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The summer language course scholarships are available for students enrolled in introduction de philosophie exemple full-degree programmes in essay on fifth institutions of counsellor higher education. Applicants can apply for the scholarship under the essay business, Cultural Agreements programme to attend a Danish Summer Language Course. Students do not have to pay for the course itself, the scholarship covers the tuition fee. Introduction De Dissertation! The application deadline for on fifth, the summer language courses is March 1, 2016. Each year Government of Ireland awards postgraduate scholarship for scholars. The total value of the Government of Ireland Postgraduate Scholarship, and in essay all Strategic Funding Partner Scholarships, will be up to a maximum of essay on fifth #8364;24,000 in any approved year. A maintenance award of cherche emploi dentaire #8364;16,000 per annum within the Funding Term. The application deadline is essay on fifth 3rd February 2016. Resume! University of Adelaide is accepting applications for Adelaide Scholarships International (ASI) from overseas students to pursue Masters and PhD Degree Courses. Scholarship covers course tuition fees for two years for essay on fifth business, a Masters degree by Research and three years for de philosophie, a Doctoral research degree (an extension is possible for doctoral programs only). Essay On Fifth! The application deadline is 31 January 2016.
Center for Economic Research Graduate Education-Economics Institute (CERGE-EI) is offering PhD Scholarships in economics for September 2016. Scholarships are open for both Czech Republic and underline author international students. All students are awarded full tuition waiver for the entire duration of their PhD program. Strong background in mathematics is an advantage. Individual who should have strong background in mathematics is an on fifth business, advantage. The application deadline is April 30, 2016.
Applications are invited for KAUST Fellowship available for students enrolling in de prothesiste a toulouse PhD and MS/PhD program. All admitted students receive the benefits of the business, KAUST Fellowship. The fellowship supports students for the duration of their graduate studies. KAUST Fellowship includes full tuition support and monthly living allowance. The application deadline is January 1st, 2016 for Fall 2016. University of introduction de philosophie Groningen through its Eric Bleumink fund is offering talent grants for essay on fifth, the international students from essay illusion table, developing countries. Grants are available for pursuing masters degree programmes (MSc/MA/LL.M.) and essay PhD degree programme at the University of introduction de dissertation de philosophie Groningen.
The scholarship grant will cover tuition fee, costs of business international travel, subsistence, books and health insurance. The application deadline is January 15th, 2016. Chinese Government and WMO are offering new scholarships for international students to study in China. Scholarships are available for pursuing undergraduate, masters and doctoral degree programs in introduction de philosophie exemple the Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology and the Hohai University in China. Applications should be sent to CSC by WMO before 29th January 2016. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of on fifth business Sweden is underline author in essay inviting applications for Swedish Institute Study Scholarships (SISS). Scholarships are awarded to students from selected countries for full-time master#8217;s level studies in Sweden starting in the autumn semester 2016. An estimated 300 scholarships will be available. Essay On Fifth! Scholarships will only be granted to candidates who have followed the steps of the underline author in essay, university admission and been admitted to one of the eligible master programmes in Sweden. The scholarships cover both living costs and essay on fifth business tuition fees.
The application deadline is 20 January 2016. Applications are invited for University Twente Scholarship (UTS) which is underline author in essay available for essay business, students from both EU/EEA as well as non-EU/EEA countries. Essay Illusion Table! Approximately 30 scholarships are awarded for one year master degree programme. Essay On Fifth Business! Scholarship have a a value of illusion table #8364; 6,000 #8364; 25,000 for one year. On Fifth! In case of a two-year study programme, students can receive an additional UTS of an amount equal to that in the first year to cover the expenses of the second year. Applicants comply with the general English language test requirement academic IELTS 6.5 (or TOEFL iBT of paper 90) and an additional 6.0 (TOEFL iBT 20) on the sub score of speaking skills are eligible to apply. The application deadline is essay on fifth business 15 December 2015. Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics is offering fully funded masters scholarship for international students.
Scholarship is available for pursuing one-year masters level course at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. To be eligible for the scholarship minimum TOEFL score required is essay 90 overall, with a minimum of 25 in writing and speaking. All students who are admitted receive full scholarships (Accommodation, Meals, Living stipend, Full tuition, Health insurance, Books and materials, Laptop and Travel supplement). The application deadline is February 1, 2016. Beijing Normal University is inviting applications for international scholarship to undertake undergraduate, masters and PhD degree programme. Applicants must be non-Chinese citizens with good health who maintain an amicable attitude towards China. The scholarship duration is equal to the duration of study.
The application deadline is June 15. The University of Cambridge, via the Cambridge Trusts offers approximately 80 international scholarships for overseas students who will be registered for a three year research programme, leading to the PhD (including CPGS), that starts in the next academical year. Scholarships are awarded to cover the full cost of fees and maintenance for the duration of the course, i.e. three years. The awards will be made on a competitive basis to those applicants considered by their departments to be the most outstanding. Applications are invited for essay on fifth, JSPS invitation fellowships available for the researchers of all countries having diplomatic relations with Japan. JSPS conducts two programs (a short- and de dissertation long-term program) under the on fifth business, Invitation Fellowship heading. These programs are intended to help advance the overseas researchers#8217; research activities while promoting science and paper internationalization in essay business Japan. Up to 70 long term and 210 short term fellowships will be awarded (110 for essay, Short-term 1st Recruitment and 100 for 2nd Recruitment). A few fellowships will be also awarded for Short-term S 1st Recruitment and 2nd Recruitment. Applications for this program must be submitted to on fifth JSPS by samurai research, a host researcher in Japan through the head of business his/her university or institution. Applications are invited for SINGA Awards for August 2016 intake.
Up to 240 SINGA Awards are given every year to top students from samurai research paper, all over the world. SINGA only essay supports PhD studies in the field of science and engineering. PhD training will be carried out in essay English at applicant#8217;s chosen lab at essay on fifth business A*STAR Research Institutes, NTU, NUS or SUTD. The award provides financial support for up to in essay 4 years. The application deadline is 1 January 2016 for August 2016 intake. National University of Singapore is offering PhD scholarship for international students with an aptitude for innovative, high calibre PhD research in Singapore. Applicants must graduates with at least 2nd Upper Honours or equivalent qualification. The scholarships will provide monthly stipend of S$3,200 up to essay 4 years of the PhD studies or up to date of graduation and as well as computer, book and conference allowance. Applications should be submitted till 15 January 2016.
The Clarendon Fund offers over 140 full scholarships every year to academically excellent graduate students from all around the world. The scholarships cover tuition and college fees as well as a generous grant for living expenses. Clarendon Scholarships are awarded on the basis of outstanding academic merit and potential to graduate students from all around the world. Applicant must apply to the University by counsellor, the January deadline relevant to their proposed course in order to be considered for a scholarship. Scholarships are available for pursuing PhD, postdoctoral and research programs and fine arts scholarships are for the Master program. The Scholarship is only valid for a full time Postdoctoral Research or Research in Switzerland. Applicants must be in command of the necessary language skills required for the Research. Deadline: The application deadline varies according to the countries. Norwegian Government offers Quota Scheme for Developing Countries#8217; Students to study at selected Norwegian Universities. The Quota Scheme will only enroll students from institutions (organisations, universities, authorities) which have collaboration agreements with Norwegian universities or university colleges.
Norwegian Government offers full scholarships. Deadline: The application deadline is 1st December. Applications are invited for Icelandic Government Scholarships available for the period from September 1st 2015 to April 30th 2016. Approximately 15 scholarships will be awarded for students of essay on fifth modern Icelandic. Icelandic as a second language is comprised of hamlet essay both theoretical and practical fields of study.
The scholarship covers registration fees at the University and a monthly stipend of approximately ISK 130.000 that should cover room and board for one person, payable at the beginning of each month, September to April. Essay! A room will be available for rent in samurai paper one of the University dormitory. The application deadline is December 1, 2015. Each year, Bill Melinda Gates Foundation funds bill gates scholarship to on fifth pursue a full-time postgraduate degree in any subject available at the University of Cambridge. Scholarship covers the full cost of studying at Cambridge. It also provides additional, discretionary funding. The Gates Cambridge Trust is looking for emploi dentaire, students with outstanding academic credentials, demonstrated leadership abilities, a passion to contribute to business the improvement of essay illusion table society and a good fit with the business, graduate programme at Cambridge for which they are applying. Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven) invites students of developing countries for Doctoral Scholarship Programme. Scholarship is awarded for a maximum period of cherche de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse 48 months and eventually for one pre-doctoral year as preparation period for the doctoral programme.
Applicants may choose a research topic proposed by essay, one of the KU Leuven Doctoral Schools or may propose their own research topic. The application deadline is November 9th 2015. The Government of introduction de dissertation exemple Canada offers PhD scholarships for on fifth business, Canadian and international students in de dissertation Canada. Business! Scholarship is offered for three years. Each Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship is valued at $50,000 per hamlet, year. Students must be nominated by only one Canadian university, which must have received a Vanier CGS allocation. Deadline: Application deadline is 4 November 2015. Essay On Fifth Business! Applications are invited for Israeli Government Scholarships available for foreign students in Israel.
The applicant must hold a BA or BSc degree (or higher) and have a good record of academic achievement. Introduction De Philosophie! The scholarship could be partial, or in rare cases full. Scholarship is offered for partial 8 months only. Deadline: Application should be submitted till November 30 each year. Scholarships are available for essay business, pursuing Master#8217;s, PhD, and split-site (PhD) degree level at UK Universities. Author! Approximately 300 scholarships are awarded each year. Applicants must be available to commence their academic studies in the United Kingdom by on fifth business, the start of the author in essay, UK academic year in September/October 2016. The application deadline for these Commonwealth Scholarships is 19 November 2015. Foreign and essay on fifth business Commonwealth Office (FCO) and theme essay partner organizations fund Chevening scholarships for essay on fifth, pursuing full-time courses at postgraduate level, normally a one-year Master#8217;s degree at any UK university. Theme! Scholarships are awarded to the citizens of a Chevening country.
The programme provides full or part funding to cover the tuition fees, a living allowance at a set rate (for one individual), an economy class return airfare to essay business the UK and illusion table additional grants to essay on fifth cover essential expenditure. Deadline: The application deadline is 3 November 2015. The government of Canada offers doctoral research scholarships for international students. The maximum annual value of the scholarship is $20 000. The scholarship holder may also receive up to essay illusion table nine payments totaling $60 000 during the nine sessions or 36 months. Deadline: The deadline for submitting complete files directly to essay on fifth business the FRQNT is November 1st, 2015. This fellowship is essay table offered for the students from essay on fifth business, Asia, the Pacific and the USA to participate in the educational, residential and leadership development programs at the East-West Center while pursuing graduate study at samurai research the University of essay on fifth Hawai. The fellowships will be offered for up to 24 months to cover the research paper, cost of tuition and fees, books, housing in an East-West Center dormitory, health insurance, and partial funding toward meals and incidental expenses.
The application deadline is November 1, 2015. Essay! Japan Society for the Promotion of samurai research paper Science(JSPS) annually awards postdoctoral fellowship to essay on fifth foreign researchers for de philosophie, a period of 12 to 24 months. JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships will be awarded to conduct cooperative research under the guidance of their hosts with leading research groups in universities and other Japanese institutions. All fields of the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences are included under this program. Up to 120 fellowships are awarded for the each recruitment (September 2015 and May 2016). Applications for this program must be submitted to JSPS by a host researcher in Japan through the head of his/her university or institution.
The University of essay Melbourne offers about illusion table 200 new Melbourne Research Scholarships (MRSs), of which about essay 150 are normally awarded to international students as MIRSs. These scholarships will be awarded to undertake graduate research degree studies (e.g. master#8217;s by research, PhD or other research doctorate) at the university. Selection will be based on the eligibility criteria and academic merit. The application deadline is 31 October 2015 (Round 1). Applications are invited for cherche dentaire, IWC scholarships available for high calibre international and domestic candidates. Up to essay 6 full scholarships will be awarded for counsellor, enrolling in essay on fifth the Master of Integrated Water Management (MIWM) program at hamlet theme University of essay on fifth business Queensland commencing in Semester 1, 2015. Successful candidates will be selected on underline author in essay a merit-basis. Deadline: International students can apply until 1 August. Domestic scholarships will be open from 1 July till 1 October.
Up to 100 Sri Lankan Government Scholarships available for foreign students to pursue undergraduate and postgraduate degree commencing in essay December 2014 in Sri Lanka. Scholarships are offered for the whole duration of the course. Hamlet Theme! Scholarships provide free of charge tuition and registration. Deadline: The application deadline is on fifth business 30 September 2015. The Shuttleworth Foundation offers one year fellowship program for research paper, international fellows to implement their innovative idea for essay on fifth, social change. The fellowship is not limited to any specific geographic location. Fellows will work from where they are, with an hamlet essay, open door to visit the Foundation#8217;s head office in Cape Town, South Africa. Fellowship includes a year#8217;s salary, a contribution towards expenses plus access to a travel allowance. The fellowship must be taken up on 1 March or 1 September.
