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Gender and Language: Challenging the Stereotypes
Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Myths, Misconceptions and essays, Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to action papers do so now. I want to sexism examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and miscalculations of terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. I think that's fair. If I can't explain to paper your satisfaction the observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to ditch it. III.
A. The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. i. Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the concept of in language, overpenetration and the arguments involving the term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to essay share a common idea, which is that the abrupt deposition of the essays kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for its lethality. I don't wish to be misunderstood and we are in danger of this discussion being taken for a mere matter of term papers, semantics, so let me be clear: the salient point is that the adherants of these views are fixated on the idea of the rapid transfer of energy to sexism in language the target, rather than on the mechanics of the work being done by the bullet in terms of wounding (i.e., penetration and cavitation). Specifically, in the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the temporary cavity produced by term the bullet with little regard for the permanent cavity created. There is a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is more effective in terms of in language essays, stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the game animal. It seems reasonable. Papers 911 Essays. Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the animal to its opposite side, and lodge under the skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on the beast (p.
137). The time he is describing is the latter half of the 19th century when the weapons were rifles of .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of 350 to 550 grains and with a charge of black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from sexism, 1300 to 1500 fps (p. 136). Even in these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at the very least misdirected.
It is interesting that the 19th century model of term 911 essays, energy dump required the bullet to completely pass through the body, but stop under the skin on the off-side; combining the features of an energy dump with lethal penetration and cavitation. If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Consider the following excerpt from an article written by (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. of the sexism in language US Border Patrol that appeared in the November 1930 issue of The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is where a bullet goes through an and effect of high dropouts essays animal, lodging in the skin on sexism in language essays, the opposite cause and effect of high essays side. He doesn't like to essays say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the energy after it got through.
He is obsessed with the school questions conviction that the missile must spend all of its energy within the beast, or else it is a defective bullet. In Language Essays. Now, with some misgivings I question the 911 essays wisdom of all this. Sexism In Language. I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at least two contemporary variations on the energy dump premise. Affirmative Action Essay. The principal argument seems to sexism center on the concept of overpenetration, which is essentially the nursing essay questions same thought as expressed in the 19th century but with the added evidence of actual results from gunfights on the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in the body, it is alleged. Therefore, if the energy isn't wasted on exit, the sexism essays bullet is more effective. Right? Not necessarily. Cause And Effect School Dropouts Essays. It depends on the target as well as the load under consideration.
A bullet of a given construction and in language, impact velocity will create a cavity of school essays, predictable dimensions over sexism in language its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at some point. Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of interest. How would it compare to the foregoing case of (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is literature what sort of hole are we making, not whether it goes all the way through. Sexism. Overpenetration is a misnomer.
The ineffective stopping attributed to overpenetration of papers 911 essays, handgun bullets (to the extent that its even fair criticism) is actually caused by inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of sexism, extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an impact velocity of 1400 fps. Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an impact velocity of 2800 fps. These two loads have exactly the same kinetic energy at impact: 957 ft-lbs. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. At this velocity, the 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. Affirmative Essay Papers. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and sexism in language essays, exit. Term Papers. Between these two loads, the .224 Ballistic Tip would be the in language essays better performer on math education research paper, smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the advocacy for sexism in language its use on game such as elk and dropouts essays, bear would be very much in the minority, and rightly so.
It would definitely deliver more energy to the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from inadequate penetration. So, the energy deposition in the target is not the sole or even the primary determinant of the utility of the load. If there were an ideal case from the standpoint of efficiency , I suppose it would be for a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and fell to the ground. Sexism Essays. One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and ag day contest, effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the bullet has done all the damage that it can do to that particular target at that particular angle of entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the in language exact size and toughness of the nursing school game encountered, or the exact range, which would have to be known in sexism in language essays, order to achieve the precise impact velocity required for ideal efficiency.
All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to exceed the minimum performance, and this is accomplished by designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Naturally, at some ranges the bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. This wasted energy is irrelevant if the wound is adequate. At this point I again call attention to my previously stated definition of adequate, namely a wound track of 0.75 to 1.00 inches (19 to 25 mm) in diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. A smaller hole through major arteries only nursing school essay questions, (for example) will kill, but the game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and entrance wounds rarely bleed much. A larger cavity at shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by less than 25 to 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and others in sexism in language essays, which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is not a cut and dried issue.
In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to the ethical considerations of the literature review for research contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of us, times have changed. Essays. We lack the tracking skills of our forebears and the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. Personally, I hold the one-shot instant kill as my ideal and therefore absolute reliability and predictability in terminal performance.
The point that I have attempted to press here (perhaps in a rambling fashion) is that complete penetration is not something to avoid in the hunting field. Math Research Paper. In fact there is good evidence that through and through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. Bullets such as the Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. Glasers are designed not to penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to sexism in language essays exit from the body of the review target and endanger someone immediately behind. Glasers and similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to penetrate deeply in order to reach the vitals of the target. However, it is this end of the design spectrum that is sexism problematic. Taken in its extreme, were the mere deposition of energy by any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. It would be extremely frangible in construction and provide very shallow penetration.
In fact, it need not penetrate at 911 essays, all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. One is a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at 60 fps. In Language Essays. The other is a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?
The kinetic energy of the affirmative essay papers gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on in language essays, impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to break your neck. The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. What happens when the energy levels are comparable to that of a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. (Apparently I confused some in the past, so here is a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of nursing school, kinetic energy, about that of a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of 2325 fps at 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in fact, an extremely effective load.
This equates, in strict energy terms, to a tackle by a 225 pound defensive end moving at 20 mph (29.3 fps). That sounds like quite a smackdown and I daresay it would clobber most people and a lot of big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. It is not the 3000 ft-lbs of energy itself that kills, it is the character of the work done by it. Another example of the fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is one from my own experience. I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at home!). The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on sexism in language essays, the ground in front of the mesh screen. The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the kinetic energy of the bullet.
However, the term 911 essays screen suffered no serious damage; there was only sexism in language essays, a faint depression where the education bullet had struck and glanced. What actually occurred is that the screen gave against some tall grass when impacted and essays, caught the action essay papers bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to reproduce this spectacular behavior for a friend of mine, the screen was supported so that it did not give and was easily perforated by sexism in language the bullets. This last example from personal experience graphically demonstrates why the affirmative action energy dump premise is fundamentally flawed. In the former case the screen (with the assistance of some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to spare. You would observe a similar result if the target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and in language essays, aids in math education research paper, distributing the applied forces over a larger area, but the same would hold true if skin had the mechanical characteristics of sexism in language, aramid fiber).
I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of no hunting bullets for term papers 911 essays rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the impact velocity range and against the game for which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of compressed metal powders for essays use in confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon impact, expending all of their kinetic energy without penetrating, and these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Review. Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is sought after. Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into sexism in language, the vitals, coupled with an adequate degree of destructive cavitation is affirmative action essay papers essential for in language success in the field. Varmint bullets and most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on math research, a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and antelope. Hit the shoulder bones or angle the shot from the rear and it is often ruinous. However, one should not assume from this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is somehow unrelated to wounding potential. Clearly, the naked human torso (and that of sexism in language, even large and papers 911 essays, tough game) is far more capable of absorbing a low velocity impact than the kinetic energy of a rifle bullet.
The rate of energy transfer to the target is sexism in language essays vastly more important than the quantity of energy transferred. This is the research technical definition of power. Anyone sunbathing on a clear summer day at the beach will receive an irradiance equivalent to sexism essays over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. And Effect Dropouts Essays. Eventually, this bombardment by extremely high energy particles will result in sunburn, but the body can withstand the energy it receives because it is spread over a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). The power and sexism essays, intensity (power per contest, unit area) is sexism essays much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the belief that the rapid transfer of the kinetic energy of the bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. Cause And Effect School. This term gets used rather loosely to describe quite a lot of sexism, things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the following discussion I confine my reference to purported effects induced far from the literature for research wound cavity that are attributable to a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.
I don't know where this term originated, but it is pseudoscientific slang. In the first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an oxymoron. Sexism Essays. Shock, in the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in excess of the term 911 essays inherent sound speed of the sexism essays material; it can't be static. Cause Of High. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.
The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to be about 5150 fps, and in language essays, that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for literature Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). Even varmint bullets do not have an impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the bullet can penetrate faster than the inherent sound speed of the medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Instead, the in language essays bullet impact produces an term acoustic wave which moves ahead of the penetration. The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to describe a violent impact, but it is confusing, especially in connection with the term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to the slang. It also tends to get confused with the medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is meant by in language shock to the medical profession. Term Papers. The word shock should never appear in a gun journal, in in language essays, my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and term papers, overstate the situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and sexism, generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.
In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is papers 911 essays possible to kill manually by nerve strangulation. In this case actual damage to the central nervous system is not caused, but the signals governing the heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. Sexism In Language. This sort of essay questions, thing makes for lurid mythology in the martial arts and in language essays, bad movies, but there is some real science behind it. Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the cardiac rhythm. Papers. Acoustic pressure on the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for the rapid effectiveness of some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in sexism in language, cases in which the victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Some special handgun loads (e.g., the THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to achieve this result. Unfortunately, this is an unreliable mechanism of essay, incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on demand because it depends more on the hit location and perhaps even the timing of the sexism hit than it does on the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Papers 911 Essays. Many of the handgun bullets designed to sexism use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and even clothing.
More to the point, its less a matter of the bullet than the specific aimpoint. Ag Day. Doing this deliberately by in language hand, even with a profound understanding of the mechanism and affirmative, vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the in language passage of a pressure wave from a bullet to accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Such is never an affirmative action essay acceptable mechanism for the hunter. On the other hand, as I have alluded to previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from years past (e.g., the original 130 grain bullet of the .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of instantaneous kills by blowing to bits and never exiting the game. I find this interesting in sexism in language, view of the term 911 essays current obsession with avoiding bullets in sexism in language, which the lead cores separate from the jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the jacket behind, makes the core vulnerable to premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of essay contest, penetration. But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against sexism in language very tough heavy game and literature, most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to the target is not inherently indicative of sexism in language essays, lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about a load?
Well, the term papers 911 essays essential questions are what sort of sexism in language, bullet are we discussing, at what impact velocity and against what sort of target? Considering all of that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the potential for cavitation when coupled with the proper bullet. III. A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the term use of momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of this view because it seemed to essays give more credit to lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is cause school dropouts equally inadequate to sexism essays describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in support of that view are as full of literature, blue sky nonsense as any claim made of kinetic energy.
The old African hunters talked of stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and stand stock still in a daze. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the details) the in language truly huge weapons such as the 8 and math education, 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later .577 and .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into the spongy skull of an elephant, but when the brain is closely missed. In this case, the impact of the blow was literally sufficient to stagger the animal. It is to be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only be used by men of considerable size and strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the sexism essays far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and I don't know of anyone alive who does, then stopping an animal in this sense isn't a matter of concern. From what I've read, one cannot depend upon a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is ag day essay contest used (if then), and then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at all. Proper stopping of a charge depends on shot placement.
Similar rules apply to human targets. Sexism Essays. The human frame is so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Again, the force of the papers blow is comparable to the recoil of the gun. It has to be. That's physics. In either case the bullet is acting under high acceleration loads over a short distance. Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the sexism essays same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).
There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by those who have never shot anyone) of people being hurled off their feet by and effect essays a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for the impact to cause a pressure pulse of such magnitude through the sexism in language essays body of the target, that it is term instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). This happens, for example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the chipmunk wears body armor. In Language. It doesn't happen often (if ever) against big game and humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to literature hits against the central nervous system, or to any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the force of the impact). I haven't yet seen any cases in which a wound that did not reach to sexism essays the vital organs resulted in death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is that if all of the momentum of a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by a non-penetrating blow, the damage inflicted on any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to describe their sensations of essay contest, being shot, physical reactions, etc. The common response is that the impact feels precisely like the impact of a punch.
It is in language not any more impressive. This is math research consistent with other testimony that I have read, and serves as a useful analogy for essays argument. A punch is not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to math research paper the brain, but alternatively to sexism essays the lungs, etc. - or in the case of the victim being surprised, off balance, etc. The impact of a bullet behaves according to similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an impact to a man than to cause and effect dropouts essays an elephant because of the size difference, assuming the sexism in language force of the impact is absorbed in both cases). The actual momentum transfer of a typical hunting bullet is slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and if one were wearing body armor to slow the absorbtion of energy at impact, that is what would be felt - a good solid thump. With the body armor one's body absorbs all of the literature for research kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the bullet penetrates and sexism in language, exits using only a portion of its kinetic energy and momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Interestingly, in the case of body armor, the impulse is higher than if the bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of these two scenarios is lethal and which is insignificant. And Effect Of High Dropouts Essays. Were that not the sexism essays case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of this assertion. Education Research. Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.
Many people have, but it wasn't caused by the force of the impact. For the skeptical among you, if you require proof that the spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the bullet impact, I challenge you to in language rent a video of dangerous game hunting in Africa and observe the cause and effect of high school essays effect of bullet impact on downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is made. Essays. This practice isn't carried out on deer and nursing, it separates the effect of the bullet from the effect of the living animal. Lions and even buffalo may seem to flip high in the air, but if they are dead the bodies only quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and these are shots through the most massive shoulder and spinal bones, delivering the sexism in language greatest resistance and impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the impact in a manner very similar to a game animal. I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at 2900 fps (at ten feet). The wetpack did not budge, although the plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.
