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A Standard Business Plan Outline [Updated for samford dissertation 2017] This article is part of our “Business Planning Guide” —a curated list of our articles that will help you with the planning process! Start from the hobbies list very beginning understanding that your business plan ought to be specific to your business needs and objectives. Every business ought to have a plan, but not every business needs a full formal plan with carefully crafted summaries and university descriptions. If you don’t have a specific immediate need to show a formal business plan to a banker or investor, then you are probably better off doing just a lean business plan , for your internal use only. To make the best impression on banks and investors, your business plan should be presented in the standard business plan format. Your business plan should present what a banker or venture capitalist expects to see, in cmu cit, the order they expect to samford university dissertation see it in. Following a standard business plan outline will keep you on track, and save you from botching your best chance at workshop, getting your business funded.
Want to just skip ahead and download our free business plan template? Just click here. I don’t recommend writing the plan in the same order you present it as a finished document. For example, although the samford university executive summary comes as the first section of pilgrimage christianity coursework a business plan, I recommend writing it after everything else is done, so you know exactly what appears in samford university dissertation, the rest of your business plan. Likewise, although the management summary is usually presented toward the smoking thank end of a finished business plan, it might be an easy place to start writing. And some people prefer to samford university dissertation start with a mission statement, or strategy summary. Others like to focus on phd thesis, the numbers first, so they start with a sales forecast or spending budget. Start where you like, and get going. Samford University? A healthy business planning process will always involve circling back often to check results and revise as necessary. Creative Center? If you have the main components, the order doesn’t matter that much, but what’s presented here is the samford university sequence I suggest for a standard business plan.
In this article, I will cover the following: You can click each of the above links to jump directly to phd thesis that section. See an university dissertation example of hobbies a completed business plan here, and learn even more about writing a business plan here. Write this last. It’s just a page or two that highlights the points you’ve made elsewhere in your business plan. It’s also the doorway to your plan—after looking over your executive summary, your target reader is either going to samford university dissertation throw your business plan away or keep reading, so you’d better get it just right. Summarize the problem you are solving for customers, your solution, the target market, the founding team, and essay financial forecast highlights. Dissertation? Keep things as brief as possible and entice your audience to learn more about your company. Describe the problem that you solve for your customers and the solution that you are selling. It is pilgrimage christianity gcse coursework, always a good idea to think in terms of customer needs and customer benefits as you define your product offerings, rather than thinking of your side of the equation (how much the product or service costs, and how you deliver it to university the customer). Sometimes this part of the plan will include tables that provide more details, such as a bill of materials or detailed price lists, but more often than not this section just describes what you are selling and phd thesis how your products and services fill a need for your customers. You need to know your target market—the types of customers you are looking for—and how it’s changing.
Use this section to discuss your customers’ needs, where your customers are, how to reach them and samford university how to bill essay questions deliver your product to them. You’ll also need to know who your competitors are and how you stack up against them—why are you sure there’s room for you in this market? Use this section to outline your marketing plan, your sales plan, and the other logistics involved in actually running your business. You’ll want to cover the technology you plan on using, your business location and university other facilities, special equipment you might need, and your roadmap for getting your business up and running. Finally, you’ll want to pilgrimage gcse coursework outline the key metrics you’ll be tracking to make sure your business is headed in dissertation, the right direction. This section is an overview of who you are. Names? It should describe the organization of your business, and the key members of the management team, but it should also ground the reader with the nuts and samford dissertation bolts: when your company was founded, who is/are the owner(s), what state your company is registered in and where you do business, and when/if your company was incorporated. Be sure to include summaries of your managers’ backgrounds and experience—these should act like brief resumes—and describe their functions with the company. Full-length resumes should be appended to phd thesis the plan. At the samford university dissertation very least this section should include your projected profit and loss and cash flow tables, and a brief description of the assumptions you’re making with your projections. Finally, if you are raising money or taking out loans, you should highlight the money you need to launch the business.
Listen to Tim Berry discuss lean business planning: 2.3 Validation of Problem and Solution. 3.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. 3.5.1 Competitors and Alternatives. 4.3 Location and resume Facilities. 5.0 Company and Management Summary. 5.1 Organizational Structure. 5.5 Company History and Ownership. 6.3 Projected Profit and samford university dissertation Loss. 6.5 Projected Balance Sheet.
Cash flow is the single most important numerical analysis in a business plan, and a standard cash flow table should never be missing. Most standard business plans also include a sales forecast and profit and loss statements. I believe they should also have a separate projected balance sheet, projected business ratios, and market analysis tables, as well as personnel listings. I also believe that every business plan should include bar charts and pie charts to illustrate the numbers. Size your business plan to fit your business. Remember that your business plan should be only as big as what you need to run your business. While every business owner should have an ongoing planning process to help them run their business, not every business owner needs a complete, formal business plan suitable for submitting to a potential investor, or bank, or venture capital contest. So don’t include outline points just because they are on a big list somewhere, or on this list, unless you’re developing a standard business plan that you’ll be showing to someone who expects to see a standard business plan.
Consider lean business planning— writing a business plan doesn’t have to be a long, painful process. Names? Instead, you can use the Lean Planning method to get started easier and finish faster. Lean Planning will help you start your business in a way that improves your chances of success. University Dissertation? This methodology is of rights essay questions, baked into LivePlan . Don’t make common mistakes. I’ve seen thousands of business plans, good and bad, and I can tell you that avoiding these common business planning errors will put you far ahead of the university curve. Sample business plans: Over 500 free sample business plans from various industries. Business plan template: This fill-in-the-blank business plan template is in cmu cit, the format preferred by university dissertation banks and the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA).
How to christianity start a business: An easy-to-follow six-step process for starting a new business. LivePlan: Easy cloud-based business planning software for everyone. This online software includes expert advice, built-in help and more than 500 complete sample business plans. Business plan consulting: We’re here to give you the tools to write your business plan on your own. Samford? But, sometimes it’s nice to have a professional guide you through the process. Let an expert MBA create a business plan for your business in five business days. It have really helped me a lot, I `m currently busi with starting my own company that will take the cmu cit phd thesis world by storm and samford university I really need someone who is not scared to hobbies list invest on me since I don`t have cash. what is the first thing you would do to start a business. what are the samford dissertation highlights of creative writing center making a business plan? im thinking about starting A business. The Small Business Administration has a great tool for people who are preparing to samford university open their own businesses. The Small Business Planner can be found at: http://www.sba.gov/smallbusinessplanner/index.html.
It has a great step by step guide on how to prepare for and open a business as well as additional tips on writing your business plan. Thanks for this information. The information and names the sample plans really continue to dissertation boost my energy and excitment over starting my new business venture. That#8217;s great. We love to hear about someone excited about Entrepreneurship!
Good luck to you and your new business! I#8217;m going to join HSBC young entrepreneur Award and pilgrimage christianity gcse coursework they require a outline limited to 1000 words. If I use your outline model, it will be so long, won#8217;t it ? The outline is completely customizable in business plan pro. You can add topics, delete topics, rename topics and move topics. You might also find some of samford university our resources on writing a business plan for a competition to be helpful. Specifically: Read Tim Berry’s white paper about business plan competitions. Thank you for essay smoking thank your question. University? Palo Alto Software. Thank God I found what I was looking for. how to do business plan for spectacles and of rights eyeware company? This is dissertation, a question we get quite a lot Ashwini. #8220;How do you write a plan for creative writing center names __specific type of dissertation business___#8221; We have created the bplans.com website as a resource for of rights people to get the information they need to write their business plans or help in the course of samford dissertation their business.
We don#8217;t write business plans here. We aren#8217;t a consulting company. We write business planning software that walks you through writing your business plan step by step and helps you with the smoking thank process of planning your business. On the bplans website you can find resources that will help you in creating a business plan for an eyeware company, but most likely, you won#8217;t find a sample plan for that exactly. You#8217;ll find the samford university tools to write that plan yourself. I hope this was helpful, and good luck in your venture! Very good guide i#8217;m doing a business plan course and bill I found it very helpful I am useing it and its helping a lot very greatful for your site. Samford University Dissertation? Regards and best wishes for outline the future from Malta. THE BUSINESS PLAN SAMPLES GAVE ME A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES NEEDED IN ORDER TO PREPARE MY BUSINESS PLAN FOR A HALFWAY HOUSE DRUG REHABILITATION PROGRAM THAT I PLAN TO START. Samford? THANKS! Thanks for briefing on business plans.Learned something from you.Surely i will visit again for more information.
If you do a search on the bplans.com website for SWOT you#8217;ll find several articles on essay workshop, the subject. Hope that helps! You can search on the bplans.com website for some examples of complete business plans. Hope that helps! Thank you for your assistance it has really made my work easier.I wish there were avenues for people to send in their questions on the subjectfor help as to how to prepare a business plan of a specific nature. Dissertation? There are several resources, some even here on this website. You can locate the Expert Advice tab at the top of the page or by doing another Google search for forum#8217;s designed to assist people looking for specific help. There are also consultants you could look into, like Masterplans. Thanks a great deal for your guidelines on writing business plans. This site is workshop, 100 times better and educative compared to samford university dissertation other publications. I would be grateful if you could send me a copy or draft of any real life small/medium size business plan for any income generating business in the retail industry.
Very helpful thanks#8230; I#8217;m in essay smoking thank, preparation of a Business Plan for a small scale enterprise for dissertation a financial company catering financial products and services. Any creative and innovative ideas are encouraged for my creation of Business Plan. I just started an LLC and my biggest hang-up in writing my business plan is my financial forecast. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated! I am looking into it along with a partner to start a company that imports stand-up comedians to a certain area.
This company will be based on only two persons putting money into the company and be working on a very low budget. I have been looking over the sample plans but none of pilgrimage gcse them seem to fit to what I am looking at. Is there anybody out there who could point me in the right direction on how to make my business plan for such a small agency? It would be great if you knew of a good template that I could go by. Any help would be great. Thanks and good luck to you all out there. There are many free sample business plans available here at samford university dissertation, bplans.com, browse through the list and you should find something that suits you.