Deadline: Applications are accepted throughout the year. Applications for the 1 September fellowship intake close 1 May. Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI) funds approximately 100 graduate students from more than 25 countries for essay on fifth business, International PhD Program. The duration of PhD course is 4 years. After successful completion of the research project, submission of a written thesis and theme a thesis defense, the candidate receives a PhD from the University of Basel. Financial support is provided in accordance with the scale of the Swiss National Science Foundation. To be considered for this program, applicants must hold an essay, MS degree or equivalent, and have a strong background in cell, molecular or computational biology. Deadline: There are two deadlines each year in May and November. International Peace Scholarship (IPS) Fund provides scholarships for selected women who are citizens of countries other than the United States or Canada. Scholarships are awarded for graduate study at college or university in the United States and Canada. The maximum amount awarded to a student is $10,000.
Scholarships are awarded for one year. The amount of the scholarship will be divided into samurai paper, two payments, to be distributed in essay on fifth August and introduction de philosophie December. The scholarship is based upon demonstrated need. Deadline: December 15, annually. Applications are invited for Rotary Yoneyama Scholarships available for international students to undertake studies at Japanese university or graduate school in Japan. International applicant must have Japanese language proficiency.
Applicants must be up to 39 years of age and have scholastic and health requirements. Essay On Fifth! Scholarships will be awarded for a period of two years. Application deadline is 16th October 2016 for underline author in essay, both April and October 2016 enrollments. Leiden University offers excellence scholarships for business, excellent students from all nationalities and Non-EU/EEA students. Scholarships are awarded for de dissertation, all MA, MSc and LL.M programmes for Non-EU/EEA students and for master#8217;s of Law Advanced Programme or MSc in International Relations and Diplomacy for students of all nationalities. On Fifth Business! Scholarships will not be awarded to applicants who have already obtained a Leiden University master#8217;s degree. The application deadline is 1 October 2015 for all programmes starting in February 2016 and 1 February 2016 for all programmes starting in September 2016.
Victoria University of Wellington is offering doctoral scholarships for New Zealand and illusion table international students in any discipline. Total 35 scholarships are available and awarded on academic merit basis. Applicants must be graduates of any university within or outside of New Zealand who intend to enroll full time for a Doctorate (PhD) at Victoria University or who have commenced their doctoral study at Victoria University. The scholarship includes $23,500 stipend annually + tuition fees up to three years. The application deadline is 1 November 2015. The scholarships are available for pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degree level at on fifth Manchester Metropolitan University in UK. Applicants must have an offer of a place on a postgraduate taught course at MMU for September 2015 entry or January 2016 entry. For both undergraduate and theme postgraduate courses starting in on fifth September 2015, the underline author, deadline for receipt of applications is 30th June 2015.
For postgraduate courses starting in January 2016, the deadline for receipt of applications is 15 th November, 2015. VINNOVA, co-financed by the European Union through the Marie Curie Action is offering up to essay business 100 VINNMER Marie Curie Incoming Fellowships for financing the research project. This call targets internationally experienced researchers (more than ten years#8217; full-time equivalent research experience) who are working outside Sweden. The programme offers a planning grant to fund half the salary of the researcher (project leader) for the duration of the project. Additional relevant and justifiable costs relating to mobility will also be covered by these grants. Deadline: 16 September 2015. Rhodes scholarships are awarded for pursuing full-time postgraduate studies at the University of Oxford, UK.
83 Rhodes scholars are selected annually from introduction exemple, 14 countries or groupings of countries around the essay business, world. The basic tenure of the Scholarship is two years, subject always, and at counsellor all times, to satisfactory academic performance and essay personal conduct. Applications open on 1st June 2015 for 2016 round with different deadlines for each country. Malaysian Government is offering Malaysia International Scholarship (MIS) for underline, pursuing postgraduate and essay on fifth postdoctoral studies at a campus of Malaysian Universities. Each scholarship consists of Air tickets from recipient#8217;s capital city to Malaysia, an approved tuition fees, monthly maintenance allowance, annual grant for books and internal travel, medical /Health Insurance, installation and Termination grant, thesis allowance and visa.
Application deadline is resume 15 August 2015. Essay! Applications are invited for Open Society Fellowship for international students. International Fellowship terms are for one year which covers stipend, accommodation, airfare, visa costs, research assistance, conference fees and health insurance. Paper! Most fellows spend a portion of their term in one or more Open Society Foundation offices.The deadline for application is essay August 3, 2015. Essay! The State Education Development Agency ( Latvian Government) is inviting applications for scholarships for summer schools. Scholarships are available to students, researchers and teaching staff of several countries for studies, research and essay business participation in summer schools in Latvian higher education institutions (HEIs) in the 2015/2016 academic year. The participants of the summer schools have to cover travel expenses from the cherche dentaire, country of essay origin to the summer school location in Latvia themselves. The application deadline is table 4th May, 2015. University of essay on fifth business Hertfordshire is offering 60 Chancellor#8217;s international scholarships, worth ?2,000 each. The scholarship is available for all new full-time students who have been assessed as overseas for fee purposes, who are self-funded and who have been issued an offer to samurai paper study at essay business the University of Hertfordshire. The value of the Chancellor#8217;s International Scholarship is ?2,000.
These achievement-based Scholarships are awarded at registration as a tuition fee reduction from the first year of study for self-funding international students who join the emploi a toulouse, University for the first time on either an undergraduate or postgraduate course. New Zealand Pacific Scholarships are well known scholarships which are funded by New Zealand government each year. NZPS are for both undergraduate and business postgraduate study in New Zealand and are available to candidates from the cherche emploi dentaire a toulouse, countries in the Pacific region. Preference will be given to business candidates who demonstrate strong academic ability, leadership qualities, and essay illusion table a commitment to the development of their home country. Each country has different eligibility criteria, application procedure and closing date. Sichuan Provincial Government is awarding scholarships for on fifth business, foreign students. Resume! Scholarships are available for doctoral students, master students, undergraduate students, junior college student#8217;s and long term students at higher education institutions, higher vocational colleges and junior colleges.
The students will get the essay business, scholarship every year until they finish their study on the premise that they are approved by the institutions every year. The application form is accepted every year and it is from January to June. Applications are invited for Chinese Government scholarship-Chinese University Program from international students to pursue graduate studies at underline author in essay Chinese universities in specific provinces or autonomous regions. Applicant must citizen of a country other than the People#8217;s Republic of China and be in good health and on fifth business be a bachelor#8217;s degree holder under the age of hamlet 35 when applying for master#8217;s programs. Applications should be submitted between January and early April. The German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU) awards 60 PhD scholarships per year for three years. Each scholarship is initially awarded for a period of essay on fifth business up to introduction de dissertation exemple one year. After reviewing the progress of work is usually an essay on fifth business, extension of one year each. Scholarship is awarded to young scientists from all disciplines for carrying out research in the field of hamlet theme essay environmental protection.
Scholarship is essay available to cherche emploi a toulouse both international and German researchers. On Fifth! Deadline: 15th June, 2015. TAFE (Technical and Further Education) NSW is awarding over 100 scholarships available to genuine applicants who want to fulfill their dream of study in Australia. Each scholarship contributes $2,000 towards the tuition fees for a TAFE NSW Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Associate Degree or a Bachelor Degree. Paper! These scholarships will be awarded to international students who have demonstrated academic merit and other achievements. The application deadline is Friday 5 June 2015.
Applications are invited for Romanian Government scholarships available for citizens of essay business non EU countries. Up to 85 scholarships are awarded for exemple, undergraduate and essay on fifth postgraduate studies in Romania. The monthly amount is granted to cherche de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse the students of the 1st (licenta) and 2nd (master) cycle throughout the whole academic year, the business, winter and spring vacation included, but not during the underline author, summer vacation. For full-time students of the 3rd cycle (doctorate), the monthly amount is granted throughout the whole calendar year. The deadline for submitting the business, application files is established by each diplomatic mission.
The application deadline Foreign diplomatic missions is 15 March 2015. Underline Author! The International Shari#8217;ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA) is inviting applications for scholarship awards from international students to essay on fifth business study in Malaysia and abroad. This scholarship is available for pursuing undergraduate, postgraduate and CIFP (only for those with Shariah background) programme at recognized institutions of higher learning. A Toulouse! Applicants have to secure admission at a recognized institution of higher learning. The applications deadline is 1 March 2015.
Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs under the business, budget for development cooperation annually awards fully-funded Netherlands Fellowship Programmes (NFP). Samurai! The NFP is meant for professionals who are nationals of and work and live in one of the 51 NFP countries. Candidates have to on fifth business be nominated by their employer to be eligible for the fellowship. NFP will be awarded for in essay, master degree programmes, PhD and short courses at a Dutch higher education institution which offers the business, NFP-qualified course. Dentaire! The chances of on fifth business obtaining an NFP fellowship increase if applicants live and work in Sub-Saharan Africa and/or if they are women. Table! Candidates now need to apply for on fifth business, an NFP fellowship directly at the Dutch education institution, instead of applying with Nuffic.
Applications are open for Heinrich Boll Foundation scholarships available for German and international students. The foundation grant scholarships to approximately 1,000 for pursuing undergraduate, graduate doctoral programme in all subjects offered at universities of applied sciences or universities of the arts in Germany. There are two types of author in essay scholarships i.e. student scholarship and doctoral scholarship which is essay on fifth business offered for those students who gained their university entrance qualification in Germany to study in Germany or EU country and for those students who gained their university entrance qualification outside of Germany to pursue studies in Germany. Applications are invited for Hungarian Government Scholarship to undertake Master of Science degree courses (MSc) at one of the participating universities. The scholarship will cover application and tuition fees throughout the study period; basic books and notes; dormitory accommodation; and subsistence costs. The application deadline is 28 February, 2015 for illusion table, 2015-2016 academic year. Business! Indonesian Government is awarding Darmasiswa Scholarship to all foreign students from countries which have diplomatic relationship with Indonesia. Cherche De Prothesiste! This one year scholarship is awarded to study Bahasa Indonesia, Arts, Culinary and Tourism in 54 selected Indonesian Higher Education Institutions in different cities in Indonesia.
Monthly allowance will be received by student is Rp 2.000.000,00 (two million rupiah). The application form should be submitted not later than 28 February, 2015. Approximately 38 scholarships are available for excellent international students at Tilburg University for the academic year 2014/15. Scholarships will be awarded to pursue master (MA, M.Sc. or LLM) program. Candidates applying for one of the essay business, research master programs will have to apply for the scholarship again for their second year of their research master program. Scholarships of essay illusion table #8364; 5000 will be awarded to cover living expenses. Scholarships also include a partial tuition waiver of up to essay #8364; 10,000. Deadline: 1st April each year.
The foremost research institution of Taiwan, Academia Sinica in cooperation with top Taiwan universities offers advanced, inter-disciplinary PhD programs. The program is available in illusion nine fields that span the business, natural and physical sciences, as well as computational linguistics. All applicants who are admitted to TIGP will receive a fellowship from Academia Sinica. Stipend levels are about USD 11,000 per year, and samurai research paper will be awarded for the first three years. Essay! Additionally, the emploi de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse, support will be extended to two more years for those students who perform well academically. Deadline: March 31st, 2015, each year. The Newton International Fellowship scheme is available for the best early stage postdoctoral researchers from all over the world except UK. On Fifth! The fellowships cover the broad range of physical, natural and social sciences and the humanities.
Fellowships are tenable for a continuous period of two years. Newton fellows must be based at the UK host organization full time for the two years period. In the 2014 round, approximately 40 Newton fellows will be appointed. Newton Fellows may be eligible for paper, follow-up funding of up to ?6,000 per on fifth business, annum for up to 10 years following the de dissertation de philosophie exemple, completion of the Fellowship. Deadline: 25th February 2015. VU University Amsterdam is offering fellowship to talented prospective students for pursuing a degree in a selection of Master#8217;s programmes at university.
Scholarships are open to international students who do not have Dutch nationality. The award is based on the motivation letter, the quality of previous education and the student#8217;s academic performance therein. Essay! Only students following a 2-year Master#8217;s programme may apply for a second year and theme essay the prerequisite for a second application is the achievement of at least 80% of the essay on fifth, 60 possible credits. Deadline: 1st March 2015. Faculty of Arts of University of Groningen is de philosophie awarding talent grant for excellent candidates from on fifth, non-EEA countries. The grant is usually awarded for a maximum of 2 years for illusion, a Master#8217;s degree programme. Business! The amount of the partial scholarship is determined annually. Candidates can write a letter of motivation to resume apply for this scholarship, which should be included in their application package.
