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When MRS reaches the contribution, 95% mark, it checks to see whether the personal, administrator has marked the move request to be “auto suspended”. When you auto suspend a mailbox move, MRS will hold the request and not proceed with the final synchronization and Active Directory update until an administrator resumes the move request. The idea is that administrators can have Exchange perform the vast majority of mailbox move processing, perform a final check to ensure that everything has gone OK (for example, that a high number of bad items were not encountered), and contribution essays, then release the suspended requests to allow them to complete. Statement Help. You might, for instance, have a batch of mailbox moves occur over a weekend, check the move history for the requests early on essays on i speech Monday morning, and then resume the suspended requests before users arrive to begin work. Mailbox move requests are created with EMC or EMS. In either event, the cv, New-MoveRequest cmdlet is run. Health Social Essays. If you want to auto-suspend a mailbox move, you’ll have to create the request through EMS as EMC doesn’t offer the necessary user interface to allow an administrator to select this option. Personal Statement Cv. Neither EMS or EMC offer the choice to schedule a mailbox move to essays, start at a particular time, a curious deficiency that I hope Microsoft will address in a future version of statement cv Exchange.
Here’s some example code that we could run to move my mailbox: New-MoveRequest -SuspendWhenReadyToComplete -SuspendComment 'Move Queued by Admin on contribution 24-Nov-2010 10:00' -BatchName 'Mailbox Batch 1' -BadItemLimit 5 -Identity 'Tony Redmond' -TargetDatabase 'DB1' The important things here are the SuspendWhenReadyToComplete and the BatchName parameters. The BatchName parameter is optional. It allows you to statement help cv, group mailbox move requests together in a convenient form for later processing. The really important item is the SuspendWhenReadyToComplete parameter because it’s what indicates to MRS that it has to pause the essay, mailbox move before completion. After MRS begins to process the mailbox move, you can check its progress with the Get-MoveRequest cmdlet. You’ll see that the request progresses from “Queued” to personal statement help cv, “InProgress” (where MRS spends most of its time as it copies items from the source to target database) and eventually go into an “AutoSuspended” status.
This marks the point where MRS pauses to health social essays, await an statement help, administrator decision. Migration projects are where the batch name parameter comes into its own. Remember that any migration project from a legacy version of how to Exchange to Exchange 2010 can only be performed by mailbox moves. The reason why is complicated but it can be reduced for simplicity’s sake to the massive difference in the database internal structures and schema that exist between Exchange 2010 and earlier versions. In any case, if you want to migrate 5,000 mailboxes, that means you’ll be creating 5,000 mailbox move requests and statement help, it’s likely that you’ll batch them in user groups that you want to move together to Exchange 2010. The groups might be departments, users in corporate master, a similar job, or people who work in a location. Let’s assume that you can identify the mailboxes in a particular group with a filter that you apply to cv, the Get-Mailbox cmdlet. You can then pipe the discovered set of mailboxes to the New-MoveRequest cmdlet and i start a essay, stamp them with a common batch name. Then, after all the move requests have reached “AutoSuspended” status and you’ve had the chance to check them out, you can then release them all with one command.
Here’s an personal statement, example of how you might find mailboxes for a group (in this case, any mailbox whose “Office” attribute is set to “Dublin”) and queue them all for corporate finance thesis, moving: Get-Mailbox -Filter | New-MoveRequest -BatchName 'Dublin Users' -SuspendWhenReadyToComplete -TargetDatabase 'DB1' -BadItemLimit 5. To find all the move requests that have been auto-suspended, we could then run this command: Get-MoveRequest -MoveStatus 'AutoSuspended' -BatchName 'Dublin Users' And when we have checked out the move requests and are ready to proceed, we can pipe the cv, output of the Get-MoveRequest cmdlet to the Resume-MoveRequest cmdlet. Get-MoveRequest -MoveStatus 'AutoSuspended' -BatchName 'Dublin Users' | Resume-MoveRequest. MRS will then complete processing and how to, the users will be able to access their brand new Exchange 2010 mailboxes. For more information about the Mailbox Replication Service and how mailbox moves work in Exchange 2010, see Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Inside Out , also available at Amazon.co.uk . Clearing out mailbox move requests. After you’ve run Exchange 2010 for a while, you’ve probably moved a few mailboxes around and have accumulated some completed mailbox move requests.
When it begins to move a mailbox, the Mailbox Replication Service (MRS) stamps the user object for the mailbox with six attributes that it uses to indicate that the mailbox is personal statement being moved and on punctuality, the progress of the move. To reduce the interaction with Active Directory, only one of help these attributes (the status) is updated during the move. The statistics for the move such as number of items moved, bytes moved, and social essays, so on help are maintained in the XML coded move request that MRS updates in the system mailbox of the target database. Data used to construct the move report is also stored in how to write an adep, the same place. Once a move is completed, MRS copies the move report from the system mailbox to a hidden folder in the user’s mailbox. You might assume that the attributes are also removed (or cleaned up) in Active Directory, but this doesn’t happen. I believe that the logic here is that it’s up to the administrator to statement cv, decide when the move request is how to write an adep no longer required, at which point they can explicitly go ahead and personal cv, remove the request.
The logic is valid but given the fact that most administrators don’t realize that move requests are silently piling up and not being removed, the end result is an accumulation of move requests just like calcium forming in a kettle in an area that enjoys hard water. The first time when an administrator is likely to realize that move requests are retained and not cleaned out is when they attempt to move a mailbox that was previously moved by MRS. Essays. At this point, they’ll be told that a move request already exists for the mailbox and they will have to clear the move request before they are able to proceed. The Exchange Management Console (EMC) attempts to personal, bring the fact that a mailbox has a move request registered to the attention of administrators by displaying a different icon for the mailbox, but as you can see below, it’s all too easy to miss this subtlety. Spot the difference in the icons. Of course, EMC provides a separate section to allow administrators to work with move requests, so you can switch over health essays there to discover what mailbox move requests are known to personal, Exchange. As shown below, it’s easy to select all the move requests and then click “Clear Move Request” in the action pane. EMC will then clear the AD attributes from the selected mailbox objects and you’ll be able to create new move requests for corporate thesis, them. Getting ready to clear mailbox move requests. Of course, you don’t have to do this with EMC as Exchange 2010 provides a comprehensive set of cmdlets to work with mailbox move requests.
The Get-MoveRequest cmdlet reveals the set of known move requests and we can filter the command so that EMS only reports the set with a completed status. Get-MoveRequest -MoveStatus Completed. The other status values you can look for include the following: CompletedWithWarning : Although the mailbox was moved successfully, something happened during the move that an administrator needs to check by reviewing the move report. CompletionInProgress : Exchange is statement finalizing the move by resetting the how do i start introduction, Active Directory to reflect the new location for the mailbox. Personal. Failed : Whoops… not a good sign.
Time to check the move report to discover what happened to stop the mailbox moving. Hopefully it’s something simple such as the essay on punctuality, mailbox quota for statement help cv, the target database being too low to accommodate the mailbox that you want to move. Another common problem is when some “bad items” are encountered in the source mailbox. These are items that Exchange considers to be corrupt or incomplete for some reason (often a bad MAPI property). Essays. You can force MRS to continue processing and ignore the statement help cv, bad items by setting a reasonable value (something higher than zero and an adep, lower than 10) for the BadItemLimit parameter when you create a move request. MRS is able to resume failed moves at the last checkpoint.
Note that if you state a bad item limit higher than 50, you have to specify the AcceptLargeDataLoss parameter when you create the help cv, move request with the corporate finance, New-MoveRequest cmdlet. This is because MRS won’t write corrupt items into the new mailbox and each bad item is therefore dropped. You may just want to know what these dropped items contained! On the upside, they may be old calendar items that the user won’t care about. On the downside, they might be items relating to help, the latest corporate strategic plan… AutoSuspended : MRS has moved the bulk of the mailbox to the target database and is now paused waiting for an administrator to release the move request and allow MRS to perform a final synchronization to bring the new mailbox completely up to date and then switch the mailbox in Active Directory. Effectively, the move request is health suspended before it enters the “CompletionInProgress” phase.
You can resume processing with the Resume-MoveRequest cmdlet. You can instruct MRS to auto-suspend a mailbox move by passing the SuspendWhenReadyToComplete parameter to the New-MoveRequest cmdlet. Queued : The move request is queued and awaiting an MRS instance in its home site to “pick up” the request and take responsibility for its processing. Personal Statement Help Cv. InProgress : MRS is busy moving content from the source database to essays, the target database to personal statement cv, build the new mailbox. On Punctuality. MRS spends most of the time processing a mailbox move in this status. Help. Suspended : The move request has been suspended for some reason with the how to an adep, Suspend-MoveRequest cmdlet and is waiting for an administrator to release it. A move request can only statement cv, be suspended before it reaches the how do i start introduction, final completion phase as once Exchange starts to update Active Directory, it’s too late to statement cv, go back. Once we have obtained a set of an adep mailbox move requests, we can clear them with the Remove-MoveRequest cmdlet. Statement. To be most effective (and if you’re sure that you won’t remove any request that you want to on punctuality, keep), we can pipe the objects found with Get-MoveRequest to Remove-MoveRequest as follows: Get-MoveRequest -MoveStatus Completed | Remove-MoveRequest.
It’s a royal pain to have to perform this kind of housekeeping that Exchange should really be able to do on an automatic basis. I fully appreciate that some administrators may want to keep some mailbox move requests for an extended period, but it should be possible to have a parameter for the New-MoveRequest cmdlet to allow administrators to state an expiry time for a successful move request. Better again, maybe a new organization-wide configuration setting that applies to all successful move request with the ability for an administrator to override the organization wide setting so that a move request can be retained for a particular mailbox. Something like this would be good. To set a 30 day automatic expiry for successful move requests:
Set-OrganizationConfig -DefaultExpirySuccessfulMR 30.0:00:00. To define that a move request does not automatically expire: New-MoveRequest -DoesNotExpire $True. Of course, the statement help, official health warning is that I have no idea whether these enhancements will ever appear in a future version of Exchange. Health. Christmas is coming and you never know what the Exchange developers have up their collective sleeves. We wait in hope…
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4 Creative Ways to Insert Horizontal Lines in Microsoft Word. One of my tricks with quite the statement “wow factor” is inserting artistic lines into my documents. To insert a horizontal line (also called a “horizontal rule”), here are four creative ways to do it. On Punctuality? The #8220;normal#8221; way is to go up to the Borders button in the Paragraph group and choose #8220;Horizontal Line.#8221; If you want fancier lines, try these tricks: On a blank line, type these 3 characters in a row and press ENTER . A line appears across the page. If you need to statement cv remove one, simply Backspace or Delete as normal. Word’s built-in Clip Art Gallery contains dozens of images that act as lines.
Open up INSERT CLIP ART, and search for LINES. For more choices, when you have an health social essays, Internet connection, INCLUDE OFFICE.COM CONTENT . Personal Statement? (Note: these commands may be different depending on what version of Word you#8217;re using). Insert any of the images. If it doesn’t extend across the page, use any of the RESIZE HANDLES to make it larger — but keep in mind that these are images, so if your line image is finance master, extended longer than its original dimension, it may become fuzzy. Use any of the features on the PICTURE TOOLS FORMAT Tab to personal change the color, shadow, style, and contribution essays effects of the statement help cv line image. To remove a Shape, click on contribution it, then press DELETE on your keyboard. This technique works best on Headings.
Click in the paragraph of text you want a line under. Click on help the HOME Tab BORDERS button — Bottom Border is corporate, usually the default. This places a line across the page, underlining not just the text but the rest of the row, too. Click on BORDERS AND SHADING , the last option on the drop-down list, to refine the weight and cv color of this line. When you press Enter at the end of the contribution paragraph, this border may extend down to the next row, an effect you probably don’t want. To remove a bottom border, use the CLEAR FORMATTING button on the HOME ribbon , and the border returns to the desired text. Statement Help? Click on the INSERT RIBBON SHAPES button. On the drop-down gallery, the second section has a series of lines. Some have arrowheads; others have bends and angles. Pick one.
Click where the line begins, and drag to where the line ends. To keep the line straight, hold down the SHIFT key while dragging. Upon letting go, each line has a resize handle at the beginning and end to change the dimension. Lines that have curves and bends also have adjustment diamonds to corporate master refine the angles. Use the DRAWING TOOLS FORMAT ribbon to stylize the line’s color and special effects. To remove a Shape, click on it, then press DELETE on personal statement cv your keyboard. Social? Did you love this trick? We have more! Alicia wrote the book on Word#8230;literally!
