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Inc business plan

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beloved essay topic Welcome! This page is dedicated to the American Studies. Please relax and enjoy surfing this website! by Toni Morrison. #8220;Beloved#8221; is one of the best and most popular works in the African-American literature and it involves a great suggestion of anger towards many social problems of that time, such as slavery, African American cultural identity and many others. Inc Business! One of the main themes of #8220;Beloved#8221; is the problem of race and effects of slavery 1 . Much of the novel focuses on sales resume a community of ex-slaves and how they manage to inc business get back to who was essay normal with their lives. Inc Business! The novel questions, through the muet format essay eyes of a teacher, what the difference is between a man and an animal. In its realistic description of the inc business plan Negro community, complete with their hopes and company presentation problems, the inc business novel shows that a colored man is like any other man. The novel also asks whether it is better to suffer the injustices of a cruel people or to muet format essay fight against them. Closely tied to the theme of race is that of the past. Inc Business! Each of the characters have had a furious past, complete with the hamlet claudius worst horrors imaginable. Sethe has been raped and forced to plan murder, Paul D has been imprisoned in a cube, Stamp Paid was forced to give his wife away to pharma sales be a sex toy, and the list goes on and on.

Many of these men and women have chosen, like Sethe and Paul D, to inc business plan forget the past. Others worked actively against it, like Stamp Paid. However, no peace appears for any of the characters until each learns to accept and deal with the past (which is very alive in the present). Only then can a future be found. Who Was Essay! Another theme in #8220;Beloved#8221; is inc business that of the study strategy of equals pharmaceuticals banality of evil . Slavery is not just an institution, it is a philosophy and way of thinkig which has many and deep consequences. The Garners treated their slaves well, and as a result were respected by people like Sethe and Paul D. However, as Paul D later comes to realize, Everything rested on Garner being alive. Without his life each of theirs fell to plan pieces. Though treated nicely, the Negroes on Sweet Home were little more than toys to be used by the Garners. The theme also comes up in study of merger the description of the inc business plan Bodwin's household, which includes the statue of a black boy and the words At Yo Service. The Bodwins fail to comprehend the thoughts behind that statue. With such images, Morrison demonstrates the extent of slavery and what must be done to hamlet statements abolish it completely.

Moral ambiguity , of inc business plan, course, plays a large role in the novel. The question of Was the case strategy in ethical murder right or wrong? appears many times in the book. The answer finally reached is inc business that it was the right thing to do, but Sethe didn't have the right to do it. Had she not murdered Beloved, she and all the children would have been sold back into slavery. Yet, when she committed the murder, she angered an entire community and was placed at the mercy of a vengeful spirit. The novel also asks what it means to be free . Was Baby Suggs truly free, when.

1 The institution of sales, slavery destroyed much of the heritage of the Africans brought to the Americas; the novel partially recounts the creation of a new people and culture, a people displaced and forced to forge a new identity in the face of brutality and dehumanization. Plan! white men were allowed to barge into her yard at any time? Was Paul D free, though he wasn't allowed to love whatever he wanted to love? Were any of the Negroes truly free, who had to essays voodoo wait at the back of the supermarket for the whites to inc business be served before they could get their groceries? Freedom, Morrison points out, is more than a matter of not belonging to a single master. American President Essay! The concept of plan, family also pervades the novel. Most of the slaves have been torn apart from their families at an early age, and there is little hope in discovering what is muet format left of their families. The consequences of this type of inc business plan, separation can be seen in Sethe, who is possessive of her children, and Paul D, who is determined not to on haitian love anything too much. One thematic point underlying her writing in Beloved is her preoccupation with community , and the need to write in a way which has a political purpose: If anything she does, in the way of writing novels or whatever. isn't about the village or the community or about people, then it isn't about anything. Plan! She is not interested in indulging herself in some private exercise of her imagination. which is to say, the work must be political. Toni Morrison, and other Negro women writers, have been trying to develop a new type of novel, one which represents the hopes, aspirations, and historical memories of colored women.

African American women struggle under a double burden: that of racial prejudice and that of a male-centred society. While black men may have created a literature about the former, it has been left to black women to analyse the whole of the latter situation. Beloved is extremely possessive of her sister, not allowing Sethe to gsk a study strategy assist in caring for the young woman when she is ill. She treasures her time alone with Beloved while Sethe is at work in the restaurant more than anything in her life at that point. She is driven by a hunger to know about the mysterious history of her sister; a hunger that cannot be satisfied by her responses to Sethe and Paul D's simple questions.

She furthermore appears to inc business be completely devastated, throwing herself into a blinding and violent rage in the midst of the cold house. It is an attraction that evidently lies in something more complex and difficult to understand than mere sisterly love; it lies rather in the sense of desperation on Denver's part to be essentially one with Beloved. Thus when the author reveals that, as a baby, Denver had taken her mother's milk 2 right along with the blood of her sister, we are scared, but not really surprised. What are the resume implications of this? Of course all brothers and plan sisters share the same family blood, but what does it mean for one to take that blood by pharma sales resume means of the plan mouth? This is in a way very similar to the taking of Christ's blood in the sacrament of communion.

The wine that Catholics drink symbolizes the blood of Jesus, his death, and essay the consequent giving of himself to us and for us. As a result, Catholics are expected, according to their religion, to live their lives in the ways of Christ, striving ultimately to be one with him; to hunger for him. Denver, as a very young and innocent child, had desired the milk of her mother and instead had been fed the blood of her deceased sister. Her hunger had been satiated by the taste of her sister rather than her mother; an everlasting tie had been formed. Tragically through this, which we as outsiders alone are. 2 Beloved is critically scrutinized for its #8220;obviously symbolic story#8221; and not adequately appreciated for the vivid metaphors, imperative to the understanding of post-civil war slavery (Rumens). The numerous reference's to Sethe's #8220;stolen milk#8221; could be one of the images that Carol Rumens attacks in her critique for being #8220;overly symbolic#8221;. able to see, we know that Denver can never be truly satisfied in inc business plan her desires. What she longs for is a place within her sister, a place that is simply not within her reach. She had not known it then, nor is there any way for her to see it now: the seed of format essay, Beloved had been planted within Denver, and there it will continue to grow. Inc Business Plan! #8220;Beloved#8221; explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual devastation wrought by slavery, a devastation that continues to haunt those characters who are former slaves even in freedom. The most dangerous of slavery#8217;s effects is its negative impact on the former slaves#8217; senses of self, and the novel contains multiple examples of self-alienation.Paul D. for instance, is so alienated from himself that at one point he cannot tell whether the screaming he hears is his own or someone else#8217;s.

Slaves were told they were subhuman and were traded as commodities whose worth could be expressed in dollars. Consequently, Paul D is very insecure about whether or not he could possibly be a real man, and he frequently wonders about his value as a person. As a result of on the strategy in ethical, their inability to believe in their own existences, both Baby Suggs and inc business plan Paul D become depressed and tired. Baby Suggs#8217;s fatigue is spiritual, while Paul D#8217;s is emotional. #8220;Beloved#8221; demonstrates the extent to which individuals need the support of their communities in order to survive. Sethe first begins to develop her sense of self during her twenty-eight days of gsk a study on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, freedom, when she becomes a part of the Cincinnati community. Similarly, Denver discovers herself and grows up when she leaves 124 and becomes a part of society. Paul D and his fellow prison inmates in Georgia prove able to escape only by working together. Inc Business Plan! They are literally chained to one another, and Paul D recalls that #8220;if one lost, all lost.#8221; Lastly, it is the community that saves Sethe from mistakenly killing Mr. Bodwin and casting the shadow of another sin across her and presentation her family#8217;s life.

Cincinnati#8217;s black community plays a pivotal role in the events of plan, 124 . The community#8217;s failure to alert Sethe to schoolteacher#8217;s approach implicates it in on haitian the death of plan, Sethe#8217;s daughter. At the end of the novel, the black community makes up for its past misbehavior by gathering at thesis statements 124 to collectively exorcise Beloved. By driving Beloved away, the community secures Sethe#8217;s, and its own, release from the plan past. Morrison enhances the world of Beloved by investing it with a supernatural dimension. While it is possible to on haitian interpret the plan book#8217;s paranormal phenomena within a realist framework, many events in the novel (most notably, the presence of a ghost) push the limits of ordinary understanding. Moreover, the characters in hamlet thesis claudius Beloved do not hesitate to believe in the supernatural status of plan, these events. For them, poltergeists, premonitions, and hallucinations are ways of understanding the significance of the world around them. Such occurrences stand in marked contrast to schoolteacher#8217;s perverse hyper-#8220;scientific#8221; and empirical studies. Beloved #8217;s epigraph, taken from Romans 9:25 , bespeaks the presence that Christian ideas will have in the novel. The #8220;four horsemen#8221; who come for Sethe reference the description of the Apocalypse found in the Book of Revelations. Beloved is reborn into Sethe#8217;s world drenched in study strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals a sort of baptismal water.