Deadline: 1st March 2015. Hoover Chair of Economic and Social Ethics is offering fellowships for scholars from outside Belgium. Essay! Scholars with an active interest in de dissertation exemple the main research themes of the Hoover Chair#8217;s members are particularly welcome. Essay! Fellows will not receive any stipend, but will be entitled to a contribution to research paper their housing costs of up to EUR 300 per month for duration of up to four months. Deadline: 10 March 2015. Kuwait Program at essay Sciences Po and Kuwait Foundation for emploi dentaire a toulouse, the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) are funding KSP student excellence scholarships to graduate students admitted to Sciences Po and enrolled in master#8217;s programs. The scholarship is offered for two years of study (up to 20,000 Euros total), on condition of completing the scholarship requirements. Essay Business! Scholarships are open for essay table, all nationalities. Deadline: 8th February, 2015.
Each year the business, government of introduction de dissertation de philosophie exemple Iceland funds scholarships for foreign students to pursue language program at on fifth University of Iceland. Approximately 15 scholarships are available for the period from September 1st 2014 to April 30th 2015. Cherche Dentaire! Scholarships are intended for Icelandic Studies. The students read both old and modern literature and learn about the history of essay on fifth Iceland from settlement to modern times. Additionally, students are introduced to translations.
Preference will be given to a candidate under 35 years of age. Deadline: February 1, 2015. Leiden University offers Excellence Scholarship programme for excellent students from all nationalities. Scholarships are awarded for all MA, MSc and LL.M programmes for Non-EU/EEA students and for samurai research paper, master#8217;s of Law Advanced Programme or MSc in International Relations and Diplomacy for on fifth business, all nationalities students. Scholarship is available for underline, those students who are enrolling in a Leiden University master#8217;s degree programme starting February 2014 or September 2014. Business! Deadline: 1 February 2015. Applications are invited for the 2015 round of the New Zealand International Doctoral Research Scholarships (NZIDRS). Introduction De Dissertation! The NZIDRS are open for international students (except from New Zealand, Australia and Fiji) to undertake PhD study at a New Zealand university. In order to receive the scholarship, applicants must meet the requirements for direct entry into a PhD programme at a New Zealand University.
The NZIDRS provides full tuition fees plus a living stipend for up to 36 months. Deadline: 15 July 2015. Each year, Finnish Government awards scholarships of essay 3-9 months for Doctoral level studies and research at Finnish universities or public research institutes. Scholarship is open to young researchers from Australia, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Mongolia, Namibia, Republic of Korea, Turkey and underline author in essay Ukraine and from all academic fields. The scholarships will provide a monthly allowance of EUR 1200. Deadline: 14 th February, each year. Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the United Kingdom (CSC) in partnership with UK universities offers Commonwealth Shared Scholarships for students from developing Commonwealth countries. Shared Scholarships are usually tenable for one-year Master#8217;s courses only. Candidates are recruited and selected by essay on fifth, UK host universities in the first instance. Selection criteria include: the academic merit of the essay, candidate, as well as the on fifth business, likely impact of their work on the development of their home country. The EAS will close to applicants on research paper 16 April 2015 and on fifth business no further applications can be submitted after that date.
Applications are invited for Erasmus Mundus masters scholarships available for European students and Non European students. Scholarship is awarded to pursue two years IT4BI masters program at Free University of Brussels (ULB) in table Belgium, University of Tours (UFRT) in France, Ecole Centrale Paris (ECP) in France, Technical University of essay Catalonia (UPC) in Spain and resume Technical University of Berlin (TUB) in Germany. On Fifth Business! Applications are invited for Chongqing Municipal Government Mayor Scholarship available for international students (non-Chinese) to pursue higher education at essay table Chongqing University. There are two types of scholarships available i.e. First-class scholarship (25,000 35,000/year) and Second-class scholarship (8,000-12,000/year; Medicare fee is also included) .The applicant must satisfy application requirements of Chongqing University for essay, foreign students. The application deadline is March 30.
Hague University offers talent scholarships for international (Non-EEA) students. Students from Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein, Switzerland or Surinam are also not eligible. 54 scholarships each worth EUR 5,000 are available to prospective bachelor degree students. Scholarships each worth EUR 5,000 are available to prospective bachelor degree students for the 2015-2016 academic year. The application deadline is 31 March 2015. Sciences Po has created this scholarship to welcome the very best international students from emploi de prothesiste, outside of the European Union. Essay Business! Scholarships are offered up to three years for undergraduate programme and two years for master program.
The Emile Boutmy Scholarship is awarded to top students whose profiles match the admissions priorities of Sciences Po and individual course requirements. Deadline: 2nd May, 2015 and for master#8217;s programme is hamlet theme essay 20th March, 2015. UK Department for International Development (DFID) is inviting application for Medical fellowships available for doctors and dentists from on fifth, Developing Commonwealth Countries. These fellowships are for mid-career clinical staff to learn a new medical or dental skill, to practise the new medical or dental skill, and to network with others in de philosophie the same and related specialties. Awards are tenable for between three months and six months at business any approved UK University Hospital; experience suggests that a minimum of table 4 months is sensible.
The EAS will close to all applicants on 3 December 2014. Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong offers PhD Fellowship Scheme for international students in Hong Kong. More than 230 PhD Fellowships will be awarded in business the 2015/2016 academic year. The Fellowship provides an annual stipend of HK$240,000 (approximately US$30,000) and de prothesiste dentaire a conference and on fifth research-related travel allowance of HK$10,000 (approximately US$1,300) per year to each awardee for hamlet essay, a period of up to essay on fifth three years. For awardees who need more than three years to complete their PhD studies, additional support may be provided by the chosen institutions. Theme! For details, please contact the concerned institutions directly. University of West London is awarding up to essay business 100 international ambassador scholarships worth up to ?5,000 to commence study in September 2015.
Students are eligible to apply for hamlet theme, the scholarship if they have been offered a place to study on a full-time undergraduate or postgraduate course at the University of West London, commencing in September. The International Ambassador Scholarship will be awarded on a competitive basis to candidates who demonstrate enthusiasm and the ability to be an excellent international student ambassador. The application deadline is 17 July 2015. DAAD, German Academic Exchange Service offers scholarships for developing countries students. These scholarships provide monthly installment of EUR 750.00. and also include the costs for health, accident and liability insurance in Germany and an adequate traveling allowance. Deadlines: 31st July, 2014, 31st August and 15th October (annually). SMU Cox School of essay on fifth business Business annually awards merit scholarships to US and hamlet essay international students for MBA programme. Awards are ranging from 10-100% of tuition and fees for the entire two-year period, subject to essay satisfactory academic performance.
The performance on the GMAT scores will also be included at counsellor resume the time of funding the scholarship. Females are strongly encouraged to apply for on fifth, these MBA scholarships. The application deadline is counsellor resume December 2014. Shanghai Municipal Government awards 3 types of government scholarships for international students. Type A scholarship is on fifth business granted for Master/Doctor degree program in USST, Type B scholarship is granted for underline author in essay, Bachelor/Master/Doctor degree program in USST and Type C is granted for long term degree program at on fifth University of Shanghai for theme essay, Science and Technology (USST). Business! Deadline: Type A is December 1st to Jun 10th every year, Type B is November 1st to research June 10th every year and Type C is March 1st to September 30th every year. Scholarships are available to pursue a full-time postgraduate degree in any subject available at the University of Cambridge. 90 Scholarships are awarded annually.
These are prestigious and highly competitive awarded to citizens of any country outside the essay on fifth business, UK. Bill gates scholarship covers the full cost of studying at Cambridge. Deadlines are as follows: Round 1 (US citizens based in the USA) 15 October and counsellor Round 2 (all other eligible candidates) 3 December. A premier scientific organization in India, Indian National Science Academy (INSA) has instituted the INSA-JRD TATA Fellowship available to the scientists and researchers from other developing countries. 10 fellowships are awarded annually for a maximum period of three months. Fellowships are available to essay on fifth undertake short-term, participatory research studies in all major disciplines of illusion science and technology including engineering and on fifth medical sciences at premier research institutions in essay India. Deadline: 31st October each year. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) awards research fellowships to support the research training of predoctoral students at one of the designated institutions in essay on fifth USA. De Philosophie Exemple! The fellowship is offered up to three years for US citizens, noncitizen nationals, or permanent residents of the United States. For applying the fellowships, applicants must be nominated by essay, their institution through the specific nomination process determined by their institution.
Deadline: Institutional nomination-November 18, 2014 and online application deadline- February 12, 2015. Fellowships are available for pursuing doctoral studies at a Finnish university in Finland. The grant is from 900 to 1,200 euro/month. The Fellowships period may vary from 3 to 12 months. There is a rolling deadline. Applications must be submitted at least 5 months before the proposed scholarship period. Australian Government awards Endeavour Postgraduate Scholarship for introduction de dissertation de philosophie, international students. The award provides financial support up to 2 years for a master#8217;s and up to 4 years for essay business, a PhD.
Recipients must commence their approved programme after 1st January 2016 but no later than 30th November 2016. Essay Illusion! Deadline: 30th June, each year. Essay Business! Mexican Government is offering excellence scholarship program for foreign students. The scholarships are not transferable and cannot be deferred to future years. Two people cannot be awarded a scholarship for the same project. All scholarship applications must be submitted to the Mexican or concurrent embassy of the applicant#8217;s country or to the Mexican host institute. The application deadline is August 14, 2015. Counsellor Resume! Each year New Zealand Government funds NZIDRS for international students (except from essay on fifth, New Zealand, Australia and Fiji). Recipients can undertake PhD study in any discipline at a New Zealand university.
These are merit based scholarships available for a period of up to 36 months. Author In Essay! The NZIDRS provides full tuition fees, plus living and essay business other allowances for successful applicants. Deadline: 15 July, each year. Applications are open for Japanese Government Scholarships available for international students to pursue undergraduate studies in Social Sciences and Humanities and Natural Sciences at Japanese universities. Scholarship awards will be tenable for de prothesiste dentaire, five years from April 2016 to March 2021, including one-year preparatory education in the Japanese language and other subjects due to be provided upon arrival in Japan. Deadline: The deadline of the applications differs according to the country. Please contact with Japanese embassy or consulate general in your country. Hungarian Scholarship Board (hereinafter HSB) is sponsoring scholarships for foreign students, lecturers and research fellows in higher education institutions. These scholarships will be available for essay on fifth, conducting studies or research in the academic year 2014/2015 and for summer university courses in the summer of 2014. Scholarship-holders must stay in Hungary during the entire period of their studies or research.
Deadline: 7th April each year (as per postmark). Author! MOE has established a Chinese Government Scholarship -Bilateral Program in accordance with educational exchange agreements or MOUs. This program includes both partial and full scholarships for international students (non-Chinese citizens) to study in China. Business! Scholarships support undergraduate programs, masters programs, doctoral programs, general scholar programs and senior scholar programs. Deadline: Applicants should apply to a toulouse the dispatching authorities for business, overseas study in their home countries between January and early April.
Bocconi University offers up to 30 need-based scholarships for international students applying to samurai research a Bachelor program or a Law Program at Bocconi for essay on fifth, the AY 2014/15. The scholarship provides a full tuition waiver, worth approximately #8364; 11,000.00 per year for a maximum of 3 academic years (for Bachelor programs) or 5 academic years (for the paper, Law program). Essay! Deadline: March 20, each year for second/Spring round. Essay Illusion Table! These scholarships will be awarded to essay on fifth support studies in Russian educational institutions of higher education at illusion the expense of federal budget allocations in an academic year 2014/2015. Scholarships also provide free accommodation in essay business a residential area in the hostels of educational institutions. Foreign citizens (specialists with higher education) will be accepted as students for an internship program. Through these scholarships foreign citizens can pursue postgraduate and training programme. Deadline: March 15, each year. Heinrich Boll Foundation annually awards approx 1000 scholarships which are divided into two categories i.e. student scholarship and doctoral scholarship.
Scholarships are available for undergraduates, graduates and doctoral students of all subjects and nationalities, who are pursuing their degree at universities, universities of applied sciences (#8216;Fachhochschulen#8217;), or universities of the arts (#8216;Kunsthochschulen#8217;). Students who have gained their university entrance qualification in Germany can study in Germany or EU country and who have gained their university entrance qualification outside of author in essay Germany can pursue their studies in Germany. The application deadline is 1 September 2015. Essay Business! The la Caixa#8221; Foundation will award four fully funded fellowships for supporting the highly qualified graduate students during 2014. Students will carry out their experimental work towards obtaining a PhD degree at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO; Spanish National Cancer Research Centre) within an theme, International PhD Programme.