This is more of a question than a comment. The business plan outline is very helpful, but #8230; it#8217;s usually conceived for those who want to outline start a new business. My question is for advice on what to do with a business plan for revitalizing a dormant business in the tourist industry in Indonesia. Here are the samford dissertation particulars: an workshop Indonesian firm owns two big river boats that used to samford university take tourists (mostly from Europe and Japan) on river explorations. That has stopped because of of rights essay financial mismanagement. I now have the opportunity to university dissertation revive this business, but it needs investment for rehabilitating the boats, reviving the market, adjusting what is and can be offered to tourists, etc. I have no own capital, but the expertise to run something like this. It needs investment which can be in the form of direct investment or a loan from a bank. WHAT WOULD BE THE MAIN POINTS OF A BUSINESS PLAN that I couold show to private investors or banks? I can be reached at [email protected]
Calculating the christianity gcse coursework value of your business is samford university, vital if you are trying to find investors, apply for a loan, or sell your business to a potential buyer. The Premier Edition of Business Plan Pro includes detailed valuation tools that can help you determine a solid business valuation and create a professional investment offering. Showcase the resume true value of your business with more advanced spreadsheets that describe the samford university sources and pilgrimage christianity gcse coursework uses of cash for any new or existing business. Samford University Dissertation? Business Plan Pro Premier Edition is recommended for an existing company. The premier edition has advanced financials and can can forecast out up to bill essay ten years and in detail for up to two years. Make sure you maximize the full value of samford university your business by using this option, which is only available in the Premier Edition. Hope that helps! Palo Alto Software. business plan is smoking, a guiding principal to the entrepreneur because it explains the journey of the organisation from the samford university dissertation day of start and how it will carry on with its activities. Smoking Thank? with the dissertation recent competition organisational running needs to be systematic and this can be done with help of the business plan. in order for the organisation to succeed,its like some body traveling and he needs vehcle for traveling and writing names so applies to entrepreneur he needs the samford university vehicle which is the business plan.
Hi, excellent article about essay thank business plans, I#8217;m currently starting a new business and writing the business plan is one of the starting points for me to secure investment. Also the fact that you say that you don#8217;t necessarily need to follow the samford dissertation structure reassures me, as I won#8217;t be needing to but felt a little unsure about doing so. I am a painter and have been in the painting business for about twenty years. Essay Smoking Thank? I was instrumental in the starting up of the first paint company I worked for. The steps were very basic and we made a lot money#8230;. The tools of the traid were purchased and we advertised our serviceses by samford university dissertation canvesing neighborhoods and leaving our business cards. Creative Writing Center? Now I would like to start this buissness for myself and samford university I neeed to know how to write an effective business plan and/or a proposal to acquire more funds to start up. I have purchased some of of rights essay my equipment and a van, however, I still have some very cost oriented obsticals to overcome and I need some help. Anyone who has been in dissertation, this business knows that the painting business is very lucrative and can be rewarding on phd thesis, many levles. I am not only good at university dissertation, what I do, I also like it.
Is there really help out there for the minority start-up businessman? Im starting my own buisness, but right now I dont have. the capital to fund my project. it will be a beauty supply based buisness and the. area I found to run it will be perfect for this project. it has other buisnesses being built in this area, and the customer potential is great. Here is a great resource for getting the capital you need to essay outline start your business. Another great resource can be your bank. Ask them about samford university dissertation a small business loan. How to christianity Get the Financing for Your New Small Business: Innovative Solutions From the Experts Who Do It Everyday. Author: Fullen, S. Hello John S. Brown, Sr., Busines Plan Pro does a great job of helping you write a business plan for start-up funding. Palo Alto Software. Dear Sharon Fisher, We have resources built into Business Plan Pro to help you get funding. For example, some businesses choose to start by samford bringing in investors for start-up funding, while others go to a bank for a business loan.
Business Plan Pro has resources built in for both approaches (the SBA loan application for bank loans, the Venture capital Database for investment sources). Essay Smoking Thank? Palo Alto Software. i am want to establish to our own buisness in kashmir . University Dissertation? plese suggest what plan suit for me .when i have not such fiancial position to develop a big buisness . I want to set up a business of essay workshop providing my clients with a door to door service of automobile Oil / Lub change while they are relaxed at home or office. Can some one help me with a Business / Marketing Plan. I need a professional Plan to convince my bankers for samford finance and also possible investors interest in the project. SOS [email protected] Honestly, you may not find a sample plan that will exactly match your business model. Resume Hobbies List? You may find several that are close or related. What is important is dissertation, that we include sample plans as idea generators and examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. All sample plans included are real plans.
You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and bill questions market research information. What is important is that Business Plan Pro will work to university develop your own plan, for your specific business. The Windows software package Business Plan Pro is an excellent tool for bill essay developing a business plan. I hope this was helpful! Palo Alto Software. I wish you could create a downloadable page in application form style. It is always worthwhile to university dissertation take time assessing your business plan before you commence a new project or company: mistakes which could prove costly in practice can be eliminated painlessly on paper! Remember that a Business Plan and your Marketing Strategies Plan are quite different, and of rights essay questions don#8217;t forget your cashflow forecasts, profit and loss projections, start-up capital, ongoing capital, buy-out plans and expansion plans, bank financing and sales training! Setting up business on paper is university, quite a venture! Wow#8230;This has helped me out so much on my business plan. Your guide-line helps#8230; Hi, I#8217;m writing a business plan for thank Business class, and it is samford, a prety rough task.
Easy for me because my plan is based on averages and similarities between businesses. In my textbook though, it is mentioning things that are needed in a business plan, but I am finding it really difficult to thank see what is the samford university most important information to take from the paragraphs. Another thing is, I am pretty confused on essay questions, how to dissertation start writing a business plan, and how it should look. I can#8217;t find any samples of essay workshop business plans! I can only dissertation find outlines. I really like this outline the most because it goes into detail, but I#8217;m thinking that each different headline would have to be a different paragraph or page.. Phd Thesis? or is it points? I#8217;m lost, please get back to me, thanks! it seems to university dissertation be helping me. List? Business Plan Pro includes 500+ sample plans.
Realistically you may not find a sample plan that exactly matches your business model. You may find several in samford university, your industry that are close or related. It is important to understand that we include sample plans as idea generators and examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. All sample plans included are real plans. You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of essay business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and market research information. University Dissertation? Business Plan Pro will guide you through the process with a flexible outline of about four dozen topics organized into chapters, topics, and essay outline workshop subtopics, with links to the proper tables and charts. Each topic has a split screen option that explains what should be covered, and where to find the information. With the click of a single button, you may view an example of samford university dissertation what that topic will look like in the finished business plan. I hope this information was helpful. Palo Alto Software. Cmu Cit? Quite helpful am going to have a try for my very important business plan, lets see how it goes and will report back immediately.
I need a business plan for university dissertation a ongoing patchwork shop can anyone help me thanks in advance. Resume? Just a small question, I#8217;m 20 and want to buy a business for samford 200k what chance do i have with the bank? i would like to start a corier business where do i start or get same help to.make business plan. i found this bussines plan is list, helpfull for me to pepare my bussines plan. I think u should offer a sample on university, how to write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. I think u should offer a wide selection on how to essay write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. Are there plans that can be used by the debt buying / collection industry?? I am on the works of samford starting up a Wilderness Camp for youth who want ot learn about cmu cit our culture and stuff. I am really enjoying it alot and it#8217;s getting me a brief description of how and where to run my business.My main goal is to teach children about university dissertation races and we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into my heart and pilgrimage coursework made me reach out to samford so many different races.And to me, all races are vone.
I am on the works of starting up a Wilderness Camp for cmu cit youth who want ot learn about our culture and stuff. I am really enjoying it alot and it#8217;s getting me a brief description of how and samford where to bill of rights essay questions run my business.My main goal is to teach children about races and we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into my heart and samford university made me reach out to so many different races.And to outline workshop me, all races are one. Fantastic, CJ! Good luck!! Palo Alto Software. My daughter has started her business successfully. Anyone of university dissertation you who could use a great website, professionally developed should take a look at bill essay questions, the link provided (www.imarkcomm.com) and discuss your needs with her. Her designer is awesome, her translator is great and her client#8217;s websites successfully generate the traffic necessary to samford university succeed. My wife had 4+ experience in medical billing. she as team leader in one of the leading medical billing in chennai. currently she left job. she want to doing business in medical billing. I am also support her. please give suggesion to writing center names me for start a medical billing business with less investment.
Hello Tim, I#8217;m looking for university dissertation a business plan for my vision which is helping women, women from jail, battered and hurt, how would I write a business plan for this. Cmu Cit Phd Thesis? Im impressed the summary will assist me especially because i am sourcing funding from dissertation, my local bank in Nairobi Kenya. Phd Thesis? I do not have any examples but I have viewed a few different business plans that are in dissertation, different industriess and christianity coursework vary in size. A Business plan does not have to be a huge task although the bigger the business, the more in depth the business plan should be. I have heard of people that have written their bp#8217;s on cocktail napkins. If you are just starting out and want to work from home to begin with write down your plan. You aren#8217;t going to just sit on your couch and have work fall in your lap, are you? How are you going to get the work? Do you already have customers lined up? How much money are you going to have to invest? Do you need to buy equipment?
Are you going to samford have to hire help? These are some of the basic questions that you can write down and the answers are your business plan. Maybe you could start by pilgrimage christianity gcse coursework writing the answers to the questions above and dissertation then sit down and essay outline ask yourself some more questions and then answer them. After you have compiled a list of questions and answers organize them by using the Outline. The bottom line you can#8217;t use someone elses business plan. It has to be for you and your business alone. Someone else may have answered all of those questions differntly.
Be unique. If you find you just can#8217;t figure it out, hire someone to do it for you and samford if you do figure it out maybe you could open a business that writes business plans for other people. Oooh that sounds like a good idea I gotta go! I have something I want to questions write:) Geek in the Woods. sir, iam vishnu doing btech in college of engg perumon,kerala,india.i have ablog named as above.iam very much interesting in business field.so u pls give me some business articles and samford university dissertation i will post that in my blog,in that way i can understand others abt wat business they will look like. all in bill, all i have no plan for this, in fact i searchin also for plan. I have been writing business plans for a while now, for myself and others. Wondered if any one knows about Greek business plans, as I have to convert mine to the market I live in, which is Greek spaeking. Samford Dissertation? If any one Knows please email [email protected] where does the SWOT anyalsis fit in?
Under Market Anaysis or Strategy? i need to start up a training fascilitie for training technical personell for two companies and resume list a comprehensive repair and service workshop. no capital but willing and samford university good technicians to venture in with me. please help i have the training college but have to sumbit businees pplans to take over essay outline the fascilitie. please help me. University Dissertation? with a good business plan. We have established an christianity coursework IT company in India. Samford? Our focussed technology is Oracle Apps ERP. We have a good development centre in resume, India and university also offices in USA. Can anybody help me in preparing a Road Map for coursework our business for samford dissertation the next 3 years? Thanks. One thing I notice is that a lot of these people asking for bill of rights questions help with business plans have trouble with their grammar and communication skills. These are VERY important for a business plan.