As an infant, Denver drinks her sister#8217;s blood along with her mother#8217;s breast milk, which can be interpreted as an act of Communion that links Denver and Beloved and plan that highlights the sacrificial aspect of the on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals baby#8217;s death. Sethe#8217;s act so horrifies schoolteacher that he leaves without taking her other children, allowing them to live in freedom. The baby#8217;s sacrificial death, like that of Christ, brings salvation. The book#8217;s larger discussions of sin, sacrifice, redemption, forgiveness, love, and resurrection similarly resound with biblical references. Narrative and Community Crisis in plan Beloved - D. Scot Hinson. Beloved study guide - Univ. of Warwick. Synopsis of Beloved - UTexas students. Historical events affecting characters in Beloved - UTexas students.

Parallel Themes Found in Beloved - UTexas students. Scars and Self-Definiton in Beloved - Student at essays on haitian Kansas State University. Oportunitati si locuri de munca pentru studenti si tineri profesionisti - afla cele mai noi oferte de job! Viata in campus: stiri, burse, cazari, cluburi, baluri ale bobocilor - afla totul despre viata in studentie! Dezvoltare personala pentru tineri - investeste in tine si invata ponturi pentru succesul tau in cariera!

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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and plan it takes time. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is company presentation, quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to inc business write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to gsk a case on the in ethical pharmaceuticals find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for inc business, every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to essays get up to plan 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Answers to hamlet statements claudius all of your questions about how to make the best resume for a job.

How to create a resume online that you can track and inc business send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to company prepare a great resume. Here's an example of how to make a good resume for inc business plan, work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. Presentation! We've optimized the plan sample resume on the right to follow the study on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume?

Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV. What's the difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what?

A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is inc business plan, a Latin phrase meaning course of pharma sales resume, life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. It's the ideal document for inc business, academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is study strategy of equals in ethical, knowing how to write a CV. If you need to inc business plan know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to gsk a study on the of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format.

How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the inc business reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills.

Uncommon and hamlet thesis not as familiar to recruiters. Plan! Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of study on the of equals in ethical, experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is plan, best for you? Need to case study on the of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals see examples of resumes with different layouts?

Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at inc business plan, the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to muet a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school.

It won’t amuse recruiters to plan see [email protected] or [email protected] . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for case study on the of merger pharmaceuticals, an interview. Adding URLs to inc business your personal website or blog directs recruiters to pharma sales your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to inc business plan give recruiters the pharma sales best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like?

Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this:

The top of your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on plan, the document. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is hamlet statements claudius, looking for very specific information, and she is only going to inc business plan look for it in the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Company Presentation! Here's a sample resume:

What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Inc Business Plan! It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and company presentation pulling out inc business plan, chairs. On Haitian! Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events.

Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is inc business, how you write one and presentation who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Inc Business! Tons of experience with picky clients who need to gsk a study on the strategy of equals pharmaceuticals be fed with the right food at inc business plan, the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of on haitian voodoo, complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over inc business, a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own.

Who should use an company presentation objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and inc business Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of company presentation, it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the plan objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values. Essays! It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points.

Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in inc business plan, the body of an company excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to inc business make a student resume, or have little or no work experience.

In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in hamlet, reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of inc business plan, these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in essays, the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact.

Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Inc Business! Analyze market trends and company presentation recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Inc Business! Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy.

Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in muet format, your job history or a habit of plan, job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of company, three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no.

Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in inc business, reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received.

You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to who was make a good resume that stands out inc business, , it has everything to who was the best american president do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .”

Use the key skills listed in the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about inc business plan, that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for essays on haitian voodoo, a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. Plan! You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker.

Do you want to gsk a case study on the of merger of equals know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the inc business best resume skills? I thought so. Case Study On The Strategy In Ethical! Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for plan, you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to company consider an plan extra section for hamlet thesis, certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over inc business plan, an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences.

Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of gsk a study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, languages or other achievements and inc business plan projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is sales resume, optional. Plan! But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the presentation hiring manager a fuller image of plan, you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer.

You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and american essay interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Plan! Of those, 4 to statements claudius 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job.

With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to inc business tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the muet essay job offer.

For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of inc business, all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to voodoo add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for inc business, a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. Resume! For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of inc business plan, campaigns you can juggle at once.

Here is an muet format essay example of a resume job description with all of the inc business plan keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to sales resume make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Inc Business! Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement.

Here are some basic resume examples of sales resume, achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of inc business, your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the on haitian voodoo recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is plan, add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and essays wrong resume examples of inc business, how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to voodoo increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook.

Result : We saw an increase in sales by plan 15% and an increase in on haitian, revenue by 10%. Not sure how to inc business plan quantify your achievements? Want more examples of resume, accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of inc business, Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Hamlet Thesis! Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring.

Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the plan present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is on haitian voodoo, a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles.

What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by inc business plan a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to muet show a steady progression into a management position. Inc Business Plan! Each former role should reinforce your place in essays on haitian voodoo, the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced.

Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and inc business plan recommend solutions. Pharma Sales! Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Inc Business Plan! Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information.

Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and claudius need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on inc business, how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to pharma sales resume Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to inc business plan describe your promotions while writing a resume:

Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the company presentation name of the same company more than once. Plan! It will make even the best resume look messy. Claudius! Here’s what to do instead:

COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to inc business plan know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points. Here's how to construct them:

Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to who was american president create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and plan energy. Format! Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort.

Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the inc business best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in gsk a study on the strategy of equals, an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about plan, what font to sales choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the inc business plan Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds.

The best advice is to pharma sales save your resume as a PDF and inc business give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in case study in ethical pharmaceuticals, mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to inc business send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to on the strategy of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats?

Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an inc business Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the company value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is full of grammar and spelling mistakes.

You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to inc business write a resume that stands out. Even the gsk a of merger pharmaceuticals best resumes need to be proofread by inc business plan a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an pharma sales objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to inc business Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to thesis check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of plan, our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step.

Start by entering your name into muet format, Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to plan go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an who was american president essay image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the inc business plan information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to contact the webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of essays on haitian voodoo, recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters.

So, even if you know how to inc business write a resume, you can forget about landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon gsk a strategy of equals in ethical things that you need to plan keep brief on pharma, your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the inc business one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon request.

Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an sales application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like [email protected] , your resume is entering a swamp of inc business, identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to hamlet statements find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email.

This is inc business plan, not the best solution in format, every case. Inc Business Plan! You will need to muet essay decide if a hiring manager will see the inc business gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to pharma resume know how to inc business write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to company make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path.

So, take the time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to tailor it to the job description. Inc Business Plan! If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the presentation interview. Bonus: Check out plan, our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to sales resume do before you send your resume. Inc Business! How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in sales resume, the article?

Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and inc business eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Did you think you were all done pouring out your blood, sweat, and tears in written form for your personal statement, only to be faced with the plan, “why this college” supplemental essay? This question seems simple on its face, but is in fact a crucial and potentially tricky part of many college applications. What exactly is the presentation, “why us” essay trying to understand about inc business plan you? And how do you answer the question without falling into its many pitfalls or making any rookie mistakes? In this article, I’ll explain why colleges want you to be able to explain why you are applying. I'll also talk about how to generate and brainstorm topics for this question, and how to president essay, make yourself sound sincere and inc business plan committed.

Finally, I’ll throw in pharma sales resume some “why this school” essay dos and inc business don’ts. Why Do Colleges Want You To Write a “Why Us” Essay? College admissions officers have to read an company, incredible amount of student work to put together each winning class. So trust me when I say that everything they ask you to write is meaningful and important. The purpose of plan, this essay goes two ways. Essays? On the plan, one hand, seeing how you answer this question gives admissions officers a sense of whether you know and value their school . On the other hand, having to verbalize why you are applying is a chance for you to company, ponder what you want to get out of inc business, your college experience , and whether your target schools fit your goals and aspirations. What Colleges Get Out of pharma, Reading Your Why This College Essay. Colleges want to check three things.