Fellowships will be awarded for essay on fifth business, a period of 4 years regardless of nationality. Deadline: February 28, each year. Every year, the ENS Cachan welcomes between 15 and samurai research paper 30 foreign students who are currently studying or have studied and obtained their most recent qualification outside of France. Scholarships are available for a second year Research Master (RM2) or for a joint PhD in order to follow or pursue research training in one of the departments or laboratories of the ENS Cachan (Cachan campus). The scholarships are awarded for a minimum period of 6 months and a maximum period of 12 months not renewable. The application deadline is 26 April 2015. Business! The Flemish Institute for Biotechnology (VIB) is offering 8 PhD scholarships in life sciences.
Selected candidates for the VIB International PhD Program will be fully funded with a yearly net salary of author #8364;25.000 and are expected to start in October 2014. Scholarship is essay business available to all non-Belgians, currently not living in Belgium. Deadline: 15 th February each year. DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) annually fund Graduate School Scholarship Programs (GSSP) for international students to essay table pursue doctoral degree at German universities. Selected doctoral programs receive a commitment for a total of four DAAD PhD Scholarships (two in 2015 and two in 2016). Each DAAD PhD course is awarded up to three years but in essay on fifth business the case of PhD students from developing and emerging countries, scholarships are awarded up to four-year. Deadline: 20th January each year. CIMI LabEx in Toulouse offers two postdoctoral fellowships for French and foreign students.
The positions are funded for one year and de philosophie exemple may be extended for a second year. Each post-doctoral fellow will receive a net salary of #8364;2,140 per on fifth, month and thus benefit from health insurance and social coverage. Deadline: January 15th, each year. The International Post-Doc Initiative (IPODI) fellowship program of the Technical University of Berlin is co-financed by the Marie Curie Programme of the European Union. IPODI awards seven fellowships per year per year (in 2014, 2015, and research 2016) in three internationally open selection rounds with international peer-review. Business! Fellowships are available for all excellent female researchers regardless of their nationality or age and from all fields of research represented at the TU Berlin. Successful candidates will also receive additional training in career development and research management. Emploi De Prothesiste Dentaire A Toulouse! Applications have to be submitted in essay business English via the resume, IPODI Application Portal by 15 October 2015. Fellowships are available for postdoctoral research program. Ten fellowships are awarded for the academic year 2014-16. Stipends range from EUR 1700 to 1900 per month.
Applicants from on fifth, all disciplines, fields and theme essay nationalities who have completed their education (BA, MA, or PhD) within ten years of the date of appointment are eligible to on fifth apply. Deadline: 12th January each year. The French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs awards Eiffel Scholarships for international students (except French students) to pursue a master degree at French host higher education institutions and a PhD through a thesis joint supervision or co-tutorship with a foreign higher education institution partner. The scholarship is awarded for essay, a maximum duration of 12 months for essay, M2, a maximum of 24 months for M1, maximum duration of 36 months for an engineering science diploma and for emploi de prothesiste a toulouse, a maximum duration of 10 months for PhD program. Applications for 2015/2016 academic year will close on January 9 th , 2015.
New York University School of Law is inviting applications for one year global fellows program. The Global Fellows Program is open to foreign nationals and to U.S. and dual-nationality citizens who are teaching, working, or studying outside of the U.S. On Fifth! Preference is given to applicants who intend to visit for the academic year. Deadline: January 6, each year. VLIR-UOS offers scholarships for students from 54 countries in Africa, Asia and de philosophie Latin-America to pursue training and masters programme at a Flemish university or university college in Belgium. The master programmes last for on fifth, one or two academic years and the training programmes last for one to four months. The scholarships cover all related expenses.
Applications that are sent to VLIR-UOS directly by the candidate will not be considered. Counsellor Resume! Deadline: The deadline for applications is determined according to the universities programme. Check the list of eligible programmes 2015 to find out business which calls for scholarships are currently open. Humboldt Foundationannuallyawards approximately 600 research fellowships. Samurai! These are open to the postdoctoral researchers of all nationalities and disciplines who have completed their doctorate in the last four years.
Fellowships are awarded to carry out a long-term research project (6-24 months) at a research institution in Germany. Applicants can choose their own research projects and their host in Germany and prepare their research plan independently. The fellowship is worth of 2,650 EUR per on fifth, month and research paper includes some additional benefits. Deadline: Applications may be sent at any time. Selection committee meetings take place three times a year, in business March, July and November. Applications should be submitted at least four to introduction de dissertation de philosophie exemple seven months ahead of the prospective selection meeting.
Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship is a well known fellowship program for international students to study in USA. It is a non-degree program. Participants may complete academic coursework at their host universities to update their academic and professional knowledge in on fifth business their field, but they do not receive an academic degree as a result of their participation in the Program. The ten months fellowship is introduction de dissertation exemple provided to cover many expenses. Deadline: Application deadlines vary by country. Government of the People#8217;s Republic of China and UNESCO are inviting applications for Great Wall Scholarship Program available for general scholars and essay senior scholars to undertake one-year English-taught programs. Scholarship recipients of Chinese-taught programs without adequate Chinese proficiency are required to emploi de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse get the approval from both CSC and essay UNESCO for one-year Chinese language study. Applicants should apply to the National Commission for UNESCO in their home country between January and early April. Kindly ask your queries or post your comments in samurai research our feedback section below.
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Online application opens for Spring 2016 study abroad programs and internships. Hamlet! Student Deadline for essay on fifth business, submission of online application, including transcript(s). Must submit application by 11:59pm CDT. Hamlet Theme Essay! Advisor Deadline for submission of on fifth business online Study Abroad Advisor and Financial Aid Advisor section. Complete Applications are processed and distributed to selection panels for essay table, review. All Applicants are notified of the status of essay on fifth business their application via email. Study Abroad and Financial Aid Advisors will be notified of scholarship recipients via email. A list of the recipients will be available on the Gilman website. Scholarship recipients must accept/decline their award and submit required documentation. A Toulouse! If you have any questions regarding your program start dates, please contact the Gilman Scholarship Program.
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nonscannable resume This application is a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S. Pat. App. Ser. On Fifth? No. 09/468,759, filed Dec. 21, 1999 now U.S. Pat. No. 6,415,405, which was a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S.
Ser. No. 09/179,330, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, filed Oct. 27, 1998, both of which are incorporated by reference for essay illusion, all purposes into this specification. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to the field of testing dynamic logic and on fifth business related logic families such as N-NARY logic.
More specifically, the underline author present invention relates to scan testing of dynamic logic and N-NARY logic using on-chip circuitry. 2. Description of the Related Art. The increasing complexity of integrated circuits, often containing millions of transistors, has created a need for sophisticated test methodologies to insure functionality at multiple levels. Semiconductors must undergo some degree of functional testing before they are shipped to computer and other device manufacturers, and they must be periodically tested during further manufacturing and during their operating life to verify continuing operability. Business? One of the problems encountered in testing is the difficulty in cherche de prothesiste, accessing and isolating circuits that are deeply embedded in the chip. The industry has addressed this problem to some extent by implementing scan access testing techniques. Scan access refers broadly to the use of essay business, specialized serial shift registers (“scan registers”) to deliver stimulus vectors from a stimulus pattern generator to circuit nodes of interest, and to retrieve response data from circuit nodes of interest for analysis. Scan registers function as normal synchronous registers and latch data propagating through the computational logic. However, scan registers can also be interconnected in such a way as to samurai allow propagation of data directly from register to essay business register upon cherche emploi de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse, assertion of control signals or clocks, thereby bypassing any computation logic between the registers. This provides a means whereby stimulus data may be transported directly to internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, and whereby response data may be retrieved directly from internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, thus allowing designers to isolate sections of logic for testing.
The benefit of on fifth, scan access increases as the proportion of circuit nodes otherwise inaccessible from primary inputs and outputs increases. “Full scan” refers to an implementation of scan access wherein every register on a chip is accessible through scan. “Partial scan” refers to an implementation of scan access wherein some subset of the registers on underline in essay, a chip is accessible through scan. Conventional scan access, i.e., propagating data through a long chain of interconnected scan registers, is inherently serial in nature. The number of essay, clock cycles needed to load or unload the scan chain is equal to the number of registers in theme essay, the chain. Gaining access to on fifth business internal nodes is therefore accomplished only at the cost of very long test times. Alternate scan architectures such as random access scan have been used to remedy the test time problem caused by the serial nature of scan access. Random access scan employs individually addressable registers rather than registers connected in a fixed order. Counsellor? This adds greater flexibility to essay on fifth the order in which registers may be accessed, but reduces overall test time only when writing or reading some subset of the registers. Random access scan does not decrease the research total number of clock cycles needed to write or read all registers. From a test perspective, the most efficient method to implement full random access scan is to incorporate test circuitry (in addition to that needed to interconnect the scan registers) on-chip.
Placing circuitry on business, chip eliminates the need to develop specialized test hardware, and illusion potentially enables desirable test options such as testing of the chip under special clock conditions, or in situ following the integration into essay business, a system-level product. However, adding test circuitry increases the area, and hence the cost of the semiconductor die. Essay Table? When test circuitry is incorporated into a semiconductor, the benefit gained by increased test coverage must be traded off against the increased die area and essay on fifth associated cost. Moreover, the test circuitry must not interfere with the normal operation of the de dissertation exemple chip. Because of these constraints, the ratio of circuitry under test to test circuitry in current semiconductors is essay business relatively high. Consequently, typical on-chip random access scan implementations control and observe only the primary inputs and outputs of de dissertation de philosophie exemple, relatively large blocks of logic. Other desirable circuit attributes, such as internal data bus values, are not generally accessible. Moreover, while random-access scan using on-chip circuitry does significantly improve manufacturing testability, designers have been thus far unable to essay business capitalize on its potential to facilitate chip debug during the design process.
In general, most test points on a chip can only be scanned when the chip is in a “scan mode,” meaning that the in essay clocks are stopped or slowed significantly, the machine is given a set of input test vectors which propagate through the logic, and outputs are then scanned and business analyzed to cherche de prothesiste a toulouse determine whether the logic is operating properly. Thus, when a chip is in scan mode the information in a scan register is essay business somewhat artificial, in that it did not arrive under normal operating conditions, and it is the result of a test vector rather than a real application running on the processor. Using current techniques, processors cannot be scanned satisfactorily while running at operating speeds. A processor's clocks cannot be stopped abruptly to read a test point without causing a voltage overload in the supply network due to research the very high di/dt. This limitation means that designers generally have no visibility into what is on fifth business happening internally in real time, which significantly hampers troubleshooting and debugging performance-related problems. To address this issue, designers may incorporate shadow registers at key points, which can be read in real time to provide a window into pre-identified areas. However, this solution is less than ideal, particularly for resume, highly complex designs, in that it requires up-front identification of points of interest. Moreover, designers must be highly selective when including shadow registers, due to chip real estate and I/O limitations.
The present invention is an improved scan approach that utilizes a RAM-like scan bus architecture to provide visibility into essay, even deeply embedded logic within a chip. Cherche A Toulouse? While the present invention can be applied to implement scan in any dynamic logic design, the advantages of the present invention are best realized in a design wherein the logic is synchronized using multiple clock domains with overlapping phases, as described in on fifth, U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Logic Synchronization” (hereinafter, “the Logic Synchronization Patent”). Cherche Emploi De Prothesiste Dentaire A Toulouse? In designs that employ this logic synchronization method, the present invention allows the processor to be stopped, information to be accessed or provided, processor state to be modified, and operation to business be resumed, all without corrupting the machine's architectural state.
In addition, the present invention is hamlet essay capable of “freezing” certain gates for scanning when the processor is running at operating or near-operating speed, without the use of shadow registers. This disclosure describes the present invention in the context of a new dynamic logic family called N-NARY logic, which itself is more fully described in a U.S. Pat. No. Essay On Fifth Business? 6,066,965, titled “Method and Apparatus for a N-NARY logic Circuit Using 1-of-4 Signals” (hereinafter, “the N-NARY Patent”). The N-NARY patent is incorporated by reference for resume, all purposes. Those skilled in the art will understand, after reading this specification or practicing the present invention, that the on fifth business present invention can be implemented in other applications that employ other logic design methodologies. Finally, this application is also related to the following copending U.S. In Essay? Patent Applications and U.S. Patents: U.S. On Fifth? Pat.
No. 6,118,716, filed Sep. 9, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. Underline Author In Essay? No. 09/206,900, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No.09/206,905, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Business? Pat. App. Ser. Introduction? No. 09/191,813, filed Nov. Business? 13, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,760, filed Dec. 21, 1999; and U.S. Pat. App. Essay Illusion? Ser. No. Business? 09/468,972, filed Dec. 21, 1999.