I love all the help fun and cool things that Microsoft Word can do, and I#8217;ve spent 30 years playing with it. My complete collection of time-saving tips and how do tricks is called#8230;wait for it#8230; Microsoft Word Tips Tricks . The title says #8220;Word 2010,#8221; but the tools are the same in all versions, PC and Mac. Buy the personal statement book in convenient formats including eBook, iBooks, Multi-touch, and paperback versions. It#8217;s only $15! Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter to essays receive updates. 49 Responses to help cv 4 Creative Ways to Insert Horizontal Lines in Microsoft Word. For the how to write an adep life of me, after I added a horizontal lineusing this trick, I can#8217;t figure out how to remove it!
Any ideas? Thanks. Hi Lori, The line acts just like a giant letter. You can backspace over it, forward-delete it, or highlight it and erase it. Personal Statement Help? Let me know if that works! You can you press Ctrl+Z to undo an action.
Alicia, thanks for the helpful post. Write? I had not thought to use a shape. I accidentally told Word not to allow automatic horizontal line shortcuts and I cannot add it back. How do you add the shortcut back? Go into statement help, the AutoFormat Options (under Proofing on a PC or AutoFormat#8230; on an adep a Mac) and check off all the options that allow Word to replace text with symbols. The specific one for personal statement help cv, this technique is #8220;Symbol characters with symbols#8221;. found auto format but where is #8220;symbol characters with symbols#8221;?
I don#8217;t see that in my post. What are you referring to? I have the same problem, horizontal word shortcuts got turned off, and I can#8217;t find the option to turn it back on. How Do A Essay? Under Proofing, I go to AutoCorrect Options, but I don#8217;t see anything in any of the personal statement help tabs relating to rhetorical essays on i speech horizontal lines or saying #8220;Symbol characters with symbols#8221; like you said in your post: #8220;check off all the options that allow Word to replace text with symbols. The specific one for this technique is #8216;Symbol characters with symbols#8217;.#8221; Hi Tal, What version of Word are you using? Be sure to click on all the statement tabs in that AutoCorrect Options there are several.
Look for #8220;AutoFormat as You Type.#8221; If you can#8217;t find it, give me a call at 971-235-7119 and I can walk you through. Hi Alicia. I have also looked under #8220;AutoFormat as You Type#8221; and there are only how do i start introduction 6 options under #8220;replace as you type#8221; and only 2 of these are unchecked (#8220;*bold* and personal cv _italic_ with real formating#8221; and #8220;hyphens () with dash (-)#8221;) and checking neither of these does the trick! I#8217;m using Office Professional Plus 2013. Hi Damian, Look under all 4 tabs including AutoCorrect and AutoText and turn on all the options. At the i start introduction moment I can#8217;t remember exactly which one is responsible for statement help cv, the magic, since I discovered this trick more than 5 years ago. :-S. This is great, except Word replaces two hyphens with an m-dash (which I like). So when typing three hyphens, I get —. Any way to change the autocorrect so that it changes the hyphen+mdash into that line? Instead of pressing the spacebar after typing #8212;, hit Enter/Return instead. After I add the lines with the Auto Format option (number 1) how do I change the contribution essays color of the lines? I#8217;m trying to but can#8217;t figure out.
Highlight the text, then go into the Borders and Shading dialog box and change the color there (you#8217;ll need to change the statement help color, then click on finance thesis the line in personal, the little diagram to #8220;wake it up#8221;). Hi Alicia, I use the instruction of number 1,first time it work but after that is on i, not coming, what#8217;s the problem. Statement? I#8217;m not sure. Try quitting and restarting your software? I need to know how to format the automatic #8220;#8230;#8221; lines that show up in, say, a Table of Contents. I want the #8220;#8230;#8221; to line up so that all the corporate finance thesis corresponding page numbers are in perfect alignment. Can you help me with that please? The default Table of Contents, when created properly, will do that automatically.
First, use the Styles to format the personal statement cv Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3 content. Corporate? Then, depending on the version of Word you#8217;re using, look for InsertTable of Contents or something similar. After that, you can then also change the #8230; tab leaders in several different styles. If you#8217;d like me to walk you through, give me a call at 971-235-7119 and we can set up appointment to do a screenshare and I can show you how. This was very helpful thank you. Excellent! It works and was just what I needed today. Many thanks. Hi alicia., I want a figure of stirrup with dimensions in personal statement help, excel. Please give me some way to draw it.
I will be thanksfull you to contribution essays this. Hi Noorul, Excel isn#8217;t the right application to personal help do drawings. You#8217;re looking for a CAD program. Alicia #128578; This article is have a dream, fantastic! Thank you so much for personal cv, the very helpful hints!! Alicia I did the introduction three characters and enter to make the horizontal line and for the life of me I cannot get it to do the line. Hi Cindy, Your AutoCorrect settings might be off. Go to AutoCorrect Options and click on personal help all the tabs in window – there are several. Look for “AutoFormat as You Type.” If you can’t find it, give me a call at essay, 971-235-7119 and I can walk you through. Is it possible to add a fixed-size short line and include it into my style, without limiting the paragraph length.
This is a title with a small line under it (This is what I need) This is a title with a page wide line under it (This is what normal border, frames, underlines allow) I could add this kind of line using shapes and using tables, however I would like to have it directly in my style formatting. Statement Cv? You sure can! In FILE OPTIONS PROOFING, click on the AUTOCORRECT OPTIONS button. Create an abbreviation that you#8217;ll type in, and the fixed-size short line in the Replace with#8230; box. You can create any kind of custom autocorrect magic this way, including typing in your entire mailing address just by a dream speech typing #8220;.addy#8221; into your document! This trick is explained in detail on page 78 of personal help cv my Word Tips and Tricks book available here: http://royalwise.com/rw/product-category/royalwise-training/books-dvds/. Let me know if that works!
This is health, so awesome#8230;Love it. Help Cv? What if I want a solid line that is broken up by text? Using the shapes tools it won#8217;t line up with the text#8230; very frustrating. I#8217;m trying to do this but with a solid line: You might be able to do it using tiny little one-row tables. The best way to add a proper horizontal rule is to use the Horizontal Line feature found on finance master the Borders drop down menu in personal help cv, the Paragraph section. Love it!
Not sure it#8217;s the #8220;best#8221; way since those. lines are so much fun, but I#8217;ll add it to the article! Thanks. Corporate Master? Alicia you are a word goddess! I forgot the statement cv trick to place a text box around a paragraph of text. I vaguely remembers it goes along with the procedure similar to placing a horizontal rule. Any clue.
Hi Ron, first, select the text. The next step depends on how to write what version of Word you have, but look on the Insert menu for Text Box. Click on it! Then look for statement, a new Format Shape tab (wording may vary). There you can get creative with the box width, color, line, and more. How do you make the line (made by #8212; enter) go all the way across the write page after a bullet point instead of starting at the bullet point? You can#8217;t, unfortunately.
You#8217;ll need to personal statement cv use one of the other techniques. I recommend using a Right Tab at essay, the right margin with a ___ leader. Very helpful. Thank you so much. is there a trick to add vertical line to the word document? i need to print a ruled answer sheet with one left margin. help. There is! It#8217;s called a #8220;Bar Tab#8221; (all jokes aside).
In the upper left corner there#8217;s a button allowing you to add Tabs to your ruler (it looks like it has a little L in it). It toggles between Left, Center, Right, and Decimal Tabs, and then there#8217;s a straight up-and-down line. Highlight the rows where you want the line to go. Then click on the top ruler at the location where you want the Bar Tab to go. Viola! A vertical line! Hi, at personal statement help cv, first it was cool when testing, then it ruined my document, there was a line that it was impossible to delete, i had to redo my work.
Hi Josue, You don#8217;t say which method gave you trouble. All of how do i start introduction these options turn the line into personal statement, a character that CAN be deleted. If you turn your Show/Hide Paragraph#8221; button on, you can see the code behind the scenes, and simply use backspace or delete to remove it. Contribution Essays? Others can be clicked on as an object and be deleted. If you still have a copy of the #8220;ruined#8221; document, we can do a screenshare and I can teach you how. Thank you so much for the info. Hi Alicia, I am trying to insert a horizontal line between two paragraphs to make nice visual division in the document. But I can not get the line equal distant from the paragraph above and statement help cv below. It seems to rhetorical a dream want to snap to cv the bottom or top of the corporate finance thesis open line. Any suggestions? Hi Gus, Are you using one of the graphic lines?
If so, try changing the Wrap from #8220;In Line With Text#8221; to Square and see if that helps. Personal Help Cv? If you need, you can send me the file and i start I can take a look. Thank you very much Alicia! Just what made my life easier today. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. Learn Excel in 3 Hours Flat #36; 59.00 Master Intuit QuickBooks Online: From Setup to Tax Time - Paperback #36; 19.95 Royal Guard Monitoring Service #36; 10.00 #36; 174.00 Practical QuickBooks: Year-End Procedures #36; 39.00 Learn Excel in 3 Hours Flat #36; 59.00. Alicia blends the skills of technology, the art of communication, the patience of personal statement help cv a trainer, the wisdom of a business consultant, and finance thesis the detailed eye of an obsessive-compulsive to bring you the personal finest in contribution, business solutions. James “Jamie” Pollock has more than 15 years of experience developing and implementing communication strategies, corporate training curricula and Internet-based solutions for companies such as Jantzen, Symantec, and Intel.
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Essay: Oral administration of drugs. Today various routs available for the administration of drugs but the oral route is the simplest and most preferable route for the administration of dosage forms. Different dosage forms are available for the administration orally. 3. Emulsion suspensions. 4. Solutions etc. But the problems is there in personal statement the recently invented drugs having problem with there bioavability approx. 50% of newly marketed drugs can not be given orally due to finance master poor solubility.
The poor solubility of drugs can reduce the bioavability of dosage forms. Recent approaches have included the administration of drug components with lipid vehicles such as oils, liposomes and self-emulsifying formulations [1, 2]. This system was not use commonly but know the days importance of lipid based drug delivery system is very height due to statement poor water solubility of corporate finance, drugs. For the improving bioavability we formulate a new drug delivery system called self emulsifying drug delivery system By example, the bioavailability of personal help, Tipranavir (TPV), a nonpeptidic protease inhibitor anti-HIV drug, was doubled when dosed to rats in a SEDDS formulation versus delivered as solid powder in a hard filled capsule . developed a self-emulsifying drug delivery system for have a dream, Coenzyme Q10 using polyglycolyzed glycerides as emulsifiers with a resultant 150% increase in bioavailability.4 Numerous other examples exist in the literature demonstrating enhanced bioavalibility with self emulsifying drug delivery systems 5-6 but most focus on a single formulation or small. set of formulations with little explanation of cv, how this formulation was developed. Current SEDDS formulation development, consequently, in general occurs through resource-intensive trial and error. Some mechanistic studies have been conducted exploring a range of SEDDS formulations and a specific aspect of their function, most commonly ability to emulsify [7, 8]. . Essay! Improved quantitative understanding of how properties of a specific self emulsifying formulation interact with the biological environment to enable oral absorption could help optimize SEDDS formulations for enhancing bioavailability. Although a significant amount of literature exists from other fields concerning the function of personal help, emulsions [9-10], pharmaceutical formulations have not been broadly studied with respect to fundamental aspects of emulsion function, with few studies statistically developing predictive models that relate emulsion properties with formulation parameters . In particular, analysis and optimization of emulsion function across a broad range of thesis, formulation parameters via experimental design has not been widely explored. One poorly understood aspect about SEDDS is the personal, influence of different formulation components on the overall performance of these drug delivery systems in vivo.
Different types of essays have a dream, oils with different characteristics and different surfactants combined at different ratios may influence the personal help, performance in vivo drastically. There is no guidance currently available for formulating a drug with specific properties with self. emulsifying drug delivery formulations.12 It is therefore necessary to rhetorical essays a dream speech investigate the statement help, influence of formulation components with a quantitative and statistically designed and analyzed manner. 3 Another knowledge in which there is a lack of understanding is the mechanism of how self emulsifying drug delivery systems work to on punctuality enhance the overall bioavailability of a hydrophobic drug orally. Suggested mechanisms responsible of functioning of personal help, SEDDS in the GI tract environment includes the how do i start a essay, increased drug solubilization in the aqueous lumen phase due to statement alterations in the composition and character of colloidal environment in the GI tract fluid and increased drug absorption due to enhanced permeability permeability (e.g. widening of tight junctions, changes to cellular processing) and lymphatic transport [13-14-15]. Important mechanisms that would influence drug solubilization in the lumen is the rate and extent of digestion of lipidic formulation components. Another one is the rate at which the drug is released from oil droplets especially during the process of essay on punctuality, ‘degradation’ of the emulsified drug carriers by the digestive enzymes in vivo. Personal Statement Help! It is health social essays essential to investigate the rate of digestion of personal, self emulsifying formulation lipids, rate of drug release, as well as the corporate finance master, rate and extent of drug transport across intestinal monolayer incorporated with SEDDS in order to understand and personal help, predict formulation functioning in GI tract. Knowledge gained from social, these mechanistic understandings can be used as quantitative expressions which then can be incorporated into a pharmacokinetic model that will predict oral bioavailability of a drug administered with self emulsifying drug delivery systems. To define and understand challenges involved with oral delivery of hydrophobic drug compounds it is necessary to present a overview of current technologies.
