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Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay Research Paper
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If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to double-check to make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Make a check list of all of the essay requirements and university scholarship go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in and abuse essay front of you to make sure you#39;ve hit them all. And now, you#39;re done! Submit the essay to your contest, and keep your fingers crossed for the results!
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nazi ideology essay The Middle Managers of Murder. Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. Comparisons are often made between Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, but Stalin purged the drug addiction essay, ranks of the military as well as civil bureaucracies, whereas Hitler preferred to work with the established bureaucracy in deference to expediency. Thesis Statement Learning. The rapid rearmament of Germany and mobilization for war required that the Nazi regime make use of the existing administrative machinery . The German quest for Lebensraum (living space) meant more than defeating external enemies as would be the case in a traditional war. A racially pure Germany was the other half of the Lebensraum equation and to this end the drug, Nazis relied on the knowledge and expertise of the Weimar era bureaucrats to execute genocide. Referring to yet another political regime [that] has come to an inglorious end in Germany, rendering another 'constitution' obsolete and thus making it a fitting object for scientific analysis [. ] John Herz writes that the bureaucratic structure of the an experience my life, German government was capable of persisting from one regime to the next, almost independently of the party in power, and for this reason the bureaucracy could assume more political importance than they ever possessed before. Addiction.  In other words, German bureaucratic institutions retained a certain independence from one government to the next.
At first glance, Herz appears to be warning of the dangers of leaving the bureaucratic institutions of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in place and unexamined in a reunited Germany, but Herz was writing in 1946, less than a year after the end of hostilities in the European theater in World War II. Herz was concerned that the de-Nazification of Germany not ignore the traditional bureaucracies because the perception of independence or 'professionalism' on african american, the part of the drug and abuse, bureaucrats was misleading. The German bureaucracy inherited by Hitler was generally compliant with egregious Nazi policies if not eager accomplices. University Waterloo Scholarship. Herz compares the situation in the aftermath of World War II to the demise of the Weimar republic, but there is a longer history. There is continuity from the bureaucracies of Bismarck, through the Weimar Republic, to addiction and abuse, the Nazi era, and into post-War Germany.
Today, the legacy continues in the form of investigations into the possible Stasi involvement on the part of contemporary civil servants. Origins of German Bureaucracy. Ordered society would not be possible without bureaucracies to ensure the proper functioning of modern institutions such as hospitals, police, education, and the military. Bureaucracy predates the modern era, of course, but it was not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries that bureaucracy as we currently understand it was established. Max Weber's theories refer to: (1) the division of labor in the organization, (2) its authority structure, (3) the position and role of the my life essay, individual member, and (4) the type of drug addiction, rules that regulate the relations between organizational members.  What is key, is that bureaucracy is, at least in the ideal case that Weber presents, a neutral agency, neither endorsing nor opposing the rules imposed on it by the government. The civil service in Germany dates back to the middle ages when commoners and lesser nobles were appointed civil servants who served at the leisure of the sovereign rather than an intermediary nobleman as was typical of feudal societies. These appointments were little different from ennoblement, and barely resembled the functionaries of a modern bureaucratic institution. There was little in the way of an essay on man summary, a uniformed discipline. For one thing, appointments were made with scant regard to the merit of the individual being appointed--nepotism and favoritism were the rule. Even in medieval times, however, the irregular and drug addiction and abuse inefficient bureaucracies focused the power of the sovereign. That Changed Essay. Through delegation of essay, office, consolidation of knowledge--and therefore power--was the result.
The imposition of a rigid hierarchy ensured that rulers had direct insight into the happenings of everything within their domain. With the economies of scale ushered in by the oxford uniq statement, modern age, the inefficient, pre-modern, non-meritocratic bureaucracies were unable to cope with the ensuing 'multiplicities.' The population explosion and urbanization demanded discipline if there was to be any element of control of the government over drug and abuse essay the governed. Michel Foucault states that Discipline [. ] is a type of power, a modality for its exercise, comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, [. ] of which bureaucracy is a component.  Foucault situates the thesis learning, development of the modern bureaucracy in the Napoleonic period. The modern nation state required a new mode of power that was capable of managing the increasingly complex task of drug addiction, disciplining society. Foucault argues that the conjuncture of urbanization, a 'floating population' (the masses were no longer firmly fixed to feudal estates), and an enormous increase in the scale of the number of people to be supervised or manipulated necessitated development of disciplinary methods. Furthermore, mass production and rationalization of the economy also required more complex management processes. The old feudal society was not equipped for the industrial revolution and mass production. Remnants of feudal society persisted, but the an experience changed, role of the nobility diminished as professional bureaucrats assumed greater control over the administration of the military, hospitals, police, and the market economy. The ascendancy of disciplines in governance and bureaucratic institutions can be seen as a profound shift in how power was wielded. Rather than deploy the ostentatious signs of sovereignty in taming the populace, power is manifested through the brilliance of those who exercise it.  For the old order, violence, or the threat thereof was the addiction and abuse essay, tool used when exercising power.
This was costly in a political and economic sense, and more importantly was insufficient to that changed, the task. One of the primary roles of the modern bureaucrat is to classify and identify individual members of society so that they may be better managed. In a very real sense, knowledge for the bureaucrat is power--power that was once wielded exclusively by the sovereign. Max Weber argued that bureaucracies were more developed in Germany than in France, England, or America in essay, the 19th century. However, the thick bureaucracy of that essay, Germany had more to do with Germany's adoption of the Napoleonic Code during its occupation by addiction and abuse essay, Napoleon than the rigidity of Prussian militarism. The pre-Napoleonic Prussian military had more in common with medieval feudalism than modern bureaucracy. However, one element of scholarship essay, modern bureaucracy found in the Prussian military was professionalism and dedication to the institution in addition to or beyond any other loyalties. The sense that the Army as an organization, and not just the sovereign or government it served, was worthy of fealty was a characteristic to and abuse, which the modern bureaucracy aspired.
In this sense, the rules, structure, hierarchy, duty and other abstract notions all became the american racism, mission of the solider or the bureaucrat. And Abuse Essay. This dual loyalty--to the institution as well as the nation or regime--would later be recognized by the National Socialists. As mentioned above, the Nazi party had to accept this fact if it was to expedite its struggle for power and thesis statement about disabilities its subsequent war effort. The organizational technique of large armies was requisite to the formation of bureaucracy in Germany and elsewhere. In 1415, it was possible for Henry V to visit with individual members of drug addiction and abuse essay, his army, even those of the lowest rank, the night before the battle at Agincourt. Certainly, he knew every officer no matter how junior. On the field of an essay pope summary, battle, most if not all of his men could see the king.
His orders could be issued via verbal commands, and heard and relayed quickly across the short distance of the battle field (the French and English lines were only drug addiction and abuse essay, 1000 yards apart). Perhaps most importantly, the English king could see the entire field of battle and act accordingly. He had no need to rely on messengers to relay commands or on scouts to provide situation reports. In contrast to essay world, the Battle at Agincourt, four centuries later in the war leading up to Waterloo, Napoleon's army of 200,000 men fought against essay, approximately 500,000 Austrian, Russian, Prussian, English, and Dutch soldiers. The front at Waterloo was six times the length of the statement, front at Agincourt. Addiction. Napoleon's headquarters was over a mile from the front line. Both Napoleon and Wellington received only glimpses of the battle firsthand, relying almost exclusively on subordinates for thesis about disabilities very detailed, if imprecise information on the battle. Nevertheless, both commanded capably. Drug Addiction Essay. Command and control was preserved by thesis statement learning disabilities, means of a rigid, hierarchical command structure.
Each commander had generals under them who led divisions the size of Henry's army. From the generals down to the lowest private soldier, no one individual needed to know more than what was happening in their immediate environment and one level of command above and beneath them. Rules governed communication, and strict discipline ensured that each soldier would carry out their assigned task even if they could not appreciate the immediate effect of their actions. There were perhaps four or five different classifications of participants on the English side at the Battle of Agincourt. There were foot soldiers, archers, knights, and non-combatants in the rear. In Napoleon's army there were a dozen tiers of rank between the General of the Army and the private soldier. Soldiers were further classified as riflemen, light and heavy infantry, artillerists, dragoons, grenadiers, light and heavy cavalry, signalmen, engineers, scouts, etc. Each unit had a different mission, every soldier a designated proficiency. In order for effective control to be maintained so that the army could function as a unified body, each individual within the army had to be identified, classified, trained and controlled.
It is essay, ironic that the impersonal leadership exercised by Napoleon and Wellington was predicated on an intimate knowledge of pope summary, their armies' constituents, whereas Henry was able to exercise personal leadership over drug addiction and abuse essay an undifferentiated army. Minimizing the about, gap between the command and its flawless execution provided one of the addiction and abuse essay, principles of bureaucracy: the delegation of authority. The delegation of power was manifest in multiple levels of the oxford uniq, hierarchy. This principle of administration used by armies would prove extremely effective in and abuse essay, other institutions and for different applications than wholesale slaughter. Factories, hospitals, schools and universities were all to benefit. The German Civil Service Inherited by the National Socialists. When the thesis learning disabilities, Nazis assumed power in 1933 they inherited the civil servants appointed in the Weimar years, who in turn, were a legacy of the drug essay, bureaucracies of Kaiser William II and Bismarck.
German civil servants as a group tended to be quite conservative, and while not originally enthusiastic supporters of National Socialism, the two groups shared values such as anti-Semitism and opposition to communism. An Essay Pope. While in drug and abuse essay, theory the civil servants were to on man by alexander summary, be neutral with regards to political parties, they tended to be anti-republican, and drug addiction essay thwarted the liberal policies of the Weimar politicians while the thesis, republic was still viable. Though they were beholden to republican law, they were partial to how it was administered and adjudicated. Even before 1933, communist agitators were more harshly treated and received tougher sentences than Nazis convicted of similar crimes. The light punishment Hitler received as a result of the drug and abuse essay, Beer Hall Putsch was an example of the conservative bias as well as the latitude the an experience that changed my life, German civil servants had with regards to the execution of their duties.
The ideal sought by the Nazis was the complete merger of the state with the Nazi party. However, as the and abuse essay, majority of state officials were not originally party members, the Nazis had to choose between cleansing the statement about disabilities, bureaus of their most effective staff or tolerating their existence. As the Nazi's needed a functioning administration in its preparation for drug addiction war, they chose a path of waterloo scholarship essay, piecemeal appropriation. Drug And Abuse Essay. One result was a certain amount of redundancy as on an essay on man by alexander pope summary, the one hand the Nazi party attempted to merge with existing state bureaucracies, blurring the line between state and party, and on the other hand, in a sign of resignation to the power, in the form of knowledge, still wielded by the bureaucrats, the party was forced to establish parallel administrative machinery. In his article German Administration Under the Nazi Regime, John Herz points out that Hitler forced the SA (Sturmabteilung or storm troopers) under Röhm, at that time his mightiest party organization, to abstain from 'taking over' the army, the mightiest part of the state machinery.  The Waffen SS is a perfect example of the duplication of agencies evident in the Nazi regime. Originally the Waffen SS was established to drug and abuse essay, serve as Hitler's personal body guard--as much to protect him from the SA as to an experience changed my life essay, protect him from the party's real and imagined enemies. Initially numbering just two hundred men, the Waffen SS would ultimately comprise thirty-eight divisions. (For purposes of comparison, the addiction and abuse, U.S. has deployed approximately eight divisions in Iraq.) So, while the Nazis were never able to an experience that changed essay, exercise total control over the Wehrmacht (Germany's regular army) they did field a sizeable army of their own.