More recently, that same load was used to kill a springbok in and effect of high dropouts essays, Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in its tracks. After perhaps a half a minute or more the sexism in language animal staggered to its feet and began to graze, though bleeding profusely from its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over sideways, stiff-legged and dead.
Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the second impact, even though the action bullet did not exit. I have conducted the sexism essays same test into a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in the sport of metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. Term 911 Essays. The big 200 meter rams weigh about 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by most of the more powerful cartridges. We're talking about, at in language essays, most, a 220 grain bullet at say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at maybe 2500 fps. So, now if we move those bullets along at only a few hundred more fps, to cause and effect of high school dropouts about 2500 fps and 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to acquire the ability to take an animal weighing ten times as much and throw it into sexism essays, the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the school essay kind of values necessary to produce the effects claimed. Again, its comparable to sexism the recoil.
The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at essay questions, 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the same masses and momentum. Intuitively, we can evaluate the relative lethality of these two weapons without field testing. Incidentally, these both produce the same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is a heavy hitter. Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about 50% of the body weight of a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of still only in language, about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the standard in stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of 911 essays, punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the idea that stopping power is a function of sexism essays, momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of term papers, a particular load?
Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about sexism performance. However, that aside, momentum is in general terms a good measure of the potential for action papers penetration. This potential will only be realized with the proper bullet and, as will be shown in essays, the next article in this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the momentum. But, high momentum can translate into deep penetration with the right bullet. III. A. iii. Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Kinetic Energy. I think it was the sage and revered (and great favorite of term papers, mine) Col. Townsend Whelen who first proposed the idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at least 1000 ft-lbs of in language essays, kinetic energy on the target for quick dispatch of deer and 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).
This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the world of smallbore ballistics today is very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at the forefront of school essay questions, modern military small arms development with the U. S. Sexism Essays. Army Ordnance Department. Moreover, here is what he had to say in his own treatise on the subject of education research paper, Killing Power over essays seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon literature, the average size of the wound it makes in the animal, and upon nothing else. The size of the wound in sexism, turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and of high school dropouts essays, shape of the bullet, and the velocity with which it strikes, and upon no other details. . We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and tables of the properties of cartridges often give the energy of each. Now energy depends upon the weight of the bullet times its velocity, and on nothing else, and thus can have only a very distant bearing on our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. 236) An important fact to remember is that not all energy is sexism in language essays created equal. What this ultimately means is that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for and effect of high school essays lethality is practically meaningless. The character of the work done by a certain quantity of sexism in language, kinetic energy will be dependent upon the mass, construction and term papers, velocity of the projectile. In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is not as lethal as that of a bullet.
Furthermore, the damage actually caused by a lesser amount of kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. Sexism. This is affirmative action essay papers easier to sexism in language essays understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Kinetic energy is governed by similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the math paper velocity is held constant. Kinetic energy, mass and the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is not. Sexism In Language. In like manner pure water at standard pressure boils at 100° C, regardless of quantity. 911 Essays. A small amount of water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.
The heat required to bring a quantity of water to a boil is directly proportional to the mass of the sexism water (just as the kinetic energy is proportional to the volume of displacement by a bullet), but the character of the work done on the water by that heat energy is determined by the temperature it produces. It is velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the quantity of greatest interest in the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and projectile construction is essential to evaluating the action papers character of the kinetic energy and its wounding potential, simply relying on a quantity of energy can be quite misleading. The way in which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the in language essays way in school, which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an in language essays impact velocity of 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). In the former case, a lung shot would result in term 911 essays, a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. Interestingly, in the former case probably 20% or more of that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the bullet, whereas in the latter case all of it would be delivered to the target. Sexism Essays. However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of energy delivered by a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at essay questions, 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to the ballistics of sporting arms. I have encountered the notion in recent years in my profession of a tank killing threshold of sexism essays, 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of kinetic energy that is supposed to translate into and effect school essays, all sorts of killing authority. In Language Essays. Aside from the problem described above in assigning an arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against action a type of sexism in language, game, there is the matter of unit definitions.
If you like to think of it as the energy required to raise a one ton block a distance of one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by that falling block!). Forget the comparison to automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of kinetic energy does not equate with the impact of a full-size sedan. However, simply because an for research arbitrary quantity of kinetic energy is not, in and of itself, sufficient to describe the wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and that what we need is a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of which was that kinetic energy is sexism essays simply the literature review for research arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on sexism, physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the term 911 essays cancerous pseudoscience of gun writers has spread to corrupt even the hallowed precepts of essays, true science. Paper. I shouldn't make it seem as if the in language author of this particular article were alone in his assumptions. The history of popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of review, pounds-feet.
What is most astounding about particular outrage against science and sexism, clear reasoning is nursing school essay that the (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to prevent its publication. I expect this sort of essays, thing in cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from publishers (incidentally, the present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to be published in their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in 70 years. When gun writers attempt to describe terminal ballistics in terms more technical than wallop they take on the mantle of science and bear the responsibility to their readership to convey an accurate discussion of the mechanisms involved. Nursing School Essay Questions. Science does not merely belong to sexism in language scientists nor only in term papers 911 essays, the realm of the scientific journal. It is truth on a fundamental level.
There are no everyday meanings to sexism essays terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and impulse. Literature Review. They are not slang or jargon used to describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to sexism in language the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an apology to review the reader. This article and sexism in language, the letter exchange is now ancient history.
It was not my intent then nor is it now to pillory anyone. I wrote my own letters to the editor of the magazine at the time in hopes of inspiring a more fastidious editorship in terms of technical matter. Term 911 Essays. I feel justified in rehashing the argument in in language essays, cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of what I am pressing here seems arcane and unimportant to most shooters. But the affirmative action papers integrity of sexism essays, such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to for research all ballistics, the technology on which we depend.
Is it necessary for the average shooter to in language understand all these concepts and be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. However, when they are discussed, the affirmative discussion needs to be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the average Joe understands the essays ins and outs of physics is not the issue - its the attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the attitude that science is based on opinion, rather than fact. Its the same mentality that has lead to nursing school questions the wholesale disrespect of science in America, and that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in the classroom and denial of global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only create confusion. Velocity is not impulse. It is not like impulse.
Kinetic energy is not momentum and sexism, velocity combined. Cause Of High Dropouts. Momentum will not describe the load with the hardest thump. There is no room in true science for a private opinion about sexism essays a better definition of energy, and those who ask Is the for research ft-lb an accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is in language essays overtaking the firearms community. Action Essay Papers. In the age of bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the firearms community is becoming mired in a level of scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. The truth is in language not marketable but crackpot theories about better formulas for kinetic energy warrant feature articles.
Falsehood and error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into terminal ballistics bear the responsibility to repudiate the school nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for some I will unravel the mystery. The definition of energy is in language essays based upon physical laws. A ft-lb is term a valid unit of kinetic energy - by sexism essays definition. There is nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to do with antiquated perspectives on essay, energy. Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.
But pounds are actually a unit of in language essays, force (i.e., weight), which is mass times acceleration (due to gravity in nursing school essay, this case). So, to get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the velocity squared terms of sexism, ft 2 /s 2 simply to feet. This leaves units that correspond to action another definition of in language essays, energy, being force times distance. Its really only confusing in the old English system of contest, units because we normally think of pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of energy are the same thing because they are all in Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and can be converted into BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. All of these resolve down to the same fundamental quantities of mass times distance (divided by sexism essays time) squared. Math Paper. Not all energy is the same, but all energy has the in language same fundamental units. Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of for research, gun writers. In Language Essays. The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of papers 911 essays, which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in the last century.
Offering correction is as uncomfortable for the corrector as for the one being corrected. It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is a general observation more applicable to web forums and in language, fireside talk). It is math paper a subtle thing, typically taking the form of a resistance to let go of cherished misconceptions and an egoistic tendency that we all share to be knowledgeable. I have been proved wrong many times in my life and essays, while the experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for being corrected. Not everyone is made happier by correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the insistence that everything is subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.
If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in literature review for research, game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of sexism in language, uncertainty removes all hope of understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of agnosticism) and are equally well served by consulting an astrologer about the performance of our weapons. III. A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of thing referenced persistently on web forums and in the customer product reviews at and effect school essays, Midway. The prevalent belief is that some bullets, by sexism essays dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.
It is an extenuation of the overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of course, rubbish. Almost all of these anecdotes describe situations in which the game is in fact bagged, because the curious detail of a tiny exit wound is research invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of evidence, offered to justify the in language essays accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the bullet had performed very well, despite the small exit hole in the hide. Math Education Paper. Of course the bullets are never recovered in such scenarios, so there is no hard physical evidence to contradict the claim of no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.
The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and the soft cup and core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the jacket laid back tight against the remaining shank of the bullet. The monolithic bullets can shed petals at higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the sexism in language essays exit wounds may be small. The only math education research, instance of an sexism in language essays expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for all that, churning across the thorax and ending up buried in the opposite hind leg.
The warthog thrashed around for a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to believe that killing power is attributable to school essay questions the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. Please don't think me facetious. Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and can send the same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the sexism in language essays same caliber based on the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into education, more muzzle energy. However, by the same reasoning, at sexism essays, some distance downrange no cartridge is any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.
The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at a muzzle velocity of 3200 fps is no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the difference between that bullet and one fired at close range from the humble Krag. Yet I seriously doubt if the advocates of overbore magnums, and of shooting at affirmative action, game at distances in excess of 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to cartridges that were in vogue in 1920 when used at such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over sexism in language the last 150 years or so is principally increased range, at the expense of reliability in some cases at the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. I am not opposed to high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is a point of term 911 essays, diminishing return. And there is nothing magical about any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. Choose the ones that make sense in terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and don't be misled by hype about the supposed power of essays, others because, as we will see in review for research, Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.
B. Miscalculations of Lethality. The following sections describe a series of sexism in language essays, quasi-scientific attempts to describe bullet load effectiveness. All of these are relatively simple relationships of basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and muzzle or impact velocity. Each is an attempt to go beyond the measure of merit of kinetic energy or momentum alone and produce a more accurate and nursing, realistic measure of performance. Each has its following and some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in the April 1992 issue of sexism, GUNS magazine and has since appeared in several references. It is ag day purportedly the result of careful examination of the various contributions of kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and a number of other criteria (pg. 62) to in language essays terminal effect. The author, without elaborating on his methodology, settled on the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.
This is, of course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by momentum, then multiplied by some constant to arrive at 911 essays, the desired weight range (momentum is sexism actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by a constant). There is absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by this calculation; they are entirely the result of a subjective selection of the constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by cause of high essays the acceleration due to gravity). Sexism In Language Essays. Although the choice of this constant may be assumed to be based upon sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the result is merely a scaling factor. The only terms in this calculation are velocity and bullet weight. The basic premise of the term papers formula is worthy of closer examination.
The OGW formula attempts to combine in one measure the separate contributions of kinetic energy and momentum, or perhaps the sexism two schools of thought: fast and disruptive versus slow and literature, deep. This is well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and a correspondingly low momentum. How will it perform? The most useful description of essays, its performance would be found by separating its component functions, cavitation and penetration, and literature review for research, analyzing these in relation to sexism essays the game in question. School Dropouts. From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against large game. Yet an 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at 3500 fps would have an OGW rating of 389 lbs at the muzzle! Compare this to a 575 grain ball traveling at 850 fps with an OGW rating of 305 lbs. The former load is appropriate only for coyotes, jackrabbits and very lightly framed deer.
The latter load is for sexism in language essays a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. The author included an exhaustive list of literature, cartridges and loads, but the distinctions of OGW are only applicable between bullet weights and sexism in language, velocities. The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the effect of sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in its development. Most glaringly, bullet construction is essay neglected. A 150 gr. bullet moving at 2800 fps is sexism essays identical in this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. Literature Review For Research. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for sexism in language essays the application in affirmative, mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the question of just what this model does tell you if you must already know the answer before you begin). What the OGW Table really attempts to be describe is the approximate heaviest weight of sexism in language, animal that could be reliably killed from any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the bullet selected was reasonable. Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of beast which this load killed most effectively, and any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the term optimum is misplaced.
Unfortunately, by making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the effect of this component in terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for deforming bullets. Moreover, the dramatic degradation in effectiveness with increasing range is also far from accurate. Papers. A typical high velocity bullet is shown to lose half its effectiveness between the muzzle and in language, 250 yards. Affirmative Papers. In practice, no meaningful loss of performance is essays experienced for contest most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of conventional construction at moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for caliber bullets, then the most effective employment of these projectiles is at in language essays, close range and very high velocity - in direct opposition to all conventional wisdom and affirmative action papers, test data. Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to in language disintegrate.
Comparisons between different calibers and bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to comment on this one because it happens to math education paper be a favorite of one of my favorite gun writers, a man of outstanding skill and sexism in language essays, a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to affirmative papers Taylor!). Taylor himself was also a man of in language, unimpeachable experience and his views on rifles and calibers, especially for dangerous game, is affirmative action papers taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to sexism in language go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about its creation.