16. Oral intake has been the most sought-after route of drug delivery by the patients as well as the manufacturers for the treatment of most pathological states. Despite tremendous strides made in novel non-oral drug delivery systems (DDS) till date, majority of the drug formulations available in the commercial world today are the oral ones.17 Nevertheless, oral delivery of over one-half of the drug compounds through gastrointestinal (GI) tract gets diminished owing to their high lipophilicity and consequently poor aqueous solubility. Oral bioavailability of such drugs, being primarily a function of their solubility and dissolution,[18-19] tends to exhibit inadequate magnitude with high intra- and inter-subject variability. Cv! Besides, oral bioavailability also depends upon a multitude of other drug factors such as stability in essays a dream speech GI fluidsintestinal permeability, resistance to metabolism by cytochrome P450 family of enzymes present in personal help cv gut enterocytes and liver hepatocytes, and interaction with efflux transporter systems like P-glycoprotein (P-gp).[20,21] explicitly illustrates the mechanisms of the a essay introduction, physiological pathways through which the bioavailability of a drug from the conventional formulations tends to get impeded. Several formulation approaches have been employed to improve the oral bioavailability of diverse drugs.
Amongst these, oral lipid-based DDS have proved their immense potential in improving the poor and inconsistent drug absorption of many poorly water-soluble drugs, especially following their administration after meals.22 These include various types of lipid suspensions, solutions and emulsions.23 With applications in specific domains, the lipidic formulations, thus, have carved a singnificant niche in oral drug delivery. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are relatively newer lipid-based technological innovations with immense promise in personal statement oral bioavailability enhancement of drugs. How Do A Essay! These formulations have shown to reduce the slow and cv, incomplete dissolution of a drug, facilitate the formation of its solubilized phase, increase the extent of its transportation via intestinal lymphatic system, and bypass the P-gp efflux, thereby augmenting drug absorption from the GI tract.24. Self emulsion having grate capacity yo increase the bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. It’s a isotropic mixture of oil ,surfactant, co-surfactant.in this system oil globules bind with drugs and how to write an adep, increase the solubility of drugs. SEDDS is also known as microemulsion system. Cv! It will increase bioavability of drugs 50-100% .25-26. 1. Rhetorical Have A Dream! Solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) 2. Liquid self emulsifying drug delivery system (LSEDDS)
Recently day by day a new drug molequle was found but the only problems is that the bioavability of the drugs. Help Cv! Because oral route is the most preferable route for the administration of drugs but poorly water soluble drugs having problems to formulates solid dosage form because it will reduce the bioavability of drugs.26. In the solid dosage forms numbers of excipients are use for the increasing drug solubility. They can be help in enhancing the master, solubility of drugs. In the SEDDS we number of excipients are use. 3. Co- surfactants. 4. Solidifying agent. They all the excipients help in the inhancing the bioavability of statement help cv, drugs.26. SEDDS is the isotropic mixture of corporate finance, oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Personal Help Cv! Thy having the capacity to i start a essay rapidely dissolve in stomach and personal help, instinal fluid and cover large surface area. due to this nature of SEDDS it will also use in the sustain relese drug delivery system for the instant delivery of drugs. This system can be use to increase the solubility of drugs by the help of excipient’s in rhetorical essays on i a dream the oral dosage forms we can use PH modifier, water soluble organic solvents, surfactant, co-surfactants.
And oils are use long chain triglicryde and medium chain tryglyceried we also use PEG 400, propylene glycol, glycerin, non-ionic surfactants as water soluble organic solvents.36,37. 1.1 Composition of SEDDSs:- ‘ The nature of the oil’surfactant pair. ‘ The surfactant concentration. ‘ The temperature at personal cv which self-emulsification occurs. 1.1.1 Oils:- Oils can solubilize the lipophilic drug in write a specific amount. It is the help cv, most important excipient because it can facilitate self-emulsification and increase the fraction of lipophilic drug transported via the intestinal lymphatic system, thereby increasing absorption from the GI tract . Long-chain triglyceride and medium-chain triglyceride oils with different degrees of saturation have been used in the design of SEDDSs. Essay! Modified or hydrolyzed vegetable oils have contributed widely to the success of SEDDSs owing to their formulation and physiological advantages. Novel semisynthetic medium-chain triglyceride oils have surfactant properties and are widely replacing the regular medium- chain triglyceride. 1.1.2 Surfactant:- Nonionic surfactants with high hydrophilic’lipophilic balance (HLB) values are used in formulation of SEDDSs (e.g., Tween, Labrasol, Labrafac CM 10, Cremophore, etc.). The usual surfactant strength ranges between 30’60% w/w of the formulation in order to form a stable SEDDS.
Surfactants have a high HLB and hydrophilicity, which assists the immediate formation of o/w droplets and/or rapid spreading of the formulation in the aqueous media. Personal Statement Help Cv! Surfactants are amphiphilic in nature and they can dissolve or solubilize relatively high amounts of hydrophobic drug compounds. This can prevent precipitation of the drug within the GI lumen and for prolonged existence of drug molecules. 1.1.3 Cosolvents:- Cosolvents like diehylene glycol monoethyle ether (transcutol), propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, propylene carbonate, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol polyethylene glycol ether (Glycofurol), etc., may help to i start a essay dissolve large amounts of personal statement help cv, hydrophilic surfactants or the hydrophobic drug in the lipid base. These solvents sometimes play the role of the social, cosurfactant in the microemulsion systems.27.
1.2 Microemulsions or Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) Emulsions in general are thermodynamically unstable systems. Help! The droplets of the a dream speech, dispersed phase are large. Personal Statement Cv! Microemulsions on the other hand are emulsion systems that have a droplet size of a few to hundreds of nanometers and are typical complex fluids that consist of three essential components: two immiscible fluids and a surfactant. Typically these are water-in-oil or oil-in-water microemulsions where the rhetorical have a dream, rheological properties of these two liquids and microstructure of the surfactant strongly affect the resulting microemulsion . Microemulsions and micellar solutions are distinguished from statement, emulsions by the fact that the average drop size does not grow with time, which is a manifestation of thermodynamic unstability. Micellar solutions and microemulsions on the other hand are assumed to be thermodynamically stable. Reasons why there is tremendous attention on SEDDS include industrial trend towards the discovery and development on hydrophobic drugs and health social essays, the resolution of technology transfer, stability and regulatory issues by personal SEDDS and the fact that they have proven pharmaceutical benefit with commercially available compounds of up to 5 fold increase in bioavailability (cyclosporine, lipid soluble vitamins, HIV protease inhibitors etc.) Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems by definition are mixtures of an oil, one or more surfactants and optionally a co-solvent or co-surfactant which when introduced into an aqueous media, under gentle agitation, forms fine oil-in-water emulsions. These systems when incorporated with a drug compound, drug is essays distributed in the aqueous solution entrapped inside oil droplets. SEDDS enable distribution of statement cv, hydrophobic drug component in the aqueous media and creates a drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal environment. Distribution of drug inside oil droplets prevents drug from being an undisolved substance, precipitating and essays, being excreted from body.
However their mechanisms of personal cv, action in rhetorical essays on i the body are not limited to solubilization enhancement and also include other processes such as intestinal permeability and lymphatic transport enhancement. SEDDS by nature are thermodynamically stable emulsions compared to unstable regular emulsions. Their stability is thought to personal help be dependent on their relatively small dispersed oil droplet size and narrow range of how to write, droplet distribution. SEDDS are typically composed of emulsion droplets having a diameter of 50 nanometers to 500 nm whereas systems having droplet size less than 50 nm are called self nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). For a given drug only very specific formulations will give efficient emulsification and a self-emulsifying system that will work to enhance bioavailability. Efficiency of SEDDS therefore, as explained in detail by Gursoy et al., is governed by personal cv surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, polarity of the emulsion, droplet size and charge of the droplets. However, the mechanism that governs self-emulsification has not yet fully understood. It is suggested that water penetrates through the gel and LC phases that occur at the surface of the droplets. This is essay on punctuality followed by the solubilization of the water in oil phase until the personal, solubilization limit is reached. After the social essays, limit is reached, formation of dispersion of LC phase is statement cv formed and this depends on rhetorical on i have a dream the surfactant concentration. Wit this formation, SEDDS become resistant to cv coalescence.
Emulsion stability is governed by a variety of essay on punctuality, factors such as physical nature of the interfacial film, presence of electrostatic or steric barriers on the droplet, viscosity of the continuous phase, droplet size distribution, oil to water ratio, temperature and the amount of surfactant that is absorbed on statement cv the surface of the oil droplet. The more surfactant is absorbed on the surface, the more decreased the interfacial tension between oil and water which consequently yields delayed coalescence of contribution, droplets by electrostatic and steric repulsio. Although with the personal statement help, addition of high amounts of drug, which is common case for write an adep, potential oral dosage forms, it is harder to have stabilized emulsions. In this case, the need of using more surfactant arises that have negative aspects such as increased toxic effect of the formulation. 1.3 ADVANTAGES OF SEDDS :- ‘ More consistent drug absorption, ‘ Control of personal help, delivery profile. ‘ Reduced variability including food effects.
‘ Enhanced oral bioavailability enabling reduction in dose. ‘ High drug loading efficiency. ‘ For both liquid and solid dosage forms. ‘ These dosage forms reduce the gastric irritation produced by drugs.25-26. 1.4 APLLICATION OF SEDDS : Main application of this SEDDS to essays a dream increase the personal help, bioavability by increasing the solubility of drugs. In this system we use oils for the increasing the solubility of drugs . the oils can form a layer of globules on the drug so it will easily dissolve in the water.27.
1.5 Solubility and Process of Solubilization. In bioavailability of drug, solubility plays a key role because it is vital determinant of drug release and absorption. Health Social! Any drug showed pharmacological response when it achieves desired concentration in systemic circulation and it is depending upon solubility. Solubility is the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent at statement cv a specified temperature. (Shinde A. On Punctuality! J., 2007) 1.5.1 Process of solubilization. Factors affecting solubility.
1. Particle size. 4. Other: Nature of the solute solvent, Molecular size, Polarity, Polymorphs. 220.127.116.11 Absolute bioavailability and statement help, Relative bioavailability. Absolute bioavailability Intravenous dose is selected as a standard because the drug is administered directly into the systemic circulation (100% bioavailability) and avoids absorption step. Intramuscular dose can also be taken as a standard if the drug is poorly water soluble. Essay! An oral solution as reference standard has also been used in certain cases, but there are several drawbacks of using oral solution as a standard instead of an i.v. dose. Relative or comparative bioavailability. It is also termed as comparative bioavailability. It is denoted by Fr.
In contrast to absolute bioavailability; it is used to characterize absorption of personal statement cv, a drug. 18.104.22.168 Methods for enhancement of bioavailability. As per definition of bioavailability, poor permeability through the biomembrane owing to inadequate partition coefficient or lipophilicity or large molecular size such as that of protein or peptide drugs are poor bioavailable drugs. Contribution! Both poor solubility and personal statement help cv, permeability of drug is depends upon its physicochemical property. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Based on intestinal permeability and solubility of drugs, Amidon et al., developed Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) which classify drugs into one of the four groups. Class I: These are well absorbed orally since they have neither solubility nor permeability limitation. Class II: Shows variable absorption owing to solubility limitation. Class III: also shows variable absorption owing to permeability limitation. Class IV: are poorly absorbed orally owing to health social essays both solubility and permeability limitation. Statement Help! There are three approaches in overcoming bioavailability problems are: It includes alteration of formulation, manufacturing process or physicochemical properties of drug devoid of changing chemical structure.
It includes modification of pharmacokinetic of drug by changing its chemical structure by developing new chemical entity with desirable feature or prodrug design. 22.214.171.124 By enhancing drug solubility or dissolution rate: 3. Supercritical fluid recrystallization. 4. Spray freezing into liquid. 5. Evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution. 6. On Punctuality! Use of surfactants. 7. Use of salt forms. 8. Use of precipitation inhibitors. 9. Alteration of pH of personal help cv, drug microenvironment.
10. Use of amorphous, anhydrates, solvates and metastable polymorphs. 11. Solvent deposition. 13. Selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. 14. Solid solution. 15. Rhetorical Essays A Dream Speech! Eutectic mixture. 16.
Solid dispersion. 17. Molecular encapsulation with cyclodextrin. 126.96.36.199 By enhancing drug permeability across biomembrane. 1. Lipid technology. 3. Personal Help! Penetration enhancers.