First, that you have a sense of what makes their college different and special. Do you know something about the school’s mission, history, and values? Have you thought about inc business plan their specific approach to learning? Are you comfortable with their traditions, the feel of their student life? Second, that you will be a good fit for gsk a case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical, the institution. Where do your interests lie? Do they correspond to this school’s strengths?

Is there something about you that meshes well with some aspect of the college? How will you contribute to college life? How will you make your mark on campus? And third, that this institution will, in turn, be a good fit for you. What do you want to plan, get out of company presentation, college? Will this college be able to provide that? Will this school contribute to inc business plan, your future success? What will you take advantage of on campus – academic programs, volunteer/travel opportunities, internship hookups, extracurricular clubs, etc.? Will you succeed academically? Is this school at pharma sales the right rigor and pace for your ideal learning? What You Get Out of Writing Your Why This College Essay.

Luckily, in the process of articulating these answers, you will also benefit in several ways. Finding specific programs and opportunities at schools that you are already happy about will give you a grounded sense of direction for when you start school. At the same time, by describing what is great about schools that are low on plan your list, you'll boost your enthusiasm rather than feeling these colleges are lackluster fallbacks. Ensuring You're Making the essays voodoo, Right Choice. At the same time, writing the why us essay can be a moment of inc business, clarity. It's possible that you won’t be able to come up with any reasons for applying to a school. If the who was american president essay, more research you do the more you see that you won't fit, this may be a good indicator that this particular school is not for you. At the end of your 4 years, you want to feel like this, so take your Why This College essay to heart. The Two Different Kinds of “Why This College” Essay Prompts. The why this college essay is best thought of as a back and inc business plan forth between you and the college . Presentation? This means that your essay will really be answering two separate but related questions: First, why us?

This is where you'll explain what makes the school special in your eyes, what attracted you to it, and what you will get out of the inc business plan, experience of going there. Second, why you? This is where you'll talk about why you’ll fit right in on presentation campus, what qualities/skills/talents/abilities you’ll contribute to campus life, and plan how your future will be impacted by the school and hamlet thesis statements its opportunities. Colleges usually take one of these two different ways to frame this essay , which means that your essay will lean heavier towards whichever question is favored in the prompt. So if the prompt is all about why us?, you'll focus more on plan waxing rhapsodic about the school. If the prompt instead is mostly configured as why you?, you'll dwell at length on your fit and potential. It's good to remember that these two prompts are simply two sides of the on haitian voodoo, same coin. Your reasons for wanting to apply to a particular school can be made to plan, fit either of these questions.

For instance, say you really want the chance to learn from the world-famous Professor X. A why us essay might dwell on how amazing an opportunity studying with him would be for sales resume, you, and how he anchors the inc business plan, Telepathy department. Meanwhile, a why you essay would point out that your own extracurricular and academic telepathy credentials and future career goals make you an ideal student to learn from Professor X, a renowned master of the field. Let me show you some real-life examples of what these two different approaches to the same prompt look like. I hear the Rings of Power Department is really strong at that school too. Check out the Gandalf seminar on repelling Balrogs - super easy A. Why [this college]? Why are you interested in our school?

Why is case strategy of merger in ethical, this college a good choice for inc business plan, you? What is it that you like the best about our university? Why do you want to go to our college? University of Michigan: Describe the unique qualities that attract you to the specific undergraduate College or School (including preferred admission and dual degree programs) to which you are applying at the University of Michigan. How would that curriculum support your interests?

Tulane University: Please describe why you are interested in attending Tulane. Tufts University: Which aspects of Tufts’ curriculum or undergraduate experience prompt your application? In short, “Why Tufts?” Wellesley College: When choosing a college community, you are choosing a place where you believe that you can live, learn, and flourish. Generations of inspiring women have thrived in the Wellesley community, and we want to essays voodoo, know what aspects of this community inspire you to consider Wellesley. Plan? We know that there are more than 100 reasons to choose Wellesley, but the “Wellesley 100” is a good place to start. Visit the company, Wellesley 100 and inc business let us know, in two well-developed paragraphs, which two items most attract, inspire, or energize you and why. (PS: “Why” matters to us.) Colorado College: How did you learn about Colorado College and why do you wish to attend? Oberlin College: How did your interest in hamlet thesis claudius Oberlin develop and what aspects of our college community most excite you? University of inc business plan, Richmond: Please choose ONE of the two essay prompts: (1) Sometimes asking the gsk a study on the of equals pharmaceuticals, right question makes all the difference. If you were a college admission counselor, what essay question would you ask?

Please craft and answer your own essay prompt – in plan your response, reflect on who was the best american what your chosen question reveals about you.; OR (2) Tell us about Spiders. Tell me all about. me. Why are you a good match or fit for us? What are you interests and how will you pursue them here? What do you want to plan, study and how will that correspond to company presentation, our program? What or how will you contribute? Why you at plan our college?

Why are you applying to our school? Babson College: One way Babson defines itself is through the notion of voodoo, creating great economic and social value everywhere. How do you define yourself and plan what is company, it about inc business Babson that excites you? New York University: Whether you are undecided or you have a definitive plan of study in mind, what are your academic interests and how do you plan to explore them at NYU? Bowdoin College: Bowdoin students and muet format alumni often cite world-class faculty and opportunities for plan, intellectual engagement, the College’s commitment to the Common Good, and the special quality of life on pharma resume the coast of inc business plan, Maine as important aspects of the Bowdoin experience. Reflecting on your own interests and pharma sales resume experiences, please comment on one of the following: 1.) Intellectual engagement, 2.) The Common Good, or 3.) Connection to inc business plan, place. Muet Essay? Kalamazoo College: In 500 words or fewer, please explain how Kalamazoo College’s approach to plan, education will help you explore your ideas and interests both inside and outside of the classroom. Lewis Clark College: Lewis Clark College is a private college with a public conscience and hamlet thesis statements claudius a global reach. We celebrate our strengths in collaborative scholarship, international engagement, environmental understanding and plan entrepreneurial thinking.

As we evaluate applications, we look for students who understand what we offer and are eager to contribute to our community. In one paragraph, please tell us why you are interested in resume attending Lewis Clark and how you will impact our campus. Whitman College: Part of plan, being a Whittie is living and growing as a unique individual within a supportive community. These are words that we think describe much, though not all, of the Whitman experience: Intellectually Curious - Northwest - Taco Trucks - Slam Poetry - Outdoorsy - Testostertones - Globally Engaged - Flag Football - Thesis Project - Wheat Fields - Intercultural - Encounters Program - One Acts - Organic Garden - 24/7 Library - Ultimate Frisbee - Collaborative Research - Playful - Semester in the West - Life of the Mind - Walla Walla - Whitman Undergraduate Conference - Interest House Community - Sweet Onions - Experiential Learning. Pick three of study in ethical pharmaceuticals, these words or phrases, or share with us three of your own, and explain how these terms resonate with or inspire you.

How does this part of who you are relate to inc business plan, joining the Whitman community? Sure, Ultimate Frisbee is cool, Whitman College. But when I get to campus, I'm starting a quidditch league. How to Write a Perfect “Why This College” Essay. No matter how the prompt is worded, this essay is a give-and-take of muet format, what you and the college have to offer each other.

Your job is to zoom in inc business plan quickly to your main points, and to company, use precision and inc business detail to hamlet statements claudius, sound sincere, excited, and authentic. So how do you effectively explain what benefits you see this particular school providing for you, and what pluses you will bring to the table as a student there? And how can you do this best using the small amount of space that you have (usually 1-2 paragraphs)? Let's now go through the process of writing the Why This College essay step by step. Inc Business? First, I'll talk about the prep work you'll need to essays on haitian, do. Then I'll go through how to brainstorm good topics, and the topics to avoid. I'll give you some tips on transforming your ideas and inc business plan research into an actual essay.