The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at for research, the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and kinetic energy. Essays. A number of this following ventured to Africa, and like their predecessors in the heyday of blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to the shooter or guides. Taylor was attempting to counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Nursing Essay Questions. Applying his many years of experience to the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the kind of bullets and in language essays, cartridges he knew to work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the literature review for research TKO of the standard nitro express load. I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an elephant would produce any positive result.
Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in the killing performance of the sexism various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and .500s on dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of sound construction. But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the bore diameter equally as important as the velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. 2 is seen to be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the same ballistics. Papers. The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the larger bore is calculated to be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. In fairness to the author, the TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the table he provides only includes loads for solid bullets). Taylor himself said of it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an excellent basis from sexism, which any two rifles may be compared from the for research point of sexism, view of the actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to be a lot of misunderstanding about this word shock; men seem to review be under the impression that it implies killing power.
But that is erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for the most part to near misses of the brain on elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. In Language. Such tactics are no longer permissible and literature review for research, were never ethical in in language essays, my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is true even in this sense is a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to be highly experienced in this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the affirmative essay eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on the basis of sexism essays, his observations and nursing, those of in language essays, other contemporary hunters and game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.
38 - 42). But the point here is cause and effect school essays that Taylor never offered this formula as an indicator of killing or even shocking performance for sexism essays hits on the body. That is an American gun pundit extrapolation of thought. Taylor includes TKO values for everything down to nursing school the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to offering the relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against sexism another for general hunting use - its to show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for stopping an elephant. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from a .600 in the belly will have little more apparent effect on literature review for research, [an elephant] than a single shot from a .275 in the same place. Sexism In Language. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 59)
American hunters and gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and killing power to describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the review for research last time I saw an in language article on that subject. Promotion of the TKO is indicative of the careless way in which any quasi-scientific method is seized upon, even though the originator of it may reject that purpose to which it is put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on school, Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and velocity. Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to be listened to essays reverently.
I love Wooters, even if he is a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to the plateau of veneration upon which he resides, one can be forgiven for curmudgeonhood). No doubt frustrated with the ceaseless litany of kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for what he felt was a better measure of a bullet's effectiveness on game. Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to ag day essay contest be a real measure of killing effect on thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). The author's formula is described below:
LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to in language essays Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is a significant component in and effect school dropouts, the measure of the wounding, and in language essays, bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and education research, expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). In Language. The trouble is: all things aren't on equal footing and quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into account cannot be considered meaningful measures of terminal effect. To be meaningful and scientifically sound (ie, correct and true), a formula or theory must be founded on carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and and effect dropouts essays, anecdotal evidence (which is little better than hearsay). Sexism Essays. Again, to be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of a specific cartridge-load combination and its components are assessed at the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in math education research, Part IV) the in language downrange performance of math research, otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in particular, is an unreliable indicator of in language, bullet performance. Not to pick on the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and up without end. What exactly does this mean? Something can only be so dead. Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the research game weight, two animals standing side by side, or with twice the probability? Just what is conveyed by these figures?
Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the essays computations and three or four significant digits of precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of thing. I fear that this whole fascination for performance indices ultimately arises from the American passion for action essay statistics and sexism in language essays, our competitive spirit. It is sports stats on math education, a different plane. My rifle load is better than your rifle load and I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of sexism in language essays, making all sorts of comparative calculations of kinetic energy and momentum for various cartridge-load combinations. But this is ag day a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the real mechanics of wounding to in language essays be of literature review for research, any practical value.
III. B. iv. Hornady Index of Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in the form of an online calculator . Essays. Its stated purpose is to assist hunters in selecting a bullet and cartridge combination suitable for any hunting situation. After a little experimentation I derived the terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the terms constitute the sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the score to four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of ag day essay, 50 to 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and caribou) 901 to 1500 -- Large and heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from 300 to essays 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of literature, any weight (including, for example, big cats)
This system bears a strong resemblance to the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in important respects. While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to sexism in language splitting hairs and comparisons between cartridges, the HITS system only indicates the general class of game animal suitable for that load. Questions. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the loads in sexism in language essays, anything more precise than the review for research four general categories. Sexism Essays. Clearly, higher is deemed to ag day contest be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the values can be assumed to indicate how much better. In other words, a HITS of 1500 does not indicate that the load is sexism essays twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of literature for research, 750. That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by the OGW, which claimed to tell you the sexism in language actual weight, to the pound, of the optimum game size.
Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of lethality. While I don't endorse any of term papers, these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into the actual mechanics of sexism in language, terminal ballistics, the HITS methodology does tend to push the school essay questions user toward solutions which are known to work better: higher sectional density and heavier bullet weight for heavier game. It doesn't include the unfortunate bias of velocity that the OGW creates, nor the bullet diameter bias of the TKO. For the sexism most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for all the Hornady ammunition, at first nothing leaps out as an obvious case of mathematical mischief. None of the .223 Remington loads is judged to be suitable for action essay papers medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is judged to be acceptable for elk and other large game. If anything the scores result in sexism essays, an overly conservative categorization.
Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. But a little conservatism these days is not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in which all three parameters tend to be high. The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is judged suitable for dangerous game, which might be true depending on the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. However, the Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in the table, a rapidly expanding and lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the suggestion that the 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.
Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in any dangerous game hunting situation. On the other hand, none of the review big-bore lever gun loads of the .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and these would all be first rate for that role even if we leave aside the debate over their utility against essays heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and the lever gun loads lacking enough to of high dropouts qualify, things return to expectation, which is to say that the truly big bores are all judged to be suitable choices for dangerous game. Sexism. No surprises there. On the whole, unless one has literally no notion of what makes a suitable load for a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of this. But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for contest the trees. Maybe Hornady is right and basic shooter education trumps technical validity from their vantage point. The worst outcome of this sort of calculation to my mind is the impression fostered that the performance of a load is largely or even totally independent of the bullet chosen.
The HITS treats every bullet of equivalent weight and sectional density (i.e., caliber) the in language essays same. In reality, the bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on research, the terminal performance than the velocity. Across a wide velocity spread the wound pattern will be similar for a given bullet of in language essays, good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and a varmint or match bullet of equal weight and literature for research, caliber would be dramatic. Hornady does speak to the applicability of the bullet to sexism in language the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to use this new tool and apply it without further elaboration to their current line of ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of their products. A simple statement in a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of what the math research HITS provides, at least in in language, the mind of the target consumer. III.
B. v. Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is what appears at first blush to be a step forward. Review. Invented by in language essays South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and Deerstalker , the Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is math education paper based on a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.
The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at sexism in language essays, various times (for instance, dropping the Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for bullet weight and velocity), but the above is said to essay be the proper form. This formula inverts the bias of kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and some accounting for expanded diameter. So what is wrong? Well, for one thing, as with the other shortcut calculations, we are expected to simply accept this formula as the definition of killing power at face value. Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by sexism in language essays expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to three or four significant digits for a plethora of bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the data!
The only evidence that the author offers to support its validity is in the form of comparisons to other popular indices and factors or to kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is math paper provided to show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for sexism essays this formula then the author would have presented that data instead of simply making unsubstantiated claims about the correspondance between the KOV and actual field experience. Math Education Research Paper. When the sexism in language support of real world field experience is drawn upon for evidence, it is entirely subjective, simply the conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on math paper, Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and the KOV shows it to sexism in language be 28 % better. Whether or not such assumptions are true is debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the bullet, and just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the problem?
In any event, the nursing essay KOV does not take into consideration the animal to be shot. Why then a Cape buffalo for the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to sexism essays be 28 % better on a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. Nursing Essay Questions. None of this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and end up with a result that subjectively and sexism in language, qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of which are based on popular notions of terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and nursing school essay questions, frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of sexism in language essays, terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is essay good, etc.
However, some of these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and measures must be as objective and sexism in language, quantitative as possible. Consequently, theories of math research, terminal effect must be evaluated in quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of sexism, wounds must be evaluated. None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an analysis. Field experience without measurement and term papers 911 essays, records is next door to in language useless. It is no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Science is not founded on faith in the analytical powers of an individual, it is founded on fact which can be examined and tested by any individual. Affirmative Essay Papers. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.
In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the TKO which looked only at nominal caliber, the KOV at least considers the expanded diameter; however, the expanded diameter and impact velocity do not occur together in time. The KOV has associated the sexism in language terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an instant before impact. This is a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at 100 mph in exactly the same state that one steps into the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at home. These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the bullet's kinetic energy is expended in getting it into action essay papers, that shape. A Knock Out Value created by sexism in language essays multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in cause and effect dropouts, real terms.
The KOV calculation assumes that the final shape of the bullet is realized instantly and without loss of velocity. In Language Essays. In actuality, the velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of penetration as the bullet gradually expands to its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the affirmative action essay hydrodynamic pressure falls below the effective flow stress of the bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to 2100 fps for most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of sexism in language essays, time on the order of a fraction of a millisecond, this is not an affirmative papers instantaneous process and the interval between impact and the termination of sexism essays, hydrodynamic deformation in the bullet dominates the mechanics of the penetration event. The following figure illustrates the point. It shows a series of for research, curves describing the fraction of the kinetic energy at impact which is sexism in language essays expended during the hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the bullet) for papers various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of 1900 fps. It will be quickly observed that, for 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and 80% of the sexism essays kinetic energy at impact is review for research expended by the time the bullet has assumed its final form. Even at impact velocities only slightly above the hydrodynamic termination velocity, the energy of the bullet deformation and resultant cavitation amounts to between 10% and 55% of the total kinetic energy. If we care about retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to care about the sexism essays interaction which resulted in those dimensions.
However, even if one knew the termination velocity for deformation in the bullet (which could be anything from ag day, 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the wound (or the impact velocity) based solely on essays, the final expanded diameter and retained weight would amount to mere speculation. Papers. It is the process by which the sexism essays bullet assumes that final form that dictates the term dimensions of the wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is no obvious correspondance between the in language appearance of the recovered bullet and the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on their impact velocity and design characteristics. A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to a perfect classic mushroom. You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in action essay, Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the bullets recovered with the smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the largest cavities (not that they are the best overall performers). This is in language why, in my mind at math research paper, least, both testing and careful observation and measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for sexism essays his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of hunting and essay, shooting experience. That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and John Wooters and others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. Essays. I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on the substantive creditable field experience of anyone.
Still, these methods do not work. In the final analysis, the KOV is for research little better (nor any worse) than the TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to get at the answer. They all fall short of telling us more than we already knew. I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the KOV or Bekker. These formulas are merely the manifestations of the biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for that reason (and as a springboard to elucidate what is really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at the very outset is old-fashioned human prejudice - the pre-conceived notion on the part of the sexism creator concerning what the answer ought to be. We are all guilty of this. Not even the best of math, us is in language essays free from prejudice (which is 911 essays why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the truth, we must be prepared to in language essays be divested of our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Insistence that the literature for research facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and I have a vast body of hearsay and conjecture supporting me! in sexism, the face of plain physical evidence is review for research nothing more than denial, an sexism essays inability to face reality.
Theory must bend to empirical evidence. And Effect Of High School Dropouts. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of in language, these attempts is rooted in a (perhaps innocent and unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is obtained. Mechanics works only in literature for research, certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to understand is the mechanics that result in a wound of sexism in language essays, discrete specific dimensions. Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and those of us who know better need to improve the understanding of those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the details.
At the far extreme of education, this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of science. Tragically, America seems to place about as much confidence in science as in superstition. That makes a damning statement about the quality of our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and in language essays, biology cannot really answer our questions about terminal performance, that it all comes down to some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is far too complex to math education ever understand or quantify. That is nonsense. The truth isn't up for grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of it may be. However, even the introduction of more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the next section will demonstrate. III. C. In Language. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of papers, Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in there. For the hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.
Probably I should have included this discussion in the Mechanics of Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to essays be general and easily accessible. Of necessity, we must now get down to the details. III. C. i. Relationships of Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by the articles that I see published which evince an ignorance of basic science. Just for my own sanity and peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an intrinsic quantity of matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the inertia of an object.
Inertia is the property of an object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and weight are not the same thing, but we normally associate the two. Affirmative Action Papers. Weight is actually a force exerted on a mass in a gravitational field. In Language Essays. We live with gravity so we think of mass and weight as being the same thing. Math Education Research. It is sexism in language essays vital in mechanics to recognize that they are distinct.
This distinction was not perceived at first by scientists (understandably) and so the original English system of units is based on review, the fundamental quantities of force (pounds), length (feet) and sexism, time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in affirmative action essay papers, the late 18th century when the metric system was developed (yes, its over 200 years old!). Force is in language essays actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the ag day essay bridge, so lets not brood about it. [This conundrum has led to the introduction of pounds-force, lbf, and pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only resulted in NASA Mars probes falling from sexism essays, orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of change in the position of an object with respect to and effect dropouts time. Here too, we normally use the words speed and velocity interchangeably, but this is incorrect. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity, but velocity is a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of movement.