188.8.131.52 By enhancing drug stability. 1. Enteric coating. 3. Use of metabolism inhibitors. 1.5.3 Problems and Breakthroughs of Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques. When poor wetting properties and how to an adep, difficulties in processing of personal statement help cv, powders are problems reduction in on i a dream particle size can not applicable in personal statement help such conditions. Essays! So as to avoid such problems many other techniques have been used such as solid dispersions, permeation enhancers, cyclodextrins and nanoparticles. In fact, in some special cases, such approaches have been doing well.In the technique of reducing the size of particles, there is affinity for agglomeration of particles due to high surface charges on small discrete particles. 1.5.4 Lipid based drug delivery. Ideal properties of Lipid based formulations. 1. It should solubilize therapeutic amounts of the personal help, drug in the dosage form. 2. It should maintain adequate drug solubility over the entire shelf-life of the drug product (generally 2 years) under all anticipated storage conditions.
3. It should provide adequate chemical and physical stability for the drug and formulation components. 4. It must be composed of approved excipients in how do i start a essay safe amounts. 5. It should adapt to the digestive processes of the GI tract such that digestion either enhances or maintains drug solubilization. 6. Personal Statement Help! It should present the drug to the intestinal mucosal cells such that absorption into the cells and into the systemic circulation is how do introduction optimized. 2.0 NEED FOR STUDY OBJECTIVE. Oral route is the most convenient and preferable route for personal statement help, the administration of drugs but the problems is finance thesis occurs due to the low solubility of drugs. About 50% of recently find drug molecules can not be formulate in the solid dosage form because of there low solubility. The need of this study was to increase the statement cv, solubility of essays, poorly soluble compound. In this formulation we can formulate a self emulsifying drug delivery system with the active ingredient telmisartain. Telmisartain practically water insoluble drugs. And having poor bioavability by help the help of LSEDDS we can increase solubility of contribution essays, telmisartain.
3. LITRATURE SURVEY. 1. . Saritha,D. Personal Help! et al. (2014) Prapration a stable formulation for self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) in order to enhance the solubility, release rate, and oral absorption of the poorly soluble drug, indomethacin. Contribution Essays! Based on the solubility of personal statement help, indomethacin in oil, surfactant and cosurfactant, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed in 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:3, 3:1, 4:1 ratio for SEDDS composed of labrafil, cremophor EL and transcutol P. Formulations were evaluated for drug content, phase separation, turbidimetry, zeta potential, globule size, refractive index and in vitro release. The study illustrated the potential of indomethacin SEDDS for oral administration and contribution, its biopharmaceutic performance.33. 2. Damineni,S et al (2014) developed self emulsifying drug delivery system of ibuprofen to enhance solubility, dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and personal statement help, drug loading capacity so as to develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively.
Formulation development and screening was done based on essays results obtained from phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsions. The developed SEDDS were evaluated for droplet size analysis, zeta potential, polydispersibility index, viscosity, refractive index, % transmittance, drug content and in vitro diffusion profiles.34. 3. Kumar,S. et al (2014) in this article we have study upper surface of SEDDS. The main advanced topic in this article is personal statement help solidification process of LSEDDS and the development of solid SE dosage forms.at the last find he prolems of the system and essays on i have a dream speech, solve it.35. 4. Reddy,M. et al (2014) In this article we have conclude, today huge numbers of formulation avalables for the increasing poor water solubility of drugs , dissolution rate and bioavailability of insoluble drugs. One of the statement cv, promising techniques is how do introduction Self’Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEDDS).
Liquid SEDDS were prepared using LLWL 1349, Labrafac PG as oils and cremophor EL, cremophor RH40 as surfactants and labrasol, transcutol HP as co-surfactants. Prepared liquid SEDDS were evaluated for stability, particle size, zeta potential and percent transmittance. Personal Statement Help! Selected liquid formulations were converted to solid SEDDS by adsorbing onto a solid carrier Neusilin. Prepared solid SEDDS were evaluated for flow properties and in-vitro drug release studies. Results proved that prepared solid SEDDS have good flow properties and improved drug solubility and dissolution profiles (99.95%) when compared to essay pure efavirenz.36.
5. Amrutkar,C. et al (2014) The aim of the present study is to improve solubility and hence bioavailability of Rosuvastatin calcium using self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). self emulsifying property of various oils was evaluated with suitable surfactant and co-surfactants. Ternary phase diagram was constructed based on Rosuvastatin calcium solubility analysis for optimizing the systems. Personal Help Cv! The prepared formulation were evaluated for self emulsification time, dispersibility study, average globule size, Polydispersibility index (PDI). The globule size of optimized system was less than 100nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion range. Essays! The average globule size of the selected F2 SNEDDS formulation (Capmul MCM [20%], Tween 20 [40%] and PEG 200 [40%]) was 88.01nm. Help! In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable increase in dissolution of how do i start introduction, F2 SNEDDS compared to marketed formulation.37. 6. . Choudhary,S.B. et al (2014) revealed formulated and characterization solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) of domperidone for filling into soft gelatine capsule.
Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed and liquid SEDDS formulations were prepared which consists of oleic acid, tween 20 and cv, propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and essay, cosolvent respectively. The self emulsification properties, globule size, polydispersity index of liquid SEDDS formulations were studied upon dilution with water. Personal Cv! The solid SEDDS was prepared by spray drying method and essay on punctuality, kneading method using Aerosil 200 as solid career. The solid state characterization of the solid SEDDS was performed by SEM, DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results from this study demonstrate the potential use of SEDDS as a means of improving solubility, dissolution, and concomitantly the bioavailability.38. 7. .Gikwad,S. et al. (2012) A reaserch on self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to enhance the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug Orlistat. These drugs can be successfully formulated for oral administration, but care needs to personal statement cv be taken with formulation design to ensure consistent bioavailability.
Solubility of Orlistat was evaluated in essays various nonaqueous carriers that included oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. Statement Cv! Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the self-microemulsification region. The self microemulsification properties, droplet size and thermodynamic stability of these formulations were studied upon corporate, dilution with water.38. 8. . Statement Help! Sachan,R. et al. (2010) To develop a formulation For the improvement of corporate master, bioavailability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in personal help cv drug formulations dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and drug loading capacity so as to develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to contribution improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Formulation development and screening was done based on help cv results obtained from phase diagrams and health, characteristics of resultant microemulsions.39. 9. Liu Y., et al., (2009) optimized and characterized an oridonin SMEDDS formulation using central composite design. Statement Help Cv! In this study effect of concentration of contribution essays, oil andsurfactant and co-surfactant ratio has been studied. Study concluded that, this model is useful for optimization of SMEDDS formulation. Statement Help Cv! In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in essay drug release as compared to powder formulation.40. 10.
Balakrishnan P., et al., (2009) prepared a solid SMEDDS of dexibuprofen by spray drying technique using Aerosil 200 as a solid carrier. Statement Cv! After conversion in to solid form S-SMEDDS retains its self emulsification capacity. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation. In-vivo study showed that increase in bioavailability. Study concluded that, in the form of Solid SMEDDS it retains all characteristics of write an adep, liquid and it can become helpful solid dosage form.41. 11. Statement Help! Singh A. K., et al., (2009) prepared and evaluated SMEDDS of Exemestane using Capryol 90, Cremophore ELP, and Transcutol P. They compared drug release with marketed formulation in different pH. They found extensive increase of drug release than marketed formulation. They also compared absorption of drug with that of drug suspension. Essays! They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS.
Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.42. 12. Shaji J., et al., (2008) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of Celecoxib. They optimized formulation using 33 factorial design. Particle size was taken as response variable. Study showed that, concentration of different components showed prominent effect on statement cv particle size and appearance of dispersion. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Corporate Finance Master Thesis! Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.43.
13. Personal Statement Help! Atef E., et al., (2008) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of phenytoin and compared its relative bioavailability with marketed formulation. Results showed that, extensive increase in drug release form SMEDDS as compared to that of marketed suspension. Also in-vivo study showed improvement in bioavailability. Study concluded that, SMEDDS is promising formulation to increase drug release as well as bioavailability of poorly water soluble compounds In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation.44. 14. Fatouros D. G., et al., (2008) studied dynamic lipolysis model for absorption of drug from SMEDDS formulations. They also studied IVIVC with the help of neuro-fuzzy networks.
Study concluded that, in evaluation of SMEDDS for prediction of in-vivo behavior in-vitro dynamic lipolysis model is a possible means.45. 15. Shikov A., et al., (2008) Prepared and how do, characterized SMEDDS of flavonoids. Prepared SMEDDS formulation was evaluated for self emulsification capacity, droplet size and for personal help, bioavailability. Results showed that, They found enhanced drug absorption from rhetorical essays on i have, SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug. there was 2-5 fold increase in bioavailability as compared to flavonoid in personal statement help cv powder form.46. 16.
Woo J. How To! S., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of Itraconazole and studied and compared in-vivo study in human volunteers with marketed formulation having double dose. Study concluded that, there is extensive increase in bioavailability with reduced food effect by SMEDDS formulation as compared with marketed formulation. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of help, enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.47. 17. Mandawgade S. D., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS using natural lipophile as oil phase and also compared its performance with synthetic oils. For this study beta-Artemether was used as drug.
Oil was previously evaluated for toxicity studies. Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for globule size, in-vitro and in-vivo study. Study concluded that, performance of natural lipophiles is better than that of commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in SMEDDS as it is safe.48. 18. How To An Adep! Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a controlled release solid SMEDDS of personal statement cv, nimodipine using HPMC. Essay! They have prepared batches by mixing drug with HPMC and another batch by dissolving drug and HPMC in the SMEDDS. Prepared self emulsifying formulations were evaluated for surface characterization, reconstituted properties, inner physical structure and in-vitro drug release study. Help Cv! Study concluded that, It can be possible to formulate controlled release formulations of poorly water soluble drug by SMEDDS using high viscosity grade HPMC.49. 19.
Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a S-SMEDDS of nimodipine. Prepared S-SMEDDS was evaluated for in-vitro and essays, in-vivo absorption study. Personal Statement! They have studied effect of dilution media and social essays, enzymatic digestion on solubilization of drug .Results showed that, there is faster dissolution rate of drug from S-SMEDDS than that of conventional tablet and enhancement of absorption as compared to liquid SMEDDS. . Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for globule size, in-vitro and in-vivo study. Study concluded that, performance of natural lipophiles is better than that of commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in SMEDDS as it is safe. Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for oral use.50. 20. Personal Help! Abdalla A., et al., (2008) Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for oral use. developed self emulsifying formulation in contribution essays the form of statement cv, pellets by extrusion and spheronization technique. In. this study they found that, droplet size decreases after dilution. Study concluded that, solubilzation depend on essay concentration of secretions like bile salts and phospolipid.
SMEDDS can besuccessfully transformed into pellets form and personal cv, can become another method to encapsulate material into hard gelatin capsule.51. 21. Lu J. L., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of how do, 9NC to enhance bioavailability and cv, anticancer effect. They prepared microemulsion of 9NC and characterized for citotoxicity and bioavailability study. Bioavailablity and anticancer effect have been compared with suspension of 9NC. Health Social! Study concluded that, antitumor activity has been enhanced in personal the form of SMEDDS.52. 22. Write An Adep! Patel D., et al., (2007) developed SMEDDS of Acyclovir. Prepared formulations were evaluated for different parameters.
Absorption of drug from SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by statement cv SMEDDS. Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach. . Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in plasma cholesterol and essay on punctuality, 4 fold reductions in plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of personal help cv, drug suspension. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from SEDDS.53. 23.
Cirri M., et al., (2007), formulated oral liquid spray formulation of xibornol using SMEDDS. Prepared formulations were evaluated for essay on punctuality, rheological, stability, SAXS and in-vivo study. The study found that, SMEDDS can be used to prepare stable and effective oral liquid spray formulation. Absorption of drug from SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by SMEDDS. Personal Help Cv! Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach.54.
24. Contribution! Patil P., et al., (2007) formulated a SEDDS for simvastatin. Prepared SEDDS was evaluated for turbidometric analysis, particle size, in-vitro drug diffusion and in-vivo study in rat. Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in plasma cholesterol and help, 4 fold reductions in on i a dream plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of drug suspension. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from help cv, SEDDS.55. 25. Patel A. Contribution Essays! R., et al., (2007) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of fenofibrate. From solubility study of statement help cv, drug in different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and how to, pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. Help! From this SMEDDS were prepared and evaluated for thermodynamic, dissolution, stability study and lipid lowering capacity. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can improve dissolution rate and hence bioavailability of drug which become substitute for oral drug delivery system. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of essays on i speech, drug from SEDDS.56.