A business owner should be able to clearly communicate what their business does, why they are a good investment opportunity, and how goals will be reached. I#8217;m not trying to destroy anyone#8217;s dreams, just inject a dose of reality. Ive read an article on entrepreneur#8217;s website about Creating a Sales Forecast by mr Berry. It also mentions that you can find an existing product similar to samford your product and phd thesis looking at samford dissertation, their sales and base your sales on that. But, how and where would I find info on how much sales units a similar product in the industry has? Is their a website I could go to in order to find this info? Thanks for essay outline the info, as a rapidly growing company any help with procuring investment and customers is always welcome, your newsletters have helped me in more ways than one and nudged me in the right direction, and i am indebted, as you have certainly helped my business grow. when experiance get in one folder in an organized way it gives knowleges for other who do not have experiance for the situation. what i have got here is this. i have no experiance in business planning before, but know i`m with enormous knowledge about planning because of dissertation bplanning. This Site Really help my Business Reports. I want to start up my own business and writing center names need to write a business plan for a medical diagnostic company but i don#8217;t have a clue as to how to go about this. pls can you help? This is quite educative and revealing.
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WHAT OF SOMEBODY WHO IS INTENDING TO START A NEW BUSINESS, WHAT WILL BE THE TONE FOR COMPANY SUMMARY AND FINANCIAL PLAN. THANKS MORE THAN A MILLION. please help me here,i have a registered business,i m now to write a business which i dont have an idea of,please someone should please help me. I have an assignment on how to write a business plan, please help me. Try using this outline to get started, and if you need some examples of how to finish a certain section of your business plan, check out our sample business plans at http://www.bplans.com/sample_business_plans.php. I also recommend our business planning guide (http://articles.bplans.com/writing-a-business-plan/), and if you#8217;re having trouble making your financial graphs and staying organized, our business planning software LivePlan is pretty great, too. Samford Dissertation? i need a business plan summary please. I have an assignment to outline a review of revenue, but I am totally lost and pilgrimage coursework confused. I have no idea of how to do this. I need the information to broken down to me in kindergarten terms. Please, I am begging please help me.
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You, as the business owner, have to add effort in samford dissertation, order to make it suit your business. You must continue to add and subtract from it to make it better. Your business plan is a living thing. there is thank, seen a obstacles and unseen..the planner should keep in mind and forward accordingly ,,I think -in my limit knowledge- the shown article gap or bridge to samford university understand more what is hobbies list, require..its right way to start or helpful. Planning is an important component of strategic Business management.Thank you for samford university sharing the plans for writing center names starting a business.I agree with you. After you have your plan, you will need leads and then tools that help you track your leads and test your market. Samford Dissertation? There#8217;s a simple and inexpensive way to do this that can benefit your business greatly and save you a lot of time. Click on my icon to find out more. Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to thank say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and dissertation operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring!
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The social functions of correctional …
killing essay THE KILLING OF THE INNOCENT. JEFFRIE G. MURPHY. Suarez, The Three Theological Virtues. Fight on samford university dissertation, land and on sea. All men want to workshop be free. If they don't, never mind. We'll abolish all mankind. Peter Weiss, Marat/Sade. Murder, some may suggest, is to be defined as the intentional and uncoerced killing of the innocent; and it is true by definition that murder is wrong. Yet wars, particularly modern wars, seem to samford university dissertation require the killing of the innocent, e.g., through antimorale terror bombing.
Therefore war (at least modern war) must be wrong. The above line of argument has a certain plausibility and seems to lie behind much philosophical and theological discussion of such problems as the gcse, Just War and the nature of university dissertation war crimes. 1 If accepted in full, it seems to entail the immorality of war (i.e., the position of pacifism) and essay workshop, the moral blameworthiness of those who participate in war (i.e., warmakers and uncoerced soldiers are all murderers). Samford Dissertation? To avoid these consequences, some writers will challenge some part of the cmu cit phd thesis, argument by maintaining that there are no innocents in samford university, war or that modern war does not in fact require the killing the innocent or that war involves the suspension of moral considerations and outline, thus stands outside the domain of moral criticism entirely or that contributing to the death of innocents is morally blameless so long as it is only foreseen but not intended by those involved in bringing it about (the Catholic principle of the Double Effect) or that the prohibition against killing the innocent is only prima facie 2 and can be overridden by even more important moral requirements, e.g., the defense of freedom. In this paper I want to come to terms with at least some of the samford, important issues raised by the killing of innocents in time of war. Center Names? The issues I shall focus on are the samford university, following: What does it mean, in a context of war, to describe an individual as innocent ? Why is it morally wrong to kill individuals so described? Is the moral wrongness merely prima facie (i.e., subject to being overridden by other, more weighty, moral considerations) or is it absolute?
I shall avoid making any final judgments on the morality of war (modern wars or otherwise) since such judgments would involve not just philosophical claims but also empirical claims, e.g., the claim that in fact modern wars cannot be waged so as to avoid the killing of the innocent. However, certain abswers to the questions I shall explore will, when coupled with empirical premises, clearly have moral consequences. Essay Outline? For example: If the killing of' innocents is absolutely and not just prima facie immoral (a philosophical claim), and if modern wars necessarily involve the killing of innocents (an empirical claim), then war for modern times must be absolutely condemned, i.e., pacifism is the required moral posture for the twentieth century. I shall, leave it to sociologists and samford dissertation, military historians, however, to supply the correct factual premises. I shall, then, mainly be concerned to seek answers to the above three questions. However, before launching into my discussion, I want to make one thing clear. Just because I am focusing upon the killing of innocents, it should not be thought that I am confident that it is right to kill the guilty and thus that it is creative writing only the killing of the samford university, innocent that stands in need of essay analysis and justification. I have no such confidence. I am starting with what any man who is not a moral imbecile must admit to be, at the very least, an obvious prima facie objection to samford dissertation indiscriminate war. In so doing, I do not mean to suggest that there may not be strong nonobvious objections to be made against discriminate war. THE CONCEPT OF INNOCENCE.
The notions of innocence and guilt seem most at home in cmu cit phd thesis, a legal context and, somewhat less comfortably, in a moral context. Legally, a man is innocent if he is samford dissertation not guilty, i.e. if he has not engaged in conduct explicitly prohibited by rules of the criminal law. A man may be regarded as morally innocent if his actions do not result from essay a mental state (e.g., malice) or a character defect (e.g., negligence) which we regard as morally blameworthy. In any civilized system of criminal law, of course, there will be a close connection between legal guilt and samford university, innocence and moral guilt and innocence, e.g., murder in the criminal law has as one of its material or defining elements the blameworthy mental state ( mens rea ) of malice aforethought. Cmu Cit? But this close connection does not show that the legal and moral concepts are not different. The existence of strict liability criminal statutes is samford dissertation sufficient to show that they are different. Under a strict liability statute, a man can be guilty of a criminal offense without having, at the time of his action, any blameworthy mental state or character defect, not even negligence. 3 However, the cmu cit, notion of strict moral responsibility makes little sense; for an inquiry into moral responsibility for the most part just is an dissertation, inquiry into such matters as the agent's motives, intentions, beliefs, etc. 4 Also, the issue of cmu cit phd thesis legal responsibility is much more easily determinable than that of moral responsibility. For example: It is samford university dissertation noncontroversial that negligence can make one legally responsible. Anyone who doubts this may simply be given a reading assignment in any number of penal codes.
5 But whether or not negligence is a mental state or a character defect for which one is morally responsible is a matter about which reasonable men can disagree. No reading assignment or simple inquiry into essay outline workshop, the facts will lay this worry to rest. 6. Now our reasonably comfortable ability to operate with these concepts of guilt and innocence leaves us when we attempt to apply them to the context of war. Of course, the legal notions will have application in samford university, a limited number of cases, i.e., with respect to those who are legally war criminals under international law. But this will by pilgrimage christianity coursework no means illuminate the majority of cases. For example: Those who have written on the topic of protecting innocents in war would not want to samford university dissertation regard the killing of an pilgrimage christianity gcse coursework, enemy soldier engaged in an attack against a fortified position as a case of killing the innocent. He is surely, in the right sense (whatever that is), among the guilty (or, at least, among the noninnocent) and is thus a fitting object for violent death.
But he is in university dissertation, no sense legally guilty. There are no rules of international law prohibiting what he is doing; and, even if such rules were created, they would surely not involve the christianity coursework, setting up of a random collection of soldiers from the other side to act as judges and executioners of university dissertation this law. Thus the legal notions of guilt and innocence do not serve us well here. What, then, about moral guilt or innocence? Even to make this suggestion slausible in the context of cmu cit phd thesis war, we surely have to attempt to samford dissertation narrow it down to of rights essay questions moral innocence or guilt of the war or of something within the war -- not just moral innocence of guilt simpliciter . University? That is, we surely do not want to say that if a bomb falls (say) on a man with a self-deceiving morally impure leart who is resume a civilian behind the samford dissertation, lines that this is not, in of rights essay questions, the relevant sense, a case of killing an university, innocent. Creative Writing Names? Similarly, I think it would be odd for us to want to say that if a soldier with a morally admirable character is university dissertation killed in action that this is a case of killing an christianity coursework, innocent and is to be condemned on samford university, those grounds.
If we take this line, it would seem that national leaders should attempt to make some investigation of the motives and cmu cit, characters of both soldiers and civilians and kill the unjust among both classes and spare the. just. (Only babes in arms would be clearly protected.) Now this sort of samford university judgment, typically thought to be reserved for God if for anyone, is essay surely a very disquieting thing if advocated for generals and samford university dissertation, other war leaders. Thus the notions of moral innocence and phd thesis, guilt simpliciter must be dropped in this context. Suppose, then, we try to make use of the notions of moral innocence of the war or moral guilt of the war (or of something within the war). Samford? Even I here we find serious problems. Consider the octogenarian civilian in Dresden who is an avid supporter of Hitler's war effort (pays taxes gladly, supports warmongering political rallies, etc.) and contrast his case with that of the poor, frightened, pacifist frontline soldier who is only where he is because of duress and cmu cit, who intends always to fire over the heads of the university dissertation, enemy.
It seems reasonable to say that the former is much more morally guilty of the war than the latter; and yet most writers on the topic would regard killing the former, but not the latter, as a case of killing an innocent. What all this suggests is that the classical worry about protecting the pilgrimage gcse, innocent is really a worry about protecting noncombatants . And thus the samford, distinction between combatants and resume hobbies list, noncombatants is what needs to be illucidated. Frontline soldiers are clearly combatants; babes in arms clearly are not. And we know this without judging their respective moral and legal guilt or innocence. And thus the worry, then, is the following: Under what circumstances is an individual truly a combatant? Wars may be viewed as games (terrible ones of dissertation course) between enemies or opponents. Who, then, is an enemy or opponent? One suggestion for outline workshop defining a combatant might be the following: Only soldiers engaged in fighting are combatants. But this does not seem adequate. For if killing an enemy soldier is right, then it would also seem to be right to kill the man who orders him to dissertation the frontline.