I throw the term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is more to velocity than mere speed. Because next we get to sexism in language acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity. Note that this is cause school dropouts any change in the velocity, either in magnitude or direction. A classic example is a mass suspended on in language, a string which is being whirled with constant speed . It is being subjected to a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is constantly changing as it turns around its center of rotation. [Deceleration is slang for a negative acceleration and you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is math education research paper also a vector quantity. It can be in the direction of motion or against it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by in language velocity.
The units in the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of cause of high school, force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in sexism in language, velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. Literature. Clearly then, the time rate of change in sexism in language, momentum is the same as force. Forces act on masses and induce changes in motion and, hence, the momentum. More on essay, that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the most important person in the history of mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and mathematics. He not only established the rules of mechanics in terms of its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for sexism in language essays solving the problems of mechanics.
It is useful to understand the difference between a derivative and an integral for the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. School Essay. It is sexism in language usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to action essay papers (divided by) the differential quantity of time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the time derivative of velocity and in language essays, velocity is the time derivative of distance, then it is math education research clear that acceleration is the second time derivative of in language, distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of mass, distance, velocity and acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and da, but it is important to note the distinction between a differential quantity and a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for instance. An integral, on affirmative action essay, the other hand, is the sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by performing the time integration of the velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and summing at each step.
If this calculation is sexism essays performed numerically with enough resolution the answer will be very good. It can be performed analytically for an exact answer if the expression describing ds / dt is papers 911 essays known and has an analytical solution (not always the case). Energy is essays a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Energy is a physical quantity describing the activity state of matter. It occurs (or manifests itself) in many forms. Papers 911 Essays. For our purposes, the most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and heat. There is also chemical, nuclear, and electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the energy expended by sexism essays a force acting over a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Papers. Heat is a form of internal energy which is basically kinetic energy on the scale of sexism essays, atoms.
Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by and effect school dropouts essays the specific heat of a material and its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to the same fundamental units of essays, mass x length 2 / time 2 and nursing school essay, are totally interchangeable. Sexism. In other words, energy is not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in one context and something else entirely in another context. Power, in a scientific sense, is the time rate of energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the derivative de / dt. Literature. If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to sexism in language essays be power. Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of ballistics.
I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to believe that the college level science class is free from error. Sadly, the late American penchant for making things accessible to math research paper the student has led to some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . neglecting air resistance. , . assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. , and sexism in language, . Education Paper. a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. . Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the entire problem in real world exterior and terminal ballistics. One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to gravity is only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the (negative) acceleration due to air resistance is on the order of 1700 ft/s 2 or more for high velocity rifle bullets. The equations of motion governing ballistic flight of projectiles are a set of highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the essays textbook manufacturers don't want to discuss it. Review For Research. Its easier to give the student a false impression of in language, reality with a problem that is literature review simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and non-rigid.
Elastic deformation is recoverable, meaning the object is not permanently deformed. Plastic deformation is permanent. Sexism In Language Essays. All ballistic events of review, interest involve large plastic deformations. Elastic and plastic equate to the terminal ballistic terms of temporary cavity and permanent cavity. Rigidity is the completely imaginary property of not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. There is no such thing as a rigid body, but the sexism assumption is often used in textbooks for simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in relation to affirmative action papers the strength of an object.
It ought to be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and well constructed ones at that). Furthermore, any degree of penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by the most commonly offered relations of elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in sexism, which no energy is expended. This abomination violates the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and literature review for research, should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of in language essays, Motion, also known as the action essay principle of Conservation of Momentum, states: The time integral of the change in momentum (or, the impulse) of a system is equal to the time integral of the resultant of sexism, all applied forces acting on the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the resultant of all the forces acting on school essay questions, a system is equal to sexism essays the integral of the mass multiplied by review for research the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). This is the most important expression in all mechanics. Everything builds on this, but it is vital not to be confused about sexism essays what it means. This is not an algebraic expression, it is an integral expression in vector form. Different rules apply.
Newton's Second Law is often violated in textbook sample problems. A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the ag day conservation of momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of sexism, 10 g and term papers 911 essays, a velocity of sexism in language essays, 800 m/s. Affirmative Action Papers. The bullet strikes a block at rest with a mass of 4 kg, and sexism essays, is fully embedded in essay, the block. Assuming that the bodies are perfectly plastic and that the block rests on a frictionless surface, find the final velocity of the block. In Language Essays. [Solution: This is rubbish and does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. The effects of time and force are completely lost! The attempt to make the principle seem real to the student results in gross unreality. Such examples should be confined to billiard balls moving at very low velocity.
But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the principle of and effect school, conservation of momentum is the rack of billiard balls suspended by wires. The ball on one end is raised and released to sexism in language essays strike its neighbor and math education paper, instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in sexism essays, just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in school is nursing questions that there is more to mechanics than conservation of momentum. In fact, the gross way that conservation of momentum is typically described, as the resultant of essays, all the action gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. Sexism Essays. But Newton didn't express his second law in action, these terms. Sexism In Language Essays. It is clear in the case of the paper clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to sexism in language essays rest. [In fact, there exists a finite number of balls such that if one is clacked into its neighbor on one end there will be no movement by education the ball on the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is entirely due to the frame or the wires or contact with the Earth, but this is simply not true.
The result would be no different if the same experiment were repeated in deep space, far from any gravitational field and not contacting any other body, with a series of hard spheres interconnected by in language springs. Once released, it would be only a matter of seconds before the movement ceased. 911 Essays. This is a closed system, from which the energy is sexism not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to explain why it stops moving (and heat is not a term in for research, Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to illustrate why energy methods are the only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Sexism. Ah! However, some will say, this is a closed system and its net momentum is zero. Indeed, but that misses the point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to zero and the laws of motion apply to them as surely as to anything else. Affirmative Essay Papers. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the momentum of these interconnected masses to be transmitted in all directions (due to their interconnections - as is true in sexism in language essays, atomic matter) then the linear momentum of an impact would not be preserved for an inelastic event, even in space far from any gravitational influence. Essay Contest. Understand what I am saying.
I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is sexism invalid; quite the contrary. What I am saying is that real mechanics is not simplistic. Newton's Law holds that the time integral of the momentum is the integral of the resultant of the forces acting on and within a system. Literature Review. I am trying to in language emphasize that those forces depend on the system; the and effect of high motion of the balls depends on the microstructural makeup of the balls. Essays. If the ag day forces vary with physical properties then the mechanics of motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the resistive forces in the atomic structure of matter. Its the same something that was expressed in the Third Law of Thermodynamics long after Newton. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to sexism friction between the atoms in every body. There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.
We often think of ag day contest, atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is not true. Essays. So, the nursing questions hard fact is, that even on the most fundamental level the simplistic view of the conservation of momentum is not perfectly true. It is almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for essays relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only literature for research, that we often do a sloppy job of accounting for all the forces which act on sexism in language, and within a system. If you neglect any force, then the answer is wrong.
Maybe its only slightly wrong and essay, you don't care, but in the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the complex interactions of the materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over a distance. One may then say that a certain quantity of energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is sexism in language equivalent to raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of one foot. Here we see the difference between pure science and engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and untruthful. In the real world, the example I just gave is true only if the weight is raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. Term Papers. It matters how fast you do something.
Fast work wastes energy. There is less efficiency and effectiveness in essays, the work and more entropy is expended. Engineering is the business of ag day essay, looking at the real world complexities of mechanical (and other) systems using the sexism in language essays principles of science. We often state that mass is conserved (none is lost) and that energy also is papers 911 essays conserved. Mass and sexism essays, energy must be accounted for to dropouts preserve the whole truth of mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and plastic deformation) and this energy is finally converted into thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. All elastic and plastic cavity expansions result in some non-recoverable energy loss to entropy as well. Essays. This last fact of ag day essay, reality makes the essays dumbed down principle of the conservation of momentum an unrealizable ideal. For Research. However, we may still make good use of the expression developed by Newton. As an aside, the in language most dramatic demonstration of this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on a late night infomercial for some high tech golf clubs. The heads were made from a metallic glass that is composed of essay papers, zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to fully occupy all the essays spaces in the crystal lattice.
Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the springs so that they can't flex anymore. A golfball was dropped in a tube onto literature review a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto sexism essays plates of stainless steel and titanium alloy. The motion damped out in about 10 seconds for education the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for sexism the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to my attention some time back, in which the conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on to compare the nursing essay questions initial kinetic energy of the bullet to the final kinetic energy of the moving block and concluded by stating that the sexism essays difference in these energies was absorbed by deformation and resistive forces. I say this is education worse because it is sexism essays almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. You don't start with the idea that gross body motions must be preserved and ag day essay contest, then declare any discrepancies in energy to be resistive losses.
This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the problem. The correct solution is to treat the interaction at sexism essays, a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of motion and visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the question, which is why the defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and and effect essays, finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and M, the larger one of which is sexism essays initially at for research, rest, we may express the force exerted by the smaller mass on in language essays, the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the force exerted by the larger mass on the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the forces are equal in research, magnitude and opposite in in language essays, direction and the accelerations are not the same). However, we are interested in education research paper, penetration, so we ought (at the very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to essays indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to the target also applies in its own way to the projectile.
According to Hooke's Law the force applied to a spring in elastic deformation is equal to the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. Of High School. For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by and on the projectile is sexism in language given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the ag day essay contest acceleration on the mass is reduced by in language essays the quantity Ks / M. And Effect Of High School Essays. The energy absorbed by the spring is described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). This is why we put suspension systems on dynamic systems (like automobiles). If the acceleration on the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Its that simple. In other words, the force varies with the internal mechanics of the bodies. Newton isn't violated.
I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is unrealistic because of the resistive forces in real matter. So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in simple models by a dashpot, which is a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to resist movement (this is the essays same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). The viscous fluid offers resistance in proportion to the velocity of the motion. Questions. In consequence, the total force is expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). The acceleration is essays reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. Affirmative Action Essay. Since in each case the input is identical, we must conclude that the acceleration on sexism essays, the mass in the case of the affirmative action essay viscous damped spring-mass system is sexism essays less than the acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the damping is governed by a velocity squared function.
Therefore, neglecting the damping and elastic dissipation of energy results in an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an article entitled, Where Do the papers Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is sexism essays much improved over ag day contest the pseudoscience of four years before, and even begins to address the sexism in language essays conversion of kinetic and strain energy into residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by melting the steel. This sort of mythology is prevalent in term 911 essays, my field and seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the sexism in language steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the education paper soft pure copper jet melted (this is sexism not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and density. The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the strength of the steel and the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the steel effectively has no strength at all.
Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the school force per unit area still governs the behavior. I have shot slabs of in language, 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). Ag Day Contest. At no stage in any of these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in the bullets (aluminum, copper and lead have much lower melting points than steel). The bullets were recovered and exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. The target exhibited similar behavior. Any bullet capable of melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the steam generated by all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is responsible for in language essays cavitation in affirmative papers, hydrodynamic penetration. Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is 2700 J or just enough energy to light a 100 W bulb for 27 seconds.
I don't fault the author of that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to be authoritative in the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to shaped charges producing plasma jets, and that sort of misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is (according to Bernoulli's Law) proportional to the fluid density and the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at the stagnation point is sexism equal to the dynamic pressure multiplied by research the presented area of the projectile in the direction of the flow, F = P A. Sexism In Language Essays. The first thing that this tells you is that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on cause of high, the diameter of the in language essays cavity created - rather, that is governed by shape and velocity. The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by the force exerted over the distance of travel by the bullet, or: E = F ds. So, the differential penetration depth, ds, is simply the kinetic energy divided by the force acting on the projectile, ds = E / F. Penetration depth then clearly does depend on bullet mass (a component of action, kinetic energy). This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in terms of velocity. Unfortunately, for all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is still too simplistic. Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. It is in language essays solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. It obeys non-linear behavior laws. It is viscous and essay contest, exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.
We need a velocity dependent drag function and a constitutive relation governing the essays strength, elasticity, compressibility and failure mechanisms of the target material(s). So, where do we go from literature review for research, here? Can we have an objective assessment of the effectiveness of our weapons? I think the answer is in the affirmative and hopefully the next two sections will begin to give some hint as to that understanding.
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A Guide to PEOs and Employee Leasing. Looking for a professional employer organization (PEO) in 2017? Our guide gives you everything you need to in language essays, know about what a PEO is, what it offers, the pros and cons, and how to choose one. Education Paper! If you already know what you#39;re looking for, visit our best picks page to see which ones we recommend. A PEO provides small and sexism essays midsize businesses with a wide range of human resources services, including the following: HR management Benefits administration Insurance plans Section 125 plans Payroll administration and processing State unemployment insurance 401(k) retirement plans COBRA Workers#39; compensation Safety programs (OSHA) Training and development Recruiting and outplacement support Government compliance. The cost of a PEO varies greatly depending on the services you want, the number of literature review employees you have and the type of business you operate. The cost structure also varies by PEO provider. Some PEO services charge on a per-employee basis. Under this structure, employers pay a set amount for each employee. Other providers base pricing on a percentage of gross payroll.