26. Shen H., et al., (2006) prepared and help cv, evaluated SMEDDS of corporate finance master, atorvastatin using Labrafil, PEG and Cremophor RH40. From solubility study of drug in different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. SMEDDS capsule of statement, atorvastatin were prepared and drug release were studied and compared with conventional tablet. How To! Results showed that release of drug was much higher from SMEDDS capsule than that of personal help, tablet. Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS capsule than conventional tablet. controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in tablet dosage form.57.
27. Boonme P., et al., (2006) characterized colloidal state in microemulsion system. They constructed pseudo ternary phase diagram by water titration method. different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from tablet. Health! Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from statement, lipid formulations in social tablet dosage form. Different samples were prepared by keeping surfactant concentration of 45 % and by cv varying proportion of water.
Prepared samples were evaluated for appearance, viscosity, conductivity, DSC, SEM and NMR. Study concluded that, if composition has 15 % of water, it contain reverse micelles, W/O emulsion obtain if it contain 15-30 % of water and it gives O/W emulsion of it contain more than 35 % of water.58 28. Nazzal S., et al., (2006) evaluated different process parameters which affect release of drug from SNEDDS in tablet dosage form. Solid preparation was prepared to study absorption of contribution, drug in personal statement cv rat and write an adep, dog. Prepared tablets were evaluated for dissolution and stability studies. Results showed that, different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from tablet. Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in personal help tablet dosage form.59 29.
Wu W., et al., (2006) prepared SMEDDS of how do, silymarin. From solubility study of drug Tween 80, ethyl alcohol and statement help cv, ethyl linoleate were selected as formulation components Solid preparation was prepared to study absorption of essay on punctuality, drug in rat and dog. Results showedthat Florite RE gives more absorption of personal help, drug both in rat and dog. Results showed that, there is increase in particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation. Drug release was much higher than that of crude drug powder. Study concluded that by essays using SMEDDS bioavailability of silymarin can be enhanced.60 30.
Ito Y., et al., (2005) prepared solid formulation of gentamicin using different adsorbents and surfactant to enhance absorption of drug. Florite RE, Neusilin US2 and Sylysia 320 were used as adsorbents and Labrasol was used as surfactant. Prepared formulation was evaluated for particle size, drug release and bioavailability study. Results showed that, there is increase in particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation Study concluded that by using adsorbent and surfactant system oral solid formulations can be prepared so as to increase absorption of poorly absorbable drug.61 31. Sha X., et al., (2005) studied effect of charge and statement help cv, dilution on TEER and contribution, permeability of mannitol by formulating SMEDDS using Labrasol and also studied effect of dilution of surfactant on personal cv ZO-1 and F-actin. Contribution Essays! Study concluded that, SMEDDS of both positive and negative charge containing Labrasol are capable of enhancing the paracellular tramsport of mannitol across Caco-2 cell at different dilutions. , there was significant increase in rate and extent of absorption of drug as compared to capsule. It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.62 32. . Subramanian N., et al., (2004) developed and optimized SMEDDS of Celecoxib using simplex lattice mixture design. Prepared SMEDDS were evaluated for Clarity, solubility, in-vitro dissolution and in-vivo study. Results showed thatRelative bioavailability with capsule was found to personal be 132 %. Study concluded that, prepared formulation will reduce variability in absorption and rate and gives rapid onset of action of drug.
It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.63 33. Kang B. K., et al., (2004) prepared SMEDDS of simvastatin using Carpryol 90, Cremophor EL and Carbitol. Essays! Prepared formulations were evaluated for Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug, in-vitro dissolution study and bioavailability study. Results showed that, in-vitro of drug was much higher that that of conventional tablet. It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for personal help, oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.64 34. Patil P., et al., (2004) formulated a gelled SEDDS of ketoprofen using Captex 200, Tween 80 and Capmul MCM.
Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug. Study concluded that, as concentration of rhetorical essays, gelling agent increases it increase droplet size of personal help, emulsion formed which helps in slowing drug diffusion. It was also found that, as concentration of co-surfactant increase drug release from dosage form also increases.65 35. Holm R., et al., (2003) importance of this examined oral absorption and lymphatic transport of how do i start, halofantrine in help cv SMEDDS containing triglycerides, Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of how do a essay introduction, drug. Maisine-35-1 and personal help cv, Cremophor EL. Rhetorical On I A Dream Speech! Study verified that, after administration of halofantrine in SMEDDS lymphatic transport and absorption was affected. Study concluded that, by using differentstructure of triglycerides it is personal help cv achievable to enhance lymphatic transport of contribution essays, compound without affecting its availability.66 36. Itoh K., et al., (2002) the aim of this present researched topic improved solubility of N-4472 by formulating self-micro emulsifying system using Gelucirei??i?? 44/14, HCO and SDS. Personal Help Cv! Study concluded that, formulate sedds to enhance the bioavability and formed stable microemulsion droplets. A Dream! SDS showed vital role in stability of personal help, microemulsion droplets.67 37.
Agarwal V., et al., (2000) investigated effect griseofulvin SMEDDS addition to silica and silicate on corporate master thesis flow properties and in-vitro drug release. Results showed that, increase in surface area increases dissolution of drug. Cv! Study concluded that, nature and amount of adsorbent affect flow properties and dissolution of drug in SMEDDS. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation.68 38. Kim H. J., et al., (2000) developed SMEDDS of idebenone using Labrafil 2609, Labrasol. Contribution! Transcutol and Plurol oleique WL1173 so as to enhance bioavailability by the increasing the solubility of the poorly water solublr drug. Statement Cv! Results showed that, in-vitro dissolution rate of drug were increased 2 folds than that of tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be used as substitute for health social, traditional oral formulations to enhance bioavailability of personal statement, idebenone.69 39. Health Social Essays! Chen G. L., et al., (1996) the importance of statement cv, this present researched study was validated bioanalytical method for determination of Verapamil from plasma by finance thesis HPLC for pharmacokinetic study of Verapamil. They also studied sensitivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability of cv, method. For the essay, purpose of sedds evaluation.70 40.
Shah N. H., et al., (1994) the aim of this study was investigated emulsification efficiency of polyglycolyzed glycerides (PGG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). They prepared SEDDS using different concentrations of PGG as emulsifiers,oils and different type of statement, surfactant and co-surfactant. Neobee M5 and Peanut Oil were selected as oil. Drug having good solubility in corporate master thesis oil was selected for this study. Study showed that, PGG can be used as emulsifier for preparation of SEDDS.71 MATERIAL METHOD 4. MATERIAL AND METHOD 4.1 MATERIALS Table 4.1: List of materials with sources S. No. Materials Source 1. Telmisartan Skymap Pharmaceuticals, Roorie 2. Tween 80 Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 3. PEG 400 Nasco laboratory 4. Methanol Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 5. Hydrochloric acid Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 6. Orange oil Burgone laboratory Mumbai Table 4.2: List of equipments with make S. No. Equipment Make 1. Analytical balance Fuji electronic balance 2. Melting point apparatus Jyoti digital auto melting apparatus 3. UV – Spectrophotometer Jasco japan-v630 4. Dissolution apparatus Jyoti standard dissolution apparatus 5. FTIR Jasco-japan FT/IR/4100 7. mixing Jyoti lab gwl. INDIA 8. Hot air oven Jyoti lab gwl.
INDIA 9. Water bath Jyoti lab gwl.INDIA 4.1.1 Drug profile: Telmisartan72 Telmisartan is 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. Structural formula ‘ Figure 3.1: Structure of telmisartan Molecular formula- C33H30N4O2 Molecular weight- 514.6 Definition 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. Content: 99.0 per cent to 101.0 per cent (dried substance). Category: Antihypertensive. Dose: 20 to 80 mg. Personal Cv! Half life: 24 hrs. Essays! Appearance: White or slightly yellowish, crystalline powder. Solubility: Practically insoluble in statement help water, slightly soluble in methanol, sparingly soluble in methylene chloride.
It dissolves in 1 M sodium hydroxide. It exhibits polymorphism. Melting point: 261 ‘ 263oC. Write! Storage: it should be stored at room temperature (15 – 30 i??i??C), away from moisture and light. Mechanism of personal cv, action: It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Telmisartan exhibits high affinity with the angiotensin II type one receptors in rhetorical essays on i have a dream adrenal gland and in vascular smooth muscles. It works by binding to the angiotensin II receptor. It inhibits the personal cv, action of angiotensin which is a vasoconstrictor.
Angiotensin also stimulates the synthesis and release of social, aldosterone. Personal! By blocking the vasoconstrictor effect of the essays have speech, angiotensin and blocking the aldosterone, Telmisartan reduces the systemic vascular resistance. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After the personal statement, oral administration peak concentrations (Cmax) of telmisartan are attained in 0.5 to 1 hour. How To Write An Adep! Ingestion with food slightly decreases the bioavailability of Telmisartan. Personal Cv! Absolute bioavailability is how do i start a essay introduction dose dependent. At 40 and 160 mg the bioavailability was found to be 42% and 58%, respectively. Distribution: Binding with plasma proteins is constant with the recommend doses. It is highly binding with the plasma proteins (more than 99.5 %).
It has a volume of distribution of around 500 L. Metabolism: Telmisartan is metabolized by forming a pharmacologically inactive compound acyl glucuronide by conjugation. The only identifiable compound in statement the human plasma and urine is the glucuronide. Elimination: Telmisartan has a half life of 24 hour and total plasma clearance of more than 800 mL/min. More than 97% of the orally/IV administered telmisartan is eliminated in social essays the feces via biliary excretion, unchanged. Uses: It is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Adverse effects: The common reported adverse effects of statement cv, telmisartan are upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (7%), Back pain (3%), Diarrhea (3%), Myalgia (3%), and Sinusitis (3%).
Some rare adverse effects (1%) are abnormal ECG, anemia, angina, angioedema, bradycardia, eczema, epistaxis, gout, and hypercholesterolemia. Drug interactions: Telmisartan has found interacting with several drugs such as, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, and benazepril etc. Caution is advised when combination will be used. Dosage forms: It is essays on i speech commonly used in the form of tablets of personal, 20, 40, and 80 mg. Speech! 4.1.2 TWEEN 80 72-73 Chemical Name: Tween 80 Molecular Formula: C24H44O6 Formula Weight: 428.600006103516 Tween 80 Property Boiling point- 100i??i??C. Dencity – 1.08 g/mL at 20 i??i??C. Vapour pressure- 230 i??i??F. storage temp. Help! : Store at RT. From- viscous liquid. Water Solubility : 5-10 g/100 mL at 23 i??i??C. EPA Substance Registry System: Sorbitan, mono-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.(9005-65-6)
Tween 80 Chemical Properties,Usage,Production. Yellow to social essays amber liquid. Amber-colored viscous liquid. pH (5% aqueous solution) 5-7. Faint odor and bitter taste. Air Water Reactions.
Tween 80 is incompatible with strong alkalis and statement help cv, oxidizers. Tween 80 is probably combustible. 4.1.3 ORANGE OIL 72-73:- It was the important and contribution essays, essincial oil can be produse by the cells in the fruits of oranges. They can also be extracted by orange juse it will compose mostely d-limonene. That will be extract to the oil by help cv distillation. Odour- fresh and tangy smell, Coloue- yellow to orange in color. Self life- approximately 6 months.
Origin of Sweet orange oil. This evergreen tree has dark green leaves and white flowers and contribution essays, bright orange round fruit with roughish skin. The trees are native to China, but are now cultivated extensively in personal statement America. 1. A Essay! It can be used many Curacao type liqueurs. 2. for the flavoring of help cv, food. 3. drink and confectionery. 4. when added to furniture polish. 5. helps to protect against damage from insects. The orange oil are extracted by cold-pressing and yields 0.3 -0.5 %. It can also use for the medicinal perpose that will gives several therapeutic actions are antiseptic, anti-depressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, cholagogue, sedative and tonic. The main chemical components of orange oil are a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, neral and geranial.
1. It is health essays a safe non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, 2. yet care must be taken with it since it can have a phototoxic effect. 3. It should therefore preferably not be applied before going out into sunlight for prolonged periods. Iupac name – polyethylene glycol. – 90.0 cst at 25 i??i??C, 7.3 cst at 99 i??i??C.
PEG 400 properties. 1. (polyethylene glycol 400) is a low-molecular-weight grade of statement help, polyethylene glycol. 2. It is health social a clear, 4. viscous liquid. 5. Due in part to its low toxicity, PEG 400 is widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. 1. PEG 400 is soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and is slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons.
2. Personal Statement Help! PEG 400 is rhetorical have strongly hydrophilic. 3. The partition coefficient of PEG 400 between hexane and water is 0.000015 (log ), indicating that when PEG 400 is mixed with water and hexane, 4. there are only 15 parts of PEG 400 in the hexane layer per 1 million parts of PEG 400 in the water layer. PEG 400 is cv soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and is slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. 4.2 Preformulation studies 72,73,74,75. To develop a safe, stable and master, therapeutically effective dosage form, preformulation studies are necessary to perform. The preformulation studies, which were performed in this project, include identification of personal statement, drug, melting point analysis, solubility analysis, and quantitative estimation of contribution essays, drug.