This dual nature of state and drug and abuse essay party was replicated many times throughout the Nazi regime. Hitler was chief of state and government as well as party Führer . Goebbels was head of party propaganda as well as state propagandist. Himmler was Reich Leader SS and Chief of the German police. Regional party leaders, Gauleiter , were also responsible for the civil administration of essay war 2, everything related to war, in other words they were effectively the drug addiction essay, civilian authority as well as party head.  Two charges have been leveled against German bureaucrats. They have been labeled as stooges for the Nazi party, retaining only the appearance of administrative neutrality. At the same time, the German civil service has been accused of essay world, blindly following the criminal orders of the addiction and abuse essay, Nazi leadership, acquiescing so long as the order bore the vaguest semblance to the letter of the law.
Neither extreme was in war 2, fact the case. The civil service retained some degree of autonomy throughout the Nazi regime. At the onset of war, The 'revolutionaries,' inclined as always to underestimate the drug and abuse, role of expertise (just as much as conservatives are inclined to over estimate it), had to give in. From that time on, in war 2, the main, the addiction essay, aim was to turn officials in to Nazis instead of turning Nazis into officials.  The German civil servants, like bureaucrats everywhere, endeavored to waterloo scholarship essay, find the balance that would preserve their positions by not antagonizing the ruling elites while also retaining a measure of power. Early on, the bureaucrats did cater to one demand of the Nazi state. When the Nazis sought to 'aryanize' the civil service, they found the addiction and abuse, 'Aryan' administrators eager to assist.
Anti-Semitism was widely shared by many Germans by the time Hitler took power, although it was generally of the 'not in my country club' variety rather than the homicidal variant of the war time Nazis. Nevertheless, this low-grade (later it would become more virulent) racism coupled with careerism spelled a quick exit for non-Aryans from the civil service. Widespread endorsement of the ousting of Jews is evident in the diary of Thomas Mann, the african essay, Nobel prize winning German author. Marion Kaplan writes in Between Dignity and Despair that though married to a Jewish woman, and a staunch anti-Nazi, he nevertheless confided to essay, his diary: 'it is no great misfortune . American Racism. that . the Jewish presence in the judiciary has ended.' Kaplan cites another example where a woman expresses joy that her daughter's suitor has better job prospects since they began firing so many people. Drug And Abuse Essay.  The similarities between Nazi bureaucrats and the everyday variety of bureaucrats are uncanny and disturbing. They were frightening because their motivation often derived not from extraordinary Nazi ideology, but from the oridinary desire to preserve and promote their positions. The Topography of thesis about learning, Terror. Mass deportations and murder could not begin immediately. First, the Jews, once fully assimilated members of German society, had to drug addiction and abuse essay, be turned into thesis about learning disabilities non-citizens, and ultimately into non-humans. The dehumanizing process was achieved easily by bureaucrats already comfortable with viewing other humans as numbers on a ledger. Hitler made a point of distinguishing between 'rational' and 'emotional' anti-Semitism. The latter found its outlet in pogroms, while the former promised a 'systematic legal opposition' to achieve 'removal of the Jews altogether.' Himmler and Heydrich likewise sought a systematic approach to the 'Jewish Question.'  Thus, despite the drug addiction and abuse, low regard in which Hitler held civil servants and african racism essay jurists, the addiction and abuse, German bureaucracy was an american racism essay, essential component of the machinery of destruction.
The Topography of Terror is sited on the former location of the Reich Security Main Office. All that remains are the drug, foundation and oxford advice cellar walls that enclosed a kitchen. The exhibit and memorial is perhaps unique in that it is a remembrance of the drug addiction, perpetrators. Memorials to the victims of the Nazis are to be found throughout Germany and Berlin, but remembering the victims of the Nazi past and acknowledging that Germans were the perpetrators of these crimes is quite different. African American. To varying degrees Germany has memorialized the victims of Nazi terror, although it has often equated the suffering of Germans with the marginalized social groups (Jews, Scinta and Roma, Homosexuals, etc.) who were specifically targeted by the Germans. There has been a tendency to perceive the perpetrators not as 'ordinary' Germans, but as people from Mars who attacked and invaded a peaceful Germany.  The purpose of preserving a site such as the Topography of Terror is to acknowledge that the addiction and abuse essay, perpetrators were in fact German, and that the most heinous crimes in history were committed not by a brutal mob but by Schreibtischtäter (deskbound criminals)--in other words by bureaucrats. Furthermore, these crimes were committed in central Berlin, and in the case of the personal statement, SS and Gestapo headquarters, no secret was made of the general purpose of the building they occupied. Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay. How much the general population knew of the crimes being committed is debatable, although clearly most Berliners were aware that their Jewish friends and neighbors were not on holiday. Yet, sites such as the Topography of Terror and Tiergartenstrasse 4 (the site where mass killing of mental patients was planned) remained largely invisible to Berliners until the 1980's. In part this was due to thesis disabilities, a conscious or sub-conscious desire on the part of Germans to disassociate themselves from the perpetrators. Germans were--and remain--more open to accept their role as victims and witnesses to the atrocities of the Nazi regime than to confess their role as the perpetrators.
In the government quarter of drug addiction essay, Berlin, the area bounded by Prinz-Albrecht-Straße (now Niederkirchestraße), Wilhelmstraße, Anhalterstraße, and an essay on man by alexander pope Stressemanstraße, was the administrative center of the National Socialist terror apparatus. Situated in close proximity were the Gestapo ( Geheime Staatspolizei , Secret State Police), the addiction essay, Reichsführung SS (SS Reich Leadership), the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, Security Service), and learning disabilities the Reichsicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office, RSMO). Within a few years after the drug and abuse essay, National Socialists seized power, the entire Prinz-Albrecht-Terrain was occupied by these Nazi organizations. Oxford Uniq Personal Advice. The area housed the offices of Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich, the and abuse essay, state and party security forces and the Gestapo prison. Virtually all the evil that was unleashed on Germany, Europe, and the world emanated from this area that comprised a few blocks in downtown Berlin. Order and Function of the Bureaucracy of Terror. According to Topography of Terror: A Documentation , the primary tasks of Heinrich Himmler and the SS ( Schutzstaffel , 'protection squadron') were:
Surveillance, persecution and elimination of on man by alexander summary, all political forces [. ]. Essay. Preservation and advancement of the Aryan race and the creation of a racially pure Germany [. ]. Conquest of living space (Lebensraum) and the national and racial reorganization [. ].  In other words, the SS were chartered with the main objectives Hitler envisioned for an essay on man National Socialism. And Abuse. Were it not for the fact that the Wehrmacht maintained some autonomy and african were the primary combatants of the world war, the SS would have been responsible for drug and abuse essay National Socialism's entire misanthropic agenda. Himmler was in african racism essay, charge of a vast bureaucratic empire. He was responsible for the SS , as well as the municipal police.
His most important lieutenant was Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Gestapo and addiction and abuse the SD , and until his assassination in 1943, head of the thesis statement about, Reich Security Main Office. The SD was the essay, intelligence service of the oxford, NSDAP, while the Gestapo was responsible for state security. Heydrich was the head of both organizations. One of Heydrich's most infamous employees was Adolf Eichman, chief organizer of the mass deportations, and the man who prompted Hannah Arendt to coin the phrase 'banality of drug addiction essay, evil.' Also incorporated in Himmler's empire were the Ordnungspolizei , the Waffen SS including Death Head's Units (those responsible for the 'wet work' of the Holocaust), the Main Office for Economic and on man by alexander pope Administrative Matters ( Wirtschafts- Und Verwaltungshauptamt ) which bore responsibility for administering the concentration camps, and administration of the conquered Eastern territories. If Himmler had comparable authority in present day United States, he would be responsible for the CIA, the FBI, the Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security (including the Coast Guard, immigration and drug essay customs, and counter-narcotics), the Attorney General's office(including the U.S. Marshals), Special Forces Command, large segments of the regular Army, the National Guard, the State Police of every state, and the municipal police of every city and county.
Himmler sat atop a massive bureaucracy. One result of the consolidation of power was infighting between the various bureaus under Himmler. As an statement, example, which could almost be funny if not for the inhumanity of it, the and abuse, different security offices and police departments often made use of the same jail facility at the Prinz-Albrecht terrain. The jail was nominally a temporary holding facility. Those who survived were later delivered to another prison or concentration camp. When a bureaucrat felt that a detainee held some piece of vital information they would request that the prisoner be brought to their office for interrogation. Although all that remains of these institutions is the african racism essay, earthen floor and cellar walls, suggesting a medieval dungeon with torture chambers, all interrogations were held on the above ground levels, in the civilized offices of the bureaucrats.
With secretaries and drug essay stenographers within earshot, officials would sit on the edge of their mahogany desks and direct their subordinates to torture their victims until the oxford uniq personal, right information was obtained. Torture and brutal mistreatment of the prisoners was commonplace, and drug and abuse essay was as often performed for statement learning disabilities sport as it was to extract information or to punish. Drug Addiction And Abuse. However, assuming information was actually obtained, it would be closely guarded by the bureaucrat who obtained it, and coveted by functionaries in other agencies. It was more expedient to requisition the same prisoner and interrogate him again than it was to obtain the desired information from another agency. Both inhumane and an experience my life essay inefficient, such redundancies revealed that German bureaucracy was far from the ideal imagined by Max Weber.
The 'Final Solution' From Welfare to Eugenics. In his article The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' from the drug addiction and abuse, Spirit of Science , Detlev Peukert makes a compelling argument linking the triumph of science and reason over essay world war 2 religion to genocide. Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay. Breakthroughs in science and medicine led to racism, a dramatic reduction in the occurrence of addiction and abuse, death as an every day phenomenon. As death became an increasingly rare, albeit inevitable occurrence, it became even more ineffable. Even as death, disease and an essay by alexander pope summary decay eluded the essay, reach of science and medicine, science overshadowed faith in african american racism essay, God's ability to triumph over our ultimate demise. This resulted in an existential crisis that we have still not come to terms with. Though death remained, decay could be retarded through modern medicine and 'healthy' living. Drug Addiction Essay. Peukert argues that this led to on man by alexander pope summary, an idealization of youth and health. Drug And Abuse. [. ] The obvious move was for the actual target of scientific effort to switch from the individual, whose case in the long run was always hopeless, to the 'body' of the nation, the Volkskörper .  So, while death awaited each individual, the Volkskörper held the potential for immortality, but only if it was kept healthy.
To this end sociologists and welfare workers went about tending to the health and that essay well being of the Volkskörper . In treating the 'national body', as with treating the drug addiction and abuse essay, body of an individual, it was necessary to identify unhealthy elements in an effort to cure them. Those elements that were identified as curable were cured. Those elements that were unhealthy were to be excised. But there was also the racist option of the primacy of the Volkskörper over the individual, of the 'valuable' over the individual without 'value.'  And this misguided utopianism of the social sciences worked synergistically with Nazi racist ideology to promote a climate where genocide presented itself as a rational plan. Social and welfare workers who were originally charged with identifying and helping those members of German society who were in oxford personal statement, need of assistance, and then allocating the limited resources of the Weimar treasury appropriately, assumed the role of denouncers and Schreibtischmörder in the Nazi regime. Those who were once proponents of the addiction and abuse essay, needy became their enemies with the change in government. The same bureaucratic apparatus that was used to university, identify and and abuse essay track the mentally and physically disabled, and others of limited means in order to provide public welfare, to 'heal' the Volkskörper , was later tasked by racism essay, the Nazis with identifying individuals of 'no value' and drug addiction and abuse 'useless eaters' and selecting them for the 'euthanasia' program. Peukert cautions against any 'monocausal' explanations of the Holocaust, yet he does establish that the distinction between persons of african racism essay, 'value' and those of 'non-value', and their 'selection' and 'eradication' is the central thread of the decision to annihilate an abstract classification of victims using the technology and techniques of mass production. And Abuse.  The destruction of humans of 'no value' was not an invention of the Nazis. In the 1920's, a very influential book on the subject was written by Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche entitled Permission for the Destruction of Worthless Life: Its Extent and Form . While this book set the ground work for Germany's euthanasia program and provided some of the 'scientific' justification for the program it in no way advocated murder--rather it was close to what we might term today assisted suicide for an experience that changed essay terminal patients.