A PEO is a partnership that creates a co-employment relationship between a small to midsize business and a provider, Lonny Ostrander, vice president of human resources services for Paychex, told Business News Daily. Sexism In Language! This relationship results in the business#39;s ability to gain access to benefits normally available only to Fortune 500 companies. Editor#39;s Note: Looking for information on PEOs? Use the school questionnaire below, and our vendor partners will contact you to provide you with the sexism essays information you need: 1. Fewer administrative tasks : Companies don#39;t have to and effect of high school essays, spend time working on tasks such as payroll and sexism essays benefits administration, because the PEO handles them. Action Essay Papers! A PEO can take some of the critical work of managing a company off of sexism essays a business owner#39;s plate so that they can focus on building and maintaining their core business, said Sarah Grimstead, regional sales manager at Insperity. School Essay Questions! 2. Better benefits: PEOs allow small businesses to offer a robust benefits package. Sexism Essays! Working with one often gives companies access to better health, retirement and workers#39; compensation benefits for their employees, Grimstead said. 3. Cost savings: PEOs can negotiate lower group insurance costs, workers#39; compensation discounts and, in most cases, lower state unemployment insurance rates, Ostrander said. However, keep in mind that you are paying the PEO a fee for this benefit. To make sure you#39;re coming out ahead, it#39;s important for you to weigh the service fees against the added benefit cost savings.
4. Legal compliance: PEOs remove the burden of keeping up with the constantly changing human resources regulatory laws. Essay! It can be difficult for a business owner or an in language HR practitioner to keep up with the changes, develop policies in of high dropouts essays, light of those changes, and train managers and employees on those changes, said Jacqueline Breslin, director of human capital services for TriNet. A PEO helps their clients remain HR compliant. From producing employee handbooks to helping a business understand the Affordable Care Act (ACA), a PEO is sexism essays a strong partner to help with these complexities. Cause Of High School! 5. Talent acquisition : Better benefits help small businesses not only hold on to their more valuable employees, but also bring in other top workers.
Because they#39;re able to sexism, offer competitive benefits through the PEO, companies are able to reduce turnover while attracting and action essay retaining a higher-caliber workforce, Ostrander said. 6. Legal protections : Most PEOs provide civil defense and in language essays employment liability insurance in case a former employee sues the company for discrimination or wrongful termination. 1. Surrendering responsibilities : For small business owners who are used to term 911 essays, having their hands in every aspect of the business, relinquishing control of human resources can be a tough adjustment. Some businesses might view a loss of control whether it#39;s significant or not as being a drawback of joining a PEO, Ostrander said. The truth, though, is if you find the right PEO partner, it becomes an in language essays extension of your business. 2. Health insurance changes : PEOs are always looking for the best deal on health care, so they may change insurance providers on a regular basis. While a PEO offers the term 911 essays ability to provide the most cost-effective and competitive health benefits, it also means the provider reserves the right to switch health providers, Ostrander said. That can be frustrating for sexism in language, the business and its employees if an 911 essays impending change is not fully communicated. 3. Impersonal : Companies that use a PEO can#39;t always provide the same level of personalized HR service to their employees as businesses whose HR department is located down the hall can. The hope is that the in language PEO treats your employees like its own when they need information or need to affirmative action essay, file a claim, but that is not always the case. It#39;s important to sexism in language essays, find a PEO that will provide the type of hands-on support that both you and your employees need.
4. Setup and transition: David McCullough, chief technology officer of paper Landrum HR, told Business News Daily that there may be a learning curve within your company when you begin to use a PEO service. In Language! Moving to any new system [or] routine is going to have a learning curve, McCullough said. Transitions can be time-consuming and can be difficult on contest owners [and] employees. Still not clear on what PEOs do? Here are some frequently asked questions about the processes and operations of a PEO. Q. Are PEOs typically used by small businesses? A. Yes, PEO services are geared toward smaller organizations that don#39;t have a dedicated human resources staff. According to the National Association of Professional Employer Organizations (NAPEO), the average NAPEO member company has 19 employees. There is also a wide variety of business types using PEO services. The NAPEO reports that businesses ranging from in language, small manufacturers to high-tech companies use PEO services. In addition, an term 911 essays extensive number of in language professions including doctors, retailers, mechanics, engineers and plumbers use PEO services.
Q. What is the difference between using a PEO service and simply outsourcing your HR services? A. The biggest difference is the co-employment model. When you outsource human resources services, there is ag day essay no co-employment arrangement. So, although you are hiring a service to sexism in language essays, handle some or all of your HR needs, you are still responsible and liable for all of the outsourcing company#39;s work. Q. How does the co-employment arrangement work? A. Co-employment, also referred to as employee leasing, allows small businesses to maintain the day-to-day control of employees. However, the and effect school dropouts PEO becomes the employer of record for tax purposes and is responsible for all of the HR-related tasks, such as paying the sexism in language employees and providing the benefits. The biggest aspect of the arrangement is that the business maintains ownership of the term employees when it comes to functions like wages and sexism in language hours, but from a benefits sense, the PEO provider assumes all responsibility, Ostrander said. Q. What type of liability does the PEO provider incur on behalf of papers 911 essays its small business customers?
A. PEO services take on all of the liability as it relates to payroll and taxes. Submitting payroll taxes [in a] timely [manner] and sexism in language distributing W-2s by the required due date are the PEO#39;s responsibility, Breslin said. These activities are taken away from the client, and the PEO is cause and effect of high dropouts responsible and bears the burden of making sure they are compliant with important payroll-associated activities. In addition, PEOs share in a business#39;s employment-related risk. For example, coverage under employer practices liability insurance is frequently a part of the PEO services, Breslin said. Q. Sexism! Do you lose control of your business by using PEO services? A. No. Even though you will be operating as a partner with your PEO provider, you are still in charge of your business and how it is run.
The business still has the school questions option to sexism in language essays, make the ultimate decisions regarding hiring, performance management, discipline and terminations, Breslin said. The PEO is there to point out the school questions risks the client may be taking by the employment decisions they are making, but the business can choose to follow or disregard that advice. Q. What does it mean if a PEO is accredited? A. The Employer Services Assurance Corporation (ESAC) is an independent nonprofit organization that is the in language official accrediting agency of the PEO industry. A board of papers 911 essays directors that includes PEO industry attorneys, CPAs and independent directors representing more than 100 years of sexism in language essays combined PEO industry regulatory experience manages the ESAC. The accreditation process verifies a PEO#39;s ongoing financial solvency and affirmative action papers compliance with government regulations and industry standards. Earning accreditation demonstrates a PEO#39;s financial stability, ethical business conduct, and adherence to operational standards and regulatory requirements. You can see which PEOs have earned accreditation by visiting the ESAC website. Q. Do you have any options for the health insurance plans you offer to employees?
Or does a PEO offer only one plan? A. The majority of PEOs offer a variety of plans that their customers can offer employees, including PPO and high-deductible options. However, you likely won#39;t have a choice for the provider. Most PEOs typically use one health insurance provider and require all customers enrolled in its health care to use that specific carrier. Now that you#39;ve got the basics, you might be ready to sexism essays, make some decisions on which PEO is papers right for sexism in language, you. If you#39;re interested in a PEO, check out our best picks. With the abundance of PEO providers, it can be hard for math research paper, small business owners to know what they should be looking for when searching for in language, one. We asked our experts to weigh in on the most important factors small business owners should consider when hiring a PEO. As your business grows, will the PEO be able to grow with you? For example, will the offerings be a one-size-fits-all package, or will the provider tailor a program to your needs? Does the PEO provide all of the services you currently want and may want in the future?
Will the PEO#39;s team be trained to know federal, state and local labor laws that could impact you and your business? What kind of cause of high dropouts user access does the PEO offer? Will your employees have online access to payroll and benefits administration? Does it have a mobile app to make it easier to sexism in language essays, see payroll stubs and other HR information? What does the affirmative essay papers cost structure look like? Each PEO has its own method of billing and pricing. Is the PEO financially stable and secure? What kind of commitment does the sexism PEO make to customer service? Will you have your own dedicated team of support members, or will you have to paper, call a 1-800 number every time you need help? Is the in language essays PEO certified by the IRS and accredited by ESAC? Is the PEO properly licensed according to your state#39;s regulations?
Does the PEO have positive referrals? Referrals help you look past a PEO#39;s marketing and sales lingo to get the real story. Literature Review For Research! Ask fellow business owners who have used PEOs whether they would recommend the sexism in language service and why. You should also consider the size of the PEO service, said McCullough. He advised thinking of PEOs like colleges to education, get an idea of what you#39;ll get from small, midsized and large PEOs.
With a large university, you will get a big campus and staff, [many amenities] national recognition, etc., McCullough said. Sexism In Language Essays! While you have access to nursing school, many different opportunities, your experience as a client can leave you feeling like just a number, especially when it comes to the personal touch of the services provided to you and personal attention from PEO staff. At the other extreme, a small PEO firm has the equivalent to an #39;independent study#39; college atmosphere. This setting would include lots of one-on-one time with the PEO firm owner. McCullough stated that a midsize PEO might be best, as it marries the best technology with helpful customer service. If you think a PEO is essays right for research, you, we encourage you to check out our roundup of best picks for various business types, our reasoning for picking each and our comprehensive list of PEO services. Want to know more about choosing a PEO? Here#39;s a breakdown of our full coverage: Editor#39;s Note: Looking for information on PEOs? Use the questionnaire below, and our vendor partners will contact you to provide you with the information you need: Additional reporting by sexism in language essays, Ashley Smith and papers 911 essays Chad Brooks. Sexism Essays! Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of papers 911 essays this article. Jill Bowers is a technical writer by day and a fantasy author by night.
She has more than 10 years of essays writing experience for both B2C and B2B content, focusing on topics like travel writing, consumer finance, business marketing, social media marketing and other business categories. She spends an literature review for research inordinate amount of time singing love songs to her dog, composes handbell music and sexism essays writes YA fantasy novels.
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Free Information Technology essays. FUNDAMENTALS OF WEB SERVICE MINING. Current Web services are created and sexism in language essays, updated on the run. Web service mining is a relatively new area of research. This growing popularity of the Web and Web services presents an entirely new area in research. It is process aimed at cause school discovering interesting and useful compositions in existing Web services.
The Web service composition approaches are very useful where primary goals are unavailable or unknown. It differs from the in language, conventional top down approaches driven by specific a criterion. The service does not assume any prior knowledge and instead of searching specific compositions, it relies on component services to explore data and the result may vary from a simple composition to a complex one. Though, the Web was invented in the 1990’s by Tim Berners-Lee for information sharing among scientists , only affirmative essay papers, after 1993 the Web was available for public information sharing due to the Web browser Mosaic. Mosaic quickly captured the imagination of the public on the Web through its graphical user interface.
Governmental Organizations, Business establishments realized the potential of the Web and took advantage of its popularity by sharing their data and applications on the Web. Sexism In Language Essays! The web from its starting position as s a repository of information with text and images, evolved into education research paper a host for providing multimedia content and sexism essays, service providing application like map-finding, weather-reporting, e-commerce etc. Real-time applications involved hardware devices like temperature sensors and term 911 essays, traffic monitoring cameras. Business and government integrated existing Web applications to sexism in language, provide new value-added services. Customized interfaces required applications to access this data and the lack of cause and effect of high dropouts essays semantics in data made integration of the applications a overwhelming challenge. Attempts to solve these problems resulted in underlying and enabling technologies. Many of the researches are driven by cross-enterprise workflow and AI planning. This thesis presents a novel approach in Web service mining by sexism essays, introducing a Web service. A set of papers algorithms and a conceptual nut novel framework is also introduced for service compositions. Sexism! The effectiveness of the framework and challenges addressed by the framework are also discussed. The thesis also discusses transactional approaches .
1.2 WEB SERVICE MINING. Definition of Web Serving Mining: “Given a set of Web services WS with a set of rules that can be composed, CR, interesting measures IM for a user UR, a composite Web service is term papers 911 essays, derived by using a subset of rules in CR in a subset of Web services WS, that exhibits values for essays, a user UR, selected subset of interesting measures IM.” . The W3C consortium defines a Web service as an application or a software component identified by a URI with interfaces and literature for research, binding described as XML, capable of being discovered by other Web services by definition and as a service which can interact directly with other Web services using XML and sexism in language essays, internet protocols Three major standardization initiatives were proposed by affirmative action essay, the consortium to support interactions between the Web services: SOAP(a protocol of transport allowing the essays, exchange of XML documents in a distributed and nursing essay questions, decentralized environment), UDDI (a specification, defining mechanisms which make it possible to publish services, discover and interact with other services on sexism in language the Web) and for research, WSDL(document describing a Web service, its location and the way to call the service). WSDL Web service mining requires Web services and the subject for mining information has to sexism essays, be clearly defined to target unambiguous items. Cause Of High Dropouts! Any Web service mining provides an effective means of sexism in language describing related Web service concepts and their relationships. The key concepts of Web service mining can be categorized as. • Message. Web services can communicate with each other using exchange of XML messages.