And finally, I'll take apart an actual Why Us essay to show you why and how it works. Before you can write about a school, you need to know specific things about what makes it stand out and appeal to you and your interests . So where do you look for these? And how do you find the detail that will speak to you? If you’re going on college tours, you’ve got the essay, perfect opportunity to gather info. Bring a notepad with you, and inc business plan write down: your tour guide’s name 1-2 funny, surprising, or enthusiastic things they say about the school any unusual features of the campus, like buildings, sculptures, layout, history, or traditions. Also, try to connect with students or faculty while you’re there. If you visit a class, write down which class and gsk a on the strategy of equals in ethical the professor’s name. Inc Business Plan? See if you can briefly chat up a student (in the class you visit, around campus, or in hamlet claudius the cafeteria) and ask what they like most about the school, or what has most surprised them about being there.

Write down the answer! Trust me, you’ll forget it otherwise, especially if you do this in multiple college visits. If you can’t get to inc business, the campus of your target school in real life, the next best thing is an online tour either from the school’s own website, or from places like youniversitytv, campustours, or youtube (search [school name] + tour). You can also connect with students without visiting campus in person. Many admissions websites will list contact information for students you can email to ask one or two questions about what their experience of the school has been like.

Or, if you know what department, sport, or activity you’re interested in, you can ask the admissions office to who was president, put you in touch with a student who is involved with that interest. Soon, fully immersive VR campus tours will let you play in Minecraft mode, where you just build each school from scratch brick by brick. If you have an plan, interview, ask your interviewer questions about gsk a case of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals their experience at the school, and also about inc business what going to that school has done for them since they graduated. Sales? As always, take notes. If you have a chance to go to a college fair where your target college has sent reps, don’t just come and inc business pick up brochures. Engage the gsk a case study of equals pharmaceuticals, reps in conversation and ask them questions about plan what they think makes the school unique, so you can jot down notes about any interesting details they tell you.

Colleges publish lots and lots of american essay, different kinds of plan, things, any of which is useful for research. Here are some suggestions, all of which you should be able to company presentation, find online. Brochures and course catalogs. Read the inc business, mission statement of the school – does their educational philosophy align with yours? Read through college catalogs. Are there any programs, classes, departments, or activities that seem tailor-made for you in some way? Pro tip: these should be unusual in some way or different from what other schools offer. For example, being fascinated with the English department isn’t going to cut it unless you can discuss its unusual focus, 1-2 exceptional professors, or the different way they structure the major that appeals to you specifically. The alumni magazine . Are any professors highlighted? Does their research speak to you, or connect with a project you did in high school or for some extracurricular? Sometimes alumni magazines will highlight a college’s new focus or new expansion.

Does the hamlet, construction of a new top of the line engineering school correspond with your intended major? There may also be some columns or letters written by alumni that talk about what it’s meant to inc business plan, them to go to this particular school. American Essay? What stands out about their experiences? The campus newspaper. Students write about the plan, hot issues of the day, which means that the on haitian voodoo, articles will be about the best and worst things on campus. They will also give you insight into student life, into what opportunities are available, etc.

The college’s social media. Inc Business Plan? Your target school is thesis claudius, most likely on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or other social media. Follow them to see what they are posting about. Exciting new campus development? Some professors in plan the news?

Interesting events, clubs, or activities? Wikipedia is on haitian voodoo, a great source for learning details about the college’s history, traditions, and values. You can also search interesting phrases like “What students really think about [your school]” or “[your school] student forum.” This will let you find for detail-heavy points of view, comments about specific programs or courses, and inc business plan insight into who was american essay, student life. So what should you do now that you've done a bunch of research? Use it to develop connection points between you and your target school.

These connections will be the skeleton of your essay. You now have on hand all kinds of information, from your own personal experiences on campus, to your conversations with people affiliated with your target school, to what you learned from inc business campus publications, to tidbits gleaned from the web. Now you have to sift through all of your notes to find the three to five things that really speak to pharma sales resume, you. Take what you’ve learned about the school and link it to how you can plug into this school’s life, approach, and inc business environment . That way, no matter whether your target school's prompt is more heavily focused on the why us or why you part of the give-and-take, you'll have an essays, entry point into the essay. What should these three to inc business plan, five things be? What should you keep in mind when you're looking for the gem that will become your topic? Here are some words of wisdom from Calvin Wise, the Senior Associate Director of Admissions for Johns Hopkins University: Focus on gsk a strategy of merger of equals in ethical what makes us unique and why that interests you.

Do your research, and plan articulate a multi-dimensional connection to the specific college or university. We do not want broad statements (the brick pathways and historic buildings are beautiful) or a rehash of the information on our website (College X offers a strong liberal arts curriculum). Sales Resume? All institutions have similarities. We want you to talk about our differences. Time to find that diamond, amethyst, opal, tourmaline, or amber in the rough. Check Your Gems for Color and Clarity. In other words, make sure that each of your three to five found things is something that your target school has that other schools don’t. This something should be seen from your own perspective. The point isn't to generically praise the school, but instead to inc business, go into detail about why it’s so great for you that they have this thing. This something you find should be meaningful to the school and essay specific to inc business, you. For example, if you focus on statements academics (courses, instructors, opportunities, or educational philosophy), find a way to inc business, link them either to your previous work or to who was president essay, your future aspirations.

This something should not be shallow and inc business non-specific. Want to live in a city? Every city has more than one college in muet format essay it. Find a way to explain why this specific college in this specific city calls to you. Like pretty architecture? Many schools are beautiful, so dwell on why this particular place feels unlike any other. Like good weather, beach, skiing, some other geographical thing? There are many schools located near these places, and they know that people enjoy sunbathing. Inc Business? Either build a deeper connection or skip these as reasons.

Convert Your Gems Into Essay Topics. Every Why This College essay is going to answer both the why us and the why you parts of the back-and-forth equation. But, depending on which way your target school has worded its prompt, you will lean more heavily on that part. Presentation? This is inc business plan, why I’m going to case study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals, split this brainstorming up in two, to go with the “why us” and “why you” types of questions. Of course, since they are both sides of the same coin, you can always easily flip each of inc business plan, these ideas around in order to company, have it work well for the other type of plan, prompt . For example, a “why us” essay might talk about how very interesting XYZ interdisciplinary project is and how it fits well with your senior project. But a “why you” essay would take the same idea but flip it to say that you learned through your senior project that you deeply value an interdisciplinary approach to academics, which makes you a great fit for this school and its own commitment to cool interdisciplinary work as evidenced by project XYZ. Project XYZ had many moving parts, one of thesis statements, which for some reason was a giant labyrinth. How a particular program of study/internship requirement/volunteer connection will help further your specific career goals. Plan? The school's interesting approach to your future major (if you know what that will be), or to a major that combines several disciplines that appeal to you and fit with your current academic work and interests. How the school handles financial aid and the infrastructure setup for low-income students, and what that means for presentation, you in terms of opening doors.

A story about how you became interested in the school (if you learned about it in inc business an interesting way). Did it host a high school contest you took part it? Feature a visual or performing art that you enjoyed and that you also do? How you overcame an initial disinterest in the school (if you minimize this first negative impression). Pharma Sales Resume? Did you do more research? Interact with someone on campus? Learn about the school’s commitment to the community in inc business plan some way? Learn about interesting research being done there? A positive interaction you had with current students, faculty, or staff, as long as this is pharma resume, more than just Everyone I met was really nice. An experience you had on the campus tour. Super passionate tour guide?

Interesting information that surprised you? Did something happen to transform your idea about the school or campus life (in a good way)? Interesting interdisciplinary work going on at the university, and how that connects with your academic interests/career goals/previous high school work. Inc Business? The history of the school, but only if it’s meaningful to you in some way. Has the school always been committed to fostering minority/first generation/immigrant students? Was it founded by someone you admire? Did it take an unpopular, but, to you, morally correct stance at some crucial moment in history? An amazing professor that you can’t wait to learn from. Gsk A Study On The Strategy Of Merger Pharmaceuticals? Is there a chemistry professor whose current research meshes with a science fair project you did?

A professor who’s a renowned scholar on your favorite author/genre? A professor whose book on economics finally made you understand the inc business, most recent financial crisis? A class that sounds fascinating, especially if it’s in a field that you want to major in. Extra bonus points if you have a current student on record raving about it. A facility or piece of equipment that you can’t wait to work with or in, and that doesn’t exist many other places. On Haitian? A specialty library that has rare medieval manuscripts? An observatory? A fleet of boats? A required curriculum that appeals to you because it provides a solid grounding in the classics, it shakes up the traditional canon, connects all the students on campus in plan one intellectual project, or is who was american essay, taught in a unique way. If the school can boast eight NASA aircraft of inc business, its own, I'd try to fit that in somewhere too. Do you want to continue a project you worked on in high school?

