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What is the size of a 250-word essay? | …

How long is an essay of 250 words

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Argumentative Paper on European Colonialism. Both the global magnitude of colonialism#8217;s expansion and words its abrupt, fragmented demise place colonialism at a pivotal phase in human history. Colonialism normally refers to the conquest and direct control of other land and other people by essay Western capitalist entities intent on expanding processes of production and how long is an essay of 250 consumption. In this context, colonialism is situated within a history of in essay, imperialism best understood as the globalization of the capitalist mode of production. We will write a custom essay sample. on Argumentative Paper on European Colonialism or any similar. topic specifically for you. While colonialism as a formal political process managed through state entities began to unravel following World War II, the global expansion of capitalism continues as a process that informs and often structures national, corporate, and human entanglements on a global scale. Historically, colonialism is a term largely restricted to that period of how long essay words, European expansion lasting roughly from 1830 to dissertation d'amour 1930. By the early 20th century, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Spain, and essay of 250 words Portugal together claimed control of nearly 84 percent of the earth#8217;s surface.

The British alone ruled over one fourth of the world#8217;s land and one third of its population. European expansion did not begin, of course, in 1830. It was arguably the Iberian navigators of the 15th century, reaching the Americas in 1492 and India in 1498, who inaugurated the age of colonialism. Furthermore, other empires outside of Europe clearly rose (and fell) prior to the colonial period. By the 1830s, however, a new period of empire building had erupted, sparked by a volatile combination of essays in tamil school, technologies (of travel, production, and health) and ideologies (including liberalism, enlightenment, scientific racism, and capitalism) that entangled human relationships within the distinct and asymmetrical identifying categories of colonizer and colonized. Colonial expansion was related to technological advancements driven by how long is an essay words the rise of dissertation d'amour, industrialization. Is An Essay Of 250. Processes of professionalism medicine essay, commodity production that required ever larger quantities of raw material and unskilled labor, along with advances in travel technologies, pushed European powers into untapped spaces of labor and material around the how long of 250 words world. In the process, colonized lands were reconfigured as spaces of cd, manufacture or plantations for cash crops, and newly landless colonial populations were introduced to the wageeconomy. Travel technologies helped make this possible. Page 2 Argumentative Paper on European Colonialism Essay.

From the large-hulled sailing ships that took the Portuguese into how long essay words, Southeast Asia during the 1500s to the steam engines that followed 300 years later, people and products began to professionalism medicine move through space at is an of 250 a pace the world had never before seen. Atthe same time, medical discoveries, such as quinine, allowed for relatively sickness-free travel into tropical climates that had before caused great illness for Europeans. In addition, the arms revolution at the end of the 19th century allowed for relatively small forces to take and hold large blocks of land and indigenous populations. Ideologically, the impetus for colonialism might rest with what has been called capitalism#8217;s tendency to expand beyond the confines of a single political system. Yet this push outward was buttressed not only by a belief in the logic of capitalism but also by a belief in war started, the racial and how long essay words cultural superiority of the colonizers. War Started In 1642 Essay. Colonialism as a #8220;civilizing#8221; project was fueled by how long essay Enlightenment beliefs in reason and progress, ideas thought capable of leading humanity out of the darkness of tradition and superstition and into the light of objective truth. A concurrent scientific obsession with #8220;race#8221; further differentiated between populations already divided by an economic system of exploitation and helped legitimize feelings of superiority for the colonizers over the colonized.

In short, an expansion in travel, combined with an ideology of racial difference, resulted in a cultural confusion of space for time, locating indigenous populations temporally behind Europeans in an evolutionary scheme that went beyond biology to include culture and intellect. The confluence of these ideologies worked to create, at least in the mind of the colonizers, legitimacy for their actions. Colonialism as the #8220;white man#8217;s burden#8221; was, for a time, perceived as a legitimate and benevolent enterprise of how many words, Europeans civilizing others. A central component of the colonial project was the production of knowledge about other populations by European powers. To dominate and educate a population, one must construct that population as needing domination and education. Thus, colonialism brought with it a description of indigenous beliefs and behaviors that codified populations in terms of race, culture, tradition, religion, and economy. Is An Essay. Knowledge of the world#8217;s populations, created within a colonial context, highlighted differences to why did the civil the benefit of the colonizers and, perhaps more important, continues to inform global relations as well as more intimate understandings of self and other. Area studies and anthropology departments, for example, owe their existence, at least in part, to the colonial process of knowledge production. Is An Essay Of 250. The demise of colonialism was in check how many in essay, many ways of the is an words colonizers#8217; own doing. A focus on liberalism and nationalism, in particular, had devastating effects on colonial projects in that indigenous populations were being introduced to Enlightenment concepts such as self-attainment and national identity. These ideas gave ideological weight to nationalist youth movements in colonized spaces.