What the book did promote however, was the addiction, concept that human life which could not contribute materially to society was worthless. The Nazis extended the definition of what constituted 'worthless life' to include increasingly broad categories: degenerates, 'asocials', delinquents, alcoholics, etc. Ultimately, race became a category for determining 'value' and 'non-value'.  The bureaucrats responsible for the medical and scholarship essay social welfare of essay, these segments of society adapted right along with the changing times and that changed my life essay shifting ideologies. The Villa at Wannsee and the 'Final Solution.' On a cold, overcast day in December, I made a trip out to drug addiction and abuse, the Wannsee, a beautiful lake to the south-west of essay world, Berlin. There, located directly on the lake, is the Villa Wannsee, where high-ranking officials of the SS and civilian ministries met in January 1942, to drug essay, put the finishing touches on the plan for the mass extermination of Jews and others of 'non-value.' As I rode the train through the Grunewald forest on my way to Wannsee, I wondered how many of the an essay on man summary, officials came by train. Did they travel the same line that I did? It is likely that many came by chauffeured car given their positions of authority. The suburban train station at Wannsee appeared quite old and little changed since the war.
While waiting for essay the bus that would take me the rest of the way to the Villa I had the opportunity to look out over the placid lake. Marinas, parks, and grand mansions dotted the shoreline. At the bus stop I noted thirty or so German suburbanites waiting to be taken home. Some were waiting to go to on man by alexander summary, the hospital that was less than a kilometer from the drug addiction and abuse essay, infamous Villa. I appeared to be the only tourist. It was a perfectly ordinary town. The area around the Villa at an experience changed my life essay, Wannsee is and drug addiction was a rather idyllic suburb. The impressionist painter Max Lieberman had his summer house there.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the area was known for the liberal attitudes of essay world war 2, its residents which included a fair number of Jews. In the winter the place is very quiet, but the number of closed recreational sites would suggest that the place is quite lively in the summer. The Villa itself is a gorgeous mansion and garden that was acquired by the Nazis for use by senior party members. Nothing about it or its environs speaks of the murderous plans made there. And Abuse. As the officials made their way there from Berlin, what were they thinking? Did they jump at the chance to get away from the daily grind and to meet with their colleagues out in the country? Was it an honor to be invited? With the exception of university waterloo essay, Reinhard Heydrich (Chief of Reich Security), these were not the most senior officials in Germany. Notably missing were, Goebbels (Minister of Propaganda), Göring (commander of the Luftwaffe and founder of the Gestapo ), Himmler ( SS Chief and Chief of Police), and of course Hitler. Adolf Eichman is the most well known of the addiction essay, conference attendees; more recognizable than his boss because of Eichman's much publicized trial in an experience that changed essay, 1962 in which he was sentenced to death.
It was Eichman's job to drug addiction essay, manage the 'final solution.' The people attending the conference, much like the houses in the surrounding area, were rather mundane. They were civilized in appearance and quite unremarkable. Except for Heydrich, the attendees were of a rank equivalent to that of deputy under-secretary. In other words, they were middle managers. Middle managers are the epitomical bureaucrats. They lack the responsibility and the blame of their superiors, but neither must they dirty their hands. Eichman's plea for leniency was based on his being a middle manager.
He was 'just doing his job.' The 'final solution' was not his idea, and in any event he never actually shot or gassed anyone. Racism Essay. This plea was made by many Nazis seeking to essay, avoid harsh punishment for oxford uniq personal facilitating genocide, an approach which was to prove successful for many middle- and low-ranking Nazi officials. Eichman and his ilk are disturbing to us not because they are monsters, but because they are so perfectly ordinary. In his court appearance during his trial, he appeared in a modest business suit and could have passed for a typical businessman on his way to work in a Manhattan insurance company. His defense rested on his inability to drug addiction and abuse essay, refuse orders. Oxford Uniq Personal. He may have been unwilling, but not because he would have faced certain death.
In his book Ordinary Men , Christopher Browning explains that many of drug and abuse, those on the frontlines of the Holocaust, the men in the Order Police battalions which operated in German occupied countries in changed essay, the East, were typical Germans. Prior to the war they were not homicidal maniacs, nor were they especially anti-Semitic or even eager Nazis. Many of these men also claimed after the war that they were just following orders. Browning clearly demonstrates that their refusal to carry out orders might have been disastrous for their careers, but, in the cases he examines, never led to severe punishment.  Claiming fear of drug, retribution was a frequent justification made by Germans in defense of their action or inaction regarding genocide. The SS ensured that outright resistance to National Socialism was negligible, but refusal to participate in essay world, murder was tolerated.
In 1933, SA storm troopers established the first concentration camp in Prussia at Oranienburg. By the war's end tens of drug addiction and abuse essay, thousands will have died here or in the death marches preceding liberation by the allies. Essay. The camp was not the largest or the most lethal (Auschwitz claims that title), but it was the administrative center of the concentration camp system. In the T-Building located just a few hundred meters from the camp proper, bureaucrats administered the addiction and abuse, entire concentration camp system: The men who sat behind the desks in the inspectorate determined conditions for imprisonment, coordinated forced labor and organized mass murder. An Essay On Man By Alexander Pope Summary.  The SS guards at all the essay, camps might have been the ones 'getting dirty' with the business of killing, but administrators at Sachsenhausen were the ones issuing the orders. Like Wannsee, Oranienburg is a quiet suburb. A quaint housing development abuts the camp; many houses make use of the old concentration camp razor wire fence to keep their children and an experience that changed my life pets from wandering outside the yard.
On the day that I visited, I saw a woman walking her two little terriers on the grounds of the concentration camp. Nothing belies the camp's original purpose--in its current state it looks like any disused military camp. Even while visiting the barracks where unhygienic conditions were once as deadly as the hangings from meat hooks in the crematorium basement, the terror of the place is not immediately apparent. Yet, in drug, this place techniques for murder were tried and tested. In the infirmary, medical experiments of dubious scientific merit were carried out on the prisoners. One case involves children who were saved from the ovens at Auschwitz and delivered to Sachsenhausen where they were infected with a hepatitis virus. Their livers were later biopsied, without the use of anesthetic, to see how the disease progressed.
While female prisoners were brought in for use as sex slaves, while prisoners marched endlessly, and often to their deaths, on by alexander pope, the shoe-testing track, and while the ovens burned furiously, the bureaucrats came to work each day to shuffle papers and organize further torments. Meanwhile, in the surrounding houses, the local suburbanites went about their daily lives, much as they do today. Comparisons between the essay, Holocaust and other mass murders are generally wanting. The Holocaust differs from university essay, urban crime sprees in that it was ordained by the state. It differs from war between nations or civil war in that the victims were utterly defenseless. The genocide of Native Americans while approximating the scale of the addiction and abuse essay, Holocaust took place over hundreds of years and was not nearly so systematized.
The genocide of the Armenians by the Ottoman Turks, was nearly of the same scale and rapidity of the Holocaust, and made use of modern technology such as trains and university waterloo essay machine guns. Drug Essay. Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Sudan, are all recent examples and ample evidence that as human beings we are still capable of bottomless violence. But, none of these genocides reached the scale of the Holocaust, and neither were they the result of such a sophisticated bureaucracy. The number of world war 2, victims of the Holocaust is a benchmark of drug and abuse, shame, and it was only essay, achieved through the efficiency of drug and abuse essay, German bureaucracy. Only a fully modern, highly literate state was capable of the division of labor necessary to kill six million Jews, two thirds of on man pope summary, whom were killed within a twelve month period.
This required massive coordination of effort between military and and abuse civilian agencies. The German bureaucracy responded to the increasingly radicalized demands of Nazi policy regarding Jews and facilitated their murder all without leaving the comfort of that changed essay, their desks. Their rubber stamps were as deadly as any bullet.  John H. Herz, German Administration Under the Nazi Regime, The American Political Science Review , Vol. 40, No. 4. (Aug., 1946), pp. 682-702. [2 ] Herz, 683. Emphasis in original. [4 ] Michel Foucault, Panopticism, Foucault Reader , ed. Paul Rabinow (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984) 206 - 207.
From Discipline and addiction and abuse Punish . [5 ] Foucault, 208. [9 ] Marion A. Kaplan, Between Dignity and Despair, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 26. [10 ] Christopher R. An Essay On Man By Alexander Summary. Browning, The German Bureaucracy and the Holocaust, The Simon Wiesenthal Center http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/index.html . [11 ] Brian Ladd, The Ghosts of essay, Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997) 163. [12 ] I have seen this expressed as Schreibtischmörders (desk-bound murderers) and Schreibtischverbrechers (also desk-bound criminals). [13 ] Ed. Reinhard Rürup, trans. Werner T. Angress (Berlin: Verlag, Willmuth, Arenhövel, 1989) 36. [14 ] Detlev J.K. Peukert, The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' From the Spirit of essay war 2, Science. 1989. [15 ] Peukert, 282.
[16 ] Peukert, 287. [17 ] Peukert, 278. [18 ] German title: Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens. Ihr Maß und Ihre Form. [19 ] Nazism 1919 - 1945, ed. J. Noakes and G. Pridham. Vol. 3 Foreign Policy, War, and drug addiction and abuse Racial Extermination (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1997) 1001.
[20 ] Christopher R. Statement. Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland, (New York: HarperCollins, 1992) [21 ] Information Leaflet, Memorial and essay Museum Sachsenhausen, (Oranienburg, Berlin: Brandenburg Memorial Foundation, 2004).
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Essay on Drug Abuse for Children and Students
Masculinity in “A View from the drug addiction essay, Bridge” Essay. Arthur Miller wrote this play in 1955. He has written many other plays including All My Sons, which was a success at Broadway. Miller was born in thesis about learning disabilities, 1915, in New York City, but both his parent had emigrated to drug essay, the US. This play revolves around emigration, so Miller has had a lot of personal experience. This play is based in statement about disabilities, the late 1940’s, just after the Second World War, when many people were emigrating to the US, looking for a better life. Drug And Abuse? In the play, which is an experience that changed located in Brooklyn, which is drug and abuse a community full of dockworkers, we have a picture of Eddie, Beatrice and Catherine’s lives when Rodolfo and Marco illegally emigrate to personal statement, the US from drug addiction and abuse essay, Italy. When Catherine (Eddie’s niece) falls in love with Rodolfo, Eddie loses his cool, and reports Marco and Rodolfo to immigration.
The drama ends with the death of Eddie, as he tried to kill Marco; Marco turned the knife, and african american stabbed Eddie. There are three leading male characters in the play; Eddie, Rodolfo and Marco, and each of them play different roles and have different types of roles. The first of these men we meet is Eddie. The first impression of drug, any character is very important, and the first impression we get of Eddie is waterloo essay that he is a real family person. He talks very complimentarily towards Catherine, “Beautiful!
Turn, around, lemme see in the back. Oh if your mother was alive to drug, see you now! She wouldn’t believe it.” This gives the reader the impression that he is a family person, who is close to his niece. Then when he hears that Beatrice (his wife) is uniq cousins have arrived he tells her “Don’t worry about it B., there’s nothin’ to it. Couple of hours and they’ll be here.” This gives us the drug addiction, impression that he is also very caring towards B’s family, even though they come in illegally. This also enhances the impression that he is a family man. World? We are made to addiction and abuse, believe generally that he’s a good man, who values his family very high. When we hear that Catherine has got a job, she wanted to ask Eddie if it was all right with him if she took it. Statement About? This shows us that he has a lot of status in the house. If he hadn’t any status, Catherine would have gone behind his back, and wouldn’t have asked permission.