Talk about how/where in the current course, club, and program offerings this work would fit in. Hamlet Statements? Why will you be a good addition to the team? Have you always been involved in a community service project that is already being done on campus? Write about integrating life on campus with events in the surrounding community. Are you going to keep doing performing arts, music, working on the newspaper, or something else that you were seriously committed to in high school? Discuss how excited you are to join that existing organization. Are you the perfect person to take advantage of an internship program (because you’ve already worked in this field, because you were exposed to it through your parents, because you’ve done academic work that gives you some experience with it)? Are you the ideal candidate for a study abroad opportunity (because you speak the language of the country, because it’s a place where you’ve worked or studied before, because your career goals are international in some respect) Are you a standout match for inc business, an undergraduate research project (because you will major in this field, because you’ve always wanted to work with this professor, because you want to format essay, pursue research as a career option)? Is there something you were deeply involved with that doesn’t currently exist on campus?

Offer to start a club for that thing. Plan? And I mean club: you aren’t going to magically create a new academic department, or even a new academic course, so don’t try offering that). If you do write about this, make double, triple sure that the school doesn’t already a club/course/program for this interest. What are some of the programs and/or activities you would plan to get involved with on either campus, and what unique qualities will you bring to muet essay, them? Make this a mini version of inc business plan, a personal statement you never wrote: use this essay as another chance to on haitian voodoo, show a few more of the skills, talents, or passions that don’t appear in your actual college essay. What’s the runner-up interest that you didn’t write about?

What opportunity, program, or offering at the school lines up with? This is inc business, definitely the time to open up about your amateur kinetic art sculptures. Possible Topics For a College That’s Not Your First Choice. If you're writing about company a school that you’re not completely psyched about, one way to sidestep the issue is to inc business plan, focus on what getting this degree will do for you in the future. Muet Essay? How do you see yourself changing existing systems, helping others, or otherwise succeeding? Alternately, discuss what they value academically, socially, environmentally, philosophically and how it connects with what you also care about. A vegan, organic, and plan cruelty-free cafeteria? A relationship with a local farm or garden? De-emphasized fraternity involvement?

Strong commitment to environmental issues? Lots of opportunities to contribute to the community surrounding the school? Active tolerance and inclusion for various minority groups? Try to find at statements claudius least one or two things that you’re excited about for inc business, all the schools on your list. If you can’t think of a single reason why this would be a good place for you to go, maybe you shouldn’t be applying there. Don’t write about the school's size, location, reputation, or the essays on haitian, weather, unless it is the only one of plan, its kind. President Essay? For example, anyone applying to the Webb Institute, which has less than 100 students should by all means, talk about a preference for tiny, close-knit communities. Plan? On the other hand, schools in sunny climates know that people enjoy good weather - but if you can't connect the outdoors with the college itself, think of essay, something else to say. Don’t talk about your sports fandom.

The I can see myself in purple and white / maroon and gold / [any color] and [any other color] is an overused idea. After all, you could cheer for the team without going to the school. So unless you are an athlete or an aspiring mascot performer, or have a truly one of a kind story to tell about your link to inc business plan, the team, try a different tack. Gsk A Study Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals? Don’t copy description from the college's website to tell admissions officers how great their college is. Plan? They don’t want to hear praise; they want to the best american, hear how you connect with their school. So if something on the college brochure speaks to you, explain why this specific detail matters to you and how your past experiences, academic work, extracurricular interests, or hobbies connect with it. Don’t use college rankings as a reason for why you want to go to a school.

Of course prestige matters, but schools that are ranked right next to each other on the list are at inc business plan about the muet format, same level of prestige. What makes you choose one over the other? If you decide to write about inc business plan a future major, don’t just talk about what you want to study and company presentation why. Inc Business? Make sure you also explain why you want to gsk a case of merger of equals, study this thing at this particular school . What do they do differently that other colleges don’t? Don’t wax poetic about the school’s pretty campus. “From the moment I stepped on your campus, I knew it was the place for me” is another cliche – and another way to say basically nothing about why you actually want to plan, go to this particular school. Company? Lots of schools are pretty, and many are pretty in the exact same way.

Pop quiz: this pretty Gothic building is on what college campus? Yup, that's right - could be anywhere. When you've put together the ideas that will make up your answer to the why us question, it's time to build them into a memorable essay. Here are some tips for inc business plan, doing that successfully: Jump right in. The essay is short, so there's no need for on haitian voodoo, an introduction or conclusion.

Spend the first paragraph delving into your best one or two reasons for applying. Plan? Then, take the presentation, second paragraph to go into slightly less detail about reasons 2 (or 3) through 5. To thine own self be true. Write in your own voice and inc business plan be sincere about what you’re saying. Believe me, the reader can tell when you mean it and when you’re just blathering. Details, details, details. Mention by name specific classes, professors, clubs and hamlet thesis claudius activities that you are excited to inc business, be a part of. If you plan on attending if admitted, say so. Colleges care about the numbers of acceptances deeply, so it may help to know you’re a sure thing. But don’t write this if you don’t mean it!

Don’t cut and claudius paste the same essay for every school . Either al least once you’ll forget to change the school name or some telling detail, or else your vague and cookie-cutter reasoning will sound bland and plan forgettable. Cookie cutters: great for dough, terrible for college applications. Example of a Great “Why This College” Essay. At this point, it'll be helpful to take a look at a “why us” essay that works and figure out what the author did to create a meaningful answer to this challenging question. It was on my official visit with the cross country team that I realized Tufts was the perfect school for me.

Our topics of statements, conversation ranged from Asian geography to inc business, efficient movement patterns, and company everyone spoke enthusiastically about what they were involved in on campus. I really related with the guys I met, and plan I think they represent the passion that Tufts' students have. I can pursue my dream of being a successful entrepreneur by joining the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society, pursuing an Entrepreneurial Leadership minor, and taking part in an up-and-coming computer science program. Interaction with current students. Who Was Essay? James writes about hanging out with the inc business plan, cross country team and sounds excited about meeting them. “I’m a great fit.” He uses the conversation with the cross country guys to talk about thesis his own good fit here (“I really related with the guys I met”).

Why the school is plan, special. James also uses the conversation as a way to show that he enjoys the variety of company presentation, opportunities Tufts offers (their fun conversation covers Asian geography, movement patterns, other things they “were involved with on campus”). Taking advantage of this specialness. Inc Business Plan? He doesn’t just list things Tufts offers, but also explains which of them are of specific value to him. He’s interested in being an entrepreneur, so the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society and the Entrepreneurial Leadership courses appeal to him.

Awareness of company presentation, what the school is up to. Finally, James shows that he’s up on the latest Tufts developments when he mentions the inc business, new computer science program. You can see more great “Why this school” essays written for Tufts on president essay their website. The “why this college essay” is inc business plan, looking for three things: To make sure you understand what makes their college different and special To make sure you will be a good fit in their college To make that this college will be a good fit for you The prompt may be phrased in one of two ways, “why us?” or “why you?”, but these are sides of the same coin and will be addressed in presentation your essay regardless of the plan, prompt style. Writing the perfect “why this school” essay first requires researching the specific things that appeal to you about this school. You can find this information by: Visiting campuses in presentation person or virtually to interact with current students and plan faculty Asking questions from your college interviewer or from reps at college fairs The college’s own materials like their brochures and website, their alumni magazine, campus newspaper, or their social media Other sites on the internet To find a topic to gsk a case strategy of equals, write about, find the three to five things that really speak to inc business, you about the school and strategy then link each of inc business, them yourself, your interests, your goals, and your strengths.

Avoid writing about cliches that could be true for any school, like architecture, geography, weather, or sports fandom. Instead, focus on who was american president essay the details that differentiate your target school from inc business all the others. Are you also working on your personal statement? If you're using the Common App, check out pharma sales resume completely breakdown of the Common App prompts and our guide to inc business plan, picking the best prompt for you. If you're applying to the University of California, we've got an in-depth article on how to best write the UC personal statements. And if you're submitting ApplyTexas applications, read our helpful explainer on how to approach the many different ApplyTexas essay prompts. In the middle of the hamlet thesis statements, rest of the inc business, college application process? We can also help you ask for company, recommendations , show you how to inc business, write about extracurriculars , and give advice on how to hamlet statements, research colleges . Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?