A message may contain one or more parameters where a parameter may have a value of a certain data type. Messages can be used to send parameters to a service operation or use results from literature review for research, a service operation. • Condition. A condition specifies the necessary condition for an operation to be activated. Essays! Conditions also describe the state of the information after execution and can also be related to parameters for retrieving information. • Domain. Web service operations can be categorized by areas of interest called domains. A domain has descriptions on cause and effect school dropouts the purpose of the domain and its functionalities like travel, entertainment, healthcare, drug design, etc. • Locale of Interest. is a semantic restriction describing the applicability of an interface.
For Example restricting a regional or geographical boundary. • Quality of Web Service is evaluating an operation provided by a Web service with a quality attribute. The quality attributes to a Web service operation can be organized into sexism in language three categories: runtime, business, and security. • Operation Interface. Operation interface is specifying a Web service capability with a name, purpose, domain, locale of interest, quality attributes, conditions. There are four operation modes: o One-way – operation interface contains only Message sent. o Notification – operation interface contains only results. o Request-response – operation gets results and send a Message. o Solicit-response – operation generates results and waits for a message. • Operation is and effect school dropouts essays, a specific implementation of an Operation Interface by a Web service. In Language Essays! An operation can also exhibit values for the quality attributes..
• Web Service is always defined by a tuple (Name, Description, Operations, other non functional properties), where: o • Name: name of the Web service; o • Description: A text summary about service capabilities; o • Operations : Set of education capabilities provided by a Web service. o • NFP : non functional property which describe the Web service. A simple web service model is shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 A simple web service model. 1.3 WEB SERVICE MINING ARCHITECTURE.
Web services are self-describing, self-contained, modular applications published and invoked on in language the Web. Many organizations have implemented their core business applications on the Internet. The ability to efficiently and effectively select or integrate their heterogeneous services on the Web at runtime is an important step towards the development of any Web service application. The ease of application integration and literature review for research, ontologies have contributed to the popularity of in language essays a Web service composition. It has attracted governments and businesses as a new way to facilitate business-to-business (B2B) collaborations. A Web service composition aims at providing value-added services.
The application necessarily takes advantage of existing services and assembles them to meet specific service requirements. Papers! Two different types of approaches helped standardize compositions. The business world targeted an earlier Web service paradigm and developed a number of XML-based standards like WSFL , WSCI , XLANG  and sexism in language essays, BPEL4WS ) focusing on formalizing Web service specifications, flow composition and executions based on syntactical characteristics . Papers! Recently the Semantic Web research community focused on using the concept of Semantic Web services and developed complementary standards like DAML-S, OWL-S [8.]. The standards complement each other and take a top down approach. The user provides search criteria and defines the exact service functionality required. For Example composition of a travel service may require flight/train bookings, car hires or hotel reservations and the search may reflect the sexism in language essays, interest, knowledge of the term 911 essays, service. A Simple Web Service Architecture is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. Sexism In Language Essays! 2. A Simple Web Service Architecture.
Another technology is the use of ontologies in essay, describing the content of the application processes . In Language! Ontologies have their roots to the AI community for facilitating knowledge sharing and papers, reuse. Ontology allows the specification of a shared conceptualization in an explicit readable format resulting in in language essays, a standard interpretation. Ontologies help build a vocabulary of concepts that can be used by applications to unambiguously describe the math research paper, content generated and interpret the in language essays, contents. Empowerment of Web services with semantics using ontologies has brought about the next generation of literature Web services called Semantic Web services. Sexism Essays! The Semantic deployment of essay contest independently developed applications allows applications to interoperate at the application interface and sexism in language, information semantics levels. The integration for questions, value-added services becomes an easier and inexpensive task compared to earlier approaches relying on sexism essays technologies like EDI, CORBA and essay, EJB. W3C had to revise its standard Web service architecture , with the advent of Semantic Web services.
The discovery service first obtains the Web Service Description (WSD) in WSDL  and its associated Functional Description (FD) of the provider. The functional description describes the functionality of the provider service and can be processed by essays, a machine like RDF , DAMLS, OWL-S ). The requester supplies the criteria to the discovery service for selecting a WSD based on its associated FD. The next Step ensures that boh the requester and the provider agree on the semantics of the literature review, interaction with the use of ontologies as shown in Fig. In Language! 3.
Fig. 3. Sematic Web Service Architecture. 1.4 WEB SERVICE COMPOSITION APPROACHES. Data mining is affirmative essay, extracting interesting information from data in databases. Essays! It is the sifting through databases to find patterns of data using computer programs. Ag Day Contest! Data mining receives attention due to the voluminous data made available. Enterprises maintain terabytes of data due the availability of cheap storage media. . Data mining techniques classify data, detect anomalies and predict data. In Language! The Data Mining techniques search for consistency in patterns and school, relationships between variables .
The results are then applied on sexism essays new data sets for validating them. Data mining techniques have been used to forecast weather [16.], predict stocks , sports analysis , medical diagnosis , and fraud detection . Data mining is similar to Web service mining in extracting previously unknown and useful information. Web services encapsulate behaviors using a set of term dynamic operations and traditional data mining techniques cannot be used to determine the composability of two services. Service composition can be from essays, two fundamentally different strategies. The first is the top down strategy requiring a specific goal based search criteria to start the composition process like traditional Web service composition approaches.
Since user provides the goal the type of composition is anticipated by the user. The evaluation of composition interestingness is not a major concern area in such approaches. And Effect Of High Essays! The bottom up strategy is driven by the need to sexism essays, find interesting and potentially useful compositions of existing Web services and without using specific search criteria (Web service mining). Ag Day! Web service mining techniques need to in language, address the term 911 essays, interestingness of service compositions. Semantics-based composition approaches use ontologies to an advantage while describing Web services. The use of ontologies allows unambiguous interpretation of a Web service semantics by a computer. Based on the DARPA Agent Markup Language Ontology Inference Layer (DAML+OIL), Web Ontology Language for in language essays, Services (OWL-S) . Service ontology aims at enabling Web services composition planning , reasoning and automatic use of services by software agents. Term 911 Essays! Fig. 4 shows the elements of in language a web composition model.
Fig. Nursing Essay Questions! 4. Web Service Composition Model. A service profile is an abstract of what it can do. The abstract includes the required input of the service, the output the service, the preconditions and the after effects of the sexism in language, execution, collectively known as the IOPEs of a given service. The service model describes behavior of the service as a sub-processes and uses a process graph. Review For Research! Atomic processes can be without sub-processes and sexism, be invocable. Simple processes also can be without sub-processes and be revocable. Composite processes generally have sub-processes linked by control constructs like sequence, split, choice, iteration and education paper, if-then-else.
Service grounding describes the access control to sexism essays, a Web service by including descriptions for message formatting, mechanisms of transport, protocols, and serializations. The more recent Web Service Modeling Language (WSML)  is term, based on the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) [23.]. The core language uses description logics and programming. WSML considers users not familiar with formal logic distinguishing conceptual and logical modeling. WSMO declares inputs, outputs, pre-conditions, and results associated with services like OWL-S, but do not provide a notation for in language, building composite processes in terms of controlling flow and data. It alternatively focuses on term papers 911 essays specification of internal and sexism essays, external choreography using approach based abstract state machines. Web service mining contains several levels due to complexity and richness in the composition model. For Example the Web service WSDL interface level is a set of operations offered by the Web service, the Web service abstract process level is the execution order logic between the term, interfaces. Web services choreography level defines the sexism essays, interactions exchanged within a given choreography and the Orchestration model of a composite Web service is the executable process implementing a composite Web service. Dustdar  relied on analyzing log data OF Web service executions to discover process workflow instances in these services.
Identifying interesting workflows is difficult when such logs are absent or component Web services are at the introductory stage. Cause Of High School Essays! Web Service Logging is sexism, gathering the relevant Web data, to contest, be analyzed for useful information about Web Service behaviors. Logging can produce richness in data needed for implementing additional features. The Web services logging can be trivial and advanced. Trivial levels provide a set of existing solutions to capture web services logs. Web service log collection can be from two main sources. The Web log collection corresponds to sexism essays, the software systems data on the Web server and Web client. The collections are achieved by literature review, enabling Web servers logging facilities.
Web Usage Mining WUM  researches describe the most common mean of web log collection , since server logs are stored in the Common Log Format  or the recently Combined Log Format . Most Web servers support the Common Log Format as a default option. The log tracks different elements of the Web transactions with each request recorded in essays, a line of text, with elements of the and effect dropouts essays, request separated by spaces and items not sent as a hyphen or dash. The log conceived originally for administrative purposes, stores data as sequential strings containing: the requestors IP address, user identification, timestamp, request method, request status code , sent data (number of bytes), authenticated user name, the User Agent. For Example. 127.0.0.1- -[02/Apr/2013:9:50:11+0100] “POST/MMS-Server/services/Document Delivery by DHL HTTP/1.0” 500 819 “-” ” MMS-Server /1.1? 1.5 BACKGROUND LITERATURE SURVEY. Researchers have addressed problems of interleaving web service discovery and compositions by considering simple workflows of web services with one input and one output parameter . The web service composition is restricted to a sequence of limited web services corresponding to a linear workflow of web services. The suggested solution retrieves a sequence of causal links between web services, Aiming to generate a composite service plan from existing services, a composition path was proposed in .
The path consisted of sexism a sequence of operators computing data, and connectors with provision for data transport between operators. The search for operators to dropouts, construct a sequence is in language, based on essay questions the shortest path algorithm. Only two kinds of services operator and connector, with an input and output parameter are considered, contrary to the model proposed with more than one input and sexism in language, output parameter [30,31]. A composition of services as a directed graph with nodes linked by matching compatibility between input and nursing, output parameters is considered in ,.The shortest sequence of web services are derived from the graph. In Language! The sequence corresponds to an ordered set of web services matching all expected output parameters for the given inputs by a user. Semantic web service compositions are performed by pre-computing the causal link matrix in . The composition strategy is based on AI planning and performs a regression-based approach and returns a set of correct, complete and consistent plans. The services are actions semantically linked by causal links. The composition strategy is based on AI planning and performs a regression-based approach and ag day essay, returns a set of essays correct, complete and consistent plans. The services are actions semantically linked by causal links. However, these two approaches compute the best composition based on the semantic similarity of output and input parameters of a web services and not considering any non-functional properties .A modelling tool called interface automata was introduced to represent web services and perform compositions where Atomic services are stored as a graph and each node represents input and output parameters while edges represent web services.
Each service has a description of affirmative essay inputs, outputs, and dependencies in other web services. The service descriptions and in language, a graph used to discover composition results that satisfy a service request. A that composer that supports the end user to select web services for each activity in and effect, the composition, create flow specifications to link them is introduced in . After selecting a web service, the web services producing an output are fed as the input of a selected service based on profile descriptions. The user can manually select the service fitting in a particular activity and in language essays, the system generates a composite process in education research paper, DAML-S. The composition is executed by calling each service separately, and passing the sexism in language essays, results between services based on 911 essays flow specifications. In Web Service Compositions, Several standardization and prototype efforts were undertaken. Composition related approaches can be grouped into two different categories business process-oriented and semantics-based . The Petri-net approach  graphically represents represent operations as a process and a connected graph where nodes (places) are used to represent states and other nodes ( transitions). One token in every place connected to an operation enables the operation. The operation may remove one token from every input and deposit the token as output .A service can be in sexism in language, one of the following states: not instantiated, ready, running, suspended, or completed, At any given time.
After each service is defined, a variety of compositions can be defined by including sequence, alternatives, iterations etc. A process can also be analyzed in many ways using Petri-nets due to the abundance of analysis techniques [39, 40,41]. Petri-nets can be used to determine the presence of live locks. Algebraic Process Composition models processes are based on calculus , in which the ag day contest, basic entity can be one of the following,: an sexism in language essays empty process, a choice between I/O operations, a parallel composition, a recursive definition or invocation. Papers 911 Essays! I/O operations can receive or send. In Language! IBM’s Web Services Flow Language (WSFL)  is an XML based language for describing Web service compositions. WSFL is essays, based on Petri-nets and provides two models, the flow model and global model. The flow model aims at specifying the logic of a business process.
It uses a directed graph to model the sequence of the functionality provided by a composed service to sexism in language, control flow and data between component services. Ag Day Essay! Each node in the graph, is an activity and essays, represents a step in research paper, the business goal the composition tries to sexism, achieve. The control links type uses the links to connect activities and prescribe the review, activities order. The second type called data links, represent the flow of data between activities. The global model aims at sexism in language defining the mutual exploitation of term 911 essays Web services in decentralized or distributed business processes. Since no specification of an execution sequence is provided, it relies on the use of plug links to represent interactions.
WSFL also aims at supporting recursive compositions of services. In WSFL, every Web service composition (flow, global) can transform itself into a new Web Service and be a component for sexism in language, new compositions. Literature! BEA Systems’ Web Service Choreography Interface (WSCI)  a XML-based interface description language describes Web Service operations choreography in the context of sexism in language a message exchange of participating Web Services. WSCI describes how the choreography should expose relevant information like message correlation, exception handling, and descriptions of transactions. Message correlation is achieved by papers 911 essays, associating exchanged messages with correlation properties identifying a conversion. Sexism In Language Essays! Exceptions occur due to the receipt of an action essay out-of-context message, or a fault or a timeout. A transaction groups activities that are executed in an all-or-nothing fashion. Activities can be atomic or complex (recursively composed of sexism in language essays other activities). Choreography describes logical dependencies between activities.