If anything, the case for killing (say) a general seems better, since the soldier is presumably simply acting in some sense as his agent, i.e., the general kills through him. Perhaps the way to put the point, then, is as follows: The enemy is represented by essay those who are engaged in an attempt to destroy you. 7 And thus all frontline combat soldiers (though not prisoners, or soldiers on leave, or wounded soldiers, or chaplains, or medics) are enemies and all who issue orders for samford dissertation destruction are enemies. Thus we might try the following: Combatants are those anywhere within the chain of command or responsibility -- from bottom to top. If this is correct, then a carefully planned attack on the seat of government, intended to destroy those civilians (and only those) directing the war effort, would not be a case of killing noncombatants or, in the relevant sense, innocents. But what is a chain of command or responsibility?
It would be wrong to bill of rights questions regard it solely as a causal chain, though it is at university dissertation, least that. That is, the thank, notion of responsibility has to be stronger than that expressed in the sentence The slippery pavement was responsible for the accident. For to regard the chain here as solely causal in character would lead to the following consequence: If a.combatant is understood solely as one who performs an action which is a causally necessary condition for the waging of war, then the following are going to be combatants: farmers, employees at a city water works, and anyone who pays taxes. Obviously a country cannot wage war if there is no food, no management of the basic affairs of its cities, and no money to pay for it. And of course the list of persons responsible for the war in this sense could be greatly extended. But if all these persons are in university dissertation, the class of cmu cit phd thesis combatants, then the rule protect noncombatants is going to amount to little more than protect babies and the senile. But one would, I think, have more ambition for it than that, e.g., one would hope that such a rule would protect housewives even if it is true that they help the samford university, war effort by writing consoling letters to essay questions their soldier husbands and by feeding them and providing them with emotional and sexual relief when they are home on leave. Thus I think that it is university wrong to regard the notion of creative center names chain here as merely causal in character. What kind of chain, then, is it?
Let us call it a chain of agency . What I mean by this is that the links of the chain (like the links between motives and actions) are held together logically and not merely causally, i.e., all held together, in this case, under the notion of who it is that is engaged in samford university dissertation, an attempt to destroy you. The farmer qua farmer is, like the general, performing actions which are causally necessary conditions for your destruction; but, unlike the essay smoking thank, general, he is not necessarily engaged in an attempt to destroy you. Perhaps the point can better be put in this way: The farmer's role bears a contingent connection to the war effort whereas the general's role bears a necessary connection to the war effort, i.e., his function, unlike the farmer's, is not logically separable from the waging of war. Or, following Thomas Nagel, 8 the point can perhaps be put in yet another way: The farmer is aiding the soldier qua human being whereas the general is aiding the soldier qua soldier or fighting man. And since your enemy is the soldier qua soldier, and not qua human being, we have grounds for letting the farmer off. If we think of a justified war as one of self-defense, 9 then we must ask the question Who can be said to be attacking us such that we need to defend ourselves against him? Viewed in this way, the farmer seems an samford, unlikely candidate for combat status. This analysis does, of thank course, leave us with borderline cases. But, since there are borderline cases, this is university a virtue of the hobbies, analysis so long as it captures just the right ones.
Consider workers in dissertation, a munitions factory. Are they or are they not combatants? At least with certain munitions factories (making only of rights bombs, say) it is certainly going to be odd to university dissertation claim that their activities bear only a contingent connection to pilgrimage christianity gcse coursework the war effort. What they make, unlike food, certainly supports the fighting man qua fighting man and not qua human being. Thus I should be inclined to say that they are properly to university be regarded as combatants and thus properly subject to attack. Bill Of Rights Questions? But what about workers in munitions factories that only in part supply the samford university dissertation, war effort, e.g., they make rifles both for soldiers and for essay thank hunters? Or workers in nonmunitions factories that do make some war products, e.g., workers in companies, like Dow. Chemical, which make both Saran Wrap and university dissertation, Napalm?
Or workers in ball bearing factories or oil refineries, some of their product going to war machines and christianity coursework, some not? Here, I submit, we do have genuine borderline cases. Samford? And with respect to these, what should we do? I should hope that reasonable men would accept that the burden of proof lies on those claiming that a particular group of persons are combatants and properly vulnerable. I should hope that men would accept, along with the famous principle in the criminal law, the principle noncombatant until proven otherwise and would attempt to cmu cit phd thesis look at the particular facts of each case as carefully and disinterestedly as possible. I say that I hope this, not that I expect it. Who, then, is a combatant?
I shall answer this question from the point of university view of outline workshop one who believes that the only legitimate defense for samford university war is self-defense. Bill Essay Questions? 10 It is, in this context, important to remember that one may legitimately plead self-defense even if one's belief that one's life is being threatened is false. The only requirement is that the belief be reasonable given the university dissertation, evidence that is available. If a man comes to my door with a toy pistol and thank, says, pointing the pistol at samford dissertation, me, Prepare to meet your Maker for your time has come, I act in my self-defense if I kill him even if he was joking so long as my belief was reasonable, i.e., I had no way of knowing that the gun was a toy or that he was joking. Thus: combatants may be viewed as all those in the territory or allied territory of the enemy of whom it is reasonable to believe that they are engaged in an attempt to creative center destroy you. What about our Dresden octogenarian? Is he a combatant on this analysis? Since he does not act on authority, it is at least prima facie odd to regard him as part of a chain of command literally construed -- the samford university dissertation, concept of command being most at home in a context of authority. He does not, of course, have much to do with the war effort; and so we might find his claim that he is bill questions helping to defeat the dissertation, Americans quaint on purely factual grounds.
And yet none of this prevents its being true that he can properly be said to be engaged in an attempt to destroy the enemy. For people can attempt even the impossible so long as they do not know it is writing center impossible. Thus I am prepared to say of him that he is, in samford university dissertation, fact, engaged in an attempt to writing names destroy the enemy. But I would still say that killing him would count as a case of killing a noncombatant for the following reason: that the concept of attempt here is to be applied, not from the agent's point of university view, but from the point of view of the spectator who proposes to plead self-defense in defense of his acts of killing. Combatants are all those who may reasonably be regarded as engaged in an attempt to destroy you. This belief is reasonable (though false) in the case of the frontline soldier who plans always to shoot over christianity gcse the heads of the enemy and unreasonable (even if true) in the case of our octogenarian. It would be quite unreasonable to plan a bombing raid on a nonmilitary and nonindustrial city like Dresden and dissertation, say, in defense of the raid, that you are just protecting yourself or your country from all those warmongering civilians who are attempting to destroy you. For making such a judgment imposes upon you a burden of proof which, given the circumstances of war, you could not satisfy. You probably could not get any evidence for your claim.
You certainly could not get what the pilgrimage, law calls a preponderance of the evidence -- much less proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Combatants, then, are all those of whom it is reasonable to believe that they are engaged in an attempt at your destruction. Noncombatants are all those of whom it is not reasonable to believe this. Having the distinction, we must now inquire into its moral importance. WHY IS IT WRONG TO KILL THE INNOCENT? From what I have said so far, it should be obvious that this question cannot adequately be answered unless one specifies the sense of innocence that one has in mind. First, with respect to moral innocence, we can take babes in arms as paradigms. Here I should argue that no reasons can be given for why it is wrong to kill babies: neither are any reasons needed.
If anything can be taken as a brute datum for moral philosophy, surely the principle Do not kill innocent babies is a very good candidate -- much more plausible for an ethical primitive than, say, promote your self-interest or maximize the samford university, general utility (other candidates that have been offered for ethical primitives). The person who cannot just see that there is something evil about killing babies could not, I suspect, be made to see anything else about morality and thus could not understand any reasons that one might attempt to give. List? And any ethical theory which entailed that there is nothing wrong at all with killing babies would surely deserve to university be rejected on hobbies list, the basis of this counterexample alone. Miss G. E. M. Anscombe puts the point in the following way: If someone really thinks, in university dissertation, advance, that it is open to question whether such an action as procuring the judicial execution of the innocent should be quite excluded from resume list consideration -- I do not want to university argue with him; he shows a corrupt mind. 11.
Consider an example from literature: If a reader of resume list Melville's Billy Budd cannot see why Captain Vere is deeply troubled because he has a legal obligation to execute Billy, a morally innocent (thought legally guilty) man, what would one say to him? What could one do except repeat, in a louder tone of voice perhaps, But, don't you see, Billy is morally innocent! What I am saying is that, though it is reasonable to expect ethical theories to correct some of our moral intuitions or pretheoretical convictions, we cannot reasonably expect these theories to correct all of them -- since there is samford university a class of such intuitions or convictions which makes ethical theory itself possible and testable. 12 Kant, I think, was perhaps one of the first to begin to see this when he argued that utilitarianism cannot be correct because it cannot account for the obvious wrongness of making slaves of people, punishing the innocent, etc. Now with respect to legal innocence (when this does not, as it often does, overlap moral innocence) a set of reasons for not killing (or punishing) the innocent can be given. Bill? These reasons will be in samford university, terms of utility (it makes people insecure to live in a society which punishes them whether they obey the rules or not), justice (it is not fair to punish people who conform their conduct to the rules), and of rights, general observations about the purposes and techniques of the criminal law as a system of control through rules. University? As John Rawls has argued, 13 a system of criminal law can be viewed minimally as a price system for gcse coursework controlling conduct (i.e., the rules state a price that has to be paid for certain bits of behavior in the hope that most people will regard the price as too high to pay). And obviously this sort of system is going to university dissertation work only gcse coursework if the samford, price is cmu cit phd thesis generally charged when and only when the commodity (i.e., the behavior) is purchased. When we move to university dissertation war, however, difficulties begin to present themselves.
We have seen that what people have had in thank, mind when they have argued for the protection of innocents in war was neither clearly moral innocence nor clearly legal innocence. Rather it was noncombatant protection. But when we put the principle as Do not kill noncombatants we lose the background of moral and university dissertation, legal thinking which makes the principle seem plausible when formulated in terms of innocence. Why, then, should we worry about killing noncombatants and writing names, think it wrong to do so -- especially when we realize that among the noncombatants there will be some, at any rate, who are morally and/or legally guilty of various things and that among the samford, combatants there will be those who are morally and/or legally innocent? What I suggest is the following: If one believes (as I do) that the only even remotely plausible justification for war is self-defense, then one must in waging war confine one's hostility to those against whom one is defending oneself, i.e., those in the (both causal and logical) chain of command or responsibility or agency, all those who can reasonably be regarded as engaged in an attempt to destroy you. If one does not do this, then one cannot be said merely to be defending oneself.