4.2.1 Identification tests. ‘ Physical appearance: The drug was white, odorless crystalline powder. ‘ Melting point analysis: Melting point of telmisartan was determined by statement help capillary method using melting point apparatus (Rolex- Digital melting point apparatus). ‘ FTIR study: Drug sample was vacuum dried for 12 h before IR studies. IR spectra of pure telmisartan, PEG 4000, mannitol and solid dispersions of telmisartan were obtained by how to an adep a Shimadzu IR Prestige-21 FT-IR spectrophotometer using KBr pellets. Help Cv! The scanning range used was 4000 to 400cm-1.
The observed peaks were reported for functional groups. 4.2.2 Loss on drying73-74. It was determined on 1 g drug by contribution essays drying it in a hot air oven at 105oC. The weight was determined at 15 min intervals till the difference was not more than 0.5 mg. The total difference in weight should not be more than 0.5%. 4.2.3 Determination of ‘max 73. Accurately weighed sample of 10 mg of telmisartan was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol in personal help cv a 100 mL volumetric flask and then the speech, volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol.
Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into personal statement cv a 10 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to the 10 mL mark with methanol. The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). The same procedure was followed to determine the ‘max in HCl buffer (pH 1.2). Health Social Essays! The prepared solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu). To determine ‘max in water, accurately weighed 10 mg sample of personal help cv, telmisartan was dissolved in how to an adep 50 mL of methanol in statement cv a 100 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol. Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into a 10 mL volumetric flask and essay, volume made up to the 10 mL mark with distilled water. Personal Cv! The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). 4.2.4 Quantitative estimation of drug73-74. Drug was estimated in social the range of 3-15 mcg/mL for telmisartan in water (pH 7.0), HCl buffer (pH 1.2) and methanol.
Preparation of HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of 0.2 M KCl was added in a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in the flask and volume was adjusted to 200 mL with distilled water32. 4.2.5 Construction of calibration curve of telmisarta73. 184.108.40.206. Preparation of help cv, calibration curve in methanol: The 25mg of accurately weighed telmisartan was dissolved in 25 mL of methanol to give standard solution (1000 i??i??g/mL). Write! From this standard solution, 3 mL was pipetted out and volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol referred as stock solution of statement help, concentration 30i??i??g/ mL. Aliquots of 1 mL, 2 mL, 3 mL, 4 mL and 5 mL of finance thesis, stock solution were pipetted out into separate 10 mL volumetric flask. Personal Help Cv! The volume was made up to the mark with methanol.
This results in samples of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 ‘g/mL concentration, respectively. The absorbance of prepared solution of telmisartan in methanol was measured at 296.5 nm in Shimadzu UV-1700 spectrophotometer against corporate finance an appropriate blank. 220.127.116.11. Preparation of statement, calibration curve in HCl buffer (pH 1.2): Exact procedure was followed as described above by using HCl buffer (pH 1.2) instead of methanol. The absorbance was recorded at 296 nm. 4.2.6. Rhetorical On I A Dream! solublity of telmisartain in different medium. Solubility of help, telmisartain was determine in the different medium by heand shaking method. 3.3 Formulation 76. 4.3.1 identification of microemulsion region : Determine solubility of telmisartain in different -2 medium then select three medium orange oil as oil, PEG 400 as surfactant and tween 80 as co-surfactant. Micro-emulsion region was identify by constructing pseudo ternary phase diagram with the rhetorical have a dream, help of different proportion of surfactant and cv, co-surfactant (1:1, 2:1, 3:1). They are mix with oils at different proportion (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1) and the complete mixture was titrate with water and finance thesis, noted the equbliurem point.
At which point the mixture will show clear. 4.3.2 preparation of liquid SMEDDS: Due to statement help the higher microemulsion region in the 3:1 proportion (surfactant:co-surfctant) was selected for the preparation of LSEDDS. 1. Required amount of PEG 400 and tween 80 was take and mix with the help of stirrer until they compatibly mix. 2. Aquaretly weight telmisartain and take required amount of orange oil and mix il. 3. Health Social! Drug mixture place on water bath until drug completely dissolve in oil. 4. Both the personal statement, mixture are mix togather on the magnatic stirrer untill they are compleately mix and i start a essay introduction, form a isotropic mixture. 5. Store in the glass bottle.
Table 4.3 chemical requirements. Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg. 4.4 CHARACTERIZATION :76-77. 4.4.1 stability study :76. 18.104.22.168 heating cooling cycle: for the personal, stability study of LSEDDS pass six cycle between hot and cool temperature (40c-450c) with storing not less then 48hrs at each temp. not seen any type of phase sapration. 22.214.171.124 centrifugation test: After passing heating cooling cycle it would be pass with centrifugation test. The sample of LSEDDS placed in centrifuge for 30min and show any type of rhetorical on i have a dream, precipitation. If not seen it would be go to the next stability test.
126.96.36.199 freeze thaw cycle: This test is again at cool and statement help, hot temperature (-210C to +250C) 48 hrs at each temp. If the LSEDDS pass all the stability parameter means the system becomes stable. 4.4.2 cloud point measurement : 76-77. Liquid SMEDDS was diluted with distilled water at 250 times LSEDDS : distill water(1:250), placed in a water bath and its temperature was increased slowely-2.
Cloud point was measured as the i start introduction, temperature at which there was a sudden appearance of cloudiness visually. 4.4.3 solubility test .77-78. Solubility of LSEDDS was determine at cv buffer solution at on punctuality 1.2ph, 7.4ph, and methanol by personal statement help cv using standard paddle type dissolution test apparatus. 188.8.131.52 Preparation of HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of 0.2 M KCl was added in a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of how to write, HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in the flask and volume was adjusted to 200 mL with distilled water. 184.108.40.206 Buffer pH 7.4: Mix 50 mI of solution containing 1.944 per cent w/v ofsodium acetate and 2.946 per personal statement cent w/v of barbitone sodium with 50.5 mI of finance thesis, 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, add 20 mI of an 8.5 per cent w/v solution of sodium chloride and dilute with water to 250 mI.
4.4.4 efficiency of self emulsification :76-77. Using USP- type-II dissolution test apparatus (Veego VDA-8DR). 1 mL of Liquid SMEDDS was added drop wise to personal cv 200 ml of essays a dream speech, 0.1 N HCl at 37i??i??C. agitate using by using standard stainless at rotating paddle at 60 rpm. SMEDDS assessed visually according to the rate of emulsification and final appearance of the emulsion. 4.4.5 Robustness to dilution :76. it can be studied by by diluting LSEDDS at different concentration with distill wate. 1. Prepare HCL buffer solution PH 7.4, PH 1.2. 2. Prepare dilution with both the solution at following concentration. 3. Store for personal, 12 hrs.
4. Observe any type of phase saperation or pracipation. 4.4.6 % transmittance :76. For the determination of % transmittance take. 1. 1ml of LSEDDS and diluted till 100ml with distilled water. 2. Essays! Scan this sample in the uv spectroscopy. 3. observe any type of turbidity and % transmittance. 4.4.7 Dye solubility test : 76. This test can be perform for the conformation of oil in water nature of LSEDDS by observing sopntenious dispersion. 1. Take water soluble dye and sufficient quantity of LSEDDS. 2. Rapidly incorporate dye into the system. 4.4.8. in vitro drug release:76-77.
In vitro dissolution study of LSEDDS using type -2 dissolution test apparatus in buffer solution ph 1.2, ph 7.4 at 370 c. 220.127.116.11 Drug release in buffer solution at 1.2 PH :- 1. Prepare buffer solution 1.2 PH by the help of personal statement help, indian pharmacopeia. 2. Fill in on i a dream speech the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of LSEDDS in the apparatus. Statement Help Cv! Start the assumbaly. 4. Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min. 5. The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper.
And dilute upto 10ml. 6. If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to all the samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. The sample was scan into the uv spectroscopy at 296nm. 18.104.22.168 Drug release in buffer solution at 7.4 PH :- 1. Prepare buffer solution 7.4 PH by the help of indian pharmacopeia. 2. Health Social! Fill in the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of LSEDDS in the apparatus. Start the assumbaly. 4. Personal Help Cv! Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min.
5. Write! The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper. And dilute upto 10ml. 6. If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to personal statement help all the samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. Health Essays! The sample was scan into the uv spectroscopy at 296nm. 4.4.9 drug contant:76-77-78-79. drug content of LSEDDS should be determine by personal help cv diluting 1 ml sample of LSEDDS with distill water.
Take there absorbance in essay uv-spectroscopy at296nm. 1. Take 1ml sample of LSEDDS and personal statement help cv, dilute with distill water upto 100ml. 2. If the concentration of sample was high then furthers 1ml sample dilute with distill water upto 10ml. 3. Scan this sample in uv-spactroscopy. 4. Calculate there percentage by the help of leaner line equation. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Table 5.1: Melting point of health social, telmisartan.
S. No. Personal Help Cv! Melting point Result. 5.1 LOSS ON DRYING: The results were within the acceptable limit which is rhetorical essays have a dream speech 0.5%. Table 5.2: Loss on drying. S.No. Personal Help Cv! Time (min) Weight (mg) Difference in weight (mg)
Total difference 2.9. 5.2 FTIR spectroscopy: FT-IR spectra of pure drug telmisartan and its solid dispersion which are shown in figure 7.1 and 7.4. There was not any significant interaction found between drug and carriers which confirms the stability of drug in the formulation. Table 5.3: Major peaks observed in FTIR spectrum of telmisartan. S. Essay! No.
Standard peak Observed peak Comments. 1. 3059.1cm-1 3080 cm-1 C-H stretching (aromatic) 2. 2958.8-2868.15 cm-1 2870-2738.92 cm-1 C-H stretching (aliphatic) 3. 1697.36 cm-1 1687.71 cm-1 C=O stretching. 5. 1521.84-1458.18 cm-1 1462.04 C=C stretching ring. Figure 5.1: FT-IR spectra of pure telmisartan.
5.4 LEMDA MAX OF TELMISARTAIN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM : Table 5.4: Solvent systems, their parameters and values. S.No. Solvent system Parameters Values. 1. Methanol i??i??max 296.5 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.050x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 2. Buffer 7.4 i??i??max 298 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.043x + 0.004.
Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 3. Statement Cv! HCl buffer (pH 1.2) i??i??max 296 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.046x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 5.5 CALIBRATION CURVE OF TELMISARTAN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM. Table 5.5: Calibration curve of telmisartan in HCl buffer pH 7.4 and how to write, HCl buffer pH 1.2 at ‘max 298 nm and 296 respectively. S.No. Concentration (i??i??g/mL) HCl buffer pH 7.4 HCl buffer pH 1.2. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance Absorbance Regressed Absorbance.
2. Personal Help! 3 0.139 0.133 0.153 0.145. 3. Essays! 6 0.270 0.262 0.294 0.283. 4. 9 0.401 0.391 0.423 0.421. 5. 12 0.537 0.520 0.567 0.559. 6. 15 0.657 0.649 0.706 0.697. S.No.
Concentration (i??i??g/mL) Methanol. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance. Table 5.6: Calibration curve of telmisartan in methanol at ‘max 296.5 nm. Figure 5.2: Calibration curve of telmisartan in buffer 7.4 ph at help 298 nm. Figure 5.3: Calibration curve of telmisartan in HCl buffer pH 1.2 at an adep 296 nm. Figure 5.4: Calibration curve of telmisartan in methanol at 296.5 nm.
5.6 SOLUBILITY OF TELMISARTAIN : Table 5.7: solubility of telmisartain in different medium. S.NO. Personal Cv! MEDIUM SOLUBILITY. 1. How Do A Essay Introduction! Water Insoluble. 2. Hcl Springly soluble. 3. Methanol soluble. 5. PEG400 Soluble. 6. Tween 80 Springly soluble.
7. Tween 20 Springly soluble. 8. Span 80 Springly soluble. 5.7 IDENTIFICATION OF MICRO-EMULSION REGION BY PREPAPE PSUDO TERATORY PHASE DIGRAM. In this formulation preportion of personal statement help cv, surfactant and co surfactant is 1:1. Table 5.8: identification of micro-emulsion region. SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and co surfactant is 2:1. Table 5.9: identification of how to, micro-emulsion region.
SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of statement, surfactant and essay, co surfactant is personal 3:1. Table 5.10: identification of micro-emulsion region. Smix : OIL END POINT. Result- Best micromulsion was found to be In formulation 3 at 5:5 proportion of contribution essays, oil and statement help, mixture of surfactant and co-surfactant denoted as smi. 5.8 FORMULATION OF LIQUID-SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (LSEDDS). 5.8.1 chemical requirement: Table 5.11: chemicals requirements . Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg/2gm. 5.9 EVALUATION OF LSEDDS.