These movements often served to organize resistance that eventually turned into postcolonial nationalist projects.

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nyu acceptance essay Gay Loneliness By Michael Hobbes. #x201C;I used to how long is an essay of 250 words get so excited when the meth was all gone.#x201D; This is my friend Jeremy. #x201C;When you have it,#x201D; he says, #x201C;you have to keep using it. Dissertation D'amour! When it#x2019;s gone, it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Oh good, I can go back to my life now.#x2019; I would stay up all weekend and go to how long of 250 these sex parties and then feel like shit until Wednesday. About two years ago I switched to d'amour cocaine because I could work the is an of 250, next day.#x201D; Jeremy is why did the civil in 1642 essay, telling me this from a hospital bed, six stories above Seattle. He won#x2019;t tell me the exact circumstances of the overdose, only that a stranger called an ambulance and he woke up here.

Jeremy is how long of 250 words, not the friend I was expecting to have this conversation with. Essays In Tamil Language Students! Until a few weeks ago, I had no idea he used anything heavier than martinis. He is trim, intelligent, gluten-free, the how long essay, kind of guy who wears a work shirt no matter what day of the week it is. The first time we met, three years ago, he asked me if I knew a good place to war started in 1642 do CrossFit. Today, when I ask him how the hospital#x2019;s been so far, the first thing he says is that there#x2019;s no Wi-Fi, he#x2019;s way behind on work emails.

#x201C;The drugs were a combination of boredom and how long is an of 250 words, loneliness,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I used to come home from work exhausted on a Friday night and it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Now what?#x2019; So I would dial out to professionalism get some meth delivered and check the Internet to see if there were any parties happening. It was either that or watch a movie by is an words myself.#x201D; 1. That#x2019;s not his real name. In Essay! Only a few of the names of the gay men in this article are real. Jeremy [1] is not my only gay friend who#x2019;s struggling. How Long Essay Of 250 Words! There#x2019;s Malcolm, who barely leaves the house except for work because his anxiety is so bad. There#x2019;s Jared, whose depression and body dysmorphia have steadily shrunk his social life down to list me, the gym and Internet hookups. And there was Christian, the second guy I ever kissed, who killed himself at 32, two weeks after his boyfriend broke up with him. Christian went to a party store, rented a helium tank, started inhaling it, then texted his ex and told him to how long is an essay of 250 words come over, to make sure he#x2019;d find the the civil war started in 1642, body. 1. That#x2019;s not his real name.

Only a few of the names of the gay men in this article are real. For years I#x2019;ve noticed the is an, divergence between my straight friends and my gay friends. While one half of my social circle has disappeared into relationships, kids and words in essay, suburbs, the other has struggled through isolation and anxiety, hard drugs and is an of 250 words, risky sex. None of this fits the narrative I have been told, the one I have told myself. Like me, Jeremy did not grow up bullied by his peers or rejected by his family. He can#x2019;t remember ever being called a faggot. He was raised in a West Coast suburb by a lesbian mom. School Students! #x201C;She came out to how long is an essay me when I was 12,#x201D; he says. #x201C;And told me two sentences later that she knew I was gay. I barely knew at that point.#x201D; This is a picture of words in essay, me and my family when I was 9. My parents still claim that they had no idea I was gay. They#x2019;re sweet. Jeremy and I are 34.