And insofar as one is not defending oneself, then one acts immorally in killing one's fellow human beings. The enemy can plausibly be expanded to include all those who are criminal accomplices -- those who, in Judge Learned Hand's phrase, have a stake in the venture. 14 But it cannot be expanded to include all those who, like farmers, merely perform actions causally necessary for the attack -- just as in domestic law I cannot plead self-defense if I kill the one (e.g., the wife or mother) who feeds the man who is engaged in resume hobbies, an attempt to kill me. 15. In passing, I should note why I described my position as weakly as I did -- namely, that self-defense is the only remotely plausible defense of war. I do this because, with respect to nations, the whole idea of self-defense is strongly in need of samford university dissertation analysis. What, for example, is it for a state to die or to be threatened with death? Can nations, like individuals, fear death and act compulsively on essay smoking thank, the basis of that fear? And, insofar as the death of dissertation a state is not identical with the deaths of individual human beings, why is the creative writing center names, death of a state a morally bad thing? Answering these questions (left notably unanswered in the Just War Theory) 16 would be an object for another paper.
I mention them here to point up latent problems and to further explain my unwillingness, expressed earlier, to affirm that even the killing of the guilty (combatants) is morally justified. I am certainly inclined to suspect the Just War Theory's willingness to regard war as an activity giving rise to autonomous moral problems (i.e., problems solely about war and not reducible to ordinary moral problems) and thus to make moral capital out of suspect notions like national honor and national interests and national self-defense. Though I am obviously inclined to regard the concept of self-defense as having an important application in the context of war, I am sceptical that the self to be legitimately defended must always be the nation or state. Samford? It is at least worth considering the possibility that the only moral problems arising in war are the oldest and most common and most important -- namely, are human beings being hurt and killed, who are they, and why are they? IS KILLING THE INNOCENT ABSOLUTELY IMMORAL? That is, is essay outline killing the innocent a prima facie immorality that can be overridden by other, more weighty, moral requirements or is samford it absolutely immoral, i.e., incapable of being overridden by any other moral requirements? Miss Anscombe 17 holds that the essay questions, prohibition against killing the innocent is samford university dissertation absolute in this sense. And one would suspect that she would echo Kant's sentiments that we should do no injustice though the heavens fall. Phd Thesis? Unfortunately, she tends simply to assert her position rather than argue for it and so fails to come to samford university dissertation terms with the worry that might bother anti-Kantians -- namely, does it not matter upon whom the essay outline, heavens fall?
I agree with Miss Anscombe that no argument can be given to demonstrate that there is something wrong with killing babies, but it does not follow from this alone that this something is dissertation not capable of being overridden by another something -- saving the lives of essay outline even more babies, perhaps. Now in trying to come to grips with this issue, I propose to start with the case of killing babies as a clear example of killing creatures innocent in every possible sense. If a case can be made out university dissertation, that it is sometimes right to kill them, then I assume it will follow a fortiori that it is sometimes right to kill those who may be innocent in a less rich sense, e.g., merely noncombatant. Bill Of Rights Essay? Of course if it is not ever right to kill babies, this will not in itself show that it is not ever right to university dissertation kill noncombatants; for it may be the resume hobbies list, special kind of samford dissertation innocence found in babies (but not necessarily in noncombatants) which protects them. First of all, we need to ask ourselves the question What is writing names it deliberately to kill a baby? I am certain that Miss Anscombe does not mean the following: that one deliberately kills a baby whenever one pursues a policy that one knows will result in university, the deaths of some babies. If anyone meant this, then that person would have to regard the creative writing names, construction of highways as absolutely immoral. For it is university dissertation a statistical fact that on center, every completed highway a certain number of babies meet their deaths in accidents. Yet normally we do not regard this as a moral case against samford highways or as a moral proof that highway engineers are murderers. What is done is to weigh the social value of a highway against resume hobbies the knowledge that some deaths will occur and dissertation, judge that the former outweighs the creative names, latter. Samford University Dissertation? (If we did not make this judgment, and if this judgment was not reasonable, then we would be acting immorally. Gcse Coursework? For example: Suppose we let people blast with dynamite whenever and wherever they felt like it -- conduct with little or no social value -- in samford university, spite of our knowledge that this would result in many children dying.) Of course, situations comparable to the highway example arise in war.
For example, consider the pinpoint bombing of pilgrimage christianity gcse a military installation in a war reasonably believed to be necessary and just coupled with the knowledge that bombs will occasionally go off target and that occasionally a wife, with baby in arms, may be visiting her husband on the base. The natural way to interpret Miss Anscombe's view is as follows: One kills a baby deliberately either when one (a) brings about the death of a baby as one's final purpose or (b) brings about the samford dissertation, death of a baby as a means to one's final purpose. 18 Since war is hardly to be regarded as motivated by fetishistic infanticide, it is essay (b) which is crucial. And (b) lets off the highway engineer. Samford? For the highway engineer, whom we do not want to creative center regard as a murderer, will not be a murderer on (b). Samford University? The deaths of babies in highway accidents are in no sense means to the socially useful goal of good transportation but are rather accidental byproducts. That is, highway transportation is resume hobbies not furthered by these deaths but is, if anything, hindered by them. And so it is unreasonable to samford suppose that highway engineers desire the deaths of bill questions babies because they want to use their deaths as a means to their goal of transportation. Similarly with the samford university dissertation, accidental deaths of babies resulting from a pinpoint bombing raid on a military installation. But consider the following kind of case: One knows that one is fighting a war in defense of civilization itself. (It was not unreasonable to phd thesis regard the war against Hitler in samford dissertation, such terms.) 19 Suppose also that one knows that the essay smoking, only way (causally) to bring a power like Hitler's to a collapse is to undercut his support among the German people by achieving their total demoralization.
Further suppose that one knows that the only way to do this is by the obliteration terror bombing of civilian centers (e.g., Dresden) so that, by killing many German babies among others, one can create a desire on the part of the German people to abandon the venture. I am not suggesting that we could ever in fact know these things (they might be false) or that we should ever even let ourselves believe such things. 20 But my worry here is one of samford principle -- namely, assuming the factual situation is as described, would it be wrong on essay questions, principle to initiate a campaign of antimorale obliteration bombing? Here I take it that Miss Anscombe will say that, even in such circumstances, those making a decision to initiate such a campaign are murderers. For they will be deliberately killing the innocent as a means to their goal and that (no matter how good the goal) is absolutely wrong. But why?
Miss Anscombe fails to bring fully into the open a latent issue that is samford university dissertation absolutely crucial here -- namely, are we as morally responsible for our omissions (e.g., failing to save lives) as for our commissions (e.g., killing people)? Of course there are differences between the two expressions, but are they morally relevant differences? If our basic value here is the christianity gcse coursework, sanctity of life, or the sanctity of innocents, or the sanctity of babies, then -- as Jonathan Bennett has pointed out 21 -- it is hard to see their moral difference. For consider the following kind of case: Suppose we know that a victory by Hitler would mean the extermination of all or a great many non-Aryan babies. And further suppose that these babies far outnumber the German babies to be killed in an obliteration bombing campaign. 22 Now, given this knowledge, what would a man who really values the lives of samford university dissertation babies do? Is the moral case to essay outline rest upon the different descriptions killing babies and letting babies die? If so, why? If the argument is samford university dissertation that by not positively killing we will at least be preserving our own moral purity, then it is smoking important to note that this argument, in university, addition to being rather selfish, is question-begging.
For to thank assume that one remains morally pure if one does nothing is to beg the question of whether we are as responsible for omissive as for commissive conduct. If moral purity means never choosing anything which one will have to regard as in some sense wrong and regret for all one's days, then moral purity may be impossible in a complex world. Albert Camus based this theory of rebellion on this kind of claim -- a theory which Howard Zinn summarizes as follows: Camus spoke in The Rebel of the absurdities in dissertation, which we are trapped, where the very acts with which we seek to do good cannot escape the imperfections of the world we are trying to essay smoking thank change. And so the rebel's only virtue will lie in never yielding to the impulse to be engulfed in the shadows that surround him, and in samford university, obstinately dragging the chains of of rights evil, with which he is bound, toward the good. The issue here is not over whether we should ever allow ourselves to be persuaded by any argument that killing the innocent is in fact necessary; and I am certainly not suggesting that I find plausible such arguments as have actually been given in samford university, the past. For a practical maxim I am much in favor of the bill of rights essay questions, slogan. Never trade a certain evil for a possible good. However, this does not solve the issue of principle. Samford University? If the essay smoking, good (e.g., saving the lives of samford university scores of phd thesis babies) is certain and university, not just possible, is it anything more than dogmatism to assert that it would never be right to bring about this good through evil means?
The maxim Never trade a certain evil for a certain good is by essay no means self-evidently true and, indeed, does not even seem plausible to many people. Thus I do not think that it has yet been shown that it is always absolutely wrong, whatever the consequences, to samford kill innocent babies. And thus it has not yet been shown that it is absolutely wrong to kill those innocent in a less rich sense of the term, i.e., noncombatants. Of course we may feel differently about actually killing innocents and simply letting innocents die; but I do not think that this phenomenological evidence in itself proves anything. Bomber pilots no doubt feel differently about dropping bombs on babies from thirty thousand feet than they would about shooting a baby face to face, but surely this does not show that the essay outline workshop, acts differ in moral quality. Feelings do not prove anything in morality; but they sometimes point to something.
And it is at least possible that we have not yet captured the worry which motivates the dissertation, responses of people like Kant, Miss Anscombe, and hobbies list, those ho want to defend some version of the samford dissertation, doctrine of the Double Effect. If what they really value is the lives of babies and other innocents simpliciter, then -- as Bennett argues -- it does not seem that the distinction between killing babies and letting babies die will help them to save their principle, But perhaps this is to conceive their position too teleologically. That is, we have so far (with Bennett) been assuming that the person who says never kill babies says this because he sees the maxim as instrumental to smoking thank something else that he values -- namely, the lives of babies. Samford University Dissertation? But it is at least possible that he does not hold this principle to be instrumentally right (in which case he would be subject to Bennett's refutation) but intrinsically right, i.e. right in itself or from its very description. Creative Writing Names? The problem is to samford dissertation explicate this notion of intrinsic rightness in such a way that it does not involve either of the two following pitfalls noted by Bennett: Authoritarianism , e.g., God commands not killing babies. Dogmatism , e.g., It is just absolutely wrong to gcse kill babies; and, if you do not see this, you are just too corrupt to university dissertation talk to. Now the reason why (a) is a bad move is obvious -- namely, it is an appeal authority rather than reason and thus has no place in a philosophical discussion of moral questions. But (b) is more problematical. For I have said that I am willing to accept such a move if made in the name of there being something wrong with killing babies. Why will I not accept such a move in favor of its being absolutely wrong to kill babies?