These six documents are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. The present invention comprises a method and dentaire a toulouse apparatus for random-access scan of a network of dynamic logic or N-NARY logic, wherein the network includes sequentially clocked precharge logic gates and essay one or more scan gates. Each clocked precharge logic gate and each scan gate further comprise a logic tree having one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, and one or more output buffers. Each scan gate further comprises a scan circuit that accepts scan control signals and couples to one or more scan registers. A scan control circuit generates scan control signals which operate to underline author capture the essay business state of the output buffers of the scan gate and provide that state to one or more scan registers. Scan control signals also operate to force the dentaire a toulouse output buffers of the scan gate to essay on fifth a preselected level, which then propagates through the network to create an output state on the next scan gate in the network, which can then be read and compared to an expected output state given the output state of the previous scan gate. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. To further aid in samurai research paper, understanding the essay on fifth business invention, the attached drawings help illustrate specific features of the resume invention and the following is a brief description of the essay on fifth business attached drawings: FIG. Counsellor Resume? 1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit.
FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D illustrate buffer devices used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit. FIG. On Fifth Business? 4 illustrates a series of logic circuits with a multiple phase logic synchronization system. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phases used in the present invention. FIG.
6 is an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 illustrates a scan circuit used in the present invention. FIG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG.
9 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates. FIG. 10 shows the relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and counsellor resume the scan control signals for essay on fifth, at-speed state capture, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 11 shows the relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for hamlet, single-stepped or slow-clock scan mode, according to business an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 12 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in underline author, the present invention.
FIG. 13 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 14 shows the relationship between the master clock, the logic synchronization clock signals, and the scan control signals for business, scan according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG. 16 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the scan write process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG.
17 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the scan read process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 18 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus to scan N-NARY or other dynamic logic circuits using a RAM-like bus architecture and careful control of the clock input to selected scan gates. In Essay? This disclosure describes numerous specific details that include specific structures, circuits, and logic functions in on fifth business, order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one may practice the present invention without these specific details.
N-NARY logic is a novel logic family that uses a novel signal, a 1 of illusion table, N signal, to convey information. An N-NARY logic circuit comprises a logic tree circuit that evaluates one or more input signals and produces an output signal. A single 1 of N signal comprises a bundle of N wires routed together between different cells (or different logic circuits). A 1 of N signal uses a 1 of essay, N encoding to indicate multiple values of information conveyed by the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal where at introduction de dissertation de philosophie exemple, most one and only one wire of the bundle of wires of the 1 of essay business, N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. Additionally, the paper 1 of N encoding provides a not valid value (a null value) where zero wires of the bundle of wires of the essay on fifth 1 of N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. FIG.
1 is a block diagram of an cherche emploi a toulouse, N-NARY logic circuit that illustrates a circuit of on fifth, N-NARY logic using two sets of 1 of 4 signals for hamlet, the input signals and a 1 of 4 signal for the output signal. This circuit describes a 2 bit logic gate (a dit) where A is a 2 bit input, B is a 2 bit input, and O is a 2 bit output. In other words, a dit device produces 2 output bits. A device 60 comprises a logic tree circuit 61 , a precharge circuit 31 , and an evaluate circuit 36 . Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input signal A, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Essay? Additionally coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input B, which is counsellor another 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit output O, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of output values O 0 , O 1 , O 2 , and O 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Essay Business? The logic tree circuit 61 performs a logic function on a plurality of emploi, input signals that could comprise a variety of business, functions, for example, the Boolean logic functions AND/NAND, OR/NOR, or XOR/Equivalence. A precharge circuit 31 couples to the logic tree circuit 61 and precharges the dynamic logic of the logic tree circuit.
Each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET. And, coupled to the precharge circuit 31 is the clock signal CK where a low clock signal on CK will cause the P-FETs to charge. An evaluate circuit 36 couples to the logic tree circuit and controls the emploi a toulouse evaluation of the logic tree circuit. And, coupled to the evaluate circuit 36 is the clock signal CK where a high clock signal on on fifth business, CK will cause the resume N-FET in the evaluate circuit to evaluate. As shown in FIG.
1, output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the essay on fifth business plurality of output signals. FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D provide four embodiments of buffer device 34 used in introduction, N-NARY logic. FIG. 2A shows a CMOS inverter that inverts the signal on an output logic path. On Fifth Business? FIG. 2B shows an embodiment of output buffer 34 that is preferred for most N-NARY gates that includes the CMOS inverter that inverts the signal and a feed back keeper transistor that maintains the level of the dynamic node before the signal evaluates.
The PFET keeper transistor gives the underline in essay logic gate a static capability. Additionally, this type of output buffer compensates for on fifth, parasitic leakages and counsellor resume allows for low speed functionality. The FIG. 2B output buffer 34 is essay called a half-keeper output buffer. FIG. 2C shows another embodiment of underline author in essay, output buffer 34 that is known as a “full keeper buffer.” As shown in FIG.
2C, a full keeper buffer includes the inverter, the PFET keeper feedback transistor, and on fifth an additional NFET feedback transistor tied to ground. Those skilled in the art will recognize that FIG. Underline Author In Essay? 2D is essay business simply another schematic representation of the FIG. 2C full keeper buffer, where the two transistors have been replaced with a CMOS inverter. FIG. 3 is de philosophie a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit using a 1 of 4 encoding, where the logic tree 61 comprises the OR/NOR function. One skilled in on fifth, the art will appreciate that one function is the inverse of the other function. Counsellor Resume? To reduce adding additional capacitance to the device, N-NARY logic uses a single, shared logic tree with multiple evaluation paths for evaluating the function of the logic circuit and for generating the plurality output signals coupled to the logic circuit. The multiple evaluation paths further comprise the internal evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 . In this circuit, precharge circuit 31 comprises four P-FETs that quickly and fully precharge all of the dynamic logic in essay, the logic tree circuit during the precharge phase of the clock cycle. As shown in FIG. 3, each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET.
Clock signal CK is coupled to underline author the precharge circuit 31 . When the clock signal is essay business low, circuit 31 precharges the N-FETs in the logic tree circuit 61 . The evaluate circuit 36 comprises a single evaluation transistor, which aids in the speed of the clocking of the device and paper helps avoid races between other devices. On Fifth? Other circuits may use multiple evaluation devices. As shown in FIG. 3, clock signal CK couples to evaluate circuit 36 . Illusion Table? When the clock signal is high, the evaluate circuit 36 evaluates the logic tree circuit 61 . FIG. 4 illustrates a network of logic circuits or gates with a multiple phase logic synchronization scheme that uses a six phase clocking system with the clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and essay CK 5 . The network 160 comprises a datapath 166 , an input signal 162 , and an output signal 164 . The datapath 166 comprises one or more wires that propagate the signals through the introduction exemple network. For example, the datapath 166 may comprise one or more N-NARY signals. Additionally, the input signal 162 and essay on fifth business the output signal 164 may comprise signals that use N-NARY encoding.
The series of logic circuits 160 comprises the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 coupled in series to the datapath 166 . In FIG. 4, the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and samurai research 190 may comprise N-NARY logic circuits. Additionally, each logic circuit may further comprise one or more additional logic circuits. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phase scheme that is the preferred timing and essay on fifth business logic synchronization methodology for the present invention.
In FIG. 5, te is the evaluate phase of the clock cycle, and tp is the precharge phase of the clock cycle. Additionally, each individual clock has a 50% duty cycle. The phases of the introduction de philosophie different clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by essay on fifth, an amount approximately equal to the amount it overlaps of the phase of the next clock signal. FIG. 5 illustrates an M-phase clocking system, where M=6, with clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . Reference 256 illustrates the propagation of the “wave” of the evaluate cycles of the different clocks. For further background and detail on this logic synchronization methodology, the resume reader is referred to the Logic Synchronization Patent. As shown in FIG.
4, the essay on fifth logic circuits are coupled together such that, in general, the input of a logic circuit that receives a particular phase logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 3 logic clock signal) comprises the output of the previous logic circuit, which receives the immediately preceding logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 2 logic clock signal), and the output of the logic circuit that receives the particular clock signal comprises an input to the next logic circuit that receives the immediately following logic clock signal (in this example, a phase 4 logic clock signal). De Dissertation? In a preferred embodiment, the master or global clock signal is supplied to the network from essay, a central bus structure referred to author in this specification as the “clock spine.” The M logic clock signals are generated at one or more clock generation sites coupled to the clock spine. On Fifth? In other embodiments, the clock spine may include other useful clock-related signals (such as, for example, the inverse of the global clock signal), or even one or more of the de dissertation exemple individual logic clock signals. In this specification, a network of essay on fifth, logic gates such as that depicted in FIG. 4 wherein the de philosophie exemple logic propagation is synchronized using an evaluate “wave” produced by multiple overlapping clock signals, such as that shown in FIG. 5, is referred to as a “sequentially clocked precharge logic network,” the essay on fifth gates therein are referred to de dissertation de philosophie exemple as “sequentially clocked precharge logic gates,” and the clock signals are “sequentially generated” with a “sequential delay” between the business individual clock signals. Similarly, when referring to individual sequentially generated logic clock signals, the first clock signal that rises and falls after a specific logic clock signal is said to “immediately follow” that specific clock signal; the signal that rises and falls just before a specific logic clock signal rises and falls is said to “immediately precede” the author in essay specific logic clock signal. In other words, in FIG.
5, CK 0 immediately precedes CK 1 because CK 0 is the signal that rises before CK 1 rises and falls before CK 1 falls. Likewise, CK 1 immediately follows CK 0 because CK 1 is the first clock signal that rises after CK 0 rises and business falls after CK 1 falls. Finally, as explained in more detail in the Logic Synchronization Patent, some of the individual logic clock signals are triggered from the research rising edge of essay, a master clock signal (not shown in FIG. 5) and dentaire some of the individual clock signals are triggered from the business falling edge of the master clock signal. Those skilled in the art will recognize that it is the designer's choice of which clock signals trigger from the master clock's rising and/or falling edge; it is the arrangement of multiple overlapping clock signals that provides a “wave” of evaluate cycles that provides the novel logic synchronization and timing methodology shown and described in introduction de philosophie, the Logic Synchronization Patent.
FIG. Essay Business? 5 also illustrates two additional clock signals, CK(E) and CK(P). The preferred embodiment of the hamlet theme essay present invention requires the precharge clock CK(P) to be controlled separately from the evaluate clock CK(E). Business? By convention, the phase 0 clock, CK 0 , is the counsellor reference clock for the two separate clocks CK(E) and CK(P). One skilled in the art will appreciate that it is possible to use other conventions for business, logic synchronization, for example, an M-phase clocking system where M=4, which would use clock signals CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , and essay illusion CK 3 . Similarly, it is business possible to use other phase clock signals (e.g., CK 1 or CK 4 ) for the CK(P) and CK(E) references. FIG. 6 is one embodiment of the present invention that comprises an N-NARY logic circuit 300 . Cherche Emploi? N-NARY logic circuit 300 comprises a logic tree 302 that performs a logic function on essay business, the two N-NARY input signals A and B to generate an samurai, output N-NARY signal Z. Essay On Fifth? The N-NARY input signal A comprises the input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires; the N-NARY input signal B comprises the resume input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and their associated wires; and the N-NARY output signal Z comprises the output values Z 0 , Z 1 , Z 2 , and essay on fifth Z 3 and their associated wires. The logic circuit 300 additionally comprises the precharge circuit 31 that receives the precharge clock CK(P) (one component of the phase 0 clock, as described above). And, the logic circuit 300 comprises the evaluate device 36 that receives the evaluate clock CK(E) (another component of the phase 0 clock) Output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the output signal Z. As shown in FIG. Introduction De Dissertation? 6, N-NARY circuit 300 also includes scan circuits 306 coupled to each wire of output signal Z around the output buffers 34 . Each scan circuit 306 comprises a scan write component 306 a and a scan read component 306 b . Each scan circuit 306 couples via scan control lines to a scan control circuit (not shown in FIG.
6 ), and also to one or more scan registers via scan data lines (not shown in FIG. 6 ). As described more fully in essay on fifth business, the Stress Mode patent referenced above, N-NARY circuit 300 may also include stress state generation circuits that couple to state generation control circuits that provide the emploi de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse ability to stress test the N-NARY circuits. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stress testing is generally unrelated to scan. However, the stress state generation circuits may be conveniently combined with the scan circuits 306 to produce a dual-function test circuit coupled to each output line that performs both scan and stress mode testing, as described more completely in the Stress Mode patent. FIG. 7 shows one embodiment of a scan circuit 306 . The scan write component 306 a comprises write N-FET transistor 400 and inverter 404 . The scan read component 306 b comprises read N-FET transistor 402 . Scan circuit 306 couples to output line Z n around full keeper output buffer 34 as shown.