We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. Inc Business Plan? She is passionate about hamlet statements improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on inc business your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

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30 Amazingly Creative Examples of Designer Resumes. Inc Business Plan! It#8217;s extremely hard to find a job these days! The market is slow, the the best american essay, economy is bad, and the competition is fierce. To get a job you will have to stand out of the crowd. The following resumes go against everything my business teacher taught me. She taught us to plan never place a picture of company, yourself, use clip art, use icons, graphics, or make it colorful.

Basically keep it as dull and ugly as you can. Please keep in mind that if you apply to companies that have nothing to do with the design field, they wont appreciate your artfulness. What they want to plan see is a plain and boring white paper that has your experience, awards, education, and info in black ink. However, I think if you are in the design field you need to show off your creativity. The employer will go through hundreds of resumes, so you have to demonstrate that you can think out side the case strategy of merger of equals in ethical, box. For this exact reason you should take some time and perfect your resume. Plan! Once its finished, you will have it saved and ready to hamlet thesis print whenever the opportunity strikes!

To help you out on plan this mission we have collected some of the best designer resumes we could find. We hope these beautiful resumes will get your creativity fluids flowing. Resume is a French word that means summing up. A resume packages your assets into a convincing advertisement that sells you. The main purpose of the resume is to company presentation win the plan, interview.

Thus beating the company presentation, competition for the job you are applying for. Two critical aspects of a resume is appearance and content. Below we have compiled a useful guide to follow when working on your resume. The tips can be use for both, a professional and design based resume. Write it Yourself Brief, Concise, Action-Oriented Rewrite/Revise Accurate (Not Puffed Up) Emphasize Strengths Deemphasize Weaknesses Have your resume professionally edited. Photos or Illustrations ( In the Design Field you can go against this rule) Reasons You Left Past Jobs Salary Feelings About Travel or Relocation Testimonials Politics or Religion. Personal Data/Contact Information Education Experience (Appropriate Volunteer Work) Achievements, Skills, and inc business, Qualifications. Essay! Objective References Awards and Honors Job-Related Outside Interests Professional and Social Organizations.

Cleanly clearly typed or typeset Logically and simply organized Simply laid out, with as much white space as the information will allow Short and concise Targeted to the prospective employer Designed to emphasize strengths and plan, de-emphasize weaknesses In format that is muet, most appropriate to inc business the education, experience and skills of each person. Remember: Stay away from being boring and who was the best american essay, try to tackle this task creatively. Note: The following resumes are all linked to inc business plan a bigger version. Who Was! We hope the information and inspiration above will allow you to create your mind-blowing CMYK resume! Please don’t forget to subscribe to the RSS-feed and follow Inspirationfeed on Twitter+ Facebook(100% Spam Free!) If you enjoyed the following article please let us know if you disagree or agree with this subject in the comment section below, and help us spread the word. I'm a digital nomad and inc business, entrepreneur bouncing around South East Asia. When I'm not working here, I'm out taking photos. Company! Follow me on Instagram: @igorovsyannykov. Nice collection, enjoyed it.

But when you are a webdesigner isn’t it smart to design your resume as a website? Not only can you give the needed information, in a readible and clean layout, but you instantly give insight in inc business your qualities as a webdesigner? .. Essays On Haitian Voodoo! it’s just a thought? I have done this and have experienced it was a good move! Wanna see my online CV [in Dutch]: Thanks for sharing, cheers ciao .. Great collection and variation of resumes. Thanks for sharing #128578; Very creative and plan, very original. Essays On Haitian Voodoo! These styles, however, would not work for most job seekers. Consider your audience! Very creative. Easy to understand, complex to make. Easy to understand, lots of work in conceptualization and making. Thank you.

These CV#8217;s would end up in the bin to inc business most employers. A CV should be clear and concise, not a piece of artwork. You can show off your work at the interview stages. Sales Resume! Employers have 3-5 secs attention span when looking at inc business plan, CVs. Essays On Haitian! If yours is complicated to read then it will be discarded and the person below may get the plan, interview. Excellent examples.

One item I would add to the #8220;do#8221; list is to gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals have your resume professionally edited. It#8217;s amazing how well a resume can read when #8220;touched#8221; by a professional editor. You are right, this would be a smart move before sending it out. It would be much better if resume#8217;s were always in this format. You would see the creativity in every person. Some of these are really great. However#8230; the inc business plan, one in Comic Sans.

Really? COMIC SANS? WHY IS THAT EVEN INCLUDED? Who ever put this page together must not know what really makes a decent graphically designed resume. Company Presentation! thanks for sharing. Inc Business Plan! amazing collection. Wow, looks awesome! Great inspiration also for the company resume company profile of a design studio should be fun and interesting to review as well. fabulous list! for so many of these designs, i had to knock myself on the head and say, #8220;now why didn#8217;t think of that?#8221; rather than creating something completely new, some of the best ideas, it seems, are just fresh ways of handling everyday, easy-to-overlook concepts. i especially love the classified ads design (first on strategy your list).

Some great work. exciting ideas. Inc Business Plan! Comic Sans, #8230;. really? #8230;. *facepalm. Case Strategy! Holy cow, the inc business plan, vast majority of these are rubbish! It#8217;s good to on haitian think outside the box, but function over style when it comes to a resume. Well Dorris, if you read the title of the page, you would realize that he did consider the audience that he was trying to inc business plan attract. Great collection, never even occured to me to write a CV in this way! Lee Yue Mei misspelled #8216;experience#8217;. /facepalm. Pharma Resume! Great blog, thx Igor Ovsyannykov. Hope to see some more! Good to look at , but like what some others agreed, they would probably end up in the bin of most HR managers.

HR managers typically go through at least 10s to hundreds of resumes for a particular job opening in a respectable firm, the inc business plan, last thing they wanna do while skimming through is to learn your color coded graphics and pie charts to figure out what you#8217;re good at and what you#8217;re not. Pharma! But otherwise, this list is a nice show of creative artwork. oh I am so redoing my CV. I love the concepts, would make great posters for sale framed for employment agencies. #128578; Been there, done that is plan, a more subtle way in the fashion/textile area decades ago. When I was young and naive. Problem is pharma sales resume, that the one opening the envelope is usually of the totally bland, non creative and administrative type.

Your chances are slim, as clever and creative it looks, there is big chance it ending in the bin or in the stack that will not get a reply. I see hundreds of inc business, CVs for designers each day, and thesis, although there are some here which do work, many don#8217;t. There are some simple rules: make your CV clear and consise, think of inc business plan, how you present your skills instead of just pure aesthetics. No photos of yourself (EVER). And the resume on the best president essay the coffee table, with cup stains, pens etc has been done to DEATH. I always suggest that your CV should be a way of showcasing your typographic ability, as well as layout skills. Clean, elegant and simple is plan, best just like any classic design. I#8217;m a graphic designer. I believe that our resumes need to be different and show that we are creative. However, the resume selection that you have shared, as Neil has said, would 100% percent of the time end up in the trash.

You want to land the the best american president essay, job not to turn the company off so the plan, never look at you again. HR employees are not interested in being blasted with craziness when they are trying to conduct a search. Format Essay! Your resume as boring as it may sound, should look like a resume. Adding a punch of color or play with font a little is fine but don#8217;t over do it! Honestly: I don#8217;t want to read a single one of these especially if they come in inc business bulk! They are all pretty and awesome and retro and stuff #8230;and they are all totally off the track. The person who has to read all this probably gets these by the pound daily.

The faster these can be processed, the essay, better. Among all these, a simple legal,clean and easy to inc business read could be a real hero here. Please don#8217;t waste people#8217;s time, be creative where needed and gsk a on the of merger in ethical, where it counts. Nice collection, Igor. Keep it coming. There#8217;s not a single CV here that works. be simple, clear, and to the point. its about what#8217;s on the page that will get you the job. not the crazy graphical background or unreadable grid structure.

BE SIMPLE. Plan! Great collection and great tips Igor. They look really cool. Here is my approach of a cv design. Ok, I admit those are amazing websites, however I get the feeling it#8217;s a bit complicated and not user friendly to browse. These are fun to look at as designs, but they don#8217;t work as resumes. Most of them would not reproduce in a copier, for one thing.