Eddie then replied by saying “Sure she’s the best.” This shows us that he cares for his family and wants the best for his niece. A little later we hear from a lawyer called Alfieri. Addiction Essay? We are believed to trust him because of his wisdom, and position in the community. He is the on man by alexander summary, voice of the drug addiction and abuse essay, community. That My Life? He then tells his thoughts towards Eddie. “He was a good man as he had to be in a life that was hard and drug and abuse even.” The important word here is “was”, this shows us that Eddie’s personality is on the verge of changing. When we are introduced to Rodolfo and thesis statement learning disabilities Marco, there is essay a huge difference between them, first there is their appearance. The impression that we get of Marco is that he’s a strong man, and statement is focused, because Miller describes him as “Square-built peasant of thirty-two, suspicious, tender and quiet voiced.” when he is first introduced. This gives us the addiction and abuse essay, impression that he is university waterloo essay a very quiet person, but his awareness is very good, he is very alert of what’s around him. During the first scene where he’s introduced, when he talks it’s usually very short answers, e.g. “Thank you” and essay “Are you my cousin?” On the other hand, Rodolfo’s manliness is totally different to waterloo essay, Eddie’s and Marco’s.
Rodolfo is an extremely attractive young man, who is very sensitive. Where Eddie and Marco are much more macho than Rodolfo, unlike Eddie and Marco, Rodolfo sees sewing, cooking and singing as manly. We are made to believe that Rodolfo is quiet intelligent, because the language he uses is very flowery, “The horses in drug addiction essay, our town are skinnier than goats.” One of the most notable features that Rodolfo has is his “so blond” hair. Immediately Eddie goes on the defence, and say’s that is hair is like a “chorus girl or sump’m.” Then Eddie goes on to imply that he dyes his hair, which in american, Eddie’s eyes is addiction unacceptable. Statement About? Without ever saying it, Eddie’s implying that Rodolfo is gay. Another factor that goes against Rodolfo is that he is a very keen singer, and we hear his version of “Paper Doll”, and in Eddie’s eyes, only homosexuals sing. Due to the difference in physique between both characters, it was inevitable that they wouldn’t be able to work effectively. Marco is full of muscle, so he is adapted very well to work in and abuse essay, a shipyard, but because of his slight physique, Rodolfo is not as well adapted. Thesis? In my view, he would have been much better in the entertainment business, because he is a natural joke teller.
However, Eddie tells Rodolfo that “But as long as you owe them money, they’ll get you plenty of work” that tells us that there are plenty of work in drug, the docks, and Rodolfo is very clever and takes the work just to get some money in. This shows us that Rodolfo has a good brain, and is more concerned so he can get some money in to an experience changed, establish himself as an American. After coming home from work, Eddie goes on the attack, and undermines Rodolfo’s work rate, because he hasn’t taken at all to Rodolfo, He doesn’t see things like sewing, cooking and singing as manly. First of all he complains that “he sings.” Eddie is very embarrassed of this, because many of his friend e.g. Louis work there, and knowing that Eddie gives a roof to the “Canary” might under mind his street cred, because it’s like Rodolfo’s giving out “regular free shows”. Even at drug and abuse, home Rodolfo sings, and an experience that changed my life this really goes under Eddie’s skin, as he says “if you came in essay, the house and personal you didn’t … know who was singin’, you wouldn’t be lookin for him you be lookin’ for drug her.” This shows us that Rodolfo isn’t shy about singing.
He wants to make the most of his magical voice. Nevertheless, Eddie realises if someone was to that, come to the house, to ask, “who was singing?” he would be extremely embarrassed to say it was a man’s voice. This is extremely ironic, because most of the drug addiction essay, famous Italian singers are tenors. Although by oxford uniq personal advice, now a man singing tenor is and abuse essay totally acceptable, back in the time that this play was written, people were less sophisticated, and in oxford personal advice, my opinion much more prepared to stereotype people. Although Eddie isn’t the biggest fan of Rodolfo, we learn at the end of the first act that Rodolfo is the kind of man that Beatrice and Catherine are looking for. When Marco says that “everybody gets fat” when Rodolfo’s cooking, Eddie tries to make this count against Rodolfo, but the girls see through this. Addiction And Abuse? Catherine then goes on to glorify the fact that he could cook, and essay world say’s that “all the big hotels (chefs) are men”. This shows that she thinks that there’s different ways to addiction and abuse, be a man, either through cooking or dancing.
Straight afterwards, in essay war 2, my opinion Eddie feels very vulnerable because two men have arrived, and he’s afraid he would be toppled as king of the castle. So Eddie goes out to win some honour back, and tries to humiliate Rodolfo and Marco. Drug? His first target was Rodolfo. He went for one of Rodolfo’s weaknesses, in an experience changed my life essay, his opinion his manliness; he isn’t strong enough in Eddie’s view so he decides to teach Rodolfo how to box. Eddie encouraged Rodolfo to “put sump’m behind it, you can’t hurt me.” and “Come on show me! What’re you gonna be? Show me!” In my view, Eddie is trying to show that he’s a better and stronger man than Rodolfo; he wants to prove to Beatrice and Catherine, that Rodolfo isn’t the man they think he is.
Just to rub the salt into essay, the wound, Eddie “feints with his right and an experience that changed my life lands with his right.” Afterwards he asks Rodolfo “Did I hurt you?” In my opinion, Eddie is drug addiction waiting for Rodolfo to reply “Yes”, so Catherine and statement about disabilities Beatrice sees such a weak person he is, but Rodolfo replies “No, no.” This shows the toughness that belongs to drug, Rodolfo that we haven’t seen before in world, the play. This shows the reader that Eddie hasn’t succeeded in humiliating Rodolfo, but rather he succeeded to humiliate himself. Just to drug and abuse essay, make the situation worse for Eddie, Rodolfo and Catherine continue with their lives and go to dance, they didn’t dwindle on the situation. After seeing his younger brother being treated so horrid by Eddie, Marco decides to challenge Eddie’s masculinity, and bring him back down to earth with a bang. All Marco asked is “can you lift this chair?” It sounds like a pretty easy thing to do. An Essay By Alexander? When Eddie went down on his knees to pick it up, he fails. “He tries again, and again fails.” Then when Marco goes down to pick it up, he “raises the chair over his head.” He raised the chair as it was a weapon, and as a word of warning to Eddie. This shows us that Marco is looking after his close family, and wants to make sure that nobody gets the better of them. This lift was more of drug addiction essay, a warning to Eddie not to mess with Rodolfo, than anything else in my opinion.
He did this as his felt quite a strong responsibility towards Rodolfo. Changed Essay? This is drug addiction essay a clear sign that Marco is looking for an essay by alexander summary justice, and he isn’t as quiet a character as Miller first portrays him. This is drug addiction and abuse a clear similarity between Marco and Eddie, because both want to protect their families. Although Mike does portray him as a “regular bull”, that shows that Marco’s strength has been seen through out the community. Catherine is extremely important to the whole plot of the essay world war 2, drama, because it’s because of and abuse essay, her that the entire feud between Eddie and Rodolfo has erupted. At the beginning of the african essay, play we get the idea that Eddie’s extremely protective towards Catherine because he says “I promised your mother in her deathbed. I’m responsible for and abuse you.” At this point we get the idea that Eddie’s like any other caring uncle, but as the drama unfolds, we are made to an experience changed my life, think that Eddie’s is becoming overly attached to Catherine. When Eddie learns that Rodolfo has extremely strong feelings towards Catherine, he quickly tries to distance Catherine away from him, by saying that “He don’t respect you.” This is a cry of a desperate man, it’s as if he doesn’t want her to grow up, this is and abuse essay a very strong weakness of Eddies. We learn earlier on in the play that Eddie isn’t a good husband, because Beatrice asks, “When am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie?” I think that Eddie is by alexander pope summary confused with the state of his relationship with Catherine as she’s growing up, and drug addiction because of this it’s stopping him from thesis statement about learning, completing his duties with Beatrice.
When Rodolfo sing or dances with Catherine, the drug addiction and abuse essay, song “Paper Doll” is often used e.g. Oxford Uniq Personal Statement Advice? When Rodolfo tells Catherine to “Dance” the phonograph “plays ‘Paper Doll’”. Drug Addiction And Abuse? In my opinion this is a very clever use of learning disabilities, song because it describes the nature of essay, Rodolfo, he like a news paper. First of all Rodolfo isn’t extremely strong, nor is paper. One of the that my life essay, similarities between Marco and Eddie’s that they’re both very strong.
Also you can read Rodolfo’s thoughts by looking at his face, just as if you’re reading a newspaper. One of the differences between Eddie and Marco is that Marco cares for his wife. In my opinion, to be a good man you must look after your wife. Where Eddie forgets to and abuse essay, do his duties in bed, Marco sends some of the money he has won back to his family in Italy, so they can have a better life. As I’ve said, both men want to waterloo essay, look after their families, but both do this is different ways. Marco is prepared to leave his family to earn money, whereas Eddie hangs on to his family too tight in my opinion.
One of the turning points is the drama, is when Eddie goes around kissing everybody. When Eddie sees Rodolfo and Catherine together, Eddie “suddenly, draws her to him, and as she strives to drug and abuse essay, free herself he kisses her on about learning disabilities, the lips.” This is Eddie getting what he wants, that is Catherine, because we know that Eddie doesn’t want Beatrice. Although Eddie gets Catherine in a very brutal way, it shows his dominance in the house. Not just content with this, “Eddie pins (Rodolfo’s) arms, laughing, and suddenly kisses him.” This is a rather odd gesture, because many times during the drug addiction and abuse, play Eddie describes Rodolfo as “The guy ain’t right.” He uses it many times either because he feels that this is true, or even because he is trying to university scholarship essay, convince himself that this is right. This kiss doesn’t follow with Eddie’s behaviour during the rest of the play, because by drug essay, kissing him, he brings himself down to the same masculinity as gays. During the end we learn a lot about the characters real thoughts and feelings, and what sort of men they really are. There is a lot of discussion during the play, asking is Rodolfo just looking after himself, by wanting to marry an african american racism essay, American. This is thrown more into doubt when Catherine asks him telling him “Suppose I wanted to live in Italy. At first he tries to push away the idea by replying “Forever?” At this point you start to believe that he’s a selfish little Italian that just wants to drug and abuse, be an American. But then he goes on and says that “there’s nothing…I would be a criminal stealing your face”.
This tells us that he’s as caring as Marco, he only wants the best for Catherine, and that all of Eddie’s doubts seem wrong. As the oxford uniq, plot unfolds, Eddie’s masculinity seems to grow weaker and weaker. Drug? He has finally cracked when he “wants to thesis statement about learning disabilities, report something”. Illegal immigrants. Two of them.” This shows us that Eddie has finally gone for the big one. He isn’t enough of addiction, a man to throw Rodolpho and Marco on to the street; he phones to get others to do his dirty work. This is a sign of a coward. Although he thinks it’s the right thing to do, because he is protecting Catherine. After two officials catch the illegal immigrants, “Marco suddenly breaks from the group and dashes into the room and faces Eddie”. This shows us that Marco is essay a growing threat during this play.
He’s becoming more and more important as the plot unfolds. Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay? By standing up to Eddie it shows that he’s ready to match him. But instead of attacking him verbally or physically, he “spits into Eddie’s face”. This is the point where Eddie loses all his dignity and manliness. The Italian community in Brooklyn is extremely close together, and they watch out for each other, and having one of their own betraying them is a sin, so Eddie will be looked down at now by statement, the rest of the community. Not even Louis, one of Eddie’s close friends turn around to look at him when Eddie shouts, “Louis! Louis!” Even Catherine his own niece says that “he bites people when they sleep!” This shows us now that nobody will ever be able to trust him again, not even his own family.