5.9.1 stability study. Physical stability was important parameter in the emulsion system it can be affected the performance of the system, it can be occurs due to the precipitation of drug. Due to the poor stability of system bioavability of drug also affected. For the thermodynamic stability study of LSEDDS was perform by following perameater. 1. Heating cooling cycle.
2. Centrifugation test. 3. On Punctuality! Freeze thaw cycle. When system can not show any type of phase separation during heating cooling cycle then syatem can be tested in the centrifugation for the drug pricipation then apply freeze thaw cycle for personal statement help cv, the stress test. 22.214.171.124 heating cooling cycle : 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation.
450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. Table 5.12: six cycle of heating cooling temp. Result ‘ not seen any type of phase saperation. 126.96.36.199 Centrifugation test:
Result- LSEDDS was centrifuge for 30 min there was not seen any type of precipitation and phase saperation. 188.8.131.52 freeze thaw cycle. Table 5.13: three cycle of -210c to +250c. Cool temp. No change.
Hot temp. Social Essays! No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. No change. 5.9.2 cloud point measurement. Table 5.14: Cloud point. Sample Cloud point.
Result- cloud point of this emulsion system was found to be more then 860c. Personal Statement Help! which indicates that our LSEDDS was stable at the physiological temperature without any risk of phase separation. 5.9.3 solubility study: Table 5.15: solubility of LSEDDS. Medium Solubility time. Buffer solution PH 1.2 Less than 5min. Buffer solution PH Less than 5min. 0.1 N HCL Less than 5min.
Result ‘ solubility of this system was found to be less than 5min which indicates that the formulation also use in the sustain release drug delivery system with maximum bioavability. 5.9.4 Efficiency of self-emulsification. Sample Efficiency of LSEDDS. 1 Less than 1min. 2 Less than 1min. 3 Less than 1min. Result ‘ this system rapidly form micro emulsion with in 1min it was clear and appearance was slightly blush. 5.9.5 Robustness to dilution : Table 5.15: dilution with different solvents. Concentration Water Buffer solution.
PH 1.2 Buffer solution. 50 times No change No change No change. 100 times No change No change No change. 500 times No change No change No change. 1000 times No change No change No change. Result ‘ in the robustness dilution not seen any type of phase separation and pracipation. Result- % trasmittance of this system was found to be 93.5. 5.9.7. On I Have! dye solubility test.
Result- type of emulsion was conform by using dye solubility test in which a water soluble colourfull dye rapid incorporate in personal help the LSEDDS and observe. Which indicates that the continuous phase in this system is water. so it was conform that the LSEDDS was o/w micro emulsion. 5.9.8 in-vitro drug release profile. 184.108.40.206 drug release in buffer solution PH1.2. Table 5.16 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 7.35 42.43. 15 min 11.63 61.36. 30 min 1.83 75.45.
45 min 18.64 83.33. 60 min 23.31 89.02. 90 min 27.15 95.26. 120 min 29.48 95.56. Figure 7.4 commulative % drug release of SEDDS and rhetorical on i a dream, plain telmisartain in PH 1.2. 220.127.116.11 drug release in cv buffer solution PH 7.4.
Table 5.17 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 11.38 47.39. 15 min 14.92 54.43. 30 min 19.61 73.13. 45 min 24.48 81.68. 60 min 28.29 90.83. 90 min 32.62 96.54. 120 min 33.46 98.12.
Figure 7.6 % commulative drug release of LSEDDS and plan telmisartain in an adep PH 7.4. 5.9.9 drug content estimation. Table 5.18 drug content: The oral route is the most preferred method of administration of drugs. Unfortunately, this route is not possible for 50% of statement help, currently marketed drug compounds due to their low solubility in water and low oral bioavailability. We study that self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be used for the improvement of bioavailability of the drug. Master! In the preparation of this system containing with telmisartain as active pharmaceutical ingredient. To increase bioavailability solubility of this drug. Due to poor solubility of help cv, telmisartain it cannot be formulate in the oral drug delivery system. Essays! But with the help of personal statement help cv, LSEDDS it’s possible to give telmisartain via oral drug delivery system.
After the rhetorical, complete study of LSEDDS we conclude that the system was very useful for statement, the active drug molecules having poor solubility. 1. Yamamoto, J. and H. Tanaka, prepare neomatic phase in the liquid micro-emulsion. Nature (London), 2001. Health Social! 409(6818): p. Personal Cv! 321-325. 2. Porter, C.J.H., N.L. Trevaskis, and W.N. Charman, Lipids and lipid-based formulations: for the optimization of drug delivery by oral route lipophilic drug. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2007. 6(3): p. Essays On I! 231-248.
3. Humberstone, A.J. and W.N. Help Cv! Charman, the oral drug delivery of health social, poorly water soluble drugs. By forming a lipid based drug delivery system Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 1997. 25(1): p. 103-128. 4. Kommuru, T.R., et al., Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of coenzyme Q10: formulation development and statement help cv, bioavailability assessment By forming a lipid based drug delivery system Advanced Drug Delivery. Int J Pharm, 2001. 212(2): p. 233-46. 5. Neslihan Gursoy, R. and S. Benita, Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for improved bioavability of poorly water soluble drug. Biomedicine Pharmacotherapy, 2004. 58(3): p. 173-182.
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10. Palamakula, A. and M.A. Khan, Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) for how do i start, improving bioavability of cytotoxicity of oils used in coenzyme Q10. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2004. 273(1-2): p. Personal! 63-73. 11.
Montenegro, L., et al., Effect of oil phase lipophilicity on in vitro drug release from o/w microemulsions with low surfactant content. How To! Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 2006. 32(5): p. 539-548. 12. Attama, A.A. and M.O.
Nkemnele, formulation and evaluation SEDDS using a biodegradable homolipid from statement help, Capra hircus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2005. 304(1-2): p. 4-10. 13. Djordjevic, L., M. Primorac, and M. Stupar, In vitro release of diclofenac diethylamide by using a lipid based microemulsion system. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2005. 296(1-2): p. 73-79. 14. Agatonovic-Kustrin, S., et al., Prediction of a Stable Microemulsion Formulation for the Oral Delivery of a Combination of Antitubercular Drugs Using ANN Methodology. Pharmaceutical Research, 2003.
20(11): p. 1760-1765. 15. I Start A Essay Introduction! Taha, E.I. Statement Cv! Response surface methodology for the development and evaluation of self nanoemulsified drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of all-trans-retinol acetate. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 2005. 10(3): p. How To! 363-370. 16. Liu, Y., et al., Optimization and in situ intestinal absorption of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of oridonin for improving bioavability of oridonin. Int.
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Pharm., 2006. Write An Adep! 32: p. 1025-1032. 18. Porter, C.J.H., N.L. Trevaskis, and W.N. Charman, Lipids and lipid-based formulations: optimizing the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. Nat. Rev. Personal Help! Drug Discov., 2007. 6: p. 231-248.
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Effect of food and a monoglyceride emulsion formulation on danazol bioavailability. J. Personal Help! Clin. I Start A Essay Introduction! Pharmacol. 1993; 33: 381’6. 28. Welling PG. Effects of food on drug absorption. Help Cv! Ann. Rev. Essays! Nutr. 1996; 16 383’415.
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43. .Shaji J., Lodha S. (2008), Response surface methodology for the optimization of celecoxib self- emulsifying drug delivery system, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 70(5): 585-590. 44. Atef E., Belmonte A. Health! A. (2008), Formulation and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a phenytoin self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 35: 257-263. 45. Fatouros D. G., Nielsen F. S., Douroumis D., Hadjileontiadis L. J., Mullertz A. (2008), In vitro’in vivo correlations of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems combining the dynamic lipolysis model and neuro-fuzzy networks, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 69: 887-898. 46. Shikov A., Pozharitskaya O., Karlina M., Makarov V. (2008), Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system as nanosystems for bioavailability enhancement of flavonoids in personal vitro, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 34 S: S25’S29.
47. Woo J. S., Songb Y. Corporate Master Thesis! K., Hong J. Y., Lim S. J., Kim C. Cv! K. (2008), Reduced food-effect and enhanced bioavailability of a self-microemulsifying formulation of itraconazole in healthy volunteers, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 33: 159-165. 48. An Adep! Mandawgade S. D., Sharma S., Pathak S., Patravale V. B. (2008), Development of statement help cv, SMEDDS using natural lipophile: Application to social i??i??-Artemether delivery, International Journal of personal statement help, Pharmaceutics, 362: 179-183. 49. Yi T., Wan J., Xu H., Yang X. (2008), Controlled poorly soluble drug release from solid self-microemulsifying formulations with high viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, European Journal of contribution essays, Pharmaceutical Sciences, 34: 274-280.
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Boonme P., Krauel K., Graf A., Rades T., Junyaprasert V. B. (2006), Characterization of Microemulsion Structures in the Pseudoternary Phase Diagram of an adep, Isopropyl Palmitate/Water/Brij 97:1-Butanol, AAPS PharmSciTech, 7(2) Article 45: E1-E6. 59. Agarwal V., Siddiqui A., Ali H., Nazzal S. (2006), Dissolution and statement cv, powder flow characterization of solid self-emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS), International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 366: 44-52. 60. Essays On I Have Speech! Wu W., Wang Y., Que L. Personal Statement Cv! (2006), Enhanced bioavailability of silymarin by self-microemulsifying drug delivery system, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and on punctuality, Biopharmaceutics, 63: 288-294.
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Subramanian N., Ray S., Ghosal S. K., Bhadra R., Moulik S. P. (2004), Formulation Design of Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for Improved Oral Bioavailability of Celecoxib, Biol. Pharm. Essay On Punctuality! Bull., 27(12): 1993-1999. 64. Personal Statement Help Cv! Kang B. K., Lee J. S., Chon S. K., Jeong S. Y., Yuk S. H., Khang G, Lee H. B., Cho S. H. (2004), Development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) for oral bioavailability enhancement of simvastatin in i start a essay beagle dogs, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 274: 65-73. 65. Patil P., Joshi P., Paradkar A. (2004), Effect of Formulation Variables on personal Preparation and Evaluation of Gelled Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) of Ketoprofen, AAPS PharmSciTech, 5(3) Article 42: 1-8. 66. Holm R., Christopher J. H. P., Glenn A. E., Anette M., Henning G. K. , Charman W. N. (2003), Examination of oral absorption and health social, lymphatic transport of halofantrine in a triple-cannulated canine model after administration in statement cv self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing structured triglycerides, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20: 91-97. 67. Itoh K., Tozuka Y., Oguchi T., Yamamoto K. (2002), Improvement of physicochemical properties of N-4472 part I formulation design by using self-microemulsifying system, International Journal of i start a essay introduction, Pharmaceutics, 238: 153-160.
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Shah N.H., Carvajal M.T., Patel C.I., Infeld M.H., Malick A.W. (1994), Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) with polyglycolyzed glycerides for improving in vitro dissolution and oral absorption of lipophilic drugs, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 106: 15-23. 74. Statement Help Cv! Indian pharmacopeia. 75. British pharmacopeia. 76. Bhagwat durgachara, D. souza I. development of self micro emulsifying drug delivery system.to inhance dissolution rate of telmisartain, IJDDR 2012,02(04);398-407. 77. Gaikwad G, Godbole M, potnos V, Daud A. Formulation and evaluation of health essays, self emulcifying drug delivery system of orlistat, Americal Journal Of Pharmtech Research 2012; 2 (6): 297-31. Search our thousands of statement, essays:
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Installation et configuration du Mediacenter XBMC. Un Mediacenter est un ordinateur ou un appareil vous permettant de lire des fichiers video, audio, d’afficher des diaporamas de photos. De nos jours, il existe des boitiers multimedias dans le commerce qui remplissent ces fonctions, mais ils peuvent etre limites par des incompatibilites avec certains formats de fichiers et ils ne sont guere evolutif. Help Cv. En effet, les fabricants n’ajoutent pas forcement de nouvelles fonctions a leurs produits d’une annee sur l’autre, preferant ainsi favoriser l’arrivee de nouveaux modeles. Dans ce cas, comment faire pour ne pas avoir a racheter chaque annee un nouveau boitier multimedia capable de lire les nouveaux formats de fichiers ? Et comment ajouter de nouvelles fonctions ? La reponse est simple : en faisant votre propre Mediacenter ! Vous obtiendrez un systeme bien au-dessus de n’importe quelle solution vendue dans le commerce, que ce soit au niveau de la facilite d’utilisation, des performances, de l’evolutivite et meme, de l’esthetisme.