Write transistor 400 is on fifth controlled by scan control signals 406 and 408 . Research? Read transistor 402 is controlled by scan control signal 410 . Information is transported into and out of the on fifth business scan circuit 306 over research paper scan data lines 412 . FIG. 8 shows one embodiment of the complete architecture of the present invention, in the context of a 1-of-3 N-NARY circuit. In this specification, an N-NARY circuit that includes the necessary components for scan is referred to as a “scan gate.” In normal operation, all scan gates function as normal N-NARY gates, receiving input signals, performing their logic function, and providing output signals that become inputs for essay, the next gate. By convention, all Phase 0 gates are selected to be scan gates, however, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the scan architecture and techniques disclosed herein could be practiced using other phase gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. As shown in FIG. 8, scan gate 500 includes logic tree 502 that performs a logic function on essay, its two 1-of-3 input signals, A and B, to produce a 1-of-3 N-NARY output signal, Z. Precharge circuit 32 and business evaluate circuit 36 couple to N-NARY logic tree 502 . A full keeper output buffer 34 and a scan circuit 306 couple to each output wire. Each scan circuit 306 includes write transistor 400 , read transistor 402 , and cherche emploi de prothesiste a toulouse inverter 404 . Essay On Fifth? Each scan circuit 306 connects to a separate scan data line 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c , each of which connects through a read/write driver 414 to research paper the scan register 416 in an arrangement similar to commonly-known RAM architecture. Business? As shown in FIG. 8, scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c also connect to the output wires of other scan gates in other rows on a device that employs the present invention scan architecture and methodology.
The present invention also includes scan control circuit 304 , which has output signals 406 , 407 , 410 , 418 , and 420 . Scan Enable (SEN) signal 420 is asserted when the system is in scan mode to author in essay control the timing of the scan gates, as explained in business, more detail below. Write signal 406 is asserted when the system is in scan mode and the wires of the output signal Z are to counsellor resume be forced to the value in business, the scan register 416 . A Toulouse? Read signal 410 is essay on fifth asserted when the author system is in scan mode and essay on fifth business the value on each wire of the output signal Z is to introduction de philosophie exemple be loaded into the scan register 416 , which can then be scanned out in serial fashion. Essay On Fifth? Reset signal 407 is counsellor resume asserted during the reset sequence to reset the on fifth circuit for normal operation, as described in further detail below. Scan Precharge signal 418 is cherche emploi asserted to precharge the essay on fifth scan gates for samurai research, writing during scan. In scan mode, when the Read signal 410 is high and Write signal 408 and Reset signal 407 are low, read transistors 402 conduct, write transistors 400 are open, and essay on fifth business the current state of the cherche de prothesiste output lines Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is scanned and loaded into on fifth, the scan register 416 via scan data lines 412 and read/write drivers 414 . To write to a scan gate, Scan Precharge 418 is essay asserted to drive the evaluate nodes high.
When the Read signal 410 is low, Reset 407 is low, and Write 408 is high, read/write drivers 414 pull scan data lines 412 high or low, depending upon essay on fifth, the bit value in the scan register 416 . Within each scan circuit 306 write transistors 400 conduct, and read transistors 410 are open. The voltage on the scan data lines 412 is inverted by inverters 404 , and the value of the evaluate node E 0 is essay forced to the inverted value on the scan data line 412 a , the essay on fifth value of E 1 is forced to underline author the inverted value on 412 b , and the value of E 2 is forced to the inverted value on 412 c . These inverted values are then inverted once again in output buffers 34 , and essay on fifth business the values of Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 are forced to the values in the scan register. Writing to a scan gate will occasionally require forcing an evaluate node that is high to the low state. This is one reason why a full keeper output buffer, with its extra NFET feedback transistor, is used on all scan gates. Also, since both the precharge and evaluate clocks are turned off just before a scan read (the status and relationship between the author various clock signals during scan is discussed in on fifth, detail below), a full keeper holds the evaluate nodes at the state they were in when the clocks were turned off so that they can be read. Note that the write transistor 400 in samurai research, the scan circuit 306 coupled to output wire Z 2 is driven by the Write-or-Reset (WOR) signal 408 , while all other write transistors 400 in the other scan circuits 306 are driven by the Write signal 406 . As shown in FIG. 8, the WOR signal 408 is generated by OR'ing the Write signal 406 with the Reset signal 407 . In scan mode, when the write signal 406 is business asserted and the reset signal 407 is not asserted, the scan circuit 306 that accepts the hamlet essay WOR signal 408 behaves like the other scan circuits 306 , as described above. However, in reset mode, when the reset signal 407 is asserted and neither the write signal 406 nor the read signal 410 is asserted, only the write transistor 400 in the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 will conduct. The resulting output condition is defined by convention to be a reset condition, as described in further detail below. The present invention requires that one and only one output wire of the N-NARY output signal of a scan gate must couple to a scan circuit 306 that includes a write transistor 400 that is driven by the WOR signal 408 rather than the Write signal 406 . To reset the system and resume normal operation after exiting scan, the output lines of each scan gate are forced to a predetermined reset condition.
For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the system is reset by forcing Z 0 and Z 1 , low and Z 2 high. This is accomplished by first precharging the evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , and E 2 , and essay then asserting the WOR signal 408 , which pulls E 2 low. The output buffers 34 then invert the underline author state of the evaluate nodes, and the resulting condition is Z 0 and Z 1 low and Z 2 high. When every scan gate is in this output state, the system is reset. FIG. 9 shows a network 560 of N-NARY gates, much like FIG.
4, except that in FIG. 9, the Phase 0 gates (those whose precharge and evaluate circuits were driven by CK 0 , designated 168 and 180 in FIG. 4) are now designated as scan gates 568 and 580 . On Fifth? In other words, gates 568 and 580 are scan gates in introduction de philosophie, network 560 and thus include the extra scan-related components and circuitry on their output lines as shown in FIG. 8 . Furthermore, as discussed above, in scan gates the precharge and essay evaluate clocks must be separately controlled. Therefore, the clock signal CK 0 to introduction de philosophie gates 168 and 180 in FIG. 4 has been replaced with two signals, CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. On Fifth Business? 9 . In normal operation, CK(P) and CK(E) are identical to resume CK 0 , the essay on fifth scan related circuitry is quiescent, and the network 560 behaves the same as network 160 in FIG.
4 . FIG. 10 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when a network of logic that is essay clocked using a six-phase logic synchronization methodology is placed into scan mode to scan the output state of the scan gates. FIG. 10 and the following text demonstrate how the essay on fifth business output state of each scan gate can be captured when the network is running at operating speed. As noted above, the ability to capture the output state of samurai, gates that are running at operating speed is an essay on fifth business, important performance improvement over essay illusion existing scan methods and essay on fifth architectures. FIG. 10 shows the essay table global clock signal, CLK, at the top, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the networked logic gates. In this embodiment, CK 4 , CK 5 , and CK 0 are triggered from the falling edge of CLK, and CK 1 , CK 2 , and essay CK 3 are triggered from the rising edge of CLK. As discussed above, CK(P) and CK(E), the two signals at the bottom of FIG.
10, start out identical to CK 0 . FIG. 10 shows four full Phase 0 clock cycles, designated as 602 , 604 , 606 , and 608 . As explained in further detail below, the “capture” cycle in the sequence depicted in FIG. 10 is cycle 606 . SEN is a global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over essay illusion table the design. The final level of SEN arrives at the input to the clock generation logic of on fifth, all the scan gates in the design. SEN is asserted 610 at this input when the Phase 1 clock goes low 609 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 612 but before CK 0 goes high at 614 . The next Phase 0 high time, ( 616 in FIG. 10) starts the phase whose state will be captured in cherche emploi a toulouse, the scan gates ( 606 in FIG. 10 ). At each local Phase 0 clock generation site on essay, the clock spine, SEN is samurai further latched to produce SENP and SENE. SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 618 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. SENP is essay OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P). Therefore, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is high.
However, when CK 0 falls at 620 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP is high. SENE is latched from SENP by CK 1 going low at author in essay, 622 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. The inverse of SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E). Thus, CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 624 , CK(E) is prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Therefore, at the beginning of the essay business capture phase 606 , each Phase 0 scan gate is “frozen.” SEN, SENE, and SENP are all asserted. The scan gates precharged and evaluated in the prior phase, but are prevented from precharging and counsellor resume evaluating again because CK(P) is latched high and CK(E) is latched low. The value on each output line of each scan gate is thus available for scan. As long as global SEN remains asserted, CLK can continue to toggle (producing phases 1 - 5 as usual) but all phase 0 scan gates will continue to hold the state that they were in at the end of phase 604 . To scan the scan gates, CLK must be stopped when it is low. Essay On Fifth Business? Stopping CLK at 626 , shortly before it rises, puts the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates in paper, precharge and provides a quiet electrical environment for scan reading and business writing. Although not shown in FIG.
10, if the network is emploi dentaire a toulouse running at speed, those skilled in the art will recognize that the clock should ordinarily not be stopped abruptly, but rather, the essay on fifth business clock rate should be ramped down over essay a number of phases to avoid overload problems caused by essay, a large negative di/dt. Reference 626 in FIG. 10 is intended to illustrate a point when CLK, CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 are all low, corresponding to the precharge state for Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stopping the clock abruptly at 626 , one clock cycle after freezing the output state of the scan gates, would likely cause di/dt problems. When CLK is stopped, the scan registers can be read and resume the state of the scan gate outputs can be determined. Additionally, if desired, the state of the scan gate outputs can be modified by essay, writing to hamlet the scan gates from the scan registers. The present invention provides the ability to write to the scan gates during the scan period without incorporating additional transistors (beyond the additional scan circuitry shown in FIG.
8) into the scan gates' structure. To write to a selected row of scan gates, the scan gates are first precharged and then conditionally discharged via the on fifth scan write transistors 400 . This is accomplished by providing a scan precharge signal SPRE ( 418 in FIG. 8) that overrides SENP, and provides a low-going pulse on CK(P) for the row of scan gates to be written to. (Recall that SENP is ordinarily high during scan periods, keeping CK(P) high and preventing the scan gates from precharging normally.) If continued operation is desirable, the CLK can be restarted. To continue at operating speeds, CLK must be ramped up over a number of research paper, cycles, this time to business avoid source the hamlet theme creation of undesired speed paths due to large di/dt. Essay On Fifth? When CLK is underline in essay started again, the Phase 1 - 5 clocks will resume toggling, and essay on fifth the state of the Phase 0 scan gates (whether they have been modified by writing to them during scan or not) will propagate through the Phase 1 - 5 gates. The Phase 0 gates will remain frozen (in their modified state, if they were modified during scan or in their original state, if they were not) as long as SEN is asserted, because CK(P) will be held high and CK(E) will be held low, preventing the scan gates from precharging or evaluating. To exit scan mode, SEN is research deasserted. Business? This causes SENP to fall when CK 1 rises due to the rise of CLK. Because CK(P) is created by OR'ing CK 0 and SENP, when SENP falls, CK(P) will fall, causing the scan gates to precharge.
Similarly, after SEN is deasserted, SENE will fall after the next CK 1 falling edge, shortly after the master clock CLK falls. Counsellor? When SENE falls, its inverse rises, and the AND gate that produces CK(E) will allow CK(E) to rise when CK 0 next rises. At this point, CK(P) and CK(E) are re-synchronized with CK 0 , and the Phase 0 scan gates return to normal operation, precharging and evaluating every clock cycle. FIG. 11 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when “stepping through” operations, as might occur when the on fifth scan gates are read or written to de dissertation de philosophie at each step. This single-step mode of operation is most useful for examining or troubleshooting specific areas in business, the logic, and for loading and executing test vectors. Author In Essay? In this mode, the master clock CLK toggles very slowly and irregularly. On Fifth? For convenience only, FIG. 11 shows CLK and its various derivative clocks as symmetrical, but in reality, the counsellor shaded region (where CLK is low during scan) will be a much longer period of essay on fifth business, time than other parts of the waveform. In addition, since CLK in this mode is very slow compared to de prothesiste a toulouse normal operation, the delay between CLK's rising edge and the rising edges of essay, CK 1 -CK 3 and failing edges of CK 4 -CK 0 (all generated from CLK's rising edge) is not as pronounced in FIG.
11 as in FIG. De Dissertation De Philosophie Exemple? 10, where the clock signals are intended to represent full speed operation. The same is essay on fifth business true regarding the dentaire derivative clocks CK(P) and CK(E) and the other CLK-related signals SENE and SENP. In single step operation, SEN is toggled every clock cycle. SEN goes high at the input to the scan gates' clock generation logic when the Phase 1 clock goes low at 709 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 712 but before CK 0 goes high at 714 . As in essay on fifth business, full speed operation, SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at counsellor, 718 . This causes SENP to essay go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. Again as in full speed operation, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is introduction high.
However, when CK 0 falls at essay on fifth, 720 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP (which, as the reader will recall from the essay illusion table previous discussion, is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P)) is high. SENE is latched from SENP by CK 1 going low at 722 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the essay next CK 0 rising edge can occur. Because the inverse of SENE is resume ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E), CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and essay on fifth business SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 724 , CK(E) is essay illusion table prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Reading and essay on fifth business optional writing of the state of the scan gates can now occur (the shaded regions 730 on introduction de dissertation, FIG. 11 ). As discussed above, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 11 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the essay business clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. As shown in counsellor, FIG. 11, SEN is deasserted at business, 732 , just after the Phase 1 clock goes low at 722 , but prior to the first shaded scan period 730 . SENE and underline SENP stay high during the business scan period (recall that SENP is latched by a Phase 1 high clock, and SENE is latched from in essay, SENP. On Fifth Business? When CLK is stopped during the illusion table scan period 730 , CK 1 stays low.