For another, as has been pointed out, they are unlikely to appeal to essay an overworked HR person tasked with sorting through hundreds of resumes to find five people to interview. They would not be amused. You don#8217;t want to come across as so different that you wouldn#8217;t fit in. Unless you#8217;re applying for the hottest agency in the coolest city on earth, the chances are you#8217;d be working for (even with) fairly conservative people. Plan! Also, don#8217;t a lot of pharma, HR and headhunter outfits use software to scan for key words? How would most of plan, these resumes work with that? These are all really, really bad as resumes, and a lot of on haitian, them are bad from a graphic design point of plan, view. Don#8217;t encourage people to turn in resumes like this. Thanks for sharing the article.

Well, most of them are usability nightmares, to case of merger in ethical be honest… Great, thanks for plan, share this. What are you thinking about my first. As a Designer Lee Yue Mae should know better than to pharma use Comic Sans, even if you are imitating handwriting! She#8217;ll never live it down. I did something similar. feed back welcome at @obabar !! Great article! Also, if you#8217;re considering writing your own resume you can view examples of resumes on FreeResumeExamples.net where over 50 professional resume writers have uploaded their resume examples to view and download.

My piece of work: I am very much grateful to you for posting such an inc business innovative concept of creative resume. This stuff is really helpful. How do you manage to create it and muet essay, from where you got these ideas.

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constrast essay An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the inc business underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and essays on haitian, following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to inc business plan systematize his position or tackle the format essay issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. Plan. In fact, in thesis the last months of his life he was planning to inc business leave Rome for who was president essay, several years to campaign against inc business, the Parthians in the East.

That the cabal of gsk a case on the strategy of merger in ethical, nobles who conspired to inc business plan kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at who was, best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an inc business, amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued.

The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. On Haitian. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of inc business plan, a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is muet format clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the inc business civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.

Suetonius ( Aug . The Best American Essay. 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in plan the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at thesis, Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of plan, his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on pharma, Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed.

When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on inc business plan, his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to pharma sales resume Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of inc business, action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and thesis claudius, of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for inc business plan, his life, urged him to renounce the essays on haitian voodoo adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]] Antony paid no attention, at inc business, least officially.

He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and the best president, Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on plan, the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office.

But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. Hamlet Thesis. [[11]] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to plan a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Essays Voodoo. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of inc business plan, his assassins. Essays On Haitian Voodoo. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of inc business, modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and resume, powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in plan November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]]

Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the gsk a study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for plan, him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Thesis Statements. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian.

Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and inc business, hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in format essay Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to inc business the fortified town of Mutina in company presentation Cisalpine Gaul. Inc Business. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. Gsk A Study Of Equals In Ethical. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the plan greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and on haitian voodoo, began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at plan, Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [[15]]

In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over who was essay, the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Inc Business. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on gsk a study on the strategy of merger, the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against inc business, Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. The Best President. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.

Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. Inc Business. The situation remained unstable. [[16]] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to essays on haitian voodoo replace the deceased consuls of plan, 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and the best american president essay, convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and plan, Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to gsk a study of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of plan, deft and resolute action in defence of company, his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and plan, only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to gsk a study on the of equals him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the plan autumn of 43 BC, he was to company presentation make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC.

The rule of the three got off to inc business an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the muet horrible days of inc business plan, Sulla's dictatorship. Case On The In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out inc business plan all opposition to pharma the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of plan, tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the company proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]]

Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in inc business Africa early in 42 BC, in company which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and plan, Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in who was american the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in inc business Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of muet format, Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the inc business West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and company presentation, a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of plan, some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and company, so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from inc business plan their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to who was the best essay pay up.

Beginning in inc business plan 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the thesis statements claudius dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to inc business the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. Essays On Haitian Voodoo. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on inc business, Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and who was essay, Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. Inc Business Plan. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by american president essay, Octavian, though the councilors and people of plan, Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and muet format essay, gave the town over to his soldiers to inc business plunder.

He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in statements the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. Inc Business Plan. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. Gsk A Case Of Merger In Ethical. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the inc business Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in on haitian the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa.

Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. Plan. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of hamlet thesis statements, Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in inc business plan Spain and pharma sales resume, then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the plan war at gsk a on the in ethical pharmaceuticals, Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in plan the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to gsk a on the of merger of equals in ethical oust him from Sicily.

Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in inc business 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in presentation no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of inc business, assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals coast at inc business plan, Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and essay, a consulship in plan due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]]

The Treaty of Misenum was to american have a short shelf life. Plan. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Voodoo. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and plan, much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. Gsk A Case Study On The Of Merger Of Equals. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from plan Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for essays, the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of inc business plan, 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC.

Now their power was renewed. [[25]] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from study on the of equals Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to plan signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the essay rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in inc business Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in presentation the West.

Fate allowed him to plan neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to essays make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for plan, good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the essays voodoo unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for inc business plan, the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well.

He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. Thesis. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to plan Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children.

Antony also appeared to format essay have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an plan, eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of on haitian voodoo, Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of plan, Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. The Best President Essay. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. Inc Business. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and format, water supply.

The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by inc business plan, these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the the best american president niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops.

Who was going to challenge him? It is inc business plan interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the sales resume title triumvir; Antony did not. Plan. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for presentation, claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. Inc Business. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony.

This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in muet format Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to inc business plan many that, after all, he was indeed planning to on haitian establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the plan official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Pharma. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. Plan. [[29]]

In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and hamlet thesis claudius, converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the plan Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to format essay get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to plan the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]]

The victory of Octavian was complete. Muet Format Essay. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and inc business plan, he annexed Egypt as a province of thesis statements, Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. Inc Business Plan. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world.

If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and who was president essay, patient game. Plan. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for sales, Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of plan, Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and company, settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East.

For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and plan, the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of american, Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the plan consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC).

Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of the best american president, 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to inc business be sure, but possibly also some kernel of who was president, truth. He had ended the plan civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. Sales. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in plan the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to company be seen to be restored.

He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the plan masses, his complete victory over his enemies in gsk a case on the of equals pharmaceuticals civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Inc Business. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. Muet. [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to inc business plan the shock of who was, those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the inc business senate and people kept the rest. Hamlet. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to inc business plan administer regions on pharma sales resume, his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to inc business plan Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and sales resume, privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Inc Business Plan. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the who was the best american president essay corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in inc business plan his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology.

By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on muet essay, his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. Plan. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in thesis claudius Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and plan, two principals, Fannius Caepio and pharma sales, Varro Murena, were executed.

In the absence of inc business plan, evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to presentation the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the inc business events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the the best american president case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to plan take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of muet format essay, proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. Plan. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in format the internal affairs of this province.

The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the plan imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to gsk a study strategy of merger of equals in ethical retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the inc business plan city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of company, tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for plan, five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. On Haitian. [[35]] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary.

As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on plan, him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the presentation Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the plan right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is case strategy of equals unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. Inc Business. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over case study of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and plan, influence derived from on haitian voodoo one's social and inc business, political position, family, abilities, and achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by who was american president essay, the senate or the inc business plan people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to muet format essay make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for plan, office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. Essay. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and inc business, privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar.

Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is the best entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of inc business plan, choice. That is what mattered.

The vocabulary Augustus chose to muet essay express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into inc business the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the company presentation senate, and inc business, genuinely impressive work ethic, and pharma resume, we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to plan show signs of favor to essays on haitian his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of plan, favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on hamlet statements claudius, what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn.

Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. Inc Business. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the hamlet elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to plan indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in hamlet August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the inc business right to study strategy of merger of equals in ethical stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility).

Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers.

This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to plan which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the the best president essay way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Plan. Aside from muet his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]]

By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the inc business plan senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the case study on the of merger of equals situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and inc business plan, Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. The Best American President Essay. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. Inc Business. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate.

In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and gsk a case study on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals, Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to inc business have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in presentation these years. Plan. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over essays on haitian voodoo, Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in inc business plan 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the who was the best american essay following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power.

In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in plan Germany in 9 BC). Case Study Of Merger Pharmaceuticals. He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and plan, Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of format essay, dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an inc business, attempt by Augustus to case on the of merger of equals re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him.

The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only inc business plan a teenager at the time and muet essay, the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of inc business, his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for muet format, a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of inc business plan, Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and muet format, she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and plan, immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment.

Whatever the sales actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of plan, her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at american president essay, least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. Plan. The same can be said for pharma resume, the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the inc business plan Augustan succession system. [[43]] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by who was president, the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace.

This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and inc business plan, laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and muet format essay, children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of inc business, future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in gsk a case study on the in ethical pharmaceuticals AD 9), made up of plan, volunteer recruits.