Roughly, I should argue as follows: That there is something wrong with killing babies (i.e., that A is a case of killing a baby must count as a moral reason against A) explicates, in pilgrimage christianity gcse, part, what may be called the moral point of dissertation view. To be worried about moral issues just is, among other things, to be worried about phd thesis, killing innocents. But the samford university, judgment Never kill babies under any circumstances does not explicate the moral point of resume view but is, rather, a controversial moral judgment -- or, if you prefer, explicates a moral point of view rather than the moral point of view. And so, to build it into university dissertation, the moral point of view is to writing center names beg a controversial question of moral substance -- something which presumably metaethics should not do. Someone who said I see nothing at all wrong with killing babies so let's bomb Dresden would be an a moral monster -- one with whom it would be senseless to conduct a moral argument. But one who sincerely said Of course it is terrible to kill babies but I believe, to save more lives, we must regretfully do it in this case is not such a monster. He is samford university one with whom, if we think him wrong ( im moral), we should hope to be able to pilgrimage argue. 24 Since, among war supporters, there are (one would hope) few of the former sort but many of the latter sort, being able to argue with and persuade the university dissertation, latter has some practical importance. It will hardly do simply to say to them But I can just see the absolute wrongness of what you contemplate and, if you do not, I refuse to creative writing center discuss the matter with you. We know, alas, what will then happen. Now I am not going to pretend that I can give anything resembling a proof that it is absolutely wrong to kill the innocent (though not to allow them to die), but I hope at least to be able to elaborate a way of thinking which (a) does give some sense to university such a prohibition and (b) cannot be condemned as simple dogmatism or authoritarianism, i.e., is a way of thinking . 25.
The way of thinking I want to elaborate is one in which the notion of people's having rights plays a predominate role. (Kant's ethical theory, in broad outline, is one such way of thinking.) And an ethical outlook in which the notion of cmu cit rights looms large will want to samford draw a distinction between the essay, following two claims: Doing A to Jones would be to violate one of dissertation his rights. Of Rights Questions? It would be bad to do A to Jones. To use Kant's own examples: 26 If I have made a promise to Jones, he has a right to expect me to keep it, can properly regard me as having wronged him if I do not keep it, and could properly expect that others (the state) should coerce me into keeping it. Kant's opaque way of putting this is to university dissertation say that keeping a promise is a perfect duty. A quite different situation is the following: If Jones is in outline, distress (assuming I have not put him there) and I could help him out without extraordinary sacrifice, he would certainly want me to help him and I would be doing something bad if I did not help him. University? But he does not have a right to expect my help, is not wronged if I fail to help him, and it would be unreasonable to expect the state or anyone else to coerce me into helping him. Helping him is beneficence and cmu cit, (unlike justice) is a comparatively weak moral demand. Kant's opaque way of putting this is to samford say that the duty to help others in distress is imperfect . When'a man has a right, he has a claim against interference. Smoking Thank? Simply to refuse to samford be beneficent to him is cmu cit not an invasion of his rights because it is not to interfere with him at all. When a person uses his freedom to invade the rights of others, he forfeits certain of his own rights and renders interference by others legitimate. (Kant calls this a moral title or authorization -- Befugnis -- to place obstacles to obstacles to freedom.) 27 Thus if I have an university, imperfect duty to help others, I may interfere with those trying to harm those others because, by such an attempt, they have forfeited their right against essay interference. Here I have the imperfect duty; and, since those attacking have by the attack forfeited certain of their rights, I violate no perfect duty in dissertation, interfering with them.
Thus there is hobbies list no conflict here. However, if the university dissertation, only way I could save someone from harm would be by interfering with an innocent person (i.e., one who has not forfeited his rights by phd thesis initiating attack against samford dissertation others) then I must not save the person, for this would be to violate a perfect duty. Bill Of Rights Essay? And, in cases of conflict, perfect duties override imperfect duties. Suppose that Jones is being attacked by Smith. In such a case it is certainly true to say that Jones's rights to liberty, security, etc. are being threatened and that Smith, therefore, is acting wrongly and thereby forfeits his right to be left free from interference. Thus I would not be acting wrongly (i.e., against Smith's rights) if I attacked him to prevent his attack on Jones. University Dissertation? Similarly, Jones would not be acting wrongly if he defended himself. However, it does not follow from any of this that I have a duty to help Jones or even that Jones has a duty to defend himself. Bill Essay? Defense, though permissible, is not obligatory. University Dissertation? This being so, it does not follow that Jones has a right to creative names be saved by me.
Thus, since it is far from obvious that Jones has a right to be saved even from an attack by the guilty, it is even more implausible to assert that he has a right to be saved if so doing would involve killing the innocent. (Consider the following: We are all, at this very moment, sitting and talking philosophy and are thus omitting to save the lives of countless people we might save throughout the world. Are we acting wrongly in so doing? If we are, is this because all these people have a right to be saved by us?) Now what sort of a moral view could one hold that would make one accept the principle that perfect duties, resting on rights, override imperfect duties, not resting on rights? I think it is this: a view which makes primary the status of university dissertation persons as free or choosing beings who, out of respect for christianity gcse coursework that status, are to university be regarded as having the hobbies, right to be left alone to work out their own lives -- for better or worse. This is university dissertation a basic right that one has just because one is phd thesis a person. Respecting it is what Kant calls respecting the dignity of samford dissertation humanity by not treating people as means only.
Part of respecting them in essay, this sense is not to use them as a means in one's calculations of what would be good for samford university others. It is cmu cit fine (indeed admirable) for a person to sacrifice himself for others by samford his own choice; but it is presumptuous (because lacking in respect for his choices) if I choose to sacrifice him. This is his business and not mine. I may only smoking thank interfere with the person who, by his own evil actions, has forfeited his right against interference. Innocent persons by definition have not done this. University Dissertation? And therefore it is cmu cit phd thesis absolutely wrong to sacrifice the innocent, though not to kill aggressors. On this view there is something terribly perverse in arguing, as many do, that a defense of freedom requires a sacrifice of those who in no way give their free consent to the sacrifice. 28. Of course babies are not yet, in the full sense, free or choosing beings who clearly have rights. They are, perhaps, only potential or dispositionai persons and enjoyers of rights. But if one accepts the maxim Innocent until proven otherwise they may be regarded as equally protected in the above way of thinking.
For they certainly cannot be described in the only way which, on university dissertation, this view, makes harmful interference permissible -- namely, described as having, through their own deliberate acts of aggression, forfeited their right to be left in peace. Now this view that what is workshop central in university dissertation, morality involves notions like rights, dignity, freedom, and choice (rather than notions like maximizing the general utility) cannot be proven. But it is a plausible view which may lie behind the maxim Never kill the innocent and is a view which would be sacrificed. I (at least greatly compromised) by the maxim Kill the innocent to save the creative names, innocent. I am myself deeply sympathetic to this way of samford university thinking and would make neither the smoking, compromise nor the sacrifice. Samford University? But I cannot prove that one ought not make it. Neither, of essay course, can my teleological opponent prove his case either. For we lie here at the boundaries of moral discourse where candidates for ultimate principles conflict; and it is part of the logical character of an ultimate principle that it cannot be assessed by some yet higher (more ultimate?) principle. 29 You pays your money and you takes your choice.
It is simply my hope that many people, if they could see clearly what price they have to pay (i.e. the samford university, kind of moral outlook they have to give up and what they have to put in its place) would make the choice against killing the innocent. Consider the following example: Suppose that thousands of babies could be saved from a fatal infant disease if some few babies were taken by the state and given over to a team of medical researchers for hobbies list a series of samford university experiments which, though killing the babies, would yield a cure for the disease. Essay Outline? In what way except degree (i.e., numbers of samford university dissertation babies killed) does this situation differ from the rationale behind antimorale obliteration bombing raids, i.e., is there not a disturbing parallel between Allied raids on Dresden and Tokyo and. Nazi medicine? With respect to either suggestion, when we really think about it, do we not want to say with the poet James Dickey Holding onto resume, another man's walls.
My hat should crawl on my head. In streetcars, thinking of samford university it, The fat on my body should pale. 30 How can any such thing be in christianity coursework, the interest of humanity when its practice would change the very meaning of humanity and samford university, prevent us from christianity unpacking from it, as we now do, notions like rights, dignity, and respect? No matter how good the consequences, is there not some point in saying that we simply do not have the right to do it? For there is, I think, an insight of university secular value in the religious observation that men are the children of God. For this means, among other things, that other people do not belong to thank me.
They are not mine to be manipulated as resources in my projects. It is hard to imagine all that we might lose if we abandoned this way of thinking about ourselves and others. My appeal here, of course, is in a sense emotive. But this in my judgment is not an objection. Emotive appeals may rightly be condemned if they are masquerading as proofs. But here I am attempting to university dissertation prove nothing but only to say -- Here, look, see what you are doing and what way of essay thank thinking your doing it involves you in. If one sees all this and samford, still goes forth to do it anyway, we have transcended the bounds of what can be said in the matter. What about workshop, noncombatants? Though they are not necessarily innocent in all the senses in which babies are, they clearly are innocent in the sense I have elaborated above -- namely, they have not performed actions which forfeit their right to be free from execution (or, better: it is not reasonable for the enemy to believe this of them). Thus, in dissertation, a very tentative conclusion, I suggest the following: I have not been able to prove that we should never kill noncombatants or innocents (I do not think this could be proven in any ordinary sense of proof): but I do think that I have elaborated a way of thinking which gives sense to the acceptance of such an hobbies list, absolute prohibition.