Microsoft’s XLANG  is based on calculus  and extends a WSDL service description with a behavioral element and at the intra-service level. A behavior defines a list of actions belonging to the service and the order performing actions. XLANG supports two action types, WSDL operations and XLANG-specific actions which includes exceptions and deadline/duration based timeouts. Transactions are also supported in XLANG and at the inter-service level, XLANG details the connections between service ports used to join individual service descriptions. The incompatibility between WSFL and WSCI/XLANG resulted in the development of Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS) . It combines features of WSFL and WSCI/XLANG to support process-oriented service compositions. Process is composed of activities and the execution of a process might encounter exceptions. Message correlation and contest, transactions(WSCI and XLANG) are supported. BPEL4WS has several implementations for both J2EE and .NET platforms, including IBM WebSphere , Oracle BPEL Process Manager , Microsoft BizTalk , OpenStorm Service Orchestrator  and sexism in language essays, ActiveBPEL [52.]. Business Transaction Protocol (BTP)  is designed to support interactions crossing application and administrative boundaries. Business Process Modeling Language (BPML)  shares the same root as WSCI with BPEL4WS.
It uses WSCI for expressing public interfaces and choreographies and povides advanced process model semantics like nested processes and of high school, complex compensated transactions. Electronic Business XML (ebXML)  is an in language essays international initiative by the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) and nursing school essay questions, the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). ebXML defines standard business processes and trading agreements among different organizations. Sexism In Language! The vocabulary consists of a process specification document describing the activities of the affirmative essay, parties in sexism essays, an ebXML interaction, a collaboration protocol profile describing the organization’s profile and affirmative papers, a collaborative partner agreement representing an agreement between partners. It includes an ebXML registry that stores important information about businesses along with products and services offered. In Language! ebXML registries have an advantage over UDDI registries since they allow SQL-based queries on keywords. Dropouts! A framework composed of a multilayered architecture and sexism, a transactional model was presented .
Standards BTP , Web ServiceAtomic Transaction  and Web ServiceBusinessActivity  define transaction protocols between composed services.  presented a transaction management model based on tentative hold and action papers, compensation concepts. A Web service was announced by IBM, HP, Sun and Microsoft in essays, the year 2000. The initiatives included IBM’s Web services, Sun’s Open Network Environment (ONE), HP’s e-speak and Microsoft’s Dot net. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) published the specification of a Web service . Which records a Web service as a Web application whose functionalities can be accessed programmatically using a set of homogeneous interfaces.
Table 1 lists a comparison between different web composition technologies. Table 1. Comparison of BPEL4WS, BPML, WSCI, WS-CDL and DAML-S. BPEL4WS BPML WS-CDL WSCI DAML-S. Modeling the collaboration Strong support Indirect support Strong support Strong support Strong support. Modeling the execution control Strong support Strong support No support No support Strong support. Representation of the Role Weak support No support Strong support Strong support No support.
Transaction and Compensation Indirect support Strong support Indirect support Strong support Indirect support. Exception handling Strong support Strong support Support Strong support Strong support. Semantic support No support No support No support No support Strong support. Business agreement support No support No support No support No support No support. Software vendor support Many Few No Few Few. 1.6 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. The objectives include Identification of activities in 911 essays, the mining process, suggesting a new mining framework and suggest efficient algorithms to automate activities. The study also suggests measures to objectively evaluate the interestingness and usefulness of the mining results and determine strategies for evaluating the usefulness of the mining results. 1.7 MOTIVATION OF THE THESIS. The Web services are in transition from data based to Semantic based services. The Web services would be the primary objects with increasing opportunities to in language, compose new useful and interesting Web services from existing resources.
The collective opportunities of composing services will be an affirmative action essay unexpected application to sexism, many. Further, the essay, indefinite scope of sexism in language search queries and the ability to discover them makes it motivating and math paper, can be equated to gaining competitive business advantages. Semantics for government agencies can help citizens receive useful and potentially life-saving or enhancing services in advance. The ability to proactively discover useful composite services even when the goals are unspecified is in language, also a challenging area of research. Web service mining can be a key to realize the full potential of the Semantic Web services. An effective framework in affirmative, Web service mining would generate interesting and usefully composed Web services.
1.8 ISSUES IN WEB COMPOSITIONS. Indistinctiveness or lack of in language essays standardization in literature review, dependencies of web compositions , can complicate design of a composition. In Language! Agreement might not be reached due to reasons like conflicting interests, lack of co-operation resulting in actor-oriented problems. Math! The consequence of unclear decisions results in sexism in language, heavy risks linking the failure of a composition. Thus, the characteristics of a web composition are an important set of requirements for nursing essay questions, creating a composition.
The requirements can also be viewed as a criteria evaluating the set of composition methods. Such problems determine the extent success and failure of a composition The problems can be categorized into four as detailed below. • MULTI-ACTOR PERSPECTIVE: Decisions regarding the composition of a service within a network containing different stakeholder views on the service. One stake holder may focus on sexism essays user friendliness, one on scalability, one about cost.etc. The actors may have different interests and but be dependent on each other. a solution is a compromise that has to combine several contradictory goals and interests. The actors in cause of high school essays, the network will need to cooperate to a certain extent in order to realize a solution and help realize the sexism in language, common goal. The decision making process culminates in term 911 essays, a set of rules to which every actor involved will comply. • NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: A common division of requirement types is by differentiating functional and in language, non-functional requirements.
Functional requirements relate to the tasks to be accomplished and the non-functional requirements relate to the QoS aspects. Composition are designed to assist users solve a problem like checking a license number. Starting a new service which is term, undefined the user then invokes the corresponding function in the composition. A number of compositions are used before finally getting the result by sexism essays, iterations and trace. • ALTERNATIVES INSIGHT: A compositions performance is cause school dropouts, impacted when one service fails. An alternative service should be made available or specified for failures as a failsafe option. Any composition should support failure analysis and reasons for failure. • PLANNING SUPPORT: Absence of sexism in language a shared view amongst actors hinders communications and possibly block further development cycles in a composition. Lack of iterations also results in identifying limited number of alternatives and alternative compositions that can be evaluated. The composition has to provide possible services that can be changed when services are not available waiting for cause and effect of high school, implementation. Sexism In Language Essays! The composition should provide partners a plan for the realization of the composition, sine, the cause of high, objectives are related to both the composition and resulting composition.
Processes should facilitate reuse, dependability and planning. The result should reuse services, contain an overview of functional and non-functional specifications and planning. • PRIVACY ISSUES: A major factor limiting web mining is the need to protect users privacy. Though Web Mining can use data available on the web anyway it can also induce general patterns from personalized data and inductively infer data that should be accessed in a controlled manner. remain private. Privacy is a major concern area because news contain many personal information for misuse. One major misuse is identity theft giving access to all private information.
The Quality and correctness of any web service depends upon review, the other services used and data mining techniques to get patters becomes in-applicable. Challenges can be related to the collection, preparation processing of data. This thesis addresses these problems with proposed solutions of other research papers. In this world of cloud computing Cloud services can be used to provide an integrated infrastructure for in language, data mining  and systems can be analyzed. Literature Review! The event logs can be used to verify the behavioral properties of web service composition .
Knowledge discovery may no m ore be a challenging task but combining data mining techniques on web services logs to discover knowledge from the web service can be. Essays! Proposed Web services changes over a period of time  Another challenging aspect of service mining is to build semantic relations between Web services and construct a semantic relation-based web services registry with complementary functions [74.]. Further, discovered web services needs to be accurate and reliability of social network has been used combining service mining by K optimal trust paths for the selection of trustworthy service in such a service oriented online social network [75.]. Business flows are an important mechanism to find or create enterprise web services. Understanding a business control flow is again a challenging task. Process mining has its own share of challenges in determining the nursing questions, scope of the process without disturbances making existing algorithms less useful. Designing business intelligence solution with web service mining architecture is another major challenge . Each aspect of web service mining is a candidate for challenge. Composability with its syntactic operation structures, the semantics of essays messages, quality that determines services. Web service composition is sometimes beyond human capabilities to be dealt manually.
The complexity has its causes due to the number of services available over the Web, Web service changes since they are updated easily, making it important to literature for research, update the essays, composition. Different organizations as actors to a composition do not have a unique language to define and evaluate the Web services. Though this new area is applicable to governmental pr public organization for reducing overheads and math, deploys solutions more quickly, it is a concept which has to essays, be acknowledged, accepted and standardized over essay papers, a longer period of time. Web compositions incorporate information from various sources and sexism essays, domains to achieve a task in a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Papers! One service may not be enough to cater to all functionally complex requirements, as different functional requirements require different compositions. compositions for composing services into a coherent task may not be available readily. It is difficult to find a single web service that produces the desired output from inputs. Also semi-automatic service compositions has evolved over the years, catering to single users or a community. Tools and interfaces to facilitate this kind of web composition are mashups, BPEL-tools etc. The community compositions target the knowledge produced by communities. This research work proposes a General Purpose Web Composition Framework (GPWCF ) for automatic service composition. GPWCF is sexism, a different angle for web compositions and can be implemented by organizations.
The user selects and essay contest, sets constraints. The requested service is fetched from the services repository. A scope definition is constructed and determines the search space and the return of information sets to the user. Sexism In Language! When a corresponding service is found, an action error message is sent to the user and trapped in the error log. All errors like Errors on execution of a service, errors in fetching of results, network failures are logged in the error log, enabling improvement of the compositions in future versions. The GPWCF can be used by organizations as a starting point for web services compositions and developed for future requirements. In the semi automatic composition the researcher proposes a novel Web Composition For Users Social Interactions (SAWCUSI). Any social network composition should cater to an interaction between a user and sexism, services requested by him.
The SAWCUSI composition offers a complete solution to user’s requests. If a user’s service request is not found, SAWCUSI, connects to other social network compositions, searches for the service’s availability and updates its services list on the service availability and services the request on receiving the service from the other framework. The error log created at run time is looked up periodically to check services that are unavailable in action, the frameworks list and gets transformed into a creation for a new service. The error log is checked manually and the decision of creating a new service with the sexism in language essays, help of a domain expert is cause school, taken. The framework can also be used to extract useful knowledge on these social interactions. Web services that link applications need to essays, address security policies in the development of web service security systems. Ensuring confidentiality and security in web services security model is critical to organizations and customers. The systems have to work on any platform by papers 911 essays, adopting a neutral language and accept popular security mechanisms. The framework needs to be extended to existing security infrastructure, while allowing web service providers and sexism essays, requesters to develop solutions that meet individual security requirements of applications.
WS-Security defines the core facilities for protecting the integrity and confidentiality of a message by providing a model with security functions and cause and effect school dropouts, components for Web services. It also demands solutions in technological and sexism essays, business perspectives. The efforts require co-ordination between vendors, developers, service providers and cause school, customers. For example, a customer making an on-line purchase should not be impacted by sexism in language, the instrument used in the transaction. Math Paper! The goal has to sexism in language, be building interoperable solutions in education, heterogeneous environments.
WS-Security also describes enhancements to SOAP messaging for providing protection through integrity, confidentiality and single message authentication. If a Web service provider does not accept requests from a specific IP address, a choice needs to be given in compositions to overcome this constraint. This chapter discusses a security model with constraints that are compliant with existing standards and thus be adapted to varying business needs. It exploits a syntactic approach to in language essays, model security requirements of a Web service and considers security requirements of both Web service requestors and Web services taking part in the composition. Web services that link applications need to action, address security policies in the development of web service security systems.
Ensuring confidentiality and security in web services security is sexism in language essays, critical to organizations and customers. It also demands solutions in technological and action, business perspectives. The efforts require co-ordination between vendors, developers, service providers and essays, customers. This thesis proposes a security model called the SWS-Broker, a Web service. The SWS-Broker consists of four main components namely WF-Modeler, WSs-Locator, Security Matchmaker and WSBPELgenerator It first performs the ag day, creation of an appropriate workflow (WF), to model the in language essays, business process before generating the required service and literature, with help of libraries of business processes. The Broker generates the WSBPEL document representing a secure composition. Web Services defined run complex applications encompassing several Web service calls and till a composition is tested it needs to sexism in language essays, be controlled manually. Cause School Essays! The semantics of Web services and compositions are rather limited. In Language! The proposal for enriching Web services are quite restrictive since several Web service calls are considered to cause and effect dropouts essays, be in one singleton Web service call and is treated independently.
Companies implementing composite Web Services would find integration of existing services a costly composition. interoperability certification will again play an essays important role in business process integration. The results are analogous to papers 911 essays, previous researches which may have certain variations due to in language, advancements in affirmative action, current technology. Though the framework is a proposition for a faster and efficient composition, it has to be implemented in full by sexism, organizations to reap the essay, benefits. Also, fully automatic compositions are not at in language essays a stage where the user can fully trust the composition and expect or predict the execution results. 1.11 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS. The rest of the document is nursing school essay questions, organized as follows: In Chapter 2, describes web service mining techniques. Chapter 3 discusses Web service compositions. Chapter 4 discusses the proposed Automatic Web Service Composition Framework For User Dependent Web Mining . Chapter 5 details a sem automatic web service composition for social interactions. Sexism In Language! Chapter 6 discusses web service implementations while chapter 7 proposes a generic model for web service security with a service broker.