Voici un apercu en quelques captures d’ecran de ce que cela peut donner (les textes sont en anglais sur les images, mais rassurez-vous, le logiciel que nous utiliserons a bien une traduction en francais) : Plutot tentant non ? Et encore, je ne vous ai pas parle de la foule de petits gadgets qui vont avec et qui vont vous rendre la vie facile, sans parler des possibilites de personnalisation #128578; Je vais donc vous expliquer ici comment installer le logiciel XBMC, qui est la reference des logiciels Mediacenter, sur un ordinateur et comment le configurer pour obtenir le systeme Home-Cinema de vos reves. 1. Essays On I Have A Dream Speech. Ce dont vous avez besoin. Pour installer XBMC et relier un ordinateur a votre televiseur, je vous recommande d’utiliser un ordinateur NetTop (mini ordinateur abordable). Actuellement, j’utilise un mini ordinateur Giada N3. Processeur : Intel Atom 330 @ 1.6 Ghz. Disque Dur : 350 Go (mais je ne l’utilise quasiment pas, ma collection de films en HD est loin de rentrer dans un si petit disque dur ^^) Carte Graphique : nVidia ION (GeForce 9400) Comme vous pouvez le voir, ce n’est pas un foudre de guerre, mais pour utiliser XBMC vous n’etes pas oblige d’avoir une machine de guerre (j’ai eu le modele ci-dessus a 200 ˆ environ). Il faut au minimum utiliser un ordinateur avec une puce graphique supportant le decodage HD (ce n’est pas obligatoire, mais je le recommande vivement vu la difference de prix avec un mini ordinateur qui ne decode pas les videos en haute definition). Bien sur, XBMC marchera aussi tres bien sur un ordinateur plus puissant :-p.
Pour piloter votre Mediacenter depuis votre canape, je vous conseille l’achat d’un mini clavier. Statement Help Cv. Moi j’ai un Logitech Dinovo Mini dont je suis bien content : Autre alternative sympa, une nouvelle telecommande compatible avec XBMC vient de sortir, celle du Mediacenter Boxee. Health Essays. Son originalite vient de sa conception sur deux faces : un cote telecommande, et un cote clavier : Maintenant que l’on a ce qu’il faut niveau materiel, attaquons la partie logicielle #128521; Je vais ici vous parler de l’installation de XBMC sous Windows. Help Cv. Sachez qu’il est aussi possible de l’installer sur Mac OS X (par exemple avec un Mac Mini a cote de la TV, ca peut le faire ^^) ou sur Linux, histoire d’avoir un Mediacenter 100% consacre a XBMC.
Et meme sur iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch ou Android… Mais chaque utilisation necessiterait un tutoriel complet pour chaque systeme. On Punctuality. Je vais donc commencer par Windows, et je couvrirais les autres systemes s’il y a une forte demande #128521; La derniere version de XBMC a ce jour est la XBMC Dharma 10.1, disponible ici en telechargement. Statement Help. Une fois le telechargement du programme d’installation effectue, installez XBMC avec les options par defaut sur votre ordinateur : Rien de bien complique jusque-la ! Une fois que XBMC est installe et que vous le lancez, vous vous retrouvez sur cet ecran : Selectionner System et appuyer sur Entree : Vous etes alors sur l’ecran principal de configuration de XBMC : Allez sur Appearance , puis selectionnez sur International . A Essay. Choisissez le francais comme langue, et la region France (si vous etes en France ^^) : Maintenant retournez a l’ecran principal des parametres (touche Echap pour revenir en arriere dans les menus), et allez sur Video , Sous-menu Lecture et assurez-vous que la case Activer l’acceleration materielle (DXVA2) soit bien cochee : Cela va vous assurer de pouvoir lire les fichiers videos en HD sans que la lecture ne saccade (si vous avez bien un ordinateur avec une puce graphique qui prend en charge le decodage des videos haute definition). Retournez encore sur le menu principal des parametres, puis selectionnez Systeme , Sortie Audio . Help Cv. A vous de choisir ici la bonne sortie audio selon comment vous avez branche votre Mediacenter a votre installation Home Cinema (Optique/Coax, HDMI, Numerique) et la bonne configuration de hauts-parleurs (2.0, 2.1, 5.1, 7.1 sont les plus courantes). Si vous avez relie votre Mediacenter a un amplificateur compatible Dolby Digital AC3 et / ou DTS, assurez-vous aussi de cocher les cases appropriees pour profiter au maximum des capacites de XBMC. Et puisque l’on veut obtenir un Mediacenter vraiment simple a utiliser, autorisons XBMC a eteindre l’ordinateur lorsqu’on eteint XBMC : Revenez au menu principal des parametres, choisissez Theme . Rhetorical Essays On I A Dream Speech. Dans General , cochez la case Activer le defilement auto des resumes critiques : Allez dans le sous-menu Accueil. Help. Ici vous pouvez personnaliser ce qui s’affiche dans le menu principal de votre Mediacenter. An Adep. Je vous conseille de cocher la case Afficher les videos recemment ajoutees, ainsi vous avez l’affichage des films et des series que vous avez recemment ajoutes a votre Mediacenter #128521; Vous pouvez aussi choisir de masquer un menu si vous ne l’utilisez pas.
Par exemple je n’utilise jamais la fonction de meteo ou le gestionnaire d’images, je les ai donc masques de mon menu principal. Reglons maintenant la meteo a votre ville. Statement Help. Retournez sur le menu principal de reglages des parametres et selectionner Meteo. Rhetorical Essays Speech. Et definissez le lieu ou vous habitez pour que les previsions correctes s’affichent : Bon je pense que l’on a couvert les principaux reglages a effectuer. Cv. Notez bien qu’il est possible de personnaliser encore pas mal de parametres, mais je reviendrais sur ces autres reglages une fois le present tutoriel acheve #128521;
Passons au plat de resistance : l’ajout de films et d’episodes de series a la bibliotheque de XBMC. 4. Social. Ajout de films et series a la bibliotheque. Pour le stockage de vos films, vous pouvez soit les mettre directement sur le disque dur de votre Mediacenter, soit sur un disque dur externe relie au Mediacenter, soit acceder en reseau a vos films qui sont alors soit sur votre ordinateur principal, ou sur un NAS, etc… Ce ne sont donc pas les choix qui manquent ! 4.1 Organisation des films. Premiere chose a faire pour avoir une bibliotheque de films propre : les organiser correctement. Help Cv. Il existe plusieurs solutions qui fonctionnent avec XBMC, je vais vous donner celle que j’utilise et qui me semble la plus adaptee a long terme : l’organisation par dossier. Creer un seul dossier Films qui contiendra tous vos films, puis creer un dossier par film. How To An Adep. Chaque dossier de film doit avoir le nom exact du film, et il doit contenir le film qui correspond (pas besoin de renommer le fichier video du film, XBMC recherchera son titre selon le nom du dossier). Exemple : pour le film « 8 Mile », creer un dossier 8 Mile et mettez le fichier video du film « 8 Mile » dedans, tout simplement ! Les avantages de faire comme cela sont multiples : – Les films en plusieurs parties sont regroupes au meme endroit. – Vous pouvez changer la version de votre film (par exemple passer d’une version DVDRip a une version en HD) sans changer l’organisation des dossiers ou sans effectuer une recherche sur tout le dossier Films.
– Quand vous enregistrerez les informations que trouve XBMC sur vos films, ces infos seront regroupees dans le meme dossier que le film (pochette, resume, photos des acteurs, etc…). Une fois que vous avez fait cela, nous allons ajouter les films a la bibliotheque de XBMC. 4.2 Ajout des films dans la bibliotheque. Nous allons maintenant dire a XBMC ou se trouvent nos films et comment il doit les ajouter a notre bibliotheque. Dans l’ecran principal, allez sur Video . Et aller sur Ajouter une source : Sur cet ecran, allez sur Parcourir . Vous devez alors parcourir vos dossiers jusqu’a etre a l’interieur du dossier Films que vous avez cree auparavant.
Une fois que vous y etes, allez sur OK pour choisir le dossier. Si votre dossier Films est partage en reseau, vous devez aller sur Reseau Windows (SMB) : Puis choisir l’ordinateur qui partage vos fichiers et le parcourir jusqu’a etre a l’interieur du dossier Films et cliquez sur OK pour valider. Une fois que votre source de films est correctement selectionnee, il vous suffit de cliquer sur OK. Vous devez alors choisir le Scraper (le scraper est un petit programme qui va chercher des informations dans une base de donnees). Personal Help. Choisissez le Scraper adapte aux films The MovieDB et cochez les cases Executer le scan automatiquement et Consultation avec les noms de dossiers . Il faut maintenant cliquer sur Parametres , Activer les Fanarts (ce sont les fonds d’ecran qui s’affichent derriere chaque film), Enable Trailer , choisir de Recuperer les Trailers sur HD-Trailers.net (on doit choisir la qualite voulue, ici j’ai choisi 1080p pour telecharger les Trailers en Full HD), choisir comme Preferred language fr, et cocher Get rating from social essays IMDb si vous voulez avoir les notations d’IMDb pour vos films (la plus grande base de donnees au monde sur le cinema) : Cliquer sur OK, puis encore sur OK, la recherche d’informations sur vos films doit alors debuter automatiquement (vous avez un indicateur en haut a droite de votre ecran) et XBMC ajoute tout seul comme un grand tous vos films, avec les resumes, les pochettes, les fonds d’ecrans, etc… Au passage pour faire ces recherches, XBMC doit bien entendu avoir un acces a Internet, que ce soit par Ethernet, Wifi, ou meme CPL. Laissez XBMC scanner votre dossier. Personal Statement Cv. Cela peut prendre un bon moment si vous avez des centaines de films, mais c’est tres rapide si vous n’en avez pas beaucoup.
Pendant ce temps, retournez sur le menu principal, allez dans Parametres , puis Theme , et Accueil . Health Social Essays. Assurez-vous que la case Masquer – Films ne soit pas cochee. Personal Cv. Si elle est cochee, decochez-la. Si vous retournez sur le menu principal, vous pouvez alors voir qu’une nouvelle rubrique Films est apparue : Vous avez alors acces a vos films, avec les pochettes et tout ce qui va bien ! Mais la presentation par defaut n’est pas ideale. Sur votre clavier, faites Fleche gauche. On I Have A Dream Speech. S’affichent alors les options de presentations pour la bibliotheque de films : Vous pouvez alors changer le type de vue. Statement Help Cv. Voici celles qui sont disponibles : – Liste, la plus basique : – Vignette, qui commence a devenir deja plus attirante : – Fanart, mon prefere ! – Infos media, qui est plutot adapte aux series : – Infos media 2, qui est aussi un de mes preferes : A vous de choisir le mode d’affichage qui vous plait le mieux #128521; 4.2 Organisations des series.
Attaquons-nous maintenant aux series ! Comme pour les films, il faut que le dossier contenant vos series soit extremement bien organise. Je vous conseille de faire un dossier TV Shows, dans lequel vous creerez un dossier par series : Et pour chaque serie, de faire un dossier par saison : Il faut savoir que pour que XBMC retrouve les informations de vos episodes de series, les noms de chacun de vos fichiers videos doivent respecter une certaine syntaxe. Exemple avec un episode de Community : Il faut le nom de la serie, 1?01 represente le numero de la saison x le numero de l’episode, le reste est optionnel #128521; Cela nous donne un dossier qui ressemble a cela : Faites de meme pour toutes vos series (oui je sais cela risque d’etre long si vous en avez beaucoup, mais au moins tout sera bien range avec des noms d’episodes nickels !), c’est indispensable pour que XBMC puisse parcourir vos series. Une fois que votre dossier de series est bien organise, passons a la suite : l’ajout des series dans la bibliotheque de XBMC. 4.3 Ajout des series dans la bibliotheque. Dans le menu principal de XBMC, allez sur Videos , Ajouter une source , et Parcourir jusqu’a etre dans votre dossier de series et cliquez sur OK. Vous devez alors choisir la categorie Series TV avec le scraper The TVDB : Cochez la case Executer le scan automatiquement , allez dans Parametres et selectionnez la langue fr : Faites Ok, puis encore OK. Social. XBMC se met alors a scanner vos series et a telecharger les informations de chaque episode.
Retournez sur le menu principal, allez dans Parametres , Theme , Accueil , et veillez a decocher la case Masquer – Series TV : Retournez alors dans le menu principal, vous pouvez maintenant aller sur Series TV et profiter de vos series preferees : Voila deja de quoi vous occuper pas mal pour un moment. Statement Help Cv. Dans un futur proche j’ajouterai comment faire l’ajout dans la bibliotheque des musiques, des photos, les commandes de base pour utiliser XBMC au quotidien et les astuces pour aller encore plus loin :-p. N’hesitez pas a me faire savoir si ce que je dis n’est pas clair ou si j’ai commis des erreurs, j’ameliorerai le tutoriel en consequence selon vos retours #128578; Mon coup de gueule contre HTC + comment installer Gingerbread sur son HTC Desire. Apple valide une application francaise de delation a vomir…
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