder. Procedure Builder is or trophoblastic thesis part of Oracle's Developer 2000 development environment. It allows you to develop and rapid growth of population essay, debug PL/SQL program units for thesis use in growth of population essay Developer 2000 applications. With Developer 2000, PL/SQL is used on the client to or trophoblastic of cancer program the against, behavior behind the forms, reports, and the unitarian thesis of cancer, menus that you develop. You end up with a PL/SQL engine on the client as well as on the server. A nice benefit of this is that Procedure Builder can be used to execute PL/SQL code without having to be connected to a database. Note - Many of the advanced features discussed later in this book are available only losing a family member essay when executing PL/SQL code in the database. If you have Developer 2000 installed, you start Procedure Builder by selecting Start, Programs, Developer 2000 R2.0, Procedure Builder. The opening screen is shown in Figure 1.5 and is divided into three sections. Procedure Builder's opening screen. As you can see, the thesis of cancer, Procedure Builder window is divided into three major parts.
The Object Navigator window allows you to navigate through the various program units, PL/SQL libraries, and database objects to which you have access. The other two parts of the display combine to make up the PL/SQL Interpreter window. The top pane is used when debugging PL/SQL code and shows the code being debugged. The bottom pane is where you can type in and execute ad-hoc PL/SQL blocks. New Term - PL/SQL may be used to write procedures, functions, package bodies, package types, and asked questions paper, triggers. These constructs are referred to as program units. The PL/SQL interpreter allows you to enter a PL/SQL anonymous block and have it executed. The small block in Listing 1.2, that you typed in or trophoblastic of cancer earlier, is one such anonymous block. You can type that block into Procedure Builder and execute it, but first you need to losing make one small change.
The code shown in Listing 1.2 contains the following two calls to DBMS_OUTPUT : DBMS_OUTPUT is a package that only exists within the database server. Procedure Builder will return errors if you try to execute the code as it stands now. Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? Fortunately, Oracle has a package similar to DBMS_OUTPUT that can be used in its place when you are executing code on a client. The name of that package is TEXT_IO , and losing member essay, it also contains an entry point named PUT_LINE . Take the code shown in the unitarian thesis Listing 1.2, replace the calls to DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE with TEXT_IO.PUT_LINE , and you have the homework grids, code shown in Listing 1.6. This code will run from or trophoblastic thesis of cancer Procedure Builder. Listing 1.6 A PL/SQL Block Using TEXT_IO That Will Run from Procedure Builder. Now, you can take this code and type it into Procedure Builder's PL/SQL Interpreter.
The interpreter will automatically execute the block when you finish entering the last line. The results will look like the losing a family member essay, following: Procedure Builder has been written specifically to of cancer work with PL/SQL. Unlike SQL*Plus, you do not need to enter a forward-slash to homework grids tell Procedure Builder that you are done entering a block of PL/SQL. Creating a function (or any other program unit such as a procedure or package) using Procedure Builder requires a bit more than just typing the CREATE FUNCTION statement into the interpreter. To create a function, you need to tell Procedure Builder that you want to create a new program unit. Do this by selecting the File, New, Program Unit menu option. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic? You will see the dialog box shown in Figure 1.6.
Creating a New Program Unit. This dialog contains radio buttons allowing you to choose the type of program unit that you are creating and also contains a textbox for the program unit's name. Homework Grids? Choose Function, type the the unitarian of cancer, name SS_THRESH into the textbox, and click OK. Asked Questions Paper? You will see a screen similar to that shown in Figure 1.7. Entering the code for SS_THRESH . Figure 1.7 shows the or trophoblastic thesis, function with the code already written. Of course, Procedure Builder does not write the homework grids, code for the unitarian thesis of cancer you. When Procedure Builder opens this window, it places a skeleton function in the textbox. You have to fill in the details. When you get the code entered the way that you want it, click the Compile button to against compile it, and then click the Close button to close the or trophoblastic thesis, window. To execute the rapid growth of population essay, function that you just created, type the following statement into the PL/SQL interpreter:
When you execute this statement, Procedure Builder will execute the function and display the or trophoblastic, following results: In addition to member essay creating PL/SQL program units on the client, Procedure Builder can also be used to create and execute program units in a database. To do this, you first need to connect to a database. Use the File, Connect menu option to connect to a database. Once you've logged in, you will be able to browse database program units using the Object Navigator. Figure 1.8 shows the program units owned by the user named JEFF . Program units in the JEFF schema. To create a stored function or other program unit in the database, follow these steps: Click to highlight the Stored Program Units entry under the user's name. Click the Create Toolbar button. Proceed as you would when creating a local program unit.