Chapter 8 discusses the results and evaluates proposed architectures and ag day contest, models. Sexism In Language! The thesis concludes in chapter 9. WEB SERVICE MINING TECHNIQUES. Web services are being deployed at an accelerating rate. New services are created by math research, extending or combing existing services. Process mining is considered an extension of service mining, due to the inter dependence between business process and web services. Specific queries discovering patterns for a competitive advantage in a business environment may be unavailable.
Such mining is a bottom up search process proactively targeting potentially interesting and useful Web Services from existing ones. Systems demand a sophisticated design to answer to user needs and requirements with reliable executions. It is important to track Web services utilization. Business opportunities can be discovered by analyzing different logs and tracking Web Service Interactions with autonomous parties. This chapter compares different web mining approaches for discovery, conformance and extension of examined properties and behaviors and algorithms to extract process trace data from the process logs to develop a novel . Models aim to improve processes used in business process mining.
Service mining challenges and their solutions are discussed below proposed in different service mining researches. 2.2 COMPOSITE PATTERNS EXTRACTION FROM EXECUTION LOGS. The service composition re-usage of patterns provides an efficient way to improve the quality of essays new applications. The service pattern is identified by locating associated services commonly used by different applications and and effect of high school dropouts, understanding control flow in the set of associated services. The application infrastructure facilitates the monitoring of services-oriented applications from execution logs.
Composite service patterns constitute requirements of multiple organizations with a specific control flow and effects best practices. Re-using services pattern provides good quality composite web services. Service pattern composition can be built in two ways. • Top-Down: The business processes from different organization are reviewed to sexism in language essays, identify patterns. • Bottom-UP: Execution logs of applications are analyzed to affirmative action papers, mine business patterns like frequently executed service patterns. In Language Essays! This pattern mining of execution logs can be broken in nursing essay, three sub tasks. o Pre-processing: A service-oriented application is executed as multiple instances where each Instance is identified by a unique identifier. Different types of events of the instances are logged. Events like resource adaptor event, business rule event and in language, service invocation event.etc.
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Writing Better University Essays/Common essay problems. By following the approach of essay writing outlined in this book, you can avoid a whole range of very common essay problems: Unstructured: Many essays are not structured, which makes them difficult for the markers to sexism essays read. Without structure, reading an essay is like a discovery journey: your marker will never be sure what is around the nursing essay corner. Sexism! This might sound appealing, but you’re not writing a thriller. Your marker will have difficulty to see whether and how what you write is relevant to the question set.
Following the advice in affirmative essay papers, this book, you can avoid this problem by outlining at the beginning how you’re going to answer the question ( delimit ). Your reader will know what is sexism, coming up. The section on the main body includes a few other points to make sure your essays are structured. Rambling: The problem of rambling is often just a symptom of the above problem: lack of structure. By thinking in a structured way, tendencies to math education paper ramble are reduced. Sexism! Following a reasonable form of preparation will also help (see the section on essay preparation). Once you know what you’re going to say, and in what order you’re going to say it, it’s much easier to stay on track.
Not relevant: Unfortunately many essays that are written are as such great essays, but include substantive sections that are not relevant. The problem may be that not enough time is spent planning the essay. Sexism Essays! It may also be the case, that the irrelevant bits merely appear to be irrelevant. The trick in the latter case is to link the paragraphs using suitable phrases, and actively demonstrate how the illustrations are relevant, for instance. Unconnected: For the same reasons as in the above point, essays may be or appear unconnected. A good plan can be the first line of defence: making sure that you yourself know how the math research different bits link. The next thing to do, again, is using phrases that connect different paragraphs and sections.
Make sure that you write down how things link, because your marker will not usually be able to sexism read your mind. Unclear: An essay can be well put together, and the reader still be left unclear about what exactly is being said. The problem is in most cases the lack of delimitation and definition . This means that the affirmative papers essay does not state what is and is not written about, and also that key terms are not defined. Much unclarity can stem from misunderstandings, the in language essays reader understanding terms in a different way from what you intended them to mean. What is clear to you may not be so for the marker. Making sure it’s down on paper, this problem can be prevented.
Difficult: Essays that are difficult to essay contest read often suffer from one of the following symptoms: lack of illustrations, lack of sexism essays, conceptual clarity, or lack of guidance. Illustrations are not a nice to cause of high school essays have, but an essential part of most essays. Think about the examples when you plan the essay. Conceptual clarity can be remedied by sexism essays providing definitions, as outlined in the previous point. The lack of essay, guidance means that your readers will feel lost, not knowing where the essay will go next. Providing a clear introduction that delimits the scope of the sexism essays answer is sometimes all that is needed. Within the main body, linking sections and paragraphs helps further. The most common problem, probably, is students failing to answer the question. By paying attention to the process and content words, the first part of the problem is math education paper, already resolved. Sexism In Language! Writing in a planned and structured way, the remainder is addressed, too.
By following the outlined approach to essay writing, your answers will be focused on the questions set. In this section I try to outline what differentiates good from very good essays. In addition to math education paper a clear structure and essays, a relevant argument, your markers will look for conceptual clarity and consistency. Review For Research! You can achieve this by sexism in language taking care to delimit your answer, and define key terms in a way that is relevant to your answer. A good general definition of globalization will not be as useful as one geared towards how globalization affects local consumption patterns, for example. Your examiners will also look for review, critical engagement. Constantly ask yourself how important an argument is. Use different theoretical perspectives (for example functionalism, Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis) and think about how these help understand the problem. Chances are that some theoretical perspectives have very little to in language say on your particular question.
A critical engagement will mean that you’re clear and literature, explicit about the limits of argument. Markers look out for statements like that “X is important, but only in certain areas of life,” or that “Y is important but only when considered together with other concepts,” or that “Z is not as important as X and Y.” Essays with top grades identify and challenge where appropriate the assumption implicit in sexism in language essays, a question. Questions! The common essay question of provocative statement plus discuss invites you to think about the ideological, philosophical, or theoretical assumptions behind such a statement. A question may actually be the wrong question to ask if you’re approaching the answer from a feminist point of view, rather than a Marxist one, for example. Look out for counter-claims and sexism essays, examine their merit. A top essay will have a clear and systematic structure.
Ideally, at affirmative papers any one point your readers will know where they are, and why they are there. In practice this means that you’ll be clear about sexism in language, what you want to write before you start, and that you organize your thoughts in ag day essay contest, a coherent manner. The different sections are thus linked in a way obvious both to sexism essays you and your reader. Exploring all possibilities is another way to get top grades. This means that you’ll be aware of the different approaches, but essentially, you’ll need to evaluate their usefulness. Nursing School Essay Questions! It’s not just a matter of applying a great number of perspectives, but maybe more importantly one of choosing and selecting which of those carry forward the argument most. This normally involves the rejection of some of the sexism possibilities. A great essay will make these choices, but also demonstrate why these choices are the right ones. Top-grade essays are also clear about the relevance of what is written. In a paragraph, you not only list the different aspects, for term papers 911 essays, example, and then give an appropriate example.
In addition, markers look for a few sentences on the importance of sexism in language, what was just written. This can usually be achieved by linking it back to the question, or other underlying debates. Where your course uses course themes , it’s almost always possible to use these as links. In their feedback, markers often use the phrase “engaging with the question” to refer to this aspect. In most cases when you’re given an essay to research paper write, there is a word limit stated. Sexism Essays! A word limit is simply an school essay questions, indication how many words you should not exceed in your essay.
Sometimes instead a number of pages is given. Word limits exist for a number of reasons. Essays! First of cause and effect school, all, writing to length is considered a desirable skill. Sexism In Language! Secondly, having a limit is a way to ensure that you select the most relevant bits. Skills of essay, selection are sought after outside of academia, too.
Thirdly, word limits give an sexism essays, indication to you as the writer of essay papers, what is expected from sexism you. You should always try as hard as you can not to and effect school dropouts essays exceed the word limit. They are called limits after all, not indications. The most powerful of reasons is probably that you might be penalized. Moreover, keeping to word limits is part of good practice, nice on your readers, and a sign that you possess certain skills.
Many institutions practise a formal or informal 10% tolerance. This means that for a 2000 words essay you’ll not be penalized unless exceeding 2200 words. It’s essential that you check, and make sure you check with someone in an adequate position. Staying within the sexism in language essays limits is the easier and safer option. Being limits, you’ll not be penalized for writing less than the indicated length. However, writing less than you could means that you choose not to take the opportunities given to develop the argument as much as you can. It’s for math education paper, this reason that you might get lower marks. This means, that if you have significantly less than the in language indicated word limit, you should take some time considering why this is the case. It’s not necessarily a bad sign, but usually means that you could develop the nursing school argument further, or that there are no illustrations to bring the in language essay alive. In either case, your marker will be likely to comment on this. Planning your essay is the best way to stay within the ag day contest limits.
When drawing up the outline, I always spend a moment thinking about how many words I want to allocate to sexism each section. This not only helps me staying within the word limit, but more importantly, maybe, is the literature review for research plan for a balanced answer. By planning to write the same amount on two contrasting views, for example, it’s unlikely that I write three quarters of the essay on one side only. This is the case, because we’re conscious of the essay structure when we plan it. During the process of writing the essay, you can monitor your progress by checking the number of sexism essays, words in your current section. Planning and checking section by section will prevent you from panicking when looking at the overall word count.
If you go over, or run out with much to spare, flag the section. Maybe you’ll have an additional idea later on for research in the day, maybe your plan was not realistic, or maybe you mentioned a point in another section. By having the sections flagged, it’s easier to remedy the length of the essay once completed. Sometimes there is confusion over what counts as words. Essays! Words are what you write, and usually footnotes and appendices are not counted. However, word processors often count these, too. In any case, do check what counts towards the literature review for research word limit in sexism in language, your institution or course.
Some institutions count graphs (the amount of text that is covered by their space), but this is uncommon. Technically, references don’t count towards the word count. If they did, this would encourage sloppy referencing. Therefore, if your institution insists on counting references as words, (please) make a case for good referencing. The list of references at the end of the essay is not included in school questions, any case. In practice, your markers are very unlikely to check, especially when you submit your essay in printed form.
It’s for reasons like this that many institutions allow you an extra 10%. These extra words are about as much as you need for good in-text referencing. For the same reasons, the length of essays is frequently limited in in language, number of pages. Do check the format expected, such as double-spacing. In any case, you should strive to keep within the word limit, because this is math, expected from sexism you. The grading of essays is always in relation to what could be said within the limits stated, not what possibly ever could be said about papers, it.
The skills of selection and in language essays, summarizing are widely recognized, and many markers are very keen on these. Without word limits, why not hand in the reading list and let the marker make up his or her own mind? Surely all the relevant points would be covered… It would be foolish to claim that a short book could be the definite guide to writing essays. Of course it is not.
There are a number of good books that can help you to develop your academic writing skills. Alternatively, consult your language centre for specialist courses on academic writing. Do ask for help, because otherwise you might not get the school essay questions support you deserve (and probably already have paid for as part of your course fees). There are books on writing that go into much greater detail than this small book. Sexism In Language! Ask your bookshop or library about what is available, and have a good look what is covered in the book. Books on essay writing in general will never offer you as much advice as those focusing on specific aspects of writing.
Everyone has different needs, and a book focusing on for research the areas of essay writing you’re particularly good at will probably not help you as much as another. Feedback from sexism in language previous essays may help you find out what areas you want to improve. For technical details, you might need a good dictionary. Ag Day Essay! If English is in language, not your first language, get hold of a dictionary written for learners of English, such as the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Hornby, 2005) or the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Woodford, 2005). These dictionaries were specifically written with the needs of non-natives in math research, mind—including those very fluent in English. The definitions in sexism in language, such dictionaries don’t use very difficult language, and there are many examples. In fact, many native speakers find such advanced learner’s dictionaries useful, too. The choice of grammar books is vast, and you should pick one you feel comfortable with. Just as with dictionaries, if you’re not a native speaker, look around in the section for English as a Foreign Language. Research Paper! Michael Swan’s English Usage (1995), for example, is both approachable and sexism in language essays, comprehensive.
Many students do without grammar books, because realistically, we never have the time to check these obscure rules. Similarly, there are authoritative books on nursing essay the style of your documents, such as The Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003). Hart’s rules (Ritter, 2005) are often considered authoritative, but often go far beyond the scope of sexism in language, general essay writing. Essay! The book is more suitable in determining the conventional order of appendices, for sexism in language essays, example. For normal essays these books are far too comprehensive, and your markers are likely to be unfamiliar with all the details. For advice on writing style, there are a great number of books available. Again, check your bookshop or library. Some books focus on the choice of the right word, others on different aspects of ag day essay contest, style.
Note that different books give different stylistic advice. If you don’t want to splash out on a good book, you could do worse than bookmark Paul Brians’ page on essays common English mistakes (2006). Education Paper! This free and useful guide can come in very handy when in doubt (see reference at the end for URL).