Just to rub the salt into the wound, Marco shouts, “That one! He killed my children! That one stole the food from my children!” This shows that the relationship between Eddie and Marco has hit an all time low. This also throws away the addiction essay, scraps of dignity that Eddie had left. It also enhances the fact that Marco is a loving father, who’s desperate to help his family back in Italy.
In the very last scene, we start by seeing Catherine one again stealing his manliness away from him, by saying that “he’s a rat! He belongs in the sewers!” This shows us by now, not even his closest family can bear to that essay, be close to him after the unforgivable sin that he’s done. Only one character keeps faith in Eddie, and that’s Beatrice. Drug? She ironically stands by him all the time. But when Eddie sees Marco, he loses his mind, and starts to attack him verbally and physically. Eddie is blind to the fact that he is wrong, he isn’t enough of a man to face up to the fact, so he Marco to tell the people that “what a liar you are!” This shows that Eddie is confident that he can have one successful blow at Marco, but he is african racism essay wrong. Marco attacks back by calling Eddie an “”Animal! You go on your knees to me!”!” And he does this twice. Drug Essay? This is african american racism one of the addiction and abuse essay, worst insults that a man in that time could call another.
It shows us that Eddie is below the level of dignity shown by human beings, and is down there in the dumps, and by going on his knees shows that he’s at the same level as animals. Then both of them get ready to fight. Eddie at this point has nothing to scholarship essay, lose, so he takes out a knife and at this point and “Louis (Eddie’s friend) halts and steps back from trying to and abuse essay, stop the fight. This shows the power and status Eddie has just won by cheating. But in the end, Eddie had no chance of beating Marco, due to his strength. Marco managed to turn the blade around and stabbed Eddie. University Waterloo Scholarship? Eddie died, as a cheat, but he regains some dignity as he dies in drug addiction essay, Beatrice’s arms. This shows although all the horrid remarks and essay war 2 actions Eddie has made, Beatrice is there until the very end. Addiction And Abuse? Marco’s manliness during the play just grows and grows until this climax. Without a doubt, Miller has many different views on masculinity.
You have Eddie and Marco, who are two extremely strong men, and you have Rodolfo, who is university waterloo extremely keen on more feminine activates. In my opinion, there isn’t a lot of and abuse essay, difference between these. All three are men in their different ways, but one thing in my view is my life a must is respect. And Eddie had lost it, all of it by the end. And Abuse Essay? He used to be the king of the household before Marco and changed my life Rodolfo came along, and during that time, he was losing his respect due to the treatment he gave them, an drug and abuse, example of this is when Eddie phoned the immigration office. In my opinion, Eddie knew he was losing respect from Beatrice because he demanded her “I want my respect, Beatrice.” This shows us that he worries what people think of an essay pope summary, him. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 June 2016.
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Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay Research Paper
30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the drug addiction and abuse, written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and an essay summary, teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to drug essay enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out world, a form answering basic questions about the drug and abuse, book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to oxford personal statement detail what the book was about, the names of the drug and abuse, main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about african racism essay, events or characters to drug ensure that the statement about, students read the addiction and abuse, book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot.
Teachers may also hand out statement advice, worksheets for students to drug and abuse complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to essay war 2 read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to and abuse essay read a picture book with the class and statement, have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the drug addiction and abuse, worksheet and submit it to oxford personal their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes.
These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to drug addiction complete in the higher grades. A form is an experience my life also easier to grade, especially for drug addiction and abuse teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book.
All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why.
A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. An Experience That Changed! This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for drug essay these assignments too. Disabilities! These longer reports are written out in addiction, paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in uniq personal statement, their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the addiction and abuse essay, introduction, main body, and conclusion.
In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to american essay address. Drug And Abuse Essay! For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the changed my life, book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and drug addiction, opinion of the book. Statement! Difference Between The Book Report Types. Essay! The short book report form is handed out by an experience that my life the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Essay! Short templates are available in lots of an experience fun book report ideas suitable for young children.
They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the addiction and abuse essay, five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Pope! Students can write about the theme, characters, and drug and abuse essay, setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into an essay on man summary the report where they are most relevant to the theme.
The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book.
Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to essay give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the waterloo scholarship, main characters.
There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an and abuse imaginary interview with one of the statement about learning, characters in and abuse essay, the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in statement advice, the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in drug and abuse essay, your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report.
When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is uniq statement advice just the first stage of the drug, report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the university essay, book report from beginning to drug addiction essay end to oxford uniq advice get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor.
Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for addiction and abuse changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the university, ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report.
Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the drug addiction and abuse, text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to an essay on man by alexander print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. And Abuse! Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher.
Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in essay world, creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the and abuse, form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low.
Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in waterloo, a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on drug addiction essay, the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the thesis about, book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out drug essay, how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity.
Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and pope, how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.
Those who want more control over and abuse the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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Essay On 14 August Pakistan Independence Day Essays and Research Papers. Pakistan dayIndependence Day (Urdu: ??? ?????; Yaum-e Azadi), observed annually on August 14 , is addiction and abuse a . national holiday in Pakistan , commemorating the day when Pakistan achieved independence and was declared a sovereign nation, following the end of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan came into essay war 2 existence as a result of the Pakistan Movement; the Pakistan Movement aimed for creation of an independent Muslim state by division of the north-western region of the South Asia and was led by All-India Muslim League. British Empire , British Raj , History of Pakistan 1941 Words | 6 Pages. INDEPENDENCE DAY At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment . Drug Essay. comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to waterloo essay, the new…India discovers herself again. - Jawaharlal Nehru (on Indian Independence Day , 1947) “Every year, we celebrate our Independence Day with great fervour as well as joy and justifiably so, as it commemorates that day , when after many years of subjugation, our country gained its freedom.
British Empire , Delhi , India 1218 Words | 4 Pages. India received independence from Britain on August 15, 1947. And Abuse. The struggle for India’s independence was replete with . outstanding contributions from various luminary nationalist leaders. Waterloo Scholarship. The contributions of leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Gopal Krishan Gokhale, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai, etc. have been laudable. But if one were asked to name a leader who undisputedly contributed the most, the name of Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi would undoubtedly be at the apex. British Raj , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1575 Words | 5 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Independence Day (India) From Wikipedia, the addiction essay, free encyclopedia Fifteenth of . August redirects here.
For other uses, see August 15. Independence Day | The national flag of India, on the Red fort in New Delhi; a common sight on public and private buildings on national holidays like the 15th of August . | Also called | The Fifteenth of thesis statement disabilities August ?????????? ???? (Hindi) ?? (???????) ?????(Hindi) | Observed by | India | Type | National | Significance | The day India became. August 15 , Flag of India 1779 Words | 7 Pages. ? Independence Day What is an Independence Day ? Independence Day , . observed annually on 15 August in India commemorating the nation's independence from Kingdom of Great Britain on drug addiction and abuse essay, 15 August 1947. India attained independence following an independence movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). On Man By Alexander Pope. Independence coincided with the partition of India, in drug, which the British Indian Empire was divided along religious lines into waterloo essay the Dominions of India and Pakistan;. British Raj , Delhi , India 938 Words | 3 Pages. nde nce day2013.co m http://independenceday2013.co m/ independence - day -2013-speech-english-scho o l-students/ . Independence Day 2013 Speech In English For School Students Ho me Independence Day - 1 May 2013 Indiacelebrates Independence Day on August 15 each year. Drug. India became an independent nation on August 15, 1947, so a gazetted holiday is held annually to university scholarship, remember this date. Students are asked to deliver a speech on a Independence day at your school, college, institution or University.
Here. Democracy , Hindu , India 1282 Words | 3 Pages. Pakistan's independence day (also known as Yom-e-Istiqlal (Urdu: ??? ??????? )) is observed on 14 . Drug Addiction Essay. August , the day before Pakistan was made an independent country based on border lines created by the British during the end of their rule of India. Pakistan became an independent country in 1947. The day is a national holiday in Pakistan . The day is celebrated all over the country with flag raising ceremonies, tributes to the national heroes and fireworks taking place in the capital, Islamabad. The. British Empire , British Raj , History of Pakistan 446 Words | 2 Pages.
Independence /National Days | . | Definition: Independence or National Days are perhaps the most important day for a country to commemorate as a national holiday. For many nations the date is the country's day of university waterloo scholarship essay independence , often in hard fought battles to claim their freedom. Some national holidays commemorate a significant day in the history of the country. 1967 , 1973 , 1976 1021 Words | 6 Pages. of the August 15, 1947, India shook off the shackles of British Rule and and abuse, became free. It was a night of celebration all over the country. It . is a red-lettered day , on which the schools and govern ment and private offices remain closed. Early in the morning, the young students sing in chorus the an experience that changed essay, national anthem in accompaniment of flute and drum marching together in and abuse essay, processions in an experience that essay, the streets. Drug Addiction And Abuse. National flags are hoisted in the houses, schools, colleges, and that essay, offices. Drug Addiction. It is thesis learning disabilities a great day for India.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale , India , Indian independence activists 859 Words | 3 Pages. amp; founder of drug and abuse Pakistan ? Ans: Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the african essay, first Governor General andthe founder of Pakistan . . Q2. Who was the drug addiction and abuse, last Viceroy of India? When did he become the last Viceroy? Ans: Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of India. He became the last Viceroy in March, 1947. Q3. Why was the advice, Quaid-e-Azam tired and addiction and abuse essay, unwell at this time? Ans: Pakistan was achieved after a long struggle.
The Quaid-e-Azam was completely tired after the oxford personal advice, creation of Pakistan . The killing and. Direct Action Day , History of addiction and abuse essay Pakistan , Karachi 1403 Words | 5 Pages. India's Independence Day At the stroke of the african racism essay, midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and and abuse, freedom. A . moment comes, which comes but rarely in an experience my life, history, when we step out from the old to the new. India discovers herself again. - Jawaharlal Nehru After more than two hundred years of British rule, India finally won back its freedom on drug addiction and abuse essay, 15th August , 1947. Summary. All the patriotic hearts rejoiced at seeing India becoming a sovereign nation and the triumph of hundreds and thousands. British Empire , India , Indian independence movement 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Independence Day of India Respected teachers and drug and abuse essay, my friends, I wish you a happy Independence Day . . India became independent on world war 2, August 15, 1947. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new…India discovers herself again. - J.L.Nehru On the eve of India’s independence , Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru famous speech “Tryst with Destiny” marked the drug essay, beginning of a free India with words symbolizing hope and triumph.
India got its independence from the. British Empire , British Raj , Governor-General of India 700 Words | 3 Pages. Indian Independence Movement and India. Independence Day , observed annually on war 2, 15 August , is a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's . Drug And Abuse Essay. independence from american essay, British rule on 15 August 1947. Addiction. India attained freedom following an independence movement noted for on man summary largely nonviolent resistance and drug, civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British Indian Empire was divided along religious lines into that changed my life essay the Dominions of addiction and abuse India and Pakistan ; the partition. British Empire , British Raj , Delhi 3416 Words | 7 Pages. Independence Day Of India Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and an essay pope, now the drug and abuse essay, time comes when we will redeem our pledge, . not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to african racism, life and freedom.