Thus, against Bennett, I have at university dissertation, least shown that one can accept the principle Never kill the innocent without thereby necessarily being an bill of rights, authoritarian or a dogmatic moral fanatic. AUTHOR'S NOTE: Many people were kind enough to comment on this manuscript in various stages of its preparation, and samford, I should like to take this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation for the help that they provided. In particular, I should like to thank the essay workshop, following: Lewis White Beck, Robert L. Holmes, Gareth Matthews, Ronald Milo, Richard Wasserstrom, Donald Wells, Peter Winch, and samford university, Anthony D. Woozley. I should also like to thank the members of my graduate seminar on war at the University of Arizona for stimulating discussion. Since I have perversely gone my own way on several points in spite of advice to creative center names the contrary, I alone am to be held responsible for university dissertation any errors that remain. In setting a philosophical framework for a discussion of the problem of killing the innocent in war, I have been greatly influenced by Richard Wasserstrom's On the Morality of War: A Preliminary Inquiry in his useful collection of essays War and Morality (Belmont. Calif: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1970). Essay Outline? I am presupposing that the university, reader is familiar with Miss G. E. Pilgrimage Gcse? M. Anscombe's two articles Modern Moral Philosophy, Philosophy , 33, No. 124 (January 1958), and War and samford university dissertation, Murder (in the Waserstrom collection). I am also presupposing a familiarity with Jonathan Bennetts' Whatever the bill essay questions, Consequences, Analysis , 26, No. 3 (January 1966).
1 Murder, writes Miss Anscombe, is the deliberate killing of the dissertation, innocent, whether for its own sake or as a means to some further end (War and Murder, p. 45). Deliberate killing of the innocent (or noncombatants) is prohibited by the Just War Theory and is a crime in national law. A traditional account of the Catholic Just War Theory may be found in essay smoking, Chapter 35 of Austin Fagothey's Right and Reason: Ethics in Theory and Practice (St. Dissertation? Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1963). A useful sourcebook for inquiry into the nature ot war crimes is the anthology Crimes of War , ed. by Richard A. Falk, Gabriel Kilko, and Robert Jay Lifton (New York: Random House, 1971). 2 By prima facie wrong I mean can be overridden by essay workshop other moral requirements— not , as a literal translation might suggest, only apparently wrong. 3 For example: In the criminal offense of statutory rape, the defendant is samford university dissertation strictly liable with respect to his knowledge of the age of a girl with whom he has had sexual relations, i.e., no matter how carefully he inquired into hobbies list, her age, no matter how reasonable (i.e., nonnegligent) his belief that she was of legal age of consent, he is liable if his belief is in fact mistaken. For a general discussion of such offenses, see Richard Wasserstrom's Strict Liability in the Criminal Law, Stanford Law Review , 12 (July 1960). 4 In discussion, Richard Wasserstrom has expressed scepticism concerning my claim that there is something unintelligible about the concept of university dissertation strict moral responsibility. One could regard the Old Testament and Oedipus Rex as containing a strict liability conception of morality. Now I should be inclined to argue that the primitiveness of the Old Testament and of Oedipus Rex consists in these peoples not yet being able to draw a distinction between legality and morality.
However, I am prepared to admit that it might be better to essay smoking thank weaken my claim by maintaining simply that no civilized or enlightened morality would involve strict liability. 5 In California criminal law, for samford dissertation example, vehicular manslaughter is defined as vehicular homicide in the commission of an unlawful act, not amounting to felony, with gross negligence; or in writing center names, the commission of a lawful act which might produce death, in university, an unlawful manner, and with gross negligence . . . ( California Penal Code , 192, 3, a). 6 For an excellent discussion of moral and legal responsibility for essay workshop negligence, see H. L. A. Hart's Negligence, Mens Rea and Criminal Responsibility, in his Punishment and Responsility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963). 7 I say engaged in an attempt rather than attempting for the following reason: A mortar attack on university, an encampment of combat soldiers who happen to be sleeping is surely not a case of killing noncombatants even though persons who are asleep cannot be attempting anything. Sleeping persons can, however, be engaged in an attempt -- just as sleeping persons can be accomplices in crime and parties to a criminal conspiracy. Being engaged in an attempt, unlike attempting, is not necessarily a full time job. I am grateful to Anthony Woozley for pointing this out to essay smoking me. 8 Thomas Nagel, War and Massacre. Philosophy and Public Affairs , 2 (Winter 1972). In the same issue, Richard Brandt replies to Nagei in samford university dissertation, his Utilitarianism and essay smoking, the Rules of War.
I am grateful to Professors Nagel and Brandt for allowing me to read their articles prior to publication. 9 For reasons of simplicity in samford university, later drawing upon important and instructive principles from the criminal law, I shall use the phrase self-defense. (I shall later want to draw on the notion of reasonable belief in the law of self-defense.) However, what I really want to workshop focus on is the concept of defense and not the samford, concept of resume hobbies list self. For it seems to me that war can be justified, not just to defend oneself or one's nation, but also to defend others from threats that transcend nationality, e.g., genocide. If one wants to speak of self-defense even here, then it must be regarded as self-defense for the human, not just national, community. Samford University Dissertation? The phrase self-defense as it occurs in what follows should always be understood as carrying this qualification. And, of course, even clear cases of self-defense are not always necessarily justified.
Given the morally debased character of Nazi Germany, it is by no means obvious that it acted rightly in trying to defend itself near the essay thank, end of samford university Worlrl War II (i.e., after it had ceased to essay outline be an aggressor). 10 Remember that this carries the qualification stated in note 9. Samford? For a survey of the law of self-defense, the reader may consult any reliable treatise on the criminal law, e.g., pp. 883 ff. of Rollin M. Perkins's Criminal Law (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1957). The criminal law is a highly moralized institution, and it is useful (though by no means always definitive) for the moral philosopher in that it provides an accumulated and systematized body of reflection on vital moral matters of our culture. Cmu Cit Phd Thesis? For my purposes, I shall in what follows focus upon the reasonable belief condition in the law of self-defense. Other aspects of the law of university dissertation self-defense (e.g., the writing center, so-called retreat requirement), have, I think, interesting implications for war that I cannot pursue here. 11 Modern Moral Philosophy, p. 17.
For reasons I shall note later, Miss Anscombe weakens her point by adding the word judicial . 12 See William H. Gass, The Case of the Obliging Stranger, Philosophical Review , 66 (April 1957). 13 John Rawls, Two Concepts of samford university dissertation Rules, Philosophical Review , 64 (January 1955). 14 See, fo example, United States v. Falcone , United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, 1940, 109 F:2d 579. 15 Consider the essay outline, case of the homicidal diabetic: He is chasing you through the samford university dissertation, woods of an enclosed preserve, attempting to kill you for sport with a pistol. Cmu Cit? However, because of samford his medical condition, he must return to pilgrimage gcse a cabin in the middle of the dissertation, preserve every hour in order that his aged mother can give him an insulin shot. Without it, he will take ill or will die and will thus be forced to abandon his attempt to kill you. Even if blocking that insulin shot seems your only phd thesis hope, killing the mother in order to do it would be a very doubtful case of selt-defence. 16 Austin Fagothey, in his well-known statement of the Just War Theory cited previously, allows injury to national honor to count as a ground for a war of university dissertation self-defense. I cite Fagothey's book because of hobbies its influence. University? It was, for resume hobbies example, appealed to university by Justice Douglas in the 1971 Gillette case where the defendant refused induction on christianity gcse, the grounds of university dissertation his belief that the essay outline workshop, Vietnam War is unjust ( Gillette v. United States , 401 U.S.
437. 17 Moswern Moral Philosophy. 18 Another factor, relevant both to war and to the highway example, is the following: acting with the knowledge that deaths could be prevented by samford taking reasonable precautions and yet not taking those precautions. Such grossly negligent or reckless behavior, while perhaps not deliberate in the strict sense, is surely immoral in either context. 19 See Michael Walzer, World War II: Why Was This War Different?, Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1, No. 1 (Fall 1971). 20 As the citizens of London and Hanoi have illustrated, for example, terror bombing has a tendency to backfire. Rather than demoralizing the enemy, it sometimes strengthens their courage and outline, will to resist. 21 Jonathan Bennett, Whatever the Consequences, Analysis , 26, No. 3 (January 1966).
22 I take it that, from a moral point of view, their being German babies is irrelevant. As Howard Zinn has argued, we should accept the principle that all victims are created equal ( Disobedience and samford university, Democracy: Nine Fallacies on creative writing, Law and Order [New York: Random House, 1968], p. 50). 24 One important metaethical inquiry that has been conducted in recent years concerns the nature of moral judgments and the moral point of view or language game. The task here is to samford university dissertation distinguish the moral from the non moral or a moral. Normative ethics, on the other hand, is concerned to distinguish the moral from the immoral. Outline? This is dissertation too large a dispute to enter here, but I can at least make my own commitments clear. Outline Workshop? Unlike the samford university, so-called formalists (e.g., R. M. Hare, The Language of smoking thank Morals [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952]), I am inclined to believe that the moral point of dissertation view must be defined, in part, in terms of the content of the judgments it contains. Here I am siding, if I understand them correctly, with such writers as H. Workshop? L. A. Hart ( The Concept of Law [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961]), and G. J. Warnock ( The Object of Morality [London: Methuen, 1971]).
Someone who does not see that A is a case of killing an innocent is a relevant reason against doing A, does not understand what moral discourse is all about, what it is necessarily concerned with. And this is samford dissertation so no matter how much he is prepared to universalize and regard as overriding his own idiosyncratic imperatives. If this is resume true, then the gulf between metaethics and normative ethics is not quite as wide as many have supposed, since the university, relevance of certain substantive judgments is now going to essay be regarded as part of the meaning of morality as a point of view, language game, or form of dissertation life. Center? There still is some gulf between metaethics and normative ethics, however, since I should argue that only the relevance, and not the decisiveness, of certain substantive judgments (e.g., do not kill the innocent) can be regarded as a defining feature of the moral point of view. Normative ethics, however, is primarily interested in which of the relevant moral considerations are, in samford dissertation, certain circumstances, decisive. (I am grateful to Ronald Milo for discussing these matters with me. He is totally responsible for whatever clarity is to of rights essay be found in my views.) 25 Though I shall not explore it here, I think that the religious acceptance of the principle could be elaborated as a way of thinking and university, so distinguished from the essay, authoritarianism and dissertation, dogmatism that Bennett so rightly condemns. The view I shall develop also has implications (though I shall not draw them out here) for the abortion issue. For more on this, see Philippa Foot's Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect, Oxford Review (1967). This has been reprinted in Moral Problems: A Collection of Philosophical Essays , ed. by James Rachels (New York: Harper and creative writing, Row, 1971), and in samford university dissertation, my An Introduction to Moral and pilgrimage gcse coursework, Social Philosophy: Basic Readings in Theory and Practice (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1973). She sees the samford university, doctrine of the creative center names, Double Effect as groping in a confused way toward an insight of moral importance: There is worked into our moral system a distinction between what we owe people in the form of aid and what we owe them in the way of non-interference.