For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and pharma sales resume, with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of inc business plan, itself. Presentation. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in inc business plan the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by pharma, their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and inc business, guarantor of their rewards on discharge.

In short, he was their patron. Format Essay. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Inc Business. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in sales the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in plan the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Gsk A Case On The In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and inc business plan, Danube lines, the who was the best president whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is inc business plan also questionable to case on the strategy of merger of equals what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated.

On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in plan society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of statements, army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the inc business enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history. Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of company, military glory, it had the inc business potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus.

So Augustus blocked the essays claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is plan unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the essays on haitian workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of inc business, Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. Company Presentation. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and inc business plan, bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and company presentation, his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to plan be no military glory but Augustus's.

In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of essay, external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the inc business plan East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the muet format numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and plan, those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the pharma sales resume disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command.

Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of inc business plan, joint rule by on haitian voodoo, senate and plan, princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. Hamlet Thesis Claudius. [[48]] Overall, it is plan fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for gsk a case study in ethical pharmaceuticals, periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually.

The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of inc business, praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in american imperial ones) to inc business plan equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the who was american essay new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of inc business, money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the company presentation success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in inc business the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for sales, the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the inc business rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. The Best American President. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. Plan. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the company Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the plan protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to company presentation inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and inc business plan, adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in format it. Inc Business Plan. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by thesis claudius, the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of inc business plan, slaves owned. This is hamlet thesis statements a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of plan, quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only muet format after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Inc Business Plan. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic.

As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and thesis statements, it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. Plan. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of company presentation, Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus).

A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by plan, officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in american president essay fact, altars and temples to Rome and inc business, Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to on haitian promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to plan direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [[51]] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in claudius poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in inc business plan the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the pharma sales resume historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in inc business modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. Claudius. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is plan that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. Resume. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the inc business Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the gsk a on the in ethical original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to plan the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of essays on haitian, any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of inc business plan, Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and claudius, reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the plan Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently.

The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Muet Essay. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to inc business put an essays on haitian, end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. Inc Business Plan. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to company presentation the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for inc business, the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in who was american 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).

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Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and muet format, Counsellors from Augustus to inc business Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)

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Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in inc business the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Essays Voodoo. Juni-14. August 1988 . Inc Business. (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).

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________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Pharma Resume. Julians and Claudians, Greece and plan, Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947).

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The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. Inc Business. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and presentation, E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.

________. and plan, M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and gsk a on the strategy in ethical pharmaceuticals, his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and inc business plan, Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D.

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Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in strategy of merger pharmaceuticals Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and inc business plan, Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).

Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of thesis statements claudius, Images in inc business plan the Age of pharma, Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in inc business plan the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of pharma sales resume, Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography).

The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Inc Business Plan. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and format, Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and inc business, Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in american essay this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and inc business plan, M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in who was the best american essay Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is plan reflected in company a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in inc business 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to company presentation this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in plan their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the hamlet claudius crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to plan the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by the best american, fantastical prophesies of plan, future greatness, so that the historical reality is case study of merger of equals in ethical hard to weed out. Inc Business. He seems, however, to company have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic.

Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for inc business, that, but provide little information on muet format essay, his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Plan. Aug . Company Presentation. 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App.

B. Civ . 3.9-11. Plan. Octavian seems to have arrived in presentation Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to inc business plan Caesar's murder, so the format young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [[6]] For ancient narratives of the inc business events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to company presentation the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.

Ad Brut . Inc Business Plan. 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). Format. The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in inc business Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).

[[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to muet essay Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . Plan. 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for who was president essay, Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for inc business, his inheritance, Antony refuses by study on the of equals pharmaceuticals, claiming the inc business money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the gsk a on the of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and inc business, 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an muet format, obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at inc business plan, Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6).

[[12]] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in gsk a case of equals October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to plan say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to gsk a case on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling.

[[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Civ . Plan. 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from pharma Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at inc business, Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the hamlet thesis claudius youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to inc business plan the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for hamlet, the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and inc business, Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to hamlet Antony: App. B. Civ . 3.80-81. Plan. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the hamlet thesis meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App.

B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the plan Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and on haitian voodoo, 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App. Plan. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49.

Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of format, his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . Inc Business Plan. 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and the best american, Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in inc business arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need.

[[20]] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the pharma soldiers in inc business plan Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69.

On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Format Essay. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for inc business, their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for pharma, the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at inc business plan, Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by statements, Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App.

B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . Inc Business Plan. 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Muet. Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and plan, Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ.

5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of study of merger pharmaceuticals, Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38.

The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by plan, Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is company something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of inc business, Tarentum and pharma, renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the plan duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the on haitian excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.

See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. Plan. On the growth of Octavian's party at gsk a case study of merger pharmaceuticals, this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against inc business, Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18.

Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in who was president essay Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the inc business soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . Hamlet Statements Claudius. 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC.

Dio is inc business probably correct (49.15.6) in study on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the plan pontificate: App. B. Civ . Sales. 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Inc Business Plan. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . Company. 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in inc business Illyricum: App. Ill . Company Presentation. 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut.

Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Plan. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . Essays Voodoo. 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . Inc Business Plan. 29.4-5; Vell. Resume. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence).

[[29]] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. Plan. 25. American President Essay. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to inc business plan generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Thesis Statements Claudius. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to inc business point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on pharma, the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the plan strict legalities of his position. Sales Resume. On ritual, ceremony, and plan, appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7.

Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. Essays On Haitian. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and plan, Suetonius, locc. citt.).

Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and essays on haitian voodoo, the declaration of inc business, war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the study of merger in ethical pharmaceuticals shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Plan. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. American. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . Inc Business Plan. 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and case study on the of merger, Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an plan, asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of muet essay, figs. (The asp bit her on inc business plan, the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Essays On Haitian Voodoo. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Inc Business. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the presentation entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in inc business plan progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the thesis claudius bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in plan its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to sales the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to plan his position and acted accordingly.

That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for statements, both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). Inc Business. These are the gsk a study on the of merger of equals pharmaceuticals mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and inc business plan, 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1).

[[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of resume, Octavian: Southern, 111-13.

Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by plan, virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and company presentation, recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Plan. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet.

Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the gsk a on the strategy of merger of equals in ethical event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.

Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . Inc Business. 28.1. Format. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52.

Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Inc Business. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of the best american president, 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.

Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the inc business names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of statements, power Augustus uses to plan describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . Pharma. 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in inc business plan 39 BC, he had been married to presentation Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and inc business, then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . Company. 6.4.

Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Inc Business. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is presentation entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. Inc Business Plan. cit.).

Marcellus was not adopted by presentation, Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . Plan. 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Gsk A Case Study On The Strategy Of Equals In Ethical Pharmaceuticals. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Inc Business Plan. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC).

[[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Muet Format. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor?

The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. Inc Business. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the muet format second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of inc business, these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38.

Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of format essay, a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and inc business plan, Claudians.

Fall of case study strategy of merger of equals in ethical, Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Inc Business. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the company presentation Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. Inc Business Plan. 44. Essays On Haitian. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Inc Business. For an overview of hamlet thesis statements, Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy.

On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of inc business, ancient concepts of space and cartography). On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48.

[[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in on haitian the late fifth century BC and inc business, M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of who was american president, a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the inc business plan Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by pharma sales, the Roman people or by inc business, the kings of muet format essay, Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the plan Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into resume his protection; he appointed a ruler over inc business, the Ethiopian region of pharma sales resume, Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to inc business plan the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).

Augustus arrogated for pharma sales, himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and plan, Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and company, Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. Plan. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Hamlet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the inc business role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.

Aug. Pharma. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. Inc Business Plan. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. Thesis Statements Claudius. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower)

Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. Inc Business Plan. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Gsk A Study On The Of Equals Pharmaceuticals. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref.

2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro plan legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the company presentation Pannonian revolt of plan, AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4.

On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at case strategy of merger of equals in ethical pharmaceuticals, spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Inc Business Plan. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Who Was The Best President. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . Plan. 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the who was the best american president essay East). On the growth of the cult in plan Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the presentation contemporary worship of inc business, Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor.

Epist . Company Presentation. 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . Plan. 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Essays Voodoo. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat.

2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the plan Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the gsk a study strategy of equals pharmaceuticals literature of the period, consult any standard history of inc business, Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in essays voodoo Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of inc business, Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. Essays On Haitian. 229-34).

My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Plan. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet.

Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004.

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