A moment comes, which comes but rarely in drug, history, when we step out from the racism essay, old to the new, when an age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. We end today a period of drug essay ill fortune, and India. Country , Future , India 893 Words | 3 Pages. The Mechanical Celebration of the Independence Day Congratulations to all my fellow countrymen, on the occasion of the sixty . fifth independence day ! I wonder to see the number ‘sixty fifth’; as I think what we, the Indians have done for our motherland? Mother India is watching all her children in low spirits. Oxford Uniq. Except in some fields, we Indians have not yet crossed a single mile in the journey of addiction and abuse essay towards national progress. How mechanically the Independence Day celebration is going on american racism, year by year…. Culture of India , Economy of India , India 1066 Words | 3 Pages. Pakistan Affairs 8 Days - Time Table Day : 01 Evolution and drug, growth of Muslim Society in the Sub-continent. . Ideology of Pakistan -Definition and Elucidation. Day : 02 Historical aspects Muslim rule in the sub-continent, its downfall and efforts of an experience that Renaissance.
Movements for reforms-Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi, Shah Waliullah, Aligarh, Deoband, Nadwah. Day : 03 Sind Madressah, Anjarnun Hamiat-e-Islam and Islamia College Peshawar. Ideology of Pakistan in the lights of speeches and sayings of Allama. Bangladesh , British Raj , Indian independence movement 422 Words | 2 Pages. On this Special Day I would like to recollect the addiction and abuse essay, words of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on an essay pope summary, the eve of India’s Independence . “Long . years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the drug addiction essay, time comes when we will redeem our pledge, not wholly or in an experience that changed, full measure, but very substantially. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends and when the drug and abuse essay, soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance . We end today a period of oxford uniq personal advice ill fortune, and drug and abuse, India. Gulzarilal Nanda , India , Indian independence movement 1172 Words | 4 Pages. The Freedom of Pakistan and India Plan of the Investigation: In this essay , I chose to further investigate the freedom of . Pakistan and India. On August 14 , 1947, there was the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan . The very next day India had won its freedom from colonial rule lasting three hundred fifty years. Scholarship. The partition of India, following World War II, is the most tragic political event to affect India in its history. The partition divided Hindus and Muslims, who had lived together.
British Empire , British Raj , India 1153 Words | 3 Pages. Governance in essay, Pakistan . OUTLINES: 1. Introduction 2. Definition of Governance 3. Governance in Pakistan . 4. Failures of changed my life . Governance in Pakistan 5. Causes of failures: 1. Political commotion 2. No democratic setup 3. Military intrusion 4. Feudal indulgence 5. Massive Corruption 6. And Abuse. Constitutional crises 7. Institutional clashes 8. Statement About Learning. Mismanagement of resources 9. Lack of Accountability 10. Over Exploitation of funds 11. Restrictions on media 12. Ethnic conflicts 13. Secterianism 14 . Extremism . Accountability , Decision making , Decision theory 1680 Words | 6 Pages. ? Group Names:Ubedullah , Usaid Anwar ,Salman , Sheraz Ahmed , Ubaid Rehman Report:Sociology Report No. 1. Report Subject (topic): Religion Politics . in essay, Pakistan Submitted To: Sir Qamar Abbas Dated: 28-Nov-2013 International Islamic University Islamabad… Content Definition of Religion Definition of Politics History of Religion History of african essay Politics Analysis (Religion Politics) Suggestion Conclusion Definition of. Asif Ali Zardari , Benazir Bhutto , Islam 1305 Words | 5 Pages. Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-7891989, 0333-5319544 e-mail: [email protected] website: www.onlineislamabad.com ENGLISH FOR CLASS 6TH . TO 8TH CLASS ( ESSAYS ) ============================================================ QUAID-E-AZAM Date of Birth: Quaid-e-Azam was born on essay, 25th December 1876 at Karachi Fathers Name: His father name was Jinnah Poonja. He was a rich merchant of Karachi.
Early Education: He received his early education from Karachi. He passed his Matriculation. Islam , Karachi , Lahore 1068 Words | 3 Pages. THE PARTITION OF INDIA, 1947 On the 14 August 1947, the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan was formed. At . midnight the next day India won its freedom from colonial rule, ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. The British left India divided in an essay by alexander pope, two. The two countries were founded on the basis of drug addiction and abuse essay religion, with Pakistan as an waterloo scholarship essay Islamic state and India as a secular one. Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay. The partition split the Indian subcontinent in 2 well 3 really counting what is now Bangladesh on religious lines.
Bangladesh , Bengal , British Raj 1185 Words | 4 Pages. ISLAMABAD (Online) – The nation is celebrating Pakistan Day today (Tuesday) with a renewed pledge to essay, make the country a strong, . progressive and prosperous Islamic welfare state. Meanwhile, on the directive of Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani, the joint services parade of addiction and abuse essay 23rd March, commonly known as Pakistan Day Parade, will not be held due to current security situation in the country. The day will dawn with a 31-gun salute in the federal capital and 21-gun salute in the provincial capitals. Asif Ali Zardari , Benazir Bhutto , History of american Pakistan 1343 Words | 4 Pages. Prior to creation as a modern state in 1947, the addiction, area of modern Pakistan was both ruled by oxford statement, local kings and drug addiction, under various imperial power . throughout different time periods. The ancient history of the region comprising present- day Pakistan also includes some of the oldest empires from the subcontinent and some of its major civilizations. By the 18th century the land was incorporated into British India.
The political history of the nation began with the world war 2, birth of the All India Muslim League in. Benazir Bhutto , History of Pakistan , Indus Valley Civilization 1202 Words | 4 Pages. Cultural Differences Between India and Pakistan. Clark Subject: Cultural Differences between India and Pakistan Many people, especially in the United States see people . from another country and somehow connect them, or think that they are all the same. The fact is that there are many different cultures and at times they may resemble one another, yet are different. For my research today I will discuss the drug and abuse, people of uniq advice India and Pakistan . People of India and Pakistan seem as though they are very similar. Think about it, we. Difference , Islam , Pakistan 775 Words | 3 Pages. Independence Day Also called Swatantrata Divas (Hindi) Observed by drug, Indians Type National Date August 15 . Celebrations Flag hoisting, distribution of sweets in schools, flying kites, singing patriotic songs, entertainment and cultural programmes India’s Independence Day (Hindi: Swatantrata Divas) is celebrated on August 15 to commemorate its independence from British rule and its birth as a sovereign nation on that day in 1947. The day is a national holiday in India. It is celebrated all over.
British Raj , C. Rajagopalachari , Delhi 799 Words | 3 Pages. Festivals in Pakistan . Statement. Shab-e-Barat :* Religious festival celebrated on and abuse essay, 14th of Shaaban, the 8th Islamic month. Prayers, fire works, . exchange of sweet dishes and statement learning disabilities, visits. Drug And Abuse Essay. Eid-ul-Fitr* : Religious festival celebrating end of fasting month on 1st of Shawwal, the 10th month of Islamic Calendar. Oxford Uniq Advice. Special prayer after sun-rise, exchange of and abuse sweet dishes, visits. Sibi Festival: (Last week of February) At Sibi (Balochistan). An Experience Changed My Life. Traditional sports, handicrafts exhibition, folk music and dances. Drug. . Chitral , Chitral District , Districts of Pakistan 1227 Words | 4 Pages. pakistan movement The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e- Pakistan (Urdu: . . — T??rik-e . Learning Disabilities. Pakistan ) refers to the successful historical movement against addiction and abuse essay British Raj and Indian Congress to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the pope, dissolution of the British Indian Empire muslims there were a minority, yet their elite had a disproportionate amount of representation in the civil service and a strong degree of cultural and essay, literary influence. This movement was led.
British Raj , Direct Action Day , Indian independence movement 1863 Words | 7 Pages. Today is a very special day for all of us, as the whole country celebrates India's Republic Day with pride remembering our great . freedom fighters who have laid their life for essay world our freedom. 26th January, being a very significant date makes us recall the memories of drug and abuse millions of individuals who stood united laying foundation for an essay summary the growth and development of drug and abuse essay our nation. The freedom that we enjoy today is the restless effort of millions of men and women who stood strong for a general cause, making India. Constitution of India , Delhi , India 814 Words | 3 Pages. Media In Pakistan The first television station began broadcasting from Lahore in 26 November 1964. Television in by alexander pope, Pakistan . Drug Essay. remained the government's exclusive control until 1990 when Shalimar Television Network (STN) and Network Television Marketing (NTM) launched Pakistan’s first private TV channel. Foreign satellite TV channels were added during the 1990s. Essay War 2. The government-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was formed on 14 August 1947, the day of drug and abuse Pakistani independence . It was.
Broadcasting , Cable television , FM broadcasting 995 Words | 4 Pages. Indian Independence Movement and India. Independence Day of India Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, . not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to war 2, the new, when an drug age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance.
We end today a period of ill fortune, and. British Empire , British Raj , India 1832 Words | 6 Pages. DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN OUTLINES 1. Introduction 2. What is democracy? 3. Nature of democracy. 4. Changed My Life. Beginning of democracy 5. Democracy since . creation 6. Causes of addiction and abuse failure of democracy 7. Impacts of democracy 8. Measures for the survival of democracy 9. Conclusion “The essence of democracy is statement learning disabilities its assurance that people should so respect himself and addiction essay, should be so respected in his own personality that he should have opportunity equal to an essay on man summary, that of every other human being to show what he was meant. Communism , Democracy , Feudalism 1562 Words | 5 Pages. ?The history of Pakistan as a separate country began in 1947 when the Indian subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain . and was partitioned into the two countries of Pakistan and India. This separation was the drug essay, culmination of events set in motion by the formation of the All-India Muslim League in 1906 to thesis statement about, seek political rights for Muslims. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, called Qa'id-e-A'zam (Great Leader), served as the league's president and was the main force behind partition. At first he worked with. Ayub Khan , Benazir Bhutto , Defence Minister of Pakistan 2033 Words | 4 Pages.
Pakistan: Nationalism Without a Nation. Pakistan : Nationalism Without a Nation Since its inception, Pakistan has faced the monumental task to spell out an . identify different form the Indian identity. Born form the division of the old civilization of India, Pakistan has struggled for constructing its own culture, a culture which would not only be different from the Indian culture but that the whole acknowledge. -Christophe Jaffrelot. Nationalism. Choudhary Rahmat Ali , India , Islam 1976 Words | 6 Pages. ?World War 2 and Indian Independence The British rule in India during the 19th and 20th century was often described as one of ignorance, and . forcefulness. Through the years 1857-1947, Indians had little to no say in any government matters, the new trade industries being set up as a result of the British accumulating a lot of capital due to the industrial revolution, and many new practices including child marriage, and drug and abuse, a rigid caste system became more prevalent (Impact of the essay war 2, British Rule on addiction, India. British Empire , British Raj , India 2147 Words | 4 Pages. Emergence of uniq statement advice Pakistan : The Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament on July 18, 1947, giving rise to the . Indian Union and Pakistan . It also saw the essay, end of British raj in India from August 15, 1947. The Muslims of the sub-continent had finally achieved their goal to have an independent state after a long and relentless struggle under the an essay, single-minded guidance of the drug addiction and abuse, Quaid.
Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in statement about disabilities, 1947. This came about beacuse of the Two-Nation Theory of drug and abuse which. India , Indian independence movement , Indian National Congress 1242 Words | 4 Pages. honour to american essay, stand before you and say a few words on Indian Independence Day . It was today on drug and abuse, 15th August that India . woke up with Freedom way back in 1947 which is one of the biggest achievement for an experience that changed my life us. Who can forget that midnight of 15th August 1947 when Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the Tri-coloured Indian Flag on Red Fort.
Since that day we have got a great reason to celebrate this occasion every year with pride and honour. Independence Day in India is and abuse essay celebrated every year in each and every school. Bhagat Singh , British Raj , India 456 Words | 2 Pages. Rabbu Singh Professor Romano History 1000c 11-29-12 India got its independence from african american, Britishers in 1947 who ruled India for over 190 . Drug And Abuse. years. First through East India Company, and then British Raj was esstablished. What led British to take over personal statement advice, India? India was a country of drug essay diversities viz-a- viz: Poverty, richnes, religions, races, languages and dilects. India was a huge country which had Bangladesh and Pakistan part of it before 1947. Before Britishers India was ruled by Mughals untill 1200AD. British Empire , British Raj , India 1255 Words | 4 Pages. ? Content 1. Acknowledgement 2. Introduction 3. History 4. Of the Indian independence act 1947 5. Effects of the Indian . independence act, 1947 6. Essay. Constitutional position of and abuse Indian states after the Indian independence Act 1947.
7. Bibliography Acknowledgement I am very grateful to the Assistance Professor Dr. Sheeba S.Dhar of Department of Law ,National University Of Advanced Legal Studies,Kochi for giving me such a valuable topic dissertation. This will help us in the detail study of the. British Empire , British Raj , Governor-General of India 2206 Words | 14 Pages. The official name of Pakistan is The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and african american, the capital city is Islamabad. Pakistan . achieved its independence from the United Kingdom on August 14 , 1947. Pakistan is a located in drug and abuse, the southwest region of african american essay Asia measuring a little less than twice the size of California and is comprised of 803,940 sq. And Abuse. km. Pakistan is an experience that sandwiched mainly between India to the east and Afghanistan to the west with China sharing a small section of the north boarder and Iran sharing the southwest. Afghanistan , Bangladesh , History of Pakistan 722 Words | 3 Pages.
Essay on Importance of Independence. Independence Day We have many premium term papers and essays on Independence Day . We . Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay. also have a wide variety of essay world war 2 research papers and book reports available to addiction and abuse, you for free. An Experience My Life Essay. You can browse our collection of drug and abuse term papers or use our search engine. Independence Day India's Independence Day At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the statement, world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out drug and abuse essay from the old to the new…India discovers. C. Rajagopalachari , India , Indian independence movement 388 Words | 2 Pages. Analysis of Downfall of Pakistan Cricket- by an experience my life essay, Adnan Khalid Chemical Engr- Mba( Operations Management), Ibm-Uet, Lahore. downfall of Pakistan cricket Submitted By ; Chemical Engr Adnan Khalid Submitted to : Prof Suhail Rizvi . Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) : is the publicaly owned, governing authority for the regulation of Cricket in drug, pakistan . A Brief History of Pakistan Cricket and. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , ICC World Twenty20 2525 Words | 7 Pages.
Essay on african american, Corruption Culture in Pakistan. The corruption is universal, however, its existence varies in addiction and abuse, rate of occurrence. Since the inception of Pakistan , the country has witnessed of . the rampant corruption. Many governments in general and the governments in decade of 1990 in particular has become the victim of the widespread corruption and an experience essay, corrupt practices. In a recent survey conducted by the Transparency International, Pakistan ranks lowered from 42th most corrupt country to 34th country in the world.
Islam explicitly condemns the. Bribery , Corruption , Karachi 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Today is Independence Day . This is the day to which each of us were looking forward to… Words cannot adequately . express my joy and pride at being leader of drug addiction this independent country. American Racism. It is a unique privilege which I shall remember for ever, and it gives me strength and drug addiction essay, courage as I dedicate my life to university scholarship essay, the service of our country. This is a wonderful day , and it is all the more wonderful because we have awaited it with increasing impatience, compelled to watch one country after another overtaking. Bless you , British Empire , Commonwealth of Nations 1129 Words | 3 Pages. The Role of Students in Pakistan Movement.
ROLE OF STUDENTS IN PAKISTAN MOVEMENT PAKISTAN STUDIES ASSIGNEMENT . The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e- Pakistan refers to the movement to have an independent individual muslim state created within the essay, region of Indian Subcontinent from the advice, British Indian Empire and its emergence as a sovereign country, to essay, be named as Pakistan . An Experience Changed My Life. This movement was. British Raj , Direct Action Day , History of Pakistan 1299 Words | 4 Pages. regarded as the father of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and drug, came into effect on on man by alexander, 26 . January 1950. Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. University Waterloo Essay. The Constitution declares India to. British Empire , British Raj , Constitution of India 1627 Words | 5 Pages.
? POVERTY IN PAKISTAN CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Drug. Poverty Condition in oxford personal statement, Pakistan 3. Definition 4. Causes of Poverty in . Pakistan Government Policies Poor Governance Corruption Unemployment Overpopulation Education 5. Remedies to Overcome Poverty in Pakistan 6. Conclusion INTRODUCTION The word poverty derived from Latin word “pauper” means “poor”. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water. Basic needs , Governance , Indus River 1800 Words | 6 Pages. agree with what Noynoy Aquino has said. An Independence Day is an annual celebration commemorating the anniversary of a . nation’s assumption of independent statehood, usually after ceasing to addiction essay, be a colony or part of another state, more rarely after the that essay, end of drug addiction essay a military occupation. Most countries honor their respective independence day as a national holiday and some countries or nations’ independence -date honors’ are contested. Independence Day is the day to commemorate all the pope, works of certain people. Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino people , Lea Salonga 764 Words | 3 Pages.
The sixtieth anniversary of the independence of drug addiction Pakistan and India on statement about learning disabilities, 14 -15 August 2007 has prompted . official celebration in both countries, as well as an ocean of drug commemorative coverage in the world's media. Oxford. The terrible violence that accompanied the birthpangs of the two states from the ashes of empire is an inevitable theme in much commentary. What is being less addressed amid the profusion of human stories - and what this article considers - is whether the problems of drug addiction and abuse essay communal division in the. Bangladesh , British Raj , India 1529 Words | 5 Pages. Humanities Exam Essay Structure Amza 10E QUESTION 1 INTRODUCTION Contention Gandhi was mostly effective in achieving . independence for India Terms Evaluate – finding how valuable Gandhi was as a leader through his ideas about passive resistance that he introduced to his follower and how he used it to achieve independence Effective Leader – is thesis statement about disabilities someone who doesn’t always successful, but able to bring change and new ideas to the society. An effective leader should have support from his follower. China , Deng Xiaoping , Great Leap Forward 1735 Words | 7 Pages. Short Essay on 15th August – The Independence Day of India By Devansha on November 30, 2011 in . Essays The great dream of our freedom fighters, nationalists, and revolutionaries was realized on 15th Aug. 1947, when India became free and independent. It was an drug epoch-making event of great significance, which ushered in an era of liberty, self-rule and african american, prosperity for our nation.
Since then 15th Aug., has been celebrated all over India as our Independence Day . And Abuse Essay. It is a national festival-a day to remember. Delhi , India , Indian independence movement 700 Words | 2 Pages. ?23 March Pakistan day is a national day for Pakistan . This day is been observed as a . national day all over Pakistan . It is an essay on man by alexander also know by the name of Pakistan Resolution Day Republic Day . As we all know that on addiction and abuse essay, 23rd March 1940 Pakistan Resolution came into view. Oxford Uniq Statement Advice. On this particular and subjected day , the veryfirst constitution of drug and abuse Pakistan was been adopted and an experience changed my life essay, Pakistan nation was transferred and transformed into Islamic Republic of Pakistan . Purpose of 23 March Pakistan Day : The basis and primary. Ayub Khan , British Raj , Karachi 636 Words | 3 Pages. Terrorism: Essay and Prize Bond Rs. Register Help Remember Me? Boards Forum Today's PostsFAQCalendarCommunity Forum Actions Quick Links Chat Results Advanced Search . ForumVirtualiansAnnouncements Write an essay on Terrorism in Pakistan Sponsored Links Catholic Universities Restaurant Jobs Work at home data entry job Degree in and abuse, nutrition Doctoral Degrees If this is your first visit, be sure to about learning, check out the and abuse, FAQ by clicking the link above.
You may have to register before you can post: click the register. Essay , Post , Power-on self-test 1174 Words | 6 Pages. ? independence Day - the day when British left the golden bird free from thesis about learning, their rule. But the drug and abuse essay, bird was left looted, . harassed, with the slightest of hope to survive. Then followed a long fight for the survival of golden bird. 64 years have passed and the country is still ‘developing’. The whole world says and even we believe that we are the an essay by alexander pope summary, citizens of an independent country. But a question always keep on hovering in my mind, the answer to which I never found out.
You also give it a try. Drug And Abuse. Is India really. 1913 , 1922 , Gulzarilal Nanda 525 Words | 3 Pages. with goods throughout the day Education College of Southern Nevada . Degree in progress Business Major Current GPA – 3.56 Extra-Curricular Activities Member of Sand Piper Swim Club Aug 2006 – June 2011 * Teaching children ages 8- 14 the basics of swimming and. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association , Customer , Customer service 559 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and personal, “Declaration of the addiction, Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. My Life Essay. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS.
Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. Life of and abuse essay Quaid E Azam After Independence. QUAID-E-AZAM’S LIFE AFTER THE INDEPENDENCE GOVERNOR-GENERAL: Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan and american, president . of its constituent assembly. Addiction. Inaugurating the assembly on statement disabilities, August 11, 1947, Jinnah spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of drug addiction religion, caste or creed. This address is a cause of much debate in waterloo scholarship essay, Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech.
British Raj , Dina Wadia , History of Pakistan 1481 Words | 5 Pages. History Pakistan was created as a result of the partition of subcontinent and the British left behind a strong bureaucracy and army. The . country was divided again when Eastern Pakistan seceded to form Bangladesh. A factor in this division was that Bengal's elite and ruling class had been Hindus who were displaced by the partition, while the drug and abuse, Punjab's rich land-owning class were Muslims and so had retained power.  Recent events According to calculations performed by Transparency. Asif Ali Zardari , Corruption , Government of Pakistan 1413 Words | 6 Pages. Abstract This paper looks at the recent history of Ghana and explains the series of events that led up to Ghana's independence in 1957. The . paper specifically discusses the effects of colonization in terms of about disabilities economic and social development and addiction, the cultural tensions and tribal divisions in the newly independent Ghana. The paper then looks at the current population and government and thesis learning, concludes that while Ghana is still very much a developing country, Ghana is significantly better off than its West.
Accra , Africa , African Union 1615 Words | 6 Pages. ?The Day Before Independence June 25, 1986 was the last day of my childhood. I was 16 years old graduating from . high school; the next morning I would be on and abuse, a train going of to a college to a strange city, all by myself…This scenario might sound very appealing and an essay on man, fairly common to an American, but for a young girl born and raised in drug and abuse essay, the Soviet Union this situation was scary and challenging. In Belarus (part of the former USSR) families stayed close together. Young people especially girls would go.
Academic dress , College , Graduation 1456 Words | 4 Pages.
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Drug Addiction essays
essay what is truth THE REASON FOR TRUTH Contents. We live in a strange world in which many people seem able to doubt almost everything (such as the validity of evolution or man landing on the moon or the official explanation for 9/11) and yet simultaneously are willing to believe almost anything (whether it be creationism or alien abduction or the murder of Princess Diana by MI5) with little or no regard for rationality or evidence. In academic circles, this phenomenon is associated with the rise of relativism, postmodernism and pseudoscience. In more everyday terms, the development is associated with new ageism, spirituality, and the like.
I believe in drug essay rationality, reason and science and therefore I am profoundly sceptical about many beliefs and oxford uniq, ideas that others hold always sincerely and often passionately. I believe in the value of evidence and drug and abuse, I am deeply sceptical of anything contrary to university waterloo scholarship reason or lacking in evidence. I believe that belief should be proportioned to drug addiction credible evidence and american racism, demonstrable causality especially where counter-intuitive notions are concerned. I believe in having an open mind - ready to contemplate new ideas backed by persuasive evidence - but not an empty one - ready to accept any novel suggestion however lacking in and abuse essay sense or evidence. Does it really matter what people believe and how they reach their beliefs? Cannot we just accept that different people believe very different - often fundamentally opposite - things and that some people are more open to esoteric ideas and more willing to have faith or belief in unusual notions? This essay sets out: why truth matters the oxford uniq personal statement techniques people use to deny truth the techniques for determining truth the techniques for identifying non-truth the sort of drug and abuse essay, beliefs that I challenge. WHY TRUTH MATTERS.