Therefore, during each scan period 730 , SEN has been deasserted, but has not yet toggled SENE, SENP, CK(P) or CK(E). After reading (or writing) during the scan period 730 , CLK can be restarted or stepped to the next cycle. At this point, CLK goes high, causing CK 0 , CK 1 , and SENP SENE, CK(P) and CK(E) to toggle as shown in FIG. 11 and as described above in connection with full-speed operation. After the next falling CLK and CK 1 , SEN is again asserted, and the process repeats again as shown in FIG. 11 . Therefore, in on fifth, single step or slow clock operation, scan gates can be read or written to every second clock cycle. Paper? This allows logic to propagate from essay on fifth, a Phase 0 gate through the counsellor resume rest of the gates before the next scan cycle. This scan timing arrangement is ideal for executing test vectors and then recording results. On Fifth? This is accomplished by reading a scan gate's output state during a scan period 730 and author then writing an essay on fifth business, input vector to the gate. The clock is then restarted, and illusion table the vector propagates state through the Phase 1 - 5 gates to the next Phase 0 scan gate. On Fifth Business? The clock is then stopped for the next scan period, and the output state of that gate read and compared to the expected result.
FIG. 12 shows an alternative embodiment of scan gate 500 , designated 800 . Essay? FIG. 12 is similar to FIG. 8, except that scan circuit 306 has been replaced by an alternative scan circuit 806 , and essay on fifth scan control signals ZWOR 824 and ZWRITE 826 have been added while the scan precharge signal SPRE 418 has been eliminated. CK(P) and emploi dentaire a toulouse CK(E) are now generated inside the scan gate 800 , and WRITE 406 and WOR 408 are now buffered. As shown in FIG. 12, scan circuit 806 includes three NFET transistors 810 , 816 , and 818 , and two PFET transistors 812 and 814 . When the read signal 410 is essay on fifth business high, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and theme Z 2 is essay on fifth provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. When WRITE 406 is high, ZWRITE 826 is low, and paper both write transistors 814 and 816 conduct.
If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the on fifth value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the samurai high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the scan write architecture shown in FIG. 12, in essay business, particular the tri-state inverter, eliminates the counsellor need to precharge the gate to drive high evaluate nodes to a low state. Consequently, SPRE 418 is no longer needed. As was the on fifth case previously in scan gate 500 , one and only one output line of an N-NARY scan gate 800 is connected to a scan circuit 806 wherein the essay gate of the business write transistors couples to the write-or-reset signal WOR 408 . Essay Table? In the embodiment shown in FIG.
12, WOR 408 has an inverse, ZWOR 824 . These signals operate with the write transistors 814 and 818 to write to the gate, and to reset the system, as described previously. While FIG. 12 shows clock signals CK(P) as an input to on fifth business the precharge circuit 32 , and CK(E) as an cherche de prothesiste dentaire, input to the evaluate circuit 36 , just as those inputs were shown in FIG. 8, these clock signals to the precharge circuit 32 and business evaluate circuit 36 are now generated inside of de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse, scan gate 800 , rather than at the gate's clock generation site on the clock spine. Therefore, scan gate 800 has only essay, a single clock input, CKS, that is the same as CK 3 , which is basically an samurai research, inverted version of CK 0 , as shown in FIGS.
10 and on fifth business 11. Essay Illusion? CKS enters scan gate 800 and is inverted to precharge the logic tree 502 . CKS is also NOR'ed together with SEN 420 to produce CK(E). Therefore, when CKS is high, (corresponding to essay on fifth business the same time that CK 0 is counsellor low) CK(P) is low and the logic tree 502 precharges. CK(E) is also low. When CKS goes low, both CK(P) and CK(E) are high, and the logic tree 502 evaluates. In scan mode, when SEN 420 is essay business enabled or high, CKS and CK(P) will continue to cycle between high and low, but CK(E) will always stay low, and essay illusion table the logic tree 502 will never evaluate. When SEN 420 is deasserted, CK(E) will resume cycling according to CKS. Therefore, this clock scheme functions just like the clocking arrangement described in conjunction with the scan architecture shown in FIG. 8 and the clock signals shown in essay business, FIGS. 10 and 11, except that in de dissertation de philosophie exemple, this clocking arrangement, neither SENE nor SENP are needed or generated. FIG.
13 shows two scan gates embedded in on fifth business, a network of dynamic logic. Research? FIG. 13 is similar to FIG. 9, except that in FIG. 13, network 860 includes scan gates 868 and essay on fifth 880 , which are implemented in samurai research paper, the alternative embodiment 800 shown in FIG. 12 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9) have been replaced by CKS. Those skilled in essay on fifth, the art will recognize that the architecture and clocking arrangement shown in counsellor, FIG. 12 has some advantages over that shown in FIG.
8 . First, the scan gate clock generation is simpler. This provides layout and floorplanning advantages. Moreover, decoupling the essay on fifth business scan logic from the Phase 0 clock generation sites facilitates the counsellor use of 64-bit virtual scan rows, which may comprise less than one or more than several physical rows, depending upon essay on fifth business, the scannable bit population of each physical row. Essay? Also, the distribution of SEN over the design no longer needs to be synchronous and high-speed. However, the architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIG. 12 only on fifth, allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt.
In this embodiment, CK(P) will continue to toggle as long as CKS toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CKS must be stopped abruptly to prevent CK(P) from precharging the logic tree and destroying the output state of the scan gate. The FIG. Dentaire? 12 architecture and clocking arrangement does support slow clock or stepped operation, as described in conjunction with FIG. 11, although the behavior of CK(E) is slightly different, as shown in FIG. 14 . FIG. 14 depicts the operation of the essay on fifth clocks relative to each other during stepped operation scan using the scan architecture shown in FIG. 12 . Theme? Like the prior description of stepped operation provided in conjunction with FIG.
11, the duration of the business scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by theme, the clock signals depicted in FIG. 14 . On Fifth Business? In single step operation, during the underline scan periods 730 , the clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. Likewise, as described previously, the scan periods 730 occur every second clock cycle, when the master clock and the Phase 1 , 2 , and essay on fifth business 3 are low, thus providing a quiet electrical environment for reading and cherche emploi dentaire a toulouse writing to the scan gates. CLK and the Phase 1 - 5 clocks are identical to the CLK and essay on fifth business Phase 1 - 5 clocks shown and described in FIG. 11 . However, the “Phase 0 ” reference clock shown in FIG. 11 has been replaced, in essay, FIG. 13, with the CKS signal that is the clock signal input to the scan gate 800 . FIG.
14 shows the behavior of CK(P) and CK(E) when SEN is asserted and deasserted for scan. As shown in FIG. 14, CK(P) is an essay, inverted version of CKS, and continues to toggle as CKS toggles. CK(E) toggles every other clock phase between scan periods after SEN is deasserted and CKS falls. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of in essay, scan gate, designated 900 , along with the same scan control circuit 304 , scan register 416 , and on fifth read/write drivers 414 shown and described previously. FIG. Resume? 15 also shows the master clock generation circuit 906 that generates the master clock signal, CLK, which is provided to the clock spine 902 . As shown in FIG.
15, scan control circuit 304 provides SEN 420 to the master clock generation circuit 906 and WOR 408 to the clock spine 902 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives CLK from the clock spine 902 and generates the essay on fifth business sequentially generated logic clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 . In this embodiment, the local clock generation circuit 904 also receives WOR 408 from the clock spine, which controls the underline author operation of some of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during the write process, as explained in further detail below. The scan gate 900 shown in FIG. 15 is identical to scan gate 800 shown in FIG. 12, except that in this embodiment, the clock input to scan gate 900 is one of the sequentially generated logic clock signals generated by on fifth, the clock generation circuit 904 that is used to time and synchronize all the logic circuitry in the design, rather than a special clock signal generated solely for scan. In the example scan gate 900 , the logic clock signal input is CK 0 . However, those skilled in the art will recognize that designers could designate gates other than phase 0 gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. For example, a designer could designate some or all of the underline author in essay phase 3 gates—gates that receive the CK 3 logic clock signal—as scan gates, rather than the phase 0 gates as described herein. A primary difference between scan gate 900 and the previously-described embodiments is that scan gate 900 precharges and evaluates using a standard logic clock signal, thus eliminating the need to generate a clock signal uniquely for scan. Scan gate 900 includes the same scan circuits 806 as described in the previous embodiment, and therefore, like scan gate 800 , scan gate 900 does not need to be precharged before writing to it in scan mode. In addition, as described in more detail below, the on fifth logic synchronization clock scheme can be implemented so as to further eliminate any need to de dissertation de philosophie exemple precharge scan gate 900 for scan writing. As shown in FIG.
15, scan gate 900 has only a standard single clock input, CK 0 , which is generated by the local clock generation circuit 904 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives the master clock signal, CLK, from the clock spine 902 and sequentially generates all the logic clock signals CK 0 -CK 5 having sequentially delayed evaluate and on fifth precharge phases. In a standard operating mode, CK 0 enters the hamlet theme essay scan gate 900 from the clock generation circuit 904 and precharges the logic tree 502 when it is low and evaluates the logic tree 502 when it toggles high. The local clock generation circuit 904 generates the business sequentially generated logic clock signals by buffering and delaying CLK. Resume? CK 0 , CK 1 , and on fifth business CK 2 transition with CLK's edge, sequentially delayed in the order listed. CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 transition opposite CLK's edges, again sequentially delayed in essay, the order listed. The arrangement and behavior of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during regular operation and business during scan modes is shown and described below, in connection with FIGS. 16 and 17.
To enter scan mode, SEN 420 is asserted and stops CLK high. After sequential delays, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 will be stopped high, while CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 will be stopped low. To write to samurai paper the scan gates, all logic clock signal inputs to gates “downstream” of the scan gates that are high when CLK is stopped must be forced low, to force these downstream gates into on fifth, a precharge mode. Hamlet Theme Essay? In a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that uses a multiple overlapping clock phase scheme such as that described herein and in the Logic Synchronization patent, forcing the downstream gates into precharge effectively clears preexisting state information from the essay input lines of these gates, thus ensuring that the downstream gates are ready to theme essay receive, as inputs, the test vector being written to the output lines of the phase 0 scan gates and the results of that test vector as it propagates through the gates along the business datapath. Failing to clear out state information on the inputs to research downstream gates could result in essay, errors or invalid inputs to the downstream gates. Since CK 5 will be low when the clocks are stopped, the gates immediately upstream of the paper scan gates are in precharge, causing the on fifth input lines to the scan gates to be clear even though the scan gates are in underline author, the evaluate state. As described above, a common approach to circuit testing using scan is to stop the clock, write a test vector to one or more scan gates, start the clock and let the test vector propagate through the logic to the next downstream scan gate, stop the clock again, read the on fifth output state of the downstream scan gate, and compare it with the expected output state, given the value of the input test vector and the functionality of the gates between the two scan gates. However, if the inputs to any of the gates between the two scan gates are not cleared properly and contain stale state information, the output at the downstream scan gate on the next read may not conform to expected results, implying a circuit error where none may exist.
To write to the scan gates, WRITE 406 is asserted, causing WOR 408 to go high, and ZWRITE 826 and ZWOR 824 to go low. Inside the local clock generation circuit 904 , WOR 408 forces CK 1 and CK 2 low to essay illusion clear out essay on fifth business, stale information in downstream gates along the introduction de dissertation de philosophie datapath. On Fifth? While CLK is stopped, CK 1 and table CK 2 need not be controlled with standard clock signal precision; all that is required is on fifth business that they be low during the write process and then returned to high after the write, to de dissertation exemple correctly pass data after CLK is restarted. Write transistors 812 , 814 , 816 and 818 then function as described above, in essay on fifth, connection with scan gate 800 and FIG. 12, and the write proceeds. Emploi A Toulouse? If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Essay On Fifth? Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to theme be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and business 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire.
If the phase 0 scan gate is to in essay be read instead of essay on fifth business, written to, there is no need to force CK 1 and CK 2 low. If CK 1 and CK 2 are toggled from WOR 408 as described above, then they will stay high after CLK stops high, because WOR 408 is never asserted during a scan read. To perform a read, SEN 420 is asserted and stops CLK high, which stops CK 0 high. De Prothesiste? READ 410 is asserted, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. FIG.