Except for having to choose the schema, the process for creating a PL/SQL function in the database is the thesis of cancer, same as for losing a family creating one locally. If you have Enterprise Manager available, consider using SQLPlus Worksheet for thesis of cancer the examples in this book. SQLPlus Worksheet is completely compatible with SQL*Plus, and can be used for all the examples in homework grids this book. The advantage that SQL*Plus worksheet has over SQL*Plus is in the interface. Rather than type in large blocks of or trophoblastic, code one line at a time, you can use a text editor-like interface.
After you get the code entered the way that you want it, you can click a toolbar button to execute it. Executing a PL/SQL Block Using SQLPlus Worksheet. Figure 1.9 shows the SQLPlus Worksheet. The SQLPlus Worksheet. In this chapter you learned a little about PL/SQL, what it is, and why it is homework grids used. Or Trophoblastic? You know that PL/SQL is Oracle's procedural language extension to SQL, and growth of population, that you can use it to write procedures and functions that execute on the server. This chapter also explains the relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and SQL*Plus.
This should give you a good grasp of the unitarian thesis of cancer, how PL/SQL fits into the larger Oracle picture. You wrote your first PL/SQL stored function, which should give you a good feel for the mechanics of programming with PL/SQL. SQL*Plus is the tool used throughout this book for PL/SQL code examples. SQLPlus Worksheet and Procedure Builder are two other tools that may also be used to write and execute PL/SQL code. QA As you can see, the SQLPlus Worksheet screen is divided into two halves. The upper half is essay used for the entry and editing of or trophoblastic, SQL statements and homework grids, PL/SQL blocks. The lower half is used to display output. The execute toolbar button, the one with the the unitarian or trophoblastic, lightning bolt, is used to execute the against, statements that you have entered in the upper pane. There are two ways to the unitarian thesis of cancer use SQLPlus Worksheet to execute commands from a file. One way is to use the File, Open menu option to load the contents of a file into the upper pane, and then click the lightning bolt button.
The other way is to asked for research paper use the Worksheet, Run Local Script menu option. Where does PL/SQL code execution take place? Usually, execution takes place at the server level. The Unitarian Of Cancer? For the examples in emory this book, that will always be the case. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer? Some Oracle products, such as Developer/2000, also have the capability to execute PL/SQL blocks locally on the client machine. Can I write a complete application with PL/SQL?
Generally speaking you cannot, at essay least not as most people envision an application. For an end-user application, you would still need a tool, such as PowerBuilder or Developer/2000, in order to design screens and generate reports. I executed some PL/SQL code which used dbms_output.put_line() to print some data, but I didn't see anything. How come? You probably forgot to or trophoblastic thesis enable the emory and secondary essay, server output option. Use this SQL*Plus command:
If you forget that, your PL/SQL output goes to oblivion. I am using Procedure Builder, and I get errors when I try to execute code that contains calls to dbms_output.put_line() . Why? When you use Procedure Builder to execute code locally, you must use text_io.put_line rather than dbms_output.put_line() . If you are using Procedure Builder, and you have connected to a database, you will be able to execute calls to dbms_output.put_line() , but you won't see the results. Use the following workshop to test your comprehension of this chapter and put what you've learned into practice. You'll find the answers to of cancer the quiz and exercises in Appendix A, Answers. What tells SQL*Plus to send your PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for execution? What is the fundamental basis of of population, all PL/SQL code? List an advantage of or trophoblastic of cancer, pushing program logic up to the server level.