26 These well-known examples are drawn from Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of university Morals , trans, by Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1959), pp. 39 ff.; pp. 421 ff. of the Academy edition of workshop Kant's works. Kant distinguishes perfect duties (duties of university respect) and imperfect duties (duties of love) in cmu cit, many places. See, for example, The Doctrine of Virtue , trans, by Mary J. Gregor (New York: Harper and Row, 1964), pp. Samford University Dissertation? 134-35; p. Resume? 463 of the Academy edition. 27 Kant, Metaphysical Elements of Justice , trans, by John Ladd (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1965), pp.
35 ff.; pp. University Dissertation? 230 ff. of the Academy edition. See also pp. 94 ff. and outline, 107-9 of my Kant: The Philosophy of Right (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970). 28 Someone (e.g., Jan Narveson in his Pacifism: A Philosophical Analysis, Ethics , 75 ) might say the following: If what you value are the rights of people, does this not entail (as a part of what it means to say that one values something) that you would recognize an obligation to take steps to samford university dissertation secure those rights against interference? Perhaps. But take steps does not have to mean do whatever is causally necessary. Such an obligation will presumably be limited by (a) what I can reasonably be expected to do or sacrifice and (b) my moral judgment about the permissibility of the means employed. It does seem perverse for a person to say I value the rights of people above all else but I do not propose to do anything to secure those rights. Cmu Cit? However, it by no means seems to me equally perverse to say the samford university dissertation, following: I deplore interferences with human rights above all else and I will do everything in my power to prevent such interferences -- everything, of course, short of cmu cit being guilty of such interferences myself.
29 See Brian Barry, Justice and the Common Good, Analysis , 21-22 (1960-61). Samford? Though the existentialists tend to overdo this sort of claim, there is truth in bill, their claim that there are certain moral problems that are in principle undecidable by university dissertation any rational decision procedure. Resume Hobbies? Such cases are not perhaps as numerous as the existentialists would have us believe, but they do arise, e.g. when candidates for ultimate moral principles conflict. In such cases, we find it impossible to nail down with solid arguments those principles which matter to us the most. Perhaps this even deserves to be called absurd. In his article The Absurd ( Journal of Philosophy , 68, No. 20 [October 21, 19711), Thomas Nagel suggests that absurdity in human life is found in university, the collision between the bill questions, seriousness with which we take our lives and university dissertation, the perpetual possibility of regarding everything about which we are serious as arbitrary, or open to doubt. Bill Of Rights Essay Questions? It is here that talk about faith or commitment seems to have some life. 30 James Dickey, The Firebombing, in dissertation, Poems 1957-1967 (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1967), p. 185.
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essay good writing Read the topic and samford dissertation sample essay, then study the phd thesis, comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. Samford! There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth.
Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and essay that societies should try to reduce their populations. University Dissertation! Nowadays, however, the creative writing names, concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. Dissertation! But what are the causes of thank, this trend? And how much are the attitudes and samford university dissertation lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of bill of rights questions, explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to samford university dissertation be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about essay smoking thank 2.6 births per female, but in samford university 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only essay smoking thank, about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and samford thus there is a net population decline.
This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and essay outline economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and samford university dissertation economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and hobbies list the satisfaction of samford, personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of bill of rights questions, this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to samford refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. Phd Thesis! These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on samford dissertation, self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a).
But is outline, it reasonable to attribute the samford university, baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). Essay Smoking Thank! As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of university dissertation, 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents.
Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of outline workshop, women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in samford dissertation itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is essay outline workshop, still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. University! 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women.
We can summarise the pilgrimage coursework, discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for university, women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the essay workshop, number of university, children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.
Many writers are now pointing to bill of rights a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in samford university his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. Workshop! In developed societies, however, children now constitute an samford university economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on essay, the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to samford dissertation avert risk.
McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for phd thesis, employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on samford university dissertation, increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of pilgrimage gcse, men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12).
And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of university, young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the gcse coursework, world seem to university dissertation have an increasing perception of cmu cit phd thesis, economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to samford dissertation live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Pilgrimage Gcse! Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the samford university, younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for phd thesis, governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity.
A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on samford university dissertation, the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for essay outline, more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the samford, young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise.
Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. Essay Smoking! (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14.
Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and dissertation Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Essay Thank! Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA.
McDonald, P. University Dissertation! (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. Cmu Cit! People and dissertation Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000.
Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on pilgrimage christianity gcse coursework, fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Samford! Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge.
Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over of rights, and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for dissertation, it. As part of workshop, this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is samford university, happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and smoking thank ii). In the last part of the university, introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in phd thesis the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to samford university dissertation argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the writing names, topic - that birth rates have fallen.
This is samford university, presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and essay then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from samford university Europe and christianity Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the samford dissertation, main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the phd thesis, main issue is samford dissertation, you are addressing in cmu cit phd thesis your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in samford dissertation your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas.
Notice how in list this new paragraph, the samford university dissertation, student provides a critique of writing, these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to samford university dissertation provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the pilgrimage gcse, topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out samford women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. Writing! (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in university dissertation your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in bill of rights essay the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.
The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for samford university dissertation, the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline.
Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to center support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to samford dissertation have an pilgrimage christianity coursework argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Samford! Your essays will be judged mainly on bill, your ability to samford university do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion.
In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. Essay Outline! You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on university dissertation, from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to creative writing center names issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion.
Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the samford university, essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from resume hobbies list a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to university list all the bill, texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts.
This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of university dissertation, reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the bill of rights questions, texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Samford University Dissertation! Of course, all references have to be relevant to phd thesis your argument. Notice how the samford, student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. Essay! And in samford dissertation the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work.
But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the gcse coursework, same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to university dissertation indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay.
Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in christianity gcse a number of university dissertation, ways. One method is to workshop present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only dissertation, about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000)
This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of bill essay questions, Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to samford dissertation distance yourself from certain language. eg. Writing Center Names! when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate.
Notice how he does this in a careful way, by samford using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to of rights essay change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is university, OK to bill of rights essay questions change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. Samford University! (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is hobbies list, your emphasis.)
It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an samford university #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in creative writing names this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of samford university dissertation, a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . Essay! which he thinks.
It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and samford university a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and resume hobbies list are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in samford dissertation alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Creative Center Names! Title. Place: Publisher.
It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to dissertation providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for of rights, the site when you accessed the dissertation, site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to essay workshop be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?
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Essay Form and Structure: How to samford university, Write an Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Smoking Thank. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for a well developed essay. University Dissertation. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Pilgrimage. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the university, cost of running a campaign or the training of pilgrimage christianity coursework, a police dog. You will need to find a subject.
3. You can find a subject in many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on the reader and allow yourself time for consideration. It should have an university impact on cmu cit the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. You’ll want to know about the samford university, topic. That means that you’ll have to do research and resume, read about the topic. Samford University Dissertation. You will want to shape the topic to the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering.
7. Once you’ve narrowed your Topic, you’ll want to pilgrimage christianity, establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the university dissertation, purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences. To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to think or act a certain way. Bill Questions. You may want to think about entertaining the reader. 8. Samford University. Next you want to think about developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write. Jot down everything you know about the christianity, topic in a short list. Questions.
Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in a cluster. Dissertation. Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about a particular idea or topic. Resume Hobbies. Keep a journal. Jot down things during the university dissertation, day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay.
Collaborate. Smoking Thank. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay. The thesis tells what an essay is samford university dissertation, going to be about. It is a brief opinion on a limited subject, and it usually appears at bill the end of the introduction . The purpose of the samford university dissertation, Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writer’s topic, and what opinion the writer has about the topic. It provides focus for of rights questions the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what you’re going to be discussing in the essay. Samford University Dissertation. It guides the reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic. It presents the outline workshop, main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. University Dissertation. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the essay.
Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body. The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. Smoking. The thesis must express an samford university attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln.— A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln.— --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because it’s cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.—
Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to bill essay, dorm living. 7. Samford University. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to pilgrimage, vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, there’s nothing to samford university, explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Outline Workshop. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. University Dissertation. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the last ten years.—
Improved Thesis. Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years.— Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase—.
Better statement would be: -- The water department’s proposed rate increase is not needed—. --I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --This essay will describe the best way to choose a major.— --Our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --Students who are unsure of how to essay outline, choose a major should follow my advice.— --It is interesting to consider the various meanings of love.—
--We apply the samford university, work love to a broad spectrum of emotions.— 12. Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and questions, then think about dissertation re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy—. This is a vague statement.
-- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of cmu cit phd thesis, trouble—. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important—. This is a broad statement. Catch the samford dissertation, readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on pilgrimage coursework your thesis statement, some ways to do that is by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question.
Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by samford dissertation, examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. Essay. It must present facts and samford dissertation, details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etc…the idea given in your thesis. It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of your thesis. Pilgrimage Gcse Coursework. This is samford, important because the body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to support the thesis. Essay. It is important to develop each of samford university, your topic sentences with enough detail.
Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in the topic sentence. These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the phd thesis, same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the reader with an overall reaction.
It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. Gives the reader something to think about. It looks back or looks ahead. You’ll want to move the reader to action. The conclusion influence’s the reader’s final impression. The same care that goes into samford university dissertation, the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the pilgrimage gcse coursework, last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to the rest of your essay. The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph.
Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like ‘in conclusion,’ ‘in summary,’ ‘to summarize,’ and ‘in closing.’ These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, you’re ready to start Planning the Essay . University Dissertation. You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an pilgrimage in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences. Samford University Dissertation. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters.
Points to smoking, develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only main points in outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the scratch outline. This is for samford dissertation writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and essay workshop, the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and the sub ideas. Write the samford, central idea; Main points= First branches. Of Rights Questions. Add additional branches as sub points.
Once you have your outline, you’re now ready to start your draft. Samford University. The first draft of your essay is referred to bill essay, as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, you’ll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the samford dissertation, draft, skip the list, troublesome section and move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and go back to it later.
The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to samford, Write a Thesis Statement. by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers. How to hobbies list, Write the dissertation, Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18.
by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to bill essay questions, Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays.
by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in samford dissertation, a few debates myself. My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. Workshop. To meet the writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of essays varied.
There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to samford dissertation, write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention. I am working on an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in the next few days.
Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thanks for bill of rights essay questions your visit. Dissertation. This came from notes taken from one of my English classes at College, a requirement I needed for creative writing my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from samford university Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of coursework, these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to samford, field. I can't say that I write this way at outline all, though my method is not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for the compliment.
Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is dissertation, great post. That is nice article on bill of rights essay questions how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida.
Thank you for your visit and comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Thank you for university your comment.
This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and I have to write a thesis statement on essay workshop a paper that is due at the end of the samford, session. I have been trying to figure out what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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