16 illustrates the on fifth relationships between the sequentially generated logic clock signals during a scan write using this embodiment of scan gate 900 and a six-phase logic synchronization methodology where the in essay phase 0 gates are the scan gates. FIG. 16 shows the global clock signal, CLK, followed by essay, the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the essay table networked logic gates via the clock spine. In this embodiment, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 fall after CLK falls, and CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 rise after CLK falls. Also, in FIG. 16, the network of synchronously clocked precharge logic gates is assumed to be originally in normal, at speed operation. As previously described, SEN is the global Scan Enable signal that is essay business distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. To write to the scan gates, SEN is asserted 958 . This causes CLK to counsellor stop after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. 16 at 959 , which also stops all the essay business sequentially generated logic clocks. Underline Author In Essay? The WRITE signal is then asserted at 962 , which asserts the WOR signal at 964 , which in turn forces CK 1 and CK 2 low at 966 and 968 , respectively. At this point, the write proceeds as described above, after which WRITE is essay on fifth business deasserted at 970 , deasserting WOR at 972 and toggling CK 1 and CK 2 high at 974 and 976 , respectively.
SEN is deasserted at 980 to restart CLK. When CLK falls at 982 , the sequentially generated local clocks then resume toggling in accordance with the failing edge of underline, CLK, and normal operation ensues. The relationship of the clock signals during the read process is shown in FIG. 17 . The system is originally in normal operation, and then SEN is asserted at 961 . Essay? Thereafter, CLK stops after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. 17 at 963 . As described above, stopping CLK stops all the sequentially generated clocks. READ is asserted at 965 , the read proceeds as described above, and samurai READ is then deasserted at essay, 967 . SEN is deasserted at 971 to restart CLK, and again, the sequentially generated logic clock signals resume toggling in normal operation upon the falling edge of de dissertation de philosophie, CLK at 973 . FIG. 18 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. FIG.
18 is essay on fifth similar to cherche emploi FIGS. 9 and 13, except that in FIG. 18, network 990 includes two scan gates 992 and essay on fifth business 994 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 900 shown in FIG. 15 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9, and CKs in FIG. 13) have been replaced by CK 0 . Those skilled in the art will recognize that, as with the alternative embodiments described above, stopping the clocks abruptly can cause di/dt problems if the design is running at emploi a toulouse, speed. The architecture and essay clocking arrangement shown in FIGS.
15 and 16 - 17 therefore only allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the author in essay design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt. In this embodiment, CK 0 will continue to toggle as long as CLK toggles. Therefore, to on fifth capture a certain output state, CLK must be stopped abruptly when CK 0 is high to prevent the scan gate's logic tree from precharging, which destroys the output state of the scan gate. If this embodiment is used in a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that cannot tolerate abruptly stopping the clocks when the logic is hamlet running at essay on fifth business, speed, the clocks can be slowed or stepped, and then stopped as described above when the user is ready to capture the output state of the scan gates or write to the scan gates, without creating a problem. To summarize, the present invention comprises a method and apparatus for scan of dynamic or N-NARY clocked precharge logic circuits that include a logic tree with one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an hamlet theme essay, evaluate circuit, one or more output buffers, and one or more scan circuits, where the essay on fifth business logic circuit receives one or more input signals and a clock signal having an evaluate phase and a precharge phase, and produces one or more output signals. The present invention includes a scan control circuit that generates scan control signals including a scan enable signal, one or more scan registers, and one or more read/write drivers coupled to the scan control circuit, the scan register, and the output buffers such that when the underline author in essay scan circuit receives scan control signals, the state of the business output signal is provided to the scan register, or alternatively, the state of the output signal can be forced to a state specified by de prothesiste dentaire, information in the scan register. The present invention further comprises a network of multiple sequentially clocked precharge logic gates, wherein the input signals of a gate that receives a particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a first sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately preceding sequentially generated logic clock signal, and the output signals of the gate that receives the particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a second sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately following sequentially generated logic clock signal.
In this case, the sequentially generated logic clock signals are each one of at least 3 logic clock signals sequentially generated by a clock generation circuit coupled to business a clock spine. The sequentially generated logic clock signals are generated with a sequential delay, such that the evaluate phase of samurai research, a particular logic clock signal overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately preceding logic clock signal by approximately the same amount of time that the essay evaluate phase of the particular logic clock signal phase overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately following logic clock signal. The present invention further comprises reading the output state generated by the logic circuit by generating a scan enable signal and a read signal, stopping the logic circuit's clock signal during the evaluate phase, providing the read signal to research paper the scan circuits and the read/write drivers coupled to on fifth the scan circuits and to a scan register. Finally, the present invention includes forcing the output state of a scannable logic circuit that receives a first sequentially generated logic clock signal to in essay a user-selected state, by on fifth, loading the scan register with the cherche emploi dentaire user-selected output state, generating a scan enable signal and one or more write signals, stopping the sequentially generated logic clock signals when the first sequentially generated logic clock signal is in the evaluate phase, forcing all sequentially generated logic clock signals received by gates downstream of the scannable logic circuit to the precharge phase if they were in the evaluate phase when the on fifth clocks were stopped, providing the write signals to samurai research paper the scan circuits and to on fifth business one or more of the research read/write drivers, returning the sequentially generated logic clock signals to the evaluate phase if they were forced to on fifth business the precharge phase, and restarting all clocks. Other embodiments of the research paper invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art after considering this specification or practicing the disclosed invention.
The specification and examples above are exemplary only, with the true scope of the invention being indicated by the following claims.
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Adventuresofcomicbookgirl with a new codename. Looks like this essay was needed, so I went ahead and did it. Not sure I said everything I wanted to say, but I tried. So, there’s this girl. She’s tragically orphaned and richer than anyone on the planet. Every guy she meets falls in love with her, but in between torrid romances she rejects them all because she dedicated to what is Pure and Good. She has genius level intellect, Olympic-athelete level athletic ability and essay incredible good looks.
She is consumed by terrible angst, but this only makes guys want her more. She has no superhuman abilities, yet she is more competent than her superhuman friends and defeats superhumans with ease. She has unshakably loyal friends and allies, despite the fact she treats them pretty badly. They fear and respect her, and defer to her orders. Everyone is obsessed with her, even her enemies are attracted to counsellor resume her. She can plan ahead for anything and she’s generally right with any conclusion she makes.
People who defy her are inevitably wrong. God, what a Mary Sue. I just described Batman. Wish fulfillment characters have been around since the business, beginning of time. The good guys tend to win, get the girl and have everything fall into place for them. It’s only resume, when women started doing it that it became a problem. TV Tropes on the origin of Mary Sue: The prototypical Mary Sue is an original female character in on fifth, a fanfic who obviously serves as an idealized version of the de dissertation de philosophie exemple, author mainly for essay on fifth business, the purpose of Wish Fulfillment. Notice the strange emphasis on female here. TV Tropes goes on to say that is counsellor, took a long time for the male counterpart “Marty Stu” to be used. “Most fanfic writers are girls” is given as the reason.
So when women dominate a genre, that means people are on close watch, ready to scorn any wish fulfillment they may engage in. Essay. This term could only underline author in essay, originate if the essay on fifth business, default was female. In fact, one of the samurai research paper, CONTROVERSIES listed on the TV Tropes page is if a male sue is even possible. That’s right, it’s impossible to have an idealized male character. Men are already the ideal. In our culture, male tends to be the default. Women take on essay on fifth business, the distaff parts. “Him” and “mankind” are what humanity are, “her” and emploi de prothesiste a toulouse “womankind” are secondary. Yet this isn’t true for essay on fifth business, Mary Sue as a term. That name was created first. It was a Star Trek fic that coined it and cherche de prothesiste dentaire the female designation was likely a big reason it caught on.
Thus, a female name is the default to use when describing idealized characters. Marty Stu and essay Gary Stu are only to be used if you’re discussing men specifically. Heck, there isn’t even an agreed upon term for them. So the only time female can be default is when discussing a badly written character, someone who is more powerful or important or liked than they should be allowed to essay be, someone the plot focuses on more than you would like, someone you don’t want to read about. On Fifth Business. Hmmm. What’s really wrong with a thirteen year old girl having a power fantasy, even if it’s badly written? Who is it hurting? Men have baldly admitted to writing power fantasies and self inserts since the paper, beginning of time. How many nerdy, schlubby guys suddenly become badasses and have hot girls chasing after them in fiction? See: Spiderman- blatant everyman who happens to stumble across amazing powers and catch the eye of essay business a supermodel. Mary Sue is considered the samurai research, worst insult to business throw at a character as it renders them worthless.
But since when are idealized characters automatically worthless? Aren’t all heroes idealized in some way? Don’t all heroes represent the introduction, author in some way? Aren’t these characters supposed to essay be people we look up to, people who represent human potential, the goodness that we strive for? Fantasy by nature is idealized, even the tragic ones. If you look at counsellor the TV Tropes page for essay, Mary Sue, it’s ridiculous. Essay Table. You can be a sue for having too many flaws, or not enough, for fixing things or messing things up, for essay on fifth, being a hero or a villain. And of table course, this is specifically pointed out as a trope related to the Princess and Magical Girl genres- genres aimed towards women are naturally full of Mary Sues.
Magical girls are powerful and heroic and business actually flaunt femininity as a good thing. Introduction De Dissertation De Philosophie Exemple. They are a power fantasy designed for girls. So of course, a girl using traditionally feminine traits to dominate and triumph means she’s a sickeningly pure Mary Sue who makes everything go their way. Feminine traits are disdained and look down on, so when the on fifth, positive feminine traits are prominent, the reader has an aversive reaction. How can a character be so feminine and triumph?
She must be unrealistic, she must be badly written, because everyone knows it is impossible to hamlet be feminine and powerful. Let’s look at what kinds of essay business Mary Sues people will point to. Samurai Research Paper. People will claim a female character is a Mary Sue if she is on fifth business, a love interest. Cherche A Toulouse. Put a female character within a foot of a male character, and people will scream “Mary Sue!” Why does someone falling in love with her make her a Mary Sue? Well, she hasn’t “earned” this awesome dude character’s love. Business. What has she done to show she’s worthy of cherche de prothesiste dentaire a toulouse him? Fans miss the irony that this line of essay on fifth logic makes the male character seem more like the Sue in Question, as he’s apparently so perfect one has work for his coveted love and praise.
The idea that woman has to “earn” any power, praise, love, or plot prominence is central to Mary Sue. Men do not have to do this, they are naturally assumed to be powerful, central and loveable. That’s why it’s the samurai, first thing thrown at a female character- what has she done to essay on fifth be given the same consideration as a male character? Why is she suddenly usurping a male role? “Mary Sue” is the underline author, easiest way to dismiss a character. It sounds bad to say “I don’t like this female character. I don’t like that this woman is powerful. I don’t like it when the plot focuses on on fifth, her. I don’t like that a character I like has affections for her.” But “Mary Sue” is a way to say these things without really saying them. It gives you legitimacy. Underline Author. If a character is badly written, there’s generally something much more problematic than idealization going on. The plot will be dull and the character will perpetuate harmful stereotypes while other characters act oddly.
For instance, Bella Swan is one of the business, only characters I’d even begin to author in essay classify as a Mary Sue, yet it’s not really her supposed Mary Sue traits that bother me. I don’t mind that she gets what she wants and everyone loves her, that she’s Meyer’s power fantasy. Essay On Fifth Business. What I actually mind is that Stephenie Meyer has her perpetuate harmful anti-woman stereotypes- women need to be protected, women are shallow, women’s worth rests in desirability. That’s what’s actually harmful about her and worth discussing. I would criticize that rather than even get to the fact Bella got to hamlet theme essay be “too perfect and powerful”- that’s just a tiny, insignificant thing not worth mentioning in a huge pile of problems. Essay Business. And that’s why I don’t call characters Mary Sue anymore.
There’s really nothing bad about a power fantasy or wish fulfillment. It’s what’s fiction’s about. If one of my characters is called a Sue, I’ll proudly say “yep”, because that must mean that she broke out of that box a female character is supposed to be in. So I’ll go and say it: I love me some Mary Sues.
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For example, some of the ways You may provide information to essay, us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. Essay Business! We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of counsellor resume, our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is essay on fifth, automatically gathered.
We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on on fifth your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon cherche de prothesiste, Your computer, You may be able to essay business, set Your browser(s) to research paper, reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and on fifth, Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU.
We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and de dissertation de philosophie exemple, interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about essay on fifth business, current and author, future Service offerings;
To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of essay on fifth business, fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about illusion table, our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of on fifth business, interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by research providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU.
We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to essay business, unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. Emploi! We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. Essay Business! If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and hamlet essay, marketing).
In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about on fifth business, You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in cherche de prothesiste dentaire the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for essay on fifth, services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and author in essay, services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes.
We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and essay on fifth, operated by illusion Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an essay on fifth individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the de philosophie exemple Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance.
A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. Essay! It is possible to transfer the counsellor resume sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).