Name three Oracle products that use PL/SQL. What command tells SQL*Plus to display PL/SQL output? Name at least two options for managing your PL/SQL source code. If you didn't encounter any errors when compiling your first function, try putting some in on white squall, purpose. Then try out the SHOW ERRORS command. Try each of the the unitarian, three ways mentioned in the chapter for managing your source code. Become familiar with the SQL*Plus EDIT command. Try using the @ command or the emory and secondary essay, START command to execute your PL/SQL code from a text file.
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How to Write an the unitarian APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. A Family Member Essay. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and growth of population in india with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on thesis p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and asked questions for research should reflect content of thesis of cancer, paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in squall essay MS Word. The Unitarian Of Cancer. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS.
The running head is rapid of population essay a short title that appears at the top of pages of or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on essay same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.
(labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. Or Trophoblastic. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the essays pagenot bold) The introduction of an the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis APA-style paper is the most difficult to write.
A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in homework grids the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by the unitarian thesis of cancer, beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away?
How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the losing member only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at frequantly questions for research, the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.
Try to the unitarian thesis organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of growth of population in india, “Schmirdley did such-and-such in the unitarian thesis of cancer 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. And Secondary Essay. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis so forth, and think about and secondary essay how you want to transition between ideas. When an of cancer idea is complex, don’t be afraid to for research use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader.
The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out or trophoblastic thesis differences in methods or findings of essays, relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is the unitarian or trophoblastic relevant to my study because”). Essay. It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in or trophoblastic your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.
(labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. White Squall. Your goal is to describe the details of or trophoblastic, your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is essays against democrats brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the.
Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Frequantly Asked Questions Paper. Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences.
Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. Frequantly. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the the unitarian thesis of cancer response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to white squall 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for the unitarian thesis of cancer, your reader.
If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold)
Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. A Family Member. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for?
Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the the unitarian thesis of cancer instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found.
If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into homework grids, labeled subsections, perhaps one section for or trophoblastic of cancer, each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of for research, analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to the unitarian of cancer your Statistics textbook for of population essay, the proper way to report results in APA style. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. Emory. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the the unitarian strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating.
For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Frequantly Asked Paper. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. Thesis Of Cancer. 114 of APA manual). Squall Essay. However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the the unitarian or trophoblastic nature of your finding(s) in words and essay whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the the unitarian thesis numbers (within the same paragraph). Essays Against Democrats. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.
It may be useful to the unitarian or trophoblastic of cancer include a table or figure to a family member essay represent your results visually. Be sure to or trophoblastic of cancer refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Emory. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in losing a family essay the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the losing member trends shown in the figure.
Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer, the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is essays against like the reverse of the introduction, in or trophoblastic thesis that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to against democrats consider: Begin with a brief restatement of the unitarian or trophoblastic, your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?
What do the results say about the homework grids broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. Thesis Of Cancer. What are the limitations of the white squall essay study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Or Trophoblastic Of Cancer. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. White Squall Essay. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research?
Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to the unitarian of cancer explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to essay re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for or trophoblastic of cancer, a future study. End on rapid growth essay a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and the unitarian thesis what it added to the literature.
(labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the homework grids ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp.
202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the or trophoblastic article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the of population essay major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer. Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. Homework Grids. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example:
[Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. The Unitarian Or Trophoblastic Thesis Of Cancer. In G. Essays. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp.
599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer include.
See the APA manual. Be sure to emory and secondary essay provide a table number and the unitarian thesis of cancer table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Essays. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the or trophoblastic of cancer DV. Underneath the against democrats figure provide a label and or trophoblastic of cancer brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?).
The figure caption typically includes the losing a family essay IVs/predictor variables and the DV. The Unitarian Of Cancer. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of white essay, APA manual) When citing sources in or trophoblastic of cancer your paper, you need to include the white essay authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the the unitarian or trophoblastic thesis sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and essays democrats Smith (2003), the”
When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. Of Cancer. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the white squall essay first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the thesis of cancer primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in emory other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work.
If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the of cancer cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the white squall essay American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .