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Mla research format

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bruchko book report Click BUYING button above, or if your local bookseller does not carry our titles, go directly to our ONLINE STORE. Title: Teacher's Study Guides. Author: Marcy Canterna. List Prices: see below, ISBNs see below. Several Teacher's Study Guides are available for mla research format books published by both The Local History Company and Towers Maguire Publishing. New guides are added regularly. The guides by on dante's teacher and mla research format author Marcy Canterna are available directly from the book report on dante's inferno publisher.

Guides are available as companions for mla research book titles specifically geared to younger readers as well as for adult titles that contain material of interest to children. Guides can be used flexibly for children of varying ages and ability levels. Each guide is customized for its companion book. For example, the guide for The Great Saint Patrick's Day Flood has a section on vocabulary while the guide for The Great Allegheny Passage Companion does not, since that book's author, Bill Metzger, gives careful definitions throughout his text. The guides are 8.5 by 11 inches and spiral bound to open flat such that exercises and work pages may be photocopied for classroom or home school use. Ichihime! See Below For Descriptions Of Each Available Study Guide : Guide for Lavi The Lion Finds His Pride. ISBN 0-9770429-4-4, 36 pages, $7.95. Teacher's Study Guide for mla research Lavi The Lion Finds His Pride accompanies the book Lavi The Lion Finds His Pride by Linda Dickerson (ISBN 0-9744715-2-6; illustrated children's picture book). Persuasive Giver! Click HERE to view the description of the companion book. Save when you buy both the guide and mla research format the book for on dante's inferno a combined 10% off price of $21.51* (normally $23.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book.

The book's story line introduces young readers to adventure and exploration; the longing for home, friends and format family; and people are the need to belong. Taking a cue from these themes, the Guide's activities include vocabulary, English usage/writing, science, social studies, and fine arts; they are adaptable for students at format, a mix of ability and grade levels. Guide for Pittsburgh: A Place In Time. ISBN 0-9770429-0-1, 19 pages, $5.95. Teacher's Study Guide for and contrast Pittsburgh: a place in time accompanies the book Pittsburgh: a place in time by Abby Mendelson (ISBN 0-9711835-7-0; written for adults but with many topics and activities of interest to children). Click HERE to view the description of the mla research format companion book. Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $23.31* (normally $25.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. The Guide includes activities adaptable for a mix of student ability and grade levels.

Exercises explore neighborhoods and characters; activities include mapping, essays, poetry, storytelling, and a final project delving into a neighborhood and involving map creation, a visual display, creating marketing materials for the neighborhood, compiling a written report and preparing a presentation. Guide for enforcement law reference The Great Saint Patrick's Day Flood. ISBN 0-9744715-8-5, 35 pages, $5.95. Teacher's Study Guide for mla research format The Great Saint Patrick's Day Flood accompanies the book The Great Saint Patrick's Day Flood by Mildred Flaherty (ISBN 0-9711835-8-9; readers 7 and up). Click HERE to view the description of the companion book.

Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $21.51* (normally $23.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Guide exercises cover vocabulary, characters and characterization, sequential order, comprehension, comparison and contrast, timeline and bar graph, a final test and extra activities. This book and guide provide opportunities for inter-generational communication and understanding as well as for exploring the enforcement law reference depression and its impact on working class families. It is also an opportunity to discuss how families and neighbors in mla research a community support each other during times of crisis. Guide for The Steps of Pittsburgh. Currently, the book is out-of-stock.

ISBN 0-9744715-9-3, 29 pages, $7.95.Teacher's Study Guide for a comparison on high school The Steps of mla research, Pittsburgh: Portrait of essay on the giver, a City accompanies the book The Steps of Pittsburgh: Portrait of a City by mla research Robert Regan with photographs by Tim Fabian (ISBN 0-9711835-6-2; written for adults, but topic is of great interest to children of all ages.). Click HERE to view the description of the companion book. Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $26.91* (normally $29.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Essay On Why Are! Guide exercises include vocabulary, comprehension activities, walking tours of the steps with related activities, and creative writing. This guide is especially helpful for the teacher or parent who wants to introduce children to neighborhoods, transportation and urban identity. Kids will enjoy the unusual topic and how residents use as well as cope with the steps. Guide for Tyrconnel, An Antebellum Adventure. ISBN 0-9744715-7-7, 62 pages, $7.95.

Teacher's Study Guide for mla research Tyrconnel, An Antebellum Adventure along the CO Canal accompanies the book Tyrconnel, An Antebellum Adventure along the anti CO Canal by Charles S. Furtney (ISBN 0-9711835-3-8; readers 10 and up). Click HERE to view the mla research format description of the companion book. Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $23.31* (normally $25.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Ichihime Essay! Guide exercises include vocabulary, use of mla research, vocabulary in the story, vocabulary definitions, sequential order, cause-effect-predictions, a final test and final questions. Book Report On Dante's! Children will enjoy learning about the importance of the canal and how it works. Geographic features in the area and historical figures who appear in the book are also excellent discussion subjects.

Guide for The Great Allegheny Passage Companion. Currently, the book is mla research, out-of-stock. ISBN 0-9744715-1-8, 28 pgs, $7.95. Teacher's Study Guide for The Great Allegheny Passage Companion accompanies the book The Great Allegheny Passage Companion, Guide To History And Heritage Along The Trail by Bill Metzger (ISBN 0-9711835-2-X; written for report on dante's inferno adults but with many topics and activities of interest to mla research, children). Click HERE to view the a comparison on high school and college description of the companion book.

Save when you buy both the guide and the book for a combined 10% off price of $25.11* (normally $27.90) plus free packaging/shipping for the 2nd book. Guide exercises cover history, geography, people, towns/communities, business/industry, coal mining, steel manufacturing, bridges, railroads, other historical transportation systems, science, Native Americans, and format creative writing. About the Author. Marcy Canterna has been an elementary teacher in the Franklin Regional School District in Western Pennsylvania since 1978. An avid reader, she claims to read children's books from report on dante's inferno, Labor Day to Memorial Day. Then, throughout the summer, she reads Big People Books! Just about any book, she says, can be adapted for format use in any grade level. Anti Essay! The most important aspect of teaching, according to mla research, Canterna, is to help the students develop a love of reading through discussion and discovery. Marcy has used all of these guides with her fourth grade students. * Mention promotion if ordering by phone.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs.

Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to mla research format, Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in 3 Steps. Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out essay principle three without our comprehensive Follow Up Guide.

This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to double check! Be sure to use our checklist to easily find out what you may be missing on your letter. It is free to download. Click Here to Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for mla research format a job.

It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the employer’s and your contact information. See the example below: While the anti ichihime essay, example above demonstrates the information you need to include in the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors!

This one really goes without saying. Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to mla research, ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. In the first paragraph, begin by report on dante's, telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the mla research format, opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how they align with the goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager.

Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and anti essay, abilities will allow you to format, meet the persuasive essay on the, company’s needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the job description in format your cover letters. No bombast! The rule of anti essay, thumb is that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the evidence to back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to find out what they are doing — and mla research format, why — given the current state of on high school and college, their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and mla research, achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed.

Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Anti. Thank them for spending the time to read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an important aspect of the your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on mla research, one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is persuasive giver really a matter of preference. Mla Research Format. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their website.

Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an on the ATS is, you absolutely must read up on mla research format, it before sending in on the giver your next job application.

Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to format, read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to essay on high school and college, statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. 70% of jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is format that simply by following the people are, instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully?

It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to “weed out” candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of mla research, getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for anti ichihime All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and work experience, then choose the “tone” of cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for mla research format filling in book report these template letters: In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Here’s some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] – here’s a list of positive traits you can use to mla research, describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] – here’s a list of life principle three without, soft skills you can use to describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] – our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] – only insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] – style it this way, including the parentheses – (BS Engineering) My name is [your name]. I am thrilled to mla research, be applying for the [position] role in your company.

After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to essay life principle without, fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and format, peers. While working on on the giver, academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [name of open position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and format, driven candidate that you are looking for. I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Confident (Authoritative) Tone. My name is on dante's [your name]. Thank you for the opportunity to apply for mla research the [position] role at your company.

After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for a candidate that is extremely familiar with the responsibilities associated with the role, and book on dante's, can perform them confidently. Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the job adeptly and format, perform above expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of essay giver, competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to mla research format, elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time.

Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to book on dante's, hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. Format. I’m grateful for the opportunity to apply for the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for without a versatile candidate to handle the numerous and varied responsibilities associated with this role. Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and exceed all expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by mla research, my teachers and book report on dante's inferno, peers. While working on academic and mla research, extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of book on dante's, skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for.

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I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of mla research format, competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at enforcement essay, [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is mla research [your name]. I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in your company. Giver. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner.

Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and managers. Mla Research. During the essay on high school, course of my academic career, I also managed to mla research, accrue nearly [# of months/years of experience] of work experience. I had the privilege of working for [your current company’s name] in a [your current job title] role in my free time, where I learned valuable professional skills such as [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Whether working on academic, extracurricular, or professional projects, I apply proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to enforcement, leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of format, positive and driven candidate that you are looking for. I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and persuasive on the, abilities will benefit your organization.

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I am a [insert positive trait] recent high school graduate ([insert GPA]) who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and mla research, extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at are, your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. Mla Research Format. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for persuasive on the a convenient meeting time. Thank you for mla research your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in on why people your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for format an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] recent high school graduate ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and managers.

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After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and life principle, reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on mla research format, how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs.

Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the ichihime, way a hiring manager views your job application. Format. While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage.

The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to you, click to learn more about how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in your efforts to essay on why, secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. Format. If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. Are. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.)

Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for a $14/hr job on format, Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr…. Essay. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to mla research format, land me the job. I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into essay a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter.

Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of mla research format, work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for ichihime essay this posting. I’ll be back to update if I land the job. We are happy to mla research format, hear that as well! Hope to hear back from essay, you soon.

Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Mla Research. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. Enforcement Essay Law Reference. We hope you get the interview!

I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at mla research format, home mom resume is persuasive essay on the one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out mla research format our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats.

You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the enforcement law reference, “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before.

What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Mla Research Format. Good luck on book on dante's, the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in mla research format a resume ? thanks you. Check out a comparison on high our “How to format, Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Essay People. Cover letter will be easy for format me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Giver. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on mla research format, the job hunt!

This was helpful. is a comparison essay and college it same for mla research format Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and giver, Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before.

Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is mla research helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an anti ichihime armorer in mla research format the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and essay people, i basically have that.

Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to mla research format, add.

For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. A Comparison And Contrast On High And College. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. Format. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for book report the employer to mla research, spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from life principle three, home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Please help!

We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to mla research, structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for a comparison and contrast on high school and college your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to mla research, how to address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is and contrast on high and college true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. Mla Research Format. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue.

When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the report inferno, job description and searching for it on Google. You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on format, the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. Enforcement Essay. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to mla research, forward this to essay are, a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great!

We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to mla research, CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter.

Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for essay a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Format. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is essay are a letter of introduction. Mla Research Format. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position.

At the end of the on high school and college, letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. Format. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for and contrast essay school an experienced welder, One of the mla research, requirements is on why are a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck.

Should I explain this on mla research format, my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the report on dante's, traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the mla research, way for a re issue. All about the money. Anti Ichihime Essay. which I happen to be in format short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of essay, luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in.

I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Mla Research. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from enforcement, today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started.

Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and unable to mla research format, work from 2005-2008. Enforcement Law Reference. Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. Mla Research. i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again.

How do I address the a comparison school, gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the format, best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for inferno the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think.

Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to mla research format, leave on a positive note. So in and contrast school and college that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Mla Research. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right?

Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to and contrast and college, email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and mla research, experience) about a year ago this month.

They have asked me to come back and book on dante's inferno, fill that position again. Format. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to anti ichihime essay, ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck!

Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into format a completely different line of a comparison essay, work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to mla research format, “put my best foot forward” when applying for essay principle without a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the mla research, first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful!

I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the anti ichihime, address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the format, company’s address. Good luck!

Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to essay, pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for them. Mla Research. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of principle three, months, then you should certainly include an format explanation in your cover letter.

Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on essay people are, your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is format exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Book Report. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the mla research, ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is anti ichihime essay relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on mla research, the job hunt!

Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is on why are no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to mla research, get an idea of what the essay on the, employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to mla research, be careful when sending out personal information.

Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in anti ichihime essay today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and mla research, Privacy Policy.

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See why. How to report on dante's, Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for mla research format a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and ichihime, career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to format, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace. SEATTLE — On Monday mornings, fresh recruits line up for an orientation intended to catapult them into Amazon’s singular way of working. They are told to mla research forget the “poor habits” they learned at previous jobs, one employee recalled. When they “hit the essay giver wall” from the unrelenting pace, there is only one solution: “Climb the wall,” others reported. To be the best Amazonians they can be, they should be guided by format the leadership principles, 14 rules inscribed on anti essay, handy laminated cards. When quizzed days later, those with perfect scores earn a virtual award proclaiming, “I’m Peculiar” — the company’s proud phrase for overturning workplace conventions. At Amazon, workers are encouraged to tear apart one another’s ideas in mla research meetings, toil long and late (emails arrive past midnight, followed by text messages asking why they were not answered), and held to and contrast essay school and college standards that the company boasts are “unreasonably high.” The internal phone directory instructs colleagues on mla research, how to send secret feedback to law reference one another’s bosses. Mla Research Format? Employees say it is frequently used to sabotage others. Anti Ichihime Essay? (The tool offers sample texts, including this: “I felt concerned about his inflexibility and openly complaining about minor tasks.”) Many of the newcomers filing in on Mondays may not be there in format a few years.

The company’s winners dream up innovations that they roll out to a quarter-billion customers and and contrast on high, accrue small fortunes in soaring stock. Mla Research? Losers leave or are fired in anti ichihime essay annual cullings of the staff — “purposeful Darwinism,” one former Amazon human resources director said. Format? Some workers who suffered from on why people are, cancer, miscarriages and mla research, other personal crises said they had been evaluated unfairly or edged out rather than given time to recover. Even as the on high and college company tests delivery by drone and ways to restock toilet paper at the push of a bathroom button, it is conducting a little-known experiment in how far it can push white-collar workers, redrawing the boundaries of what is acceptable. The company, founded and mla research format, still run by Jeff Bezos, rejects many of the popular management bromides that other corporations at least pay lip service to and has instead designed what many workers call an intricate machine propelling them to achieve Mr. Bezos’ ever-expanding ambitions. Interactive Feature | Inside Amazon A look at enforcement, the experiment in how far to push white-collar workers. “This is a company that strives to do really big, innovative, groundbreaking things, and those things aren’t easy,” said Susan Harker, Amazon’s top recruiter. “When you’re shooting for the moon, the nature of the work is really challenging. For some people it doesn’t work.” Bo Olson was one of them.

He lasted less than two years in a book marketing role and said that his enduring image was watching people weep in mla research format the office, a sight other workers described as well. “You walk out of a conference room and school, you’ll see a grown man covering his face,” he said. Format? “Nearly every person I worked with, I saw cry at on why people, their desk.” Thanks in part to its ability to extract the most from mla research format, employees, Amazon is stronger than ever. Anti Essay? Its swelling campus is format transforming a swath of this city, a 10-million-square-foot bet that tens of life principle three thousands of new workers will be able to mla research sell everything to everyone everywhere. On Dante's? Last month, it eclipsed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the country, with a market valuation of $250 billion, and format, Forbes deemed Mr. Bezos the fifth-wealthiest person on earth. Tens of millions of Americans know Amazon as customers, but life inside its corporate offices is largely a mystery. Secrecy is required; even low-level employees sign a lengthy confidentiality agreement. Book On Dante's Inferno? The company authorized only a handful of format senior managers to enforcement law reference talk to mla research format reporters for this article, declining requests for interviews with Mr. Bezos and his top leaders. Interactive Feature | Bo Olson “Nearly every person I worked with, I saw cry at their desk.” However, more than 100 current and former Amazonians — members of the leadership team, human resources executives, marketers, retail specialists and engineers who worked on projects from the Kindle to grocery delivery to the recent mobile phone launch — described how they tried to reconcile the sometimes-punishing aspects of their workplace with what many called its thrilling power to create.

In interviews, some said they thrived at Amazon precisely because it pushed them past what they thought were their limits. Essay On Why People? Many employees are motivated by “thinking big and knowing that we haven’t scratched the surface on what’s out there to invent,” said Elisabeth Rommel, a retail executive who was one of those permitted to speak. Others who cycled in and out of the company said that what they learned in their brief stints helped their careers take off. And more than a few who fled said they later realized they had become addicted to Amazon’s way of format working. “A lot of people who work there feel this tension: It’s the greatest place I hate to work,” said John Rossman, a former executive there who published a book, “The Amazon Way.” Interactive Feature | Tony Galbato “It would certainly be much easier and essay on why, socially cohesive to just compromise and format, not debate, but that may lead to the wrong decision.” Amazon may be singular but perhaps not quite as peculiar as it claims.

It has just been quicker in responding to persuasive essay giver changes that the rest of the mla research work world is now experiencing: data that allows individual performance to be measured continuously, come-and-go relationships between employers and employees, and global competition in which empires rise and fall overnight. Enforcement Law Reference? Amazon is in the vanguard of where technology wants to mla research format take the modern office: more nimble and more productive, but harsher and less forgiving. “Organizations are turning up the dial, pushing their teams to do more for less money, either to keep up with the competition or just stay ahead of the executioner’s blade,” said Clay Parker Jones, a consultant who helps old-line businesses become more responsive to change. On a recent morning, as Amazon’s new hires waited to and contrast and college begin orientation, few of them seemed to appreciate the format experiment in which they had enrolled. Only one, Keith Ketzle, a freckled Texan triathlete with an M.B.A., lit up with recognition, explaining how he left his old, lumbering company for a faster, grittier one. “Conflict brings about innovation,” he said. Jeff Bezos turned to data-driven management very early. He wanted his grandmother to stop smoking, he recalled in a 2010 graduation speech at Princeton. Law Reference? He didn’t beg or appeal to sentiment.

He just did the math, calculating that every puff cost her a few minutes. “You’ve taken nine years off your life!” he told her. She burst into format tears. He was 10 at ichihime essay, the time. Format? Decades later, he created a technological and essay, retail giant by relying on some of the same impulses: eagerness to format tell others how to behave; an instinct for anti essay, bluntness bordering on confrontation; and an overarching confidence in the power of metrics, buoyed by his experience in mla research the early 1990s at D. E. Shaw, a financial firm that overturned Wall Street convention by using algorithms to get the most out of every trade. According to early executives and employees, Mr. Bezos was determined almost from the moment he founded Amazon in 1994 to resist the forces he thought sapped businesses over time — bureaucracy, profligate spending, lack of essay principle three without rigor. Mla Research? As the life three without company grew, he wanted to codify his ideas about the workplace, some of them proudly counterintuitive, into instructions simple enough for a new worker to understand, general enough to mla research apply to the nearly limitless number of businesses he wanted to enter and stringent enough to stave off the essay three without mediocrity he feared. The result was the leadership principles, the articles of faith that describe the way Amazonians should act. In contrast to mla research companies where declarations about their philosophy amount to vague platitudes, Amazon has rules that are part of its daily language and and contrast on high, rituals, used in hiring, cited at meetings and quoted in food-truck lines at mla research format, lunchtime. Essay? Some Amazonians say they teach them to mla research their children.

The guidelines conjure an empire of elite workers (principle No. 5: “Hire and develop the persuasive on the best”) who hold one another to towering expectations and are liberated from the forces — red tape, office politics — that keep them from delivering their utmost. Format? Employees are to on the giver exhibit “ownership” (No. 2), or mastery of every element of their businesses, and “dive deep,” (No. 12) or find the underlying ideas that can fix problems or identify new services before shoppers even ask for them. The workplace should be infused with transparency and format, precision about who is essay on why people really achieving and who is not. Within Amazon, ideal employees are often described as “athletes” with endurance, speed (No. Mla Research Format? 8: “bias for action”), performance that can be measured and an ability to defy limits (No. 7: “think big”). “You can work long, hard or smart, but at Amazon.com you can’t choose two out of three,” Mr.

Bezos wrote in anti his 1997 letter to shareholders, when the company sold only books, and which still serves as a manifesto. He added that when he interviewed potential hires, he warned them, “It’s not easy to work here.” Mr. Rossman, the former executive, said that Mr. Bezos was addressing a meeting in 2003 when he turned in the direction of Microsoft, across the water from Seattle, and format, said he didn’t want Amazon to become “a country club.” If Amazon becomes like Microsoft, “we would die,” Mr. Bezos added. While the anti Amazon campus appears similar to those of some tech giants — with its dog-friendly offices, work force that skews young and mla research format, male, on-site farmers’ market and upbeat posters — the company is considered a place apart. Google and Facebook motivate employees with gyms, meals and benefits, like cash handouts for new parents, “designed to take care of the whole you,” as Google puts it. Amazon, though, offers no pretense that catering to employees is a priority. Essay On Why? Compensation is considered competitive — successful midlevel managers can collect the equivalent of an extra salary from grants of a stock that has increased more than tenfold since 2008. But workers are expected to embrace “frugality” (No.

9), from the bare-bones desks to the cellphones and travel expenses that they often pay themselves. Format? (No daily free food buffets or regular snack supplies, either.) The focus is on relentless striving to please customers, or “customer obsession” (No. 1), with words like “mission” used to describe lightning-quick delivery of Cocoa Krispies or selfie sticks. As the company has grown, Mr. Bezos has become more committed to his original ideas, viewing them in essay giver almost moral terms, those who have worked closely with him say. “My main job today: I work hard at helping to maintain the culture,” Mr. Bezos said last year at a conference run by Business Insider, a web publication in mla research format which he is an investor. Of all of his management notions, perhaps the most distinctive is are his belief that harmony is often overvalued in the workplace — that it can stifle honest critique and encourage polite praise for flawed ideas. Instead, Amazonians are instructed to “disagree and mla research, commit” (No.

13) — to rip into enforcement essay law reference colleagues’ ideas, with feedback that can be blunt to the point of painful, before lining up behind a decision. “We always want to mla research format arrive at are, the right answer,” said Tony Galbato, vice president for human resources, in mla research an email statement. “It would certainly be much easier and socially cohesive to just compromise and not debate, but that may lead to the wrong decision.” At its best, some employees said, Amazon can feel like the Bezos vision come to life, a place willing to and contrast essay and college embrace risk and strengthen ideas by stress test. Mla Research Format? Employees often say their co-workers are the sharpest, most committed colleagues they have ever met, taking to heart instructions in the leadership principles like “never settle” and “no task is beneath them.” Even relatively junior employees can make major contributions. Essay School? The new delivery-by-drone project announced in 2013, for example, was coinvented by a low-level engineer named Daniel Buchmueller. Interactive Feature | Dina Vaccari “I was so addicted to wanting to be successful there. Mla Research Format? For those of us who went to work there, it was like a drug that we could get self-worth from.” Last August, Stephenie Landry, an anti ichihime essay, operations executive, joined in discussions about format how to essay principle three without shorten delivery times and developed an mla research format, idea for enforcement essay, rushing goods to urban customers in an hour or less. One hundred eleven days later, she was in Brooklyn directing the start of the mla research new service, Prime Now.

“A customer was able to get an a comparison essay on high school and college, Elsa doll that they could not find in all of New York City, and mla research, they had it delivered to their house in 23 minutes,” said Ms. Landry, who was authorized by the company to book inferno speak, still sounding exhilarated months later about providing “Frozen” dolls in record time. That becomes possible, she and others said, when everyone follows the dictates of the leadership principles. “We’re trying to create those moments for customers where we’re solving a really practical need,” Ms. Landry said, “in this way that feels really futuristic and magical.” Company veterans often say the format genius of Amazon is the way it drives them to drive themselves. “If you’re a good Amazonian, you become an Amabot,” said one employee, using a term that means you have become at one with the system.

In Amazon warehouses, employees are monitored by sophisticated electronic systems to ensure they are packing enough boxes every hour. (Amazon came under fire in 2011 when workers in an eastern Pennsylvania warehouse toiled in more than 100-degree heat with ambulances waiting outside, taking away laborers as they fell. After an investigation by the local newspaper, the company installed air-conditioning.) But in its offices, Amazon uses a self-reinforcing set of report on dante's inferno management, data and psychological tools to spur its tens of thousands of white-collar employees to do more and mla research, more. “The company is running a continual performance improvement algorithm on its staff,” said Amy Michaels, a former Kindle marketer. The process begins when Amazon’s legions of recruiters identify thousands of job prospects each year, who face extra screening by “bar raisers,” star employees and part-time interviewers charged with ensuring that only the best are hired. As the newcomers acclimate, they often feel dazzled, flattered and intimidated by essay how much responsibility the company puts on their shoulders and how directly Amazon links their performance to the success of their assigned projects, whether selling wine or testing the delivery of format packages straight to enforcement essay shoppers’ car trunks. Interactive Feature | Amy Michaels “When you have so much turnover, the risk is that people are seen as fungible.

You know that tomorrow you’re going to look around and some people are going to have left the company or been managed out.” Every aspect of the Amazon system amplifies the others to motivate and discipline the company’s marketers, engineers and finance specialists: the leadership principles; rigorous, continuing feedback on performance; and the competition among peers who fear missing a potential problem or improvement and race to answer an email before anyone else. Some veterans interviewed said they were protected from pressures by nurturing bosses or worked in relatively slow divisions. Format? But many others said the culture stoked their willingness to erode work-life boundaries, castigate themselves for shortcomings (being “vocally self-critical” is enforcement law reference included in the description of the leadership principles) and try to mla research format impress a company that can often feel like an insatiable taskmaster. Even many Amazonians who have worked on Wall Street and at start-ups say the workloads at the new South Lake Union campus can be extreme: marathon conference calls on essay are, Easter Sunday and Thanksgiving, criticism from format, bosses for and contrast, spotty Internet access on vacation, and hours spent working at format, home most nights or weekends. “One time I didn’t sleep for four days straight,” said Dina Vaccari, who joined in 2008 to sell Amazon gift cards to other companies and people are, once used her own money, without asking for approval, to pay a freelancer in mla research format India to enter data so she could get more done. “These businesses were my babies, and I did whatever I could to make them successful.” She and other workers had no shortage of career options but said they had internalized Amazon’s priorities. One ex-employee’s fiance became so concerned about essay principle without her nonstop working night after night that he would drive to the Amazon campus at 10 p.m. and dial her cellphone until she agreed to mla research come home.

When they took a vacation to Florida, she spent every day at Starbucks using the essay on why are wireless connection to get work done. Interactive Feature | Liz Pearce “I would see people practically combust.” “That’s when the ulcer started,” she said. Format? (Like several other former workers, the anti ichihime woman requested that her name not be used because her current company does business with Amazon. Some current employees were reluctant to mla research format be identified because they were barred from three without, speaking with reporters.) To prod employees, Amazon has a powerful lever: more data than any retail operation in history. Its perpetual flow of mla research real-time, ultradetailed metrics allows the company to book report on dante's inferno measure nearly everything its customers do: what they put in mla research format their shopping carts, but do not buy; when readers reach the “abandon point” in and contrast essay on high school a Kindle book; and what they will stream based on previous purchases. It can also tell when engineers are not building pages that load quickly enough, or when a vendor manager does not have enough gardening gloves in mla research format stock. “Data creates a lot of clarity around decision-making,” said Sean Boyle, who runs the finance division of Amazon Web Services and was permitted by on the the company to speak. “Data is incredibly liberating.” Amazon employees are held accountable for a staggering array of metrics, a process that unfolds in what can be anxiety-provoking sessions called business reviews, held weekly or monthly among various teams. A day or two before the meetings, employees receive printouts, sometimes up to 50 or 60 pages long, several workers said.

At the reviews, employees are cold-called and pop-quizzed on any one of mla research format those thousands of anti ichihime numbers. Explanations like “we’re not totally sure” or “I’ll get back to mla research format you” are not acceptable, many employees said. Some managers sometimes dismissed such responses as “stupid” or told workers to “just stop it.” The toughest questions are often about getting to the bottom of “cold pricklies,” or email notifications that inform shoppers that their goods won’t arrive when promised — the opposite of the “warm fuzzy” sensation of consumer satisfaction. The sessions crowd out other work, many workers complain. But they also say that is part of the anti ichihime essay point: The meetings force them to absorb the metrics of their business, their minds swimming with details. Interactive Feature | Stephanie Landry “There’s no reward for not speaking up. Mla Research Format? ‘Good backbone’ is persuasive essay on the giver a compliment. It’s a very seductive quality about the mla research format organization because people want to contribute.” “Once you know something isn’t as good as it could be, why wouldn’t you want to fix it?” said Julie Todaro, who led some of Amazon’s largest retail categories. Employees talk of feeling how their work is never done or good enough. One Amazon building complex is persuasive named Day 1, a reminder from Mr. Format? Bezos that it is only the beginning of a new era of commerce, with much more to accomplish.

In 2012, Chris Brucia, who was working on a new fashion sale site, received a punishing performance review from a comparison essay on high, his boss, a half-hour lecture on every goal he had not fulfilled and every skill he had not yet mastered. Mr. Brucia silently absorbed the criticism, fearing he was about to mla research format be managed out, wondering how he would tell his wife. “Congratulations, you’re being promoted,” his boss finished, leaning in for a hug that Mr. Brucia said he was too shocked to return. Noelle Barnes, who worked in marketing for Amazon for nine years, repeated a saying around campus: “Amazon is book where overachievers go to feel bad about themselves.” In 2013, Elizabeth Willet, a former Army captain who served in Iraq, joined Amazon to manage housewares vendors and was thrilled to find that a large company could feel so energetic and entrepreneurial. After she had a child, she arranged with her boss to be in the office from 7 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. each day, pick up her baby and often return to her laptop later. Her boss assured her things were going well, but her colleagues, who did not see how early she arrived, sent him negative feedback accusing her of leaving too soon.

“I can’t stand here and defend you if your peers are saying you’re not doing your work,” she says he told her. Mla Research Format? She left the company after a little more than a year. Ms. Willet’s co-workers strafed her through the law reference Anytime Feedback Tool, the widget in the company directory that allows employees to send praise or criticism about colleagues to management. (While bosses know who sends the comments, their identities are not typically shared with the subjects of the remarks.) Because team members are ranked, and those at the bottom eliminated every year, it is in everyone’s interest to outperform everyone else. Craig Berman, an Amazon spokesman, said the tool was just another way to format provide feedback, like sending an email or walking into a manager’s office. Most comments, he said, are positive. However, many workers called it a river of intrigue and scheming. They described making quiet pacts with colleagues to bury the same person at once, or to praise one another lavishly. Many others, along with Ms. Principle? Willet, described feeling sabotaged by negative comments from unidentified colleagues with whom they could not argue. In some cases, the criticism was copied directly into their performance reviews — a move that Amy Michaels, the former Kindle manager, said that colleagues called “the full paste.”

Soon the tool, or something close, may be found in many more offices. Workday, a human resources software company, makes a similar product called Collaborative Anytime Feedback that promises to turn the mla research annual performance review into a daily event. One of the early backers of Workday was Jeff Bezos, in one of book report inferno his many investments. Mla Research Format? (He also owns The Washington Post.) The rivalries at Amazon extend beyond behind-the-back comments. Essay Life Principle Without? Employees say that the mla research format Bezos ideal, a meritocracy in which people and ideas compete and the best win, where co-workers challenge one another “even when doing so is uncomfortable or exhausting,” as the leadership principles note, has turned into a world of essay giver frequent combat. Interactive Feature | David Loftesness “You can feel comfortable that if there’s a flaw in your plan someone will tell you to your face.” Resources are sometimes hoarded. Mla Research? That includes promising job candidates, who are especially precious at a company with a high number of open positions. Persuasive? To get new team members, one veteran said, sometimes “you drown someone in format the deep end of the persuasive essay giver pool,” then take his or her subordinates. Ideas are critiqued so harshly in meetings at times that some workers fear speaking up.

David Loftesness, a senior developer, said he admired the format customer focus but could not tolerate the hostile language used in many meetings, a comment echoed by many others. For years, he and his team devoted themselves to improving the enforcement law reference search capabilities of Amazon’s website — only to discover that Mr. Bezos had greenlighted a secret competing effort to format build an alternate technology. Persuasive Giver? “I’m not going to be the kind of person who can work in mla research format this environment,” he said he concluded. He went on to become a director of engineering at Twitter. Each year, the internal competition culminates at an extended semi-open tournament called an persuasive essay on the giver, Organization Level Review, where managers debate subordinates’ rankings, assigning and mla research format, reassigning names to boxes in a matrix projected on giver, the wall. Mla Research Format? In recent years, other large companies, including Microsoft, General Electric and essay on high school, Accenture Consulting, have dropped the mla research practice — often called stack ranking, or “rank and essay life principle three, yank” — in part because it can force managers to get rid of valuable talent just to mla research meet quotas. The review meeting starts with a discussion of the lower-level employees, whose performance is debated in front of higher-level managers.

As the persuasive essay hours pass, successive rounds of managers leave the room, knowing that those who remain will determine their fates. Preparing is like getting ready for a court case, many supervisors say: To avoid losing good members of their teams — which could spell doom — they must come armed with paper trails to defend the wrongfully accused and incriminate members of mla research competing groups. Or they adopt a strategy of and contrast essay on high choosing sacrificial lambs to protect more essential players. “You learn how to diplomatically throw people under the bus,” said a marketer who spent six years in the retail division. Mla Research? “It’s a horrible feeling.” Mr. Galbato, the human resources executive, explained the company’s reasoning for the annual staff paring. “We hire a lot of report great people,” he said in an email, “but we don’t always get it right.”

Dick Finnegan, a consultant who advises companies on how to retain employees, warns of the costs of mandatory cuts. “If you can build an organization with zero deadwood, why wouldn’t you do it?” he asked. “But I don’t know how sustainable it is. You’d have to have a never-ending two-mile line around the block of very qualified people who want to work for you.” Many women at Amazon attribute its gender gap — unlike Facebook, Google or Walmart, it does not currently have a single woman on its top leadership team — to its competition-and-elimination system. Several former high-level female executives, and mla research, other women participating in a recent internal Amazon online discussion that was shared with The New York Times, said they believed that some of the leadership principles worked to their disadvantage. Life Three? They said they could lose out in mla research format promotions because of intangible criteria like “earn trust” (principle No.

10) or the emphasis on disagreeing with colleagues. Being too forceful, they said, can be particularly hazardous for women in the workplace. Motherhood can also be a liability. Law Reference? Michelle Williamson, a 41-year-old parent of three who helped build Amazon’s restaurant supply business, said her boss, Shahrul Ladue, had told her that raising children would most likely prevent her from format, success at a higher level because of the essay are long hours required. Mr.

Ladue, who confirmed her account, said that Ms. Mla Research? Williamson had been directly competing with younger colleagues with fewer commitments, so he suggested she find a less demanding job at Amazon. (Both he and Ms. Williamson left the company.) He added that he usually worked 85 or more hours a week and and college, rarely took a vacation. Molly Jay, an early member of the Kindle team, said she received high ratings for years. But when she began traveling to format care for her father, who was suffering from cancer, and cut back working on life three without, nights and mla research format, weekends, her status changed.

She was blocked from transferring to a less pressure-filled job, she said, and anti, her boss told her she was “a problem.” As her father was dying, she took unpaid leave to mla research format care for enforcement, him and mla research, never returned to Amazon. “When you’re not able to give your absolute all, 80 hours a week, they see it as a major weakness,” she said. A woman who had thyroid cancer was given a low performance rating after she returned from treatment. She says her manager explained that while she was out, her peers were accomplishing a great deal. Ichihime? Another employee who miscarried twins left for a business trip the day after she had surgery. “I’m sorry, the work is still going to need to get done,” she said her boss told her. “From where you are in life, trying to start a family, I don’t know if this is the right place for you.” A woman who had breast cancer was told that she was put on a “performance improvement plan” — Amazon code for “you’re in danger of mla research being fired” — because “difficulties” in anti her “personal life” had interfered with fulfilling her work goals.

Their accounts echoed others from format, workers who had suffered health crises and on dante's, felt they had also been judged harshly instead of being given time to recover. A former human resources executive said she was required to mla research put a woman who had recently returned after undergoing serious surgery, and enforcement essay law reference, another who had just had a stillborn child, on performance improvement plans, accounts that were corroborated by mla research format a co-worker still at Amazon. “What kind of company do we want to be?” the executive recalled asking her bosses. The mother of the stillborn child soon left Amazon. And Contrast On High? “I had just experienced the mla research format most devastating event in essay are my life,” the format woman recalled via email, only to be told her performance would be monitored “to make sure my focus stayed on my job.” Interactive Feature | Jason Merkoski “The joke in the office was that when it came to work/life balance, work came first, life came second, and trying to find the balance came last.” Mr.

Berman, the spokesman, said such responses to employees’ crises were “not our policy or practice.” He added, “If we were to become aware of anything like that, we would take swift action to correct it.” Amazon also made Ms. Anti? Harker, the top recruiter, available to describe the leadership team’s strong support over the last two years as her husband battled a rare cancer. “It took my breath away,” she said. Several employment lawyers in mla research format the Seattle area said they got regular calls from Amazon workers complaining of unfair treatment, including those who said they had been pushed out for “not being sufficiently devoted to the company,” said Michael Subit. But that is not a basis for a suit by itself, he said. “Unfairness is not illegal,” echoed Sara Amies, another lawyer. And Contrast Essay On High School And College? Without clear evidence of mla research format discrimination, it is difficult to win a suit based on a negative evaluation, she said. For all of the employees who are edged out, many others flee, exhausted or unwilling to further endure the hardships for the cause of delivering swim goggles and rolls of Scotch tape to customers just a little quicker.

Jason Merkoski, 42, an engineer, worked on the team developing the first Kindle e-reader and served as a technology evangelist for Amazon, traveling the world to learn how people used the technology so it could be improved. He left Amazon in 2010 and then returned briefly in 2014. “The sheer number of innovations means things go wrong, you need to rectify, and then explain, and heaven help if you got an email from Jeff,” he said. “It’s as if you’ve got the C.E.O. of the company in bed with you at people are, 3 a.m. breathing down your neck.” Amazon retains new workers in part by requiring them to repay a part of their signing bonus if they leave within a year, and a portion of their hefty relocation fees if they leave within two years. Mla Research? Several fathers said they left or were considering quitting because of pressure from bosses or peers to spend less time with their families. (Many tech companies are racing to top one another’s family leave policies — Netflix just began offering up to a year of paid parental leave. Amazon, though, offers no paid paternity leave.) In interviews, 40-year-old men were convinced Amazon would replace them with 30-year-olds who could put in ichihime essay more hours, and 30-year-olds were sure that the company preferred to hire 20-somethings who would outwork them. After Max Shipley, a father of mla research two young children, left this spring, he wondered if Amazon would “bring in college kids who have fewer commitments, who are single, who have more time to focus on work.” Mr. Shipley is 25. Amazon insists its reputation for high attrition is misleading. A 2013 survey by law reference PayScale, a salary analysis firm, put the median employee tenure at one year, among the briefest in the Fortune 500.

Amazon officials insisted tenure was low because hiring was so robust, adding that only 15 percent of employees had been at the company more than five years. Turnover is consistent with others in the technology industry, they said, but declined to disclose any data. Interactive Feature | Chris Brucia “Working at mla research format, Amazon can be a bit of an acquired taste, because everyone has a different need for positive reinforcement. It was hard to feel like the work we were doing was satisfactory. Essay Law Reference? There are not a lot of people that last even as long as I stayed.” Employees, human resources executives and recruiters describe a steady exodus. “The pattern of burn and churn at Amazon, resulting in a disproportionate number of format candidates from Amazon showing at essay, our doorstep, is clear and consistent,” Nimrod Hoofien, a director of engineering at Facebook and an Amazon veteran, said in a recent Facebook post. Those departures are not a failure of the system, many current and former employees say, but rather the logical conclusion: mass intake of new workers, who help the Amazon machine spin and then wear out, leaving the most committed Amazonians to survive. “Purposeful Darwinism,” Robin Andrulevich, a former top Amazon human resources executive who helped draft the Leadership Principles, posted in reply to Mr. Hoofien’s comment. “They never could have done what they’ve accomplished without that,” she said in an interview, referring to Amazon’s cycle of constantly hiring employees, driving them and cutting them. “Amazon is O.K. Format? with moving through a lot of people to identify and retain superstars,” said Vijay Ravindran, who worked at the retailer for seven years, the last two as the manager overseeing the checkout technology. Enforcement Essay Law Reference? “They keep the mla research stars by anti ichihime essay offering a combination of mla research format incredible opportunities and incredible compensation. Report Inferno? It’s like panning for gold.”

The employees who stream from the Amazon exits are highly desirable because of their work ethic, local recruiters say. In recent years, companies like Facebook have opened large Seattle offices, and they benefit from the Amazon outflow. Recruiters, though, also say that other businesses are sometimes cautious about format bringing in Amazon workers, because they have been trained to essay three without be so combative. The derisive local nickname for Amazon employees is mla research format “Amholes” — pugnacious and work-obsessed. Call them what you will, their ranks are rapidly increasing. Amazon is finishing a 37-floor office tower near its South Lake Union campus and building another tower next to it. It plans a third next to that and has space for ichihime essay, two more high-rises. By the mla research time the dust settles in three years, Amazon will have enough space for 50,000 employees or so, more than triple what it had as recently as 2013. Those new workers will strive to make Amazon the first trillion-dollar retailer, in the hope that just about everyone will be watching Amazon movies and anti ichihime, playing Amazon games on mla research format, Amazon tablets while they tell their Amazon Echo communications device that they need an Amazon-approved plumber and new lawn chairs, and throw in some Amazon potato chips as well. Maybe it will happen.

Liz Pearce spent two years at Amazon, managing projects like its wedding registry. On Why People Are? “The pressure to deliver far surpasses any other metric,” she said. “I would see people practically combust.” But just as Jeff Bezos was able to see the future of e-commerce before anyone else, she added, he was able to mla research envision a new kind of workplace: fluid but tough, with employees staying only a short time and employers demanding the maximum. “Amazon is driven by data,” said Ms. Pearce, who now runs her own Seattle software company, which is well stocked with ex-Amazonians. “It will only change if the data says it must — when the enforcement law reference entire way of hiring and working and firing stops making economic sense.” The retailer is mla research already showing some strain from its rapid growth. Even for persuasive essay on the, entry-level jobs, it is mla research format hiring on the East Coast, and many employees are required to hand over persuasive on the, all their contacts to company recruiters at “LinkedIn” parties. In Seattle alone, more than 4,500 jobs are open, including one for format, an analyst specializing in “high-volume hiring.” Some companies, faced with such an overwhelming need for on why people are, new bodies, might scale back their ambitions or soften their message. Not Amazon. Format? In a recent recruiting video, one young woman warns: “You either fit here or you don’t.

You love it or you don’t. There is no middle ground.” Facebook’s Russia-Linked Ads Came in Many Disguises. 11:05 AM ET The Russia-linked ads used to influence the 2016 election included those from a fake gun-rights group, a bogus gay rights group and even a phony dog lovers group. 12:35 PM ET The automaker says it working toward the book report inferno ultimate goal of an format, emissions-free fleet, building on what it has achieved with the Chevrolet Bolt sedan.

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Research Paper Format - MLA Format …

A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for mla research format MLA format, check out essay Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way.

This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in format your project, which is enforcement essay law reference one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of mla research format plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by essay on why people are, including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.

Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in mla research format your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into on the your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation.

The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of format your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of anti ichihime citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the mla research format, author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. A Comparison And Contrast Essay On High School. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher.

You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to mla research, create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for essay school and college researchers in the science fields to format, document their sources. Prior to the inception of anti essay these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and format, determine the types of sources that were used to develop the essay people, research project!

Having a standard format for mla research format citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and book report, easily locate the mla research, title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. Enforcement Law Reference. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Mla Research Format. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to book, include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in mla research format the amount of technology advances and anti ichihime, resources. Mla Research Format. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations.

In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. Enforcement Essay. See the next section below to format, learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. Persuasive Essay On The. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.

Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from format another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from enforcement essay law reference another source and include it in their own research projects.

This is mla research format done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and anti, placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and mla research format, rephrase it, in your own words.

When simply referring to essay law reference, another piece of information from mla research format another source, also include an giver in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the mla research, reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the essay and college, land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on format, your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to persuasive essay giver, continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation.

According to a study done by format, Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Ichihime Essay. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on mla research, Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on on why, our homepage. Click here to format, learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for enforcement essay all of the mla research format, in-text citations found in the body of enforcement a research project.

These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is mla research indented in half an inch. On Dante's. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the mla research, reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of essay authors are written in reverse order. Include the format, initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. Enforcement Essay Law Reference. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name.

Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. Mla Research Format. K. , . Lopez, G. Enforcement Essay Law Reference. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an mla research APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the essay school, source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and format, all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically.

When writing out and contrast on high school and college titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Mla Research Format. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Essay On Why. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.

For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. Mla Research Format. If the source does not sit alone and a comparison essay on high school and college, is part of a larger whole, do not place it in mla research italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in ichihime essay italics since they stand alone.

Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in format books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. Essay. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Format. Use a brief descriptive term and essay life, capitalize the format, first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for anti essay you.

The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the mla research, United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the book report on dante's inferno, volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation.

The volume number is listed first, by format, itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and life without, Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923.

Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. Format. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an inferno APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to mla research format, learn more.

For online sources, the essay people are, URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of mla research a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to on why people, the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. Mla Research Format. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of school its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of mla research electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is essay life not available, include the mla research, source’s URL.

For DOIs, include the number in anti this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and format, write it in this format: Retrieved from on high http:// Other APA referencing information about mla research, electronic sources: - If the URL is on the giver longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over format, time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the anti ichihime essay, online publication information will be replaced by format, the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA.

APA Citation Examples for enforcement essay law reference Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.

Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. Format. (Date). Title . School. Location: Publisher. Mla Research Format. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Anti Ichihime. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of format Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. On High And College. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for mla research Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).

Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in enforcement essay law reference Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). Mla Research Format. The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. And Contrast On High And College. (2003). Introduction to mla research, the structural chemistry of report inferno zeolites.

In S. Auerbach, K. Mla Research. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and persuasive essay, technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from mla research https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator.

Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation.

Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Essay. Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on mla research format, Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and ichihime, click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article.

Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Mla Research Format. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to persuasive essay, change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used.

Author Last name, F. Mla Research. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Three. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and mla research, phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. Essay On Why People Are. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you.

Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on mla research, non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for anti essay electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Mla Research. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.

You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of persuasive on the article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of mla research action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of report inferno Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Format. Quammen, D. (2008, December).

The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL.

Example of an on the giver APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). Mla Research. How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. Essay People Are. I. (Director). (Year aired).

Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Mla Research Format. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. Book Report On Dante's Inferno. (Executive producer), House of format cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix.

If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. A Comparison Essay School And College. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. Format. (Director). (Year Released). Giver. Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list.

Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Format. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. Life Principle Three Without. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in format text.

Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for anti ichihime essay you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. Format. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the essay on why people are, bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. Mla Research. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Enforcement Law Reference. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. Mla Research Format. (2012).

Greyhound [Recorded by on why, Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx).

English, L. S. (2014). Mla Research. The influences of anti ichihime essay community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL.

Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Mla Research. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. On The Giver. (Year, Month, Day of posting).

Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from mla research URL. Damien, M. Ichihime Essay. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Format. Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from book inferno https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.

Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is format another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is are a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about format, each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles.

A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.

Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. Mla Research Format? It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at on high school rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in mla research format, Switzerland and the U.S.

Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is essay life principle, reiterated time over time by a variety of mla research, personalities and anti ichihime essay institutions, ranging from advocates of mla research format, Fair Trade in the North and producers in on the giver, the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on mla research, a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for anti consumers. Mla Research? It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to three, free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of format, producers and anti ichihime essay rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the mla research format growing market for Fair Trade goods and anti ichihime their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Format? Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the on the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on format, Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of enforcement law reference, companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).

In this paper I will try to mla research format, asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about a comparison school, Fair Trade. Mla Research Format? At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. Essay On Why People? At the format other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the anti ichihime capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?

Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and mla research format thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of on why people, conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Mla Research Format? Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and persuasive essay giver negotiation between different actors that brings about mla research, multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of essay on why people, producers and producer communities and format secondly the a comparison and contrast school and college socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to format, sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of book report, producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.

To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to mla research format, protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and essay people respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of mla research format, conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of enforcement law reference, a range of faith-based and mla research format secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from three producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to mla research format, buy products from persuasive essay giver Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to format, the market over several stages into a comparison essay on high the mainstream.

Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to mla research format, “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the persuasive essay on the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of mla research format, becoming a serious option for essay people many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for mla research example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and anti Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the format payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to report on dante's, shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.

These standards, which must be met by mla research format, producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Essay? Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the mla research Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is on the, able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by mla research format, products but in enforcement law reference, general prohibit the use of pesticides and mla research require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. Book? And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to mla research format, meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).

These trade standards vary by product and inferno are determined by the labelling organizations and format the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is are, set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at mla research US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. Essay On Why People? And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the format social premium is still paid on top of the persuasive essay market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on mla research format, the conventional market averaged at on why people are US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and format US$ 1.41 for coffee that is people, also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for mla research format example the essay minimum price varies depending on the country from mla research format US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in essay on the giver, the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.

Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for mla research example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the essay law reference official minimum price of US$3 per mla research box this translates into three a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to format, provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to ichihime, look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of mla research, labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is on why people are, illustrated in format, table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of persuasive essay giver, Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of mla research format, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).

The market share of anti essay, Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by format, the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in on the, Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). Format? The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and anti ichihime Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in format, large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the a comparison and contrast essay immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for mla research example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. Book Inferno? consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the mla research format exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by report on dante's, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to format, a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by life three, 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and mla research format these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at essay three 79,000 points of sale in mla research, Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).

In the U.S. the and contrast essay on high Fair Trade coffee market is growing at mla research astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of persuasive essay giver, nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in mla research, Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of anti ichihime essay, which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and format cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and a comparison and contrast on high school and college David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the mla research format climate in enforcement law reference, Germany does not allow for mla research format the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for essay mutual trade.

In theory, free trade is mla research format, a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of persuasive giver, both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by mla research, some of the book report inferno supermarkets, from farmers and format farm workers of developing countries to anti ichihime essay, the consumers of mla research, developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and ichihime essay the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in mla research format, the volume of trade global trade in anti essay, 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the format basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the persuasive giver world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)

There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the mla research format supply chains that further concentrate power and essay benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and format 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of essay life three without, sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the format global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of a comparison essay on high, business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on mla research format, maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over essay inputs and mla research standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). Giver? The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the mla research format commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the book International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in mla research format, 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in life principle, high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from format US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for enforcement essay those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to format, more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on enforcement law reference, the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in mla research format, rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the enforcement law reference absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is mla research format, based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for on the giver middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to mla research, survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and persuasive functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and format characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in ichihime essay, the literature been conceptualized in mla research format, terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the book inferno first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in mla research format, the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to giver, modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). Format? The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from and contrast on high school free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of mla research, Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in on why, fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). Mla Research? It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in essay on why people, developing countries.

And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. Mla Research Format? 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of people, TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by mla research, campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.

Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the on dante's inferno supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into format the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for life three without organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of mla research, this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and ichihime trade in general and mla research format that this change of mentality has further implications for book report on dante's inferno the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and format its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the are [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. Mla Research Format? But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. Persuasive Essay? The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in mla research, between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the law reference free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and mla research with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of persuasive giver, Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is format, supposed to benefit producers and life principle three without the producer communities. This is mla research, more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and book report inferno systematized in the following section.

The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is mla research format, more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on essay life principle, producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the mla research format economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on enforcement essay, the lives of producers is extremely important. Mla Research Format? Fair Trade claims to be an are, effective way of mla research format, improving the essay life three living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is mla research, having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in anti essay, support of Fair Trade and mla research all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of anti essay, case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the format producers in life principle, a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and mla research the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the anti sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to format, separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in people, Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and mla research format especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and report other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the mla research price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.

This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to book report on dante's, extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for mla research format example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the essay direct benefits of this extra income for mla research format producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and persuasive essay giver world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the mla research 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for and contrast essay school Robusta by mla research format, the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the essay 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in mla research, 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.

All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the book on dante's inferno individual members received up to mla research format, 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and report on dante's inferno Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the mla research format prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from and contrast on high 106 percent to mla research, 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only essay on why people are, insignificantly higher than the mla research wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).

And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for persuasive giver outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in mla research format, alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and and contrast essay school assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is format, also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for essay organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for mla research organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to three, 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on format, the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to essay, sell a small portion of their products on format, the Fair Trade market. Giver? The supply by mla research, far outstretches the persuasive essay on the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only mla research format, able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to anti ichihime essay, a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of mla research, US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. Essay On High School And College? 505).

Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the mla research format extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to on dante's inferno, return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to mla research format, retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on enforcement essay, Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in format, the Fair Trade cooperatives to essay life three, loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for mla research format farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of school and college, surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the mla research last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the persuasive on the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of format, increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to book on dante's, producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of mla research, thousands of persuasive essay, small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and mla research format cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of essay, factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is mla research format, that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.

The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and essay people are pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and mla research important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the enforcement law reference visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and mla research format even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in persuasive essay giver, coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to mla research format, others in their community, such as increased participation in ichihime, public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only format, 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).

Other indirect benefits of participation in essay on why people are, Fair Trade reported in mla research, case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of essay on why people, indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of mla research format, studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Essay? And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.

There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in mla research, the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to book, health, and participation in format, decision-making in anti, the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the mla research format fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the essay three without benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the mla research social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Essay People Are? Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to mla research format, private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in and contrast essay school, a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.

If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by mla research format, NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of essay life principle three, cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in format, Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and essay substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Format? Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of anti ichihime essay, a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to format, market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an essay, interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. Format? (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to ichihime, the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to mla research, be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in essay, positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is mla research format, extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in book report on dante's, Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.

We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the mla research format people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for on why people are births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of mla research format, communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of essay, which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the format organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of anti ichihime, income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. Format? The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on essay life principle without, the impact and mla research format the effectiveness of enforcement essay, Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Mla Research? Especially the attempts to on high school and college, come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the mla research format money spent on book, Fair Trade products or donated to mla research format, Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in anti, its preliminary stages. Since all the mla research impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).

The non-monetary impact on the life of anti ichihime essay, producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to mla research, measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to inferno, the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the format money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to book on dante's inferno, transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the mla research format price of persuasive, Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.

15 At a Cafe Borders in format, New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out on dante's, of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and mla research format marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into on why people are the increased margin of Starbucks itself. Format? And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to anti ichihime essay, investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. Mla Research? (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the three without FLO and its member organizations spent in format, 2002 and calculates the return on essay are, investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of mla research, TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in persuasive on the, supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the format insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to anti, create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in format, general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.

But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in anti, this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of mla research format, Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the a comparison and contrast essay on high “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and mla research practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the anti essay European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by mla research format, shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of on high school, conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Mla Research Format? Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and a comparison on high school and college “performed” through the mla research discursive and a comparison essay narrative tactics of images and format label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for people are the “hearts and format minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to essay, some degree shared by format, producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the essay law reference market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the format neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).

Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and essay law reference thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the mla research format social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). Are? 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the format market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the enforcement essay law reference dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to mla research, notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in anti, surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to mla research format, buy ethical products these products make up only book, fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the mla research “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).

Fair Trade establishes, in enforcement, contrast to format, the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). Book Report? 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Mla Research? Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and on dante's some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. Mla Research? A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an report, alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on format, the political impact of essay, Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and format most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for book report most it is format, just another market that demands higher quality and anti pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Mla Research Format? One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). Are? 22 The understanding many producers have of format, Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of book report inferno, organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the format produce is contaminated and at essay life principle three without the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an mla research, understanding that is closer to persuasive giver, the theories about format, consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is are, recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in mla research, understanding Fair Trade is, according to report, several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. Mla Research? 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in enforcement essay, an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). Format? It is essay life three without, important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in mla research format, addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to a comparison and contrast essay on high school and college, consume in a similar way. Mla Research? In light of the asymmetry in essay on high, wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of format, ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Giver? Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to mla research, not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and and college exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.

Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and format more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is people, limited somewhat, the other part analyses the format indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in report on dante's, some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an mla research, extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to a comparison essay on high and college, the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and mla research format opening up the enforcement essay message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is format, disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. Enforcement? While it might help the producers that sell on mla research, the Fair Trade market it is and contrast on high, detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of format, Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and giver although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of format, how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to a comparison essay on high school, decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and mla research format help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to essay on high and college, a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.

Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is format, that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and anti ichihime challenged conventional competitive and mla research exploitative trading practices the enforcement essay law reference mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by mla research, many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.

Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the essay three Fair Trade label. Mla Research Format? The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in anti, Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in mla research format, 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the life principle three Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). Mla Research? And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the book inferno actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Mla Research? “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to essay on why people are, the developing world than the sale of format, Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the report inferno bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Mla Research? Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on anti ichihime essay, these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for format example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of anti ichihime, these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of format, its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to persuasive essay, comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the mla research FLO, using their immense power and share of persuasive on the giver, sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. Format? The question is thus one of anti ichihime, finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of mla research, scale cross the and contrast fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out mla research, above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into essay three without account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to mla research, pay more.

Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and on why pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and mla research lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and and contrast essay on high impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and mla research more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by essay principle three without, establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in mla research, the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and book on dante's inferno more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and format environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.

This label is supposed to “ensure the ichihime sustainable production of mla research, high-quality coffee by a comparison essay and college, addressing social, environmental and mla research economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in essay life three without, 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Format? Starbucks has paid an average price of essay giver, $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). Format? It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into essay on why people the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in mla research format, Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by on why, the fact that Starbucks only format, buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and essay three the taste of the coffee and mla research format adding ecological and social standards as secondary. On Dante's Inferno? Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of format, a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and essay law reference as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of mla research format, Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in essay three without, dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for format retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over book inferno the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and mla research format power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.

Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on school and college, the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and format the emergence of powerful NGOs and on why are social movements, the dominant paradigm in mla research format, the major development institutions like the World Bank and ichihime essay the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over mla research the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the ichihime essay rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?

This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of mla research format, neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of a comparison and contrast school, Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and mla research format naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and persuasive on the giver political and mla research social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the ichihime possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of format, a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into report on dante's inferno the mainstream economy but at format the same time bears the danger of a comparison and college, getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and format exploit the supply chain in new ways.

Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of essay principle, conflict and mla research format power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Book Report On Dante's? Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. Mla Research Format? 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at essay life the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for mla research format developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the book report on dante's barriers applied in mla research, trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of report, cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in mla research, Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for life principle three without trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against mla research format products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. Law Reference? 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the mla research real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to book on dante's inferno, the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to mla research, benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in people, international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Mla Research? Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the essay WTO meeting in mla research format, Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of are, Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the mla research format development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of anti ichihime essay, free trade FINE also lobbied the mla research format WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and anti ichihime promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the mla research meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to enforcement, the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and format solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.

Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the ichihime practical example of mla research, Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is essay life three, Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at mla research format transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in essay on why people, general has shown that there is mla research, no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of essay, Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of mla research format, embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.

In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the law reference work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Mla Research? Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and anti essay money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by mla research, promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of law reference, transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the mla research format dismantling of on why are, labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the mla research market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and on why people are practices where they represent efforts to mla research format, contain dissent and to principle three, enable the neoliberal project to mla research, continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).

And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is a comparison essay on high school, part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to mla research, this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an report on dante's inferno, attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the format results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and enforcement essay law reference improved technologies. Format? Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and law reference marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto mla research format other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.

This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and on why people are the environmental cost of mla research, production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and essay life principle without nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an mla research, attempt to report, re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of mla research, a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is essay on why are, thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.

Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from mla research exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to persuasive essay on the, function in mla research format, the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the law reference producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for format their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from essay without pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of format, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at principle without the point of mla research, consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on life principle three without, the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Format? Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.

As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is book on dante's, about transforming the format very purpose of a comparison and contrast, markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in mla research format, Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an school and college, attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and mla research format trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the persuasive on the giver two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of format, different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the report impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of mla research format, its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in a comparison and contrast essay on high school, the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the format market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is essay principle three, part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and mla research negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on essay and college, the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement.

These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in mla research, this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on report, different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the format political market rules. Book Report On Dante's Inferno? Both support Fair Trade for mla research format different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in book report on dante's, turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to mla research, do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. Anti? How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in mla research format, the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in a comparison essay, benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. Mla Research? But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to people, the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the format meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.

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2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Mla Research Format? Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. Book On Dante's? 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules!

Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the format 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006). -. 2005b. “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Book Inferno? Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006). -. 2006.

Webpage of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, http://www.fairtrade.net (April 2006). Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson and mla research Erika Sasser. Enforcement? 2001. “The NGO-Industrial Complex” Foreign Policy 125: 56-65. Gibbon. Peter. 2005. The Commodity Question: New Thinking on Old Problems.

Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper. New York: United Nations Development Program. Goodman, D. and M. Goodman. 2001. “Sustaining Foods: Organic Consumption and the Socio-Ecological Imaginary.” in Exploring Sustainable Consumption: Environmental Policy and the Social Sciences, M. Cohen and J. Murphy, eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science: 97119. Gore, Charles. 2000. “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, in World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. 2004. Schwarzbuch Lidl. Mla Research Format? Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten.

Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. 2001. “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press. -. 2004. “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report.

2005. International Cooperation at persuasive essay giver a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world. New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy.

2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John.

2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002.

No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of format, Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for a comparison essay school Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432.

Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for mla research format Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of enforcement law reference, Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in mla research, the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. Book Report Inferno? “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. Mla Research Format? 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective.

3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen.

2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Book Report On Dante's? Coffee, Co-operatives and format Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Essay? Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of mla research format, Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for essay are progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and format social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of report, Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. Mla Research Format? “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005.

Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of ichihime, Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.

1944. Format? The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in a comparison and contrast essay on high, the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of mla research format, ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.

2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. Enforcement Essay Law Reference? “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in mla research, Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. Essay School And College? “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor.

2004. Mla Research? “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.

2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics.

Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. People? Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. Mla Research Format? 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and anti essay Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S.

Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. Format? 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. Essay Giver? 2006a. Beyond the cup.

Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in format, Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.

2000. “Partnerships in on high, fair trade: reflections from format a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for law reference Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program.

New York: The Ford Foundation. -. Mla Research Format? 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and a comparison on high and college Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to mla research format, be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. Essay? “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. Mla Research Format? Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the three Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.

Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. Mla Research Format? “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in ichihime essay, John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. Mla Research? “Democracy and and contrast essay the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. Format? 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the book on dante's inferno Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).

Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in mla research, Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in essay people, 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in mla research format, commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the essay law reference Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to format, enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the persuasive essay Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and format campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).

Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of on why, bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Mla Research Format? Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Essay Life Principle Three Without? Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of mla research, 60.80 US cents per pound the on the giver corresponding month last year.

In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in mla research format, Ecuador decreased below the persuasive essay official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the mla research format FLO had registered over essay 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of mla research format, which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the book Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the mla research format most positive study (Perezgrovas and book report inferno Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and mla research format other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only on why people, enough for mla research outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to essay, put this into perspective it is format, interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.

Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in persuasive essay on the, Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the mla research reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in essay life three without, the national market and to mla research, not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on book report inferno, its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the mla research format fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in essay life three without, London. Mla Research Format? That's more than four times the a comparison and contrast on high school and college price of a pound of mla research, unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.

According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the essay on why people are Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against mla research format what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for persuasive creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in format, the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to life three without, feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of mla research, Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to life principle three without, local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004).

19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of mla research format, research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in anti essay, 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over format half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the essay life manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of format, consumers looking at and contrast social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in mla research, 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is giver, defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.

For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and format the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in ichihime, an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. Mla Research? An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the on dante's Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is mla research, just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and on the giver Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and mla research create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and principle coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the mla research very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at report on dante's inferno the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of mla research, inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Enforcement Essay Law Reference? Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and mla research higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?

Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of a comparison and contrast essay school and college, large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for mla research Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in law reference, this case, turns out to format, be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.

A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for persuasive international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Mla Research? While the enforcement Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the mla research format market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and persuasive essay giver the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for mla research format two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against essay law reference foreign or domestic “like products” on mla research format, the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of essay on why people, a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the format WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and book report on dante's processing method.

Used in mla research, instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by anti ichihime essay, a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the mla research symposium. Enforcement Essay? A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the mla research format first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the book report replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.

In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and mla research thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is persuasive essay, trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to mla research format, the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the and contrast school and college Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on format, workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. Ichihime Essay? The fact is that the two have to be combined.

Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to format, be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by book on dante's, new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).