I would offer the racism following reasons for why truth does matter: Truth has its own virtue . Most of the time we expect and want people - including our relatives, friends, politicians, doctors and professional advisers - to tell us the truth because we believe that it is important to drug addiction know the truth and honourable to express the truth. Only humans can discern truth . An Essay On Man? Of all life on addiction the planet, only humankind can rise above conditioning or instinct and identify truth, so that this is in effect one of the defining characteristics of what it means to be human. Truth is an essay war 2 intrinsic part of human history and culture . All our historic and contemporary experience is based on identifying the best possible understanding of truth and building upon this to create a better understanding of our world and our universe. Truth is necessary for drug and abuse, a consistent and meaningful approach to life . An Essay On Man By Alexander Pope Summary? If we do not know whether statements are true, we cannot make reasonable decisions about our life, such as whether to marry an individual or whether to buy a particular property. Truth is useful because it enables one to essay make predictions . An Experience That Changed Essay? If we are confident that things are true, then we can make assertions about the drug addiction future with equal confidence, such as that a particular design of aircraft is safe or a particular form of sex is dangerous. The absence of truth is positively dangerous . If truth does not matter, then we can be persuaded to do things with great personal and societal implications, such as to use an ineffective treatment for HIV/AIDS or to go to war over weapons of mass destruction that do not exist. Oxford Personal Statement? Equally we can deny the and abuse essay reality of the university waterloo scholarship Holocaust or the evidence of global warming. Some people argue - in a spirit of mistaken tolerance - that ultimately truth is a personal issue and it does not really matter if one person believes one thing and another person believes something else about the same subject. However, one person's 'truth' often has consequences for another person. Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay? For instance, in the UK one flawed piece of research which appeared to suggest a relationship between the an experience changed MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine and autism was believed to be true by some parents who then ensured that their young children did not receive the vaccine.
Not only were the children concerned then at drug addiction and abuse, greater risk of university waterloo, disease but gradually so was the whole child population. Acceptance of the truth would seem to be self-evidently a sensible thing, so why do so many people so often deny the truth? There are many reasons including the following: They are advised against the truth by an authority figure . Drug Addiction? If at waterloo scholarship, the time of Galileo, the Roman Catholic Church told its members that it was heresy to suggest that the earth was not the centre of the universe, most religious people would not be willing to accept the truth. Today religious or political leaders or our parents or teachers may - often with great sincerity - take a position contrary to the truth as presented in credible evidence. As the writer George Orwell once put it: Some ideas are so stupid that only intellectuals can believe them.
The truth may be contrary to the status quo. Einstein's theory of relativity was not consistent with Newton's laws of gravity - but Einstein was right and drug addiction and abuse, eventually scientific evidence demonstrated this and personal advice, Einstein's theory became the new paradigm. Drug Addiction And Abuse Essay? We once thought that smoking and asbestos were not harmful to health but then the evidence showed otherwise. This is what happens in science and life and an experience that, we should be open to it. The truth may offend against and abuse essay, a received wisdom. For instance, it may seem obvious to african american racism essay supporters of drug, capital punishment that the death penalty is a deterrent but countless studies show that it has no effect on murder rates. One may not like the source of the truth.
If a person whom we dislike or an organisation that we oppose - perhaps a political party or a campaign group - puts forward an an essay by alexander summary assertion, we may be inclined to dismiss it, whatever the evidence, because we are to some extent influenced, even blinded, by the source. One may feel that there is an alternative explanation. And Abuse Essay? Of course, there are often alternative explanations; the question is whether an alternative explanation both is consistent with all the essay evidence and better accords with the evidence than the explanation offered. One may feel that there is other evidence. However, we can only and abuse essay, make judgements based on an essay on man summary the evidence we have at the time. Addiction Essay? This is how individuals, businesses and courts make decisions. If new evidence becomes available, then one can reassess one's position. As the eminent economist John Maynard Keynes once put it: When the on man by alexander pope summary facts change, I change my mind. What do you do, sir?
One may simply not understand either the evidence or the addiction and abuse essay arguments. In which case, one either takes the essay studies and the time to understand or one accepts the authority of drug and abuse, those who have the relevant knowledge and expertise. One may actually have a fear of the african american truth. Sometimes people do not want to examine evidence or consider a different outlook because they are afraid of the possible consequences. Drug Addiction? Similarly, changing one's mind can be stressful, if by doing so one needs to re-examine and possibly extensively modify one's view. DETERMINATION OF TRUTH. So, how do we know what is the university truth? The following considerations are paramount: Above all, we have to drug and abuse use our reason. We cannot simply accept things because they conform with our previous ideas or reinforce our prejudices or suggest the world as we would like to see it. We have to pope summary think about the arguments and the evidence and work things out.
We need to look at the evidence. So often assertions are made with little or no evidence. We should be very reluctant to and abuse essay accept any such assertion. As the Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) put it: “A wise man proportions his belief to the evidence”. Personal experience or anecdotes of world war 2, acquaintances may seem convincing evidence, but our senses can easily deceive us and individuals can be seriously, if sincerely, wrong. Sometimes there is insufficient evidence to form a conclusion, in drug and abuse essay which case I don't know is an acceptable response and oxford personal statement advice, better than jumping to conclusions on drug essay inadequate eveidence. We need strong evidence if the assertion is contrary to the current wisdom. Of course, as we saw earlier, people can deny a 'new' truth or understanding simply because it is contrary to the 'old' truth or explanation and one should beware of this. However, most of the time most of the oxford personal assertions that are contrary to the current wisdom are wrong, so we need convincing evidence if we are to drug and abuse abandon current thinking.
We should look at whether an assertion is testable and has been tested. Essay? If we are told that a particular drug or treatment is effective, then the drug or treatment can be tested using a large enough sample of patients and a proper control group. If the proposition - for instance, prayer can cure cancer - has not been tested or cannot be properly tested, one needs to be very sceptical of its validity. We should look at whether an assertion has been the subject of peer group review. The best people to judge the truth of particular propositions are usually those who have the relevant knowledge and expertise in addiction and abuse essay that area. So doctors are best able to assess medical propositions; climatologists are best able to judge the validity of university waterloo, global warming; physicists are most likely to know the and abuse effects on humans of electric fields. If a proposition has not been tested by university, peers or has been rejected by those peers, one should be inclined to reject it. We need to weigh carefully the opinion of relevant authorities. Of course, again as we saw earlier, authority can be wrong - especially when a new idea is drug addiction essay concerned and most especially when the new idea challenges a well-established older idea.
However, most of the time most of us need to accept the view of the about disabilities relevant authority because we simply do not have the knowledge or expertise to make an informed judgement and most of the time these authorities serve us well. So, if the overwhelming majority of drug, doctors state that the MMR injection is safe or the overwhelming majority of scientists state that global warming is a reality, we need compelling reasons - preferably based on sound evidence - to personal disbelieve this. We should be more inclined to accept assertions emanating from open systems than from closed ones. The reason why democratic societies are more successful economically and its citizens on addiction the whole are happier than in statement advice the case of authoritarian societies is because a democratic nation is an open system with stronger and more effective mechanisms for determining and disseminating the truth. These mechanisms include universal franchise, regular elections, a choice of political parties, a free media, freedom of expression, freedom of drug addiction, association, the rule of law, an independent judiciary, the jury system, open courts, free markets, educated citizens and consumers. Similarly political parties, companies and organisations that have open systems - promoting a free flow of information, encouraging debate, and permitting challenge - are more likely to be sources of essay, truth. DETECTION OF NON-TRUTH. The world is awash with non-truths. How does one detect such non-truths.
We need to apply the following tests: Above all, what is the evidence? As well as the evidence itself, we want to know the source - the and abuse essay primary source, not a reported or second-hand source - of the evidence and we want to know its authority and its timing. Again we need to essay world war 2 appreciate that most personal experience and anecdotal evidence is drug addiction and abuse essay weak and by alexander pope, unpersuasive. Has the evidence been reviewed by a group of peers? If not, why not? If so, what was the response of the peer group? Has the evidence and drug addiction and abuse essay, the methodology been confirmed or challenged or questioned by the peer group? Is the that assertion consistent with current knowledge or is it counter-intuitive . If it challenges current thinking, it may still be valid, but we need clear and persuasive evidence before accepting it. Are we sure that there is not merely correlation but actual causality?
Every time I wake up in the morning, the sun rises. Addiction? Here there is a clear correlation but obviously there is absolutely no causality. This is a simple example. Consider another: more police are put on the streets and waterloo, crime falls. Here there may or may not be a causality - we need to assess all the relevant variables such as changes in population or reporting or sentencing. Does the assertion lend itself to addiction prediction? If one believes in homeopathic medicine, then one can predict that those using it will recover from various ailments. American? This can and should be tested in a controlled experiment. When carrying out drug addiction and abuse such experiments, one needs to be aware of on man summary, 'the placebo effect', whereby people often report improvements in health even when no drug has been administered, and drug addiction essay, 'the Hawthorne effect', whereby people's behaviour changes simply as a response to being observed in an experiment.
The analysis in this essay leads me to a particular position on many issues of discussion and an experience that my life essay, debate in our society. While I have deep respect for people with religious views, especially when this leads to ethical and moral behaviour, I am profoundly sceptical of all metaphysical and paranormal concepts and ideas such as God, the Devil, angels, ghosts, spirits, Heaven, Hell, grace, sin, miracles and the efficacy of prayer. Drug And Abuse? Equally I am unconvinced of the existence of physical notions for which there is little or no evidence such as UFOs, aliens, alien architecture and alien abductions. I reject very strongly the theories of young earth creationism and intelligent design. I am opposed intellectually to all non-rational modes of an experience changed my life essay, thought and and abuse essay, therefore I am profoundly sceptical of the validity of aura, shakra, reiki, clairvoyance, telepathy, psychokinesis, astrology, cosmic ordering, crystals, feng shui, labyrinths, dowsing, horoscopes, prophecies, numerology, faith healing, alternative medicine, homeopathy, miracle cures, and conspiracy theories. I reject very strongly the african american idea of Holocaust denial. In short: there is no evidence for addiction, any of these things, so I do not believe in them. I would summarize my position on truth as follows: In a strict sense, all truth is provisional and stands open to challenge on the basis of racism essay, a new interpretation of the available evidence or the provision of new evidence.
The key point here is that it is evidence - old or new - that is at and abuse, the heart of the oxford uniq personal determination. Addiction? In the meanwhile, the an essay most truthful statements explain and are consistent with all the and abuse essay currently available evidence. On the basis of consistency and utility, the most truthful statements are likely to be consistent with the current paradigm until persuasive evidence challenges that paradigm. The most useful truths are those that do simply explain past phenomena but enable consistently accurate statements about the future. FURTHER READING The Demon-Haunted World by Carl Sagan (Random House, 1995) [for my review click here] Why People Believe Weird Things by scholarship, Michael Shermer (W.H. Freeman, 1997) [for my review click here] The Skeptic's Dictionary by Robert Todd Carroll (John Wiley, 2003) [for online version click here] How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered The World by Francis Wheen (Harper Perrenial, 2004) [for my review click here] Counterknowledge by Damian Thompson (Atlantic Books, 2008) [for my review click here] Don't Get Fooled Again by Richard Wilson (Icon Books, 2008) [for my review click here] Ben Goldacre's Bad Science site click here My advice on How To Think Critically click here.
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