In our lifetime, the gay community has made more progress on legal and social acceptance than any other demographic group in how long is an of 250 words history. Why Did War Started In 1642! As recently as my own adolescence, gay marriage was a distant aspiration, something newspapers still put in of 250 words scare quotes. Now, it#x2019;s been enshrined in law by the Supreme Court. Public support for gay marriage has climbed from war started in 1642 essay, 27 percent in 1996 to 61 percent in of 250 2016. In pop culture, we#x2019;ve gone from verb list, #x201C;Cruising#x201D; to is an essay words #x201C;Queer Eye#x201D; to #x201C;Moonlight.#x201D; Gay characters these days are so commonplace they#x2019;re even allowed to have flaws. Still, even as we celebrate the scale and speed of this change, the rates of depression, loneliness and substance abuse in the gay community remain stuck in the same place they#x2019;ve been for decades. Gay people are now, depending on the study, between 2 and how many, 10 times more likely than straight people to take their own lives. How Long Essay Words! We#x2019;re twice as likely to dissertation d'amour have a major depressive episode. And just like the last epidemic we lived through, the trauma appears to be concentrated among men. In a survey of gay men who recently arrived in New York City, three-quarters suffered from is an essay of 250, anxiety or depression, abused drugs or alcohol or were having risky sex#x2014;or some combination of the three. Despite all the talk of a resume cd, our #x201C;chosen families,#x201D; gay men have fewer close friends than straight people or gay women.

In a survey of care-providers at HIV clinics, one respondent told researchers: #x201C;It#x2019;s not a question of them not knowing how to save their lives. It#x2019;s a question of them knowing if their lives are worth saving.#x201D; I#x2019;m not going to pretend to be objective about any of this. I#x2019;m a perpetually single gay guy who was raised in a bright blue city by PFLAG parents. Of 250 Words! I#x2019;ve never known anyone who died of AIDS, I#x2019;ve never experienced direct discrimination and I came out language school, of the closet into a world where marriage, a picket fence and a golden retriever were not just feasible, but expected. I#x2019;ve also been in and out of therapy more times than I#x2019;ve downloaded and deleted Grindr. #x201C;Marriage equality and the changes in legal status were an improvement for some gay men,#x201D; says Christopher Stults, a researcher at New York University who studies the differences in mental health between gay and straight men. #x201C;But for a lot of how long essay of 250, other people, it was a letdown. Like, we have this legal status, and yet there#x2019;s still something unfulfilled.#x201D; This feeling of emptiness, it turns out, is not just an American phenomenon. In the Netherlands, where gay marriage has been legal since 2001, gay men remain three times more likely to suffer from a mood disorder than straight men, and 10 times more likely to create a resume cd engage in how long essay words #x201C;suicidal self-harm.#x201D; In Sweden, which has had civil unions since 1995 and war started in 1642, full marriage since 2009, men married to men have triple the suicide rate of how long words, men married to women.

All of these unbearable statistics lead to the same conclusion: It is the civil war started, still dangerously alienating to go through life as a man attracted to other men. The good news, though, is that epidemiologists and social scientists are closer than ever to essay of 250 understanding all the reasons why. Travis Salway, a researcher with the why did the civil war started, BC Centre for Disease Control in Vancouver, has spent the last five years trying to figure out why gay men keep killing themselves. #x201C;The defining feature of gay men used to be the loneliness of the closet,#x201D; he says. #x201C;But now you#x2019;ve got millions of gay men who have come out is an essay, of the closet and they still feel the professionalism essay, same isolation.#x201D; We#x2019;re having lunch at a hole-in-the-wall noodle bar.

It#x2019;s November, and he arrives wearing jeans, galoshes and a wedding ring. #x201C;Monogamous even,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I think they#x2019;re gonna give us the key to how long essay of 250 the city.#x201D; Salway grew up in Celina, Ohio, a rusting factory town of maybe 10,000 people, the how many words in essay, kind of place, he says, where marriage competed with college for the 21-year-olds. He got bullied for essay of 250 words, being gay before he even knew he was. #x201C;I was effeminate and I was in choir,#x201D; he says. #x201C;That was enough.#x201D; So he got careful. He had a girlfriend through most of high school, and language school students, tried to is an essay words avoid boys#x2014;both romantically and platonically#x2014;until he could get out of there. By the late 2000s, he was a social worker and epidemiologist and, like me, was struck by the growing distance between his straight and gay friends. He started to wonder if the story he had always heard about gay men and mental health was incomplete. When the disparity first came to light in the #x2019;50s and dissertation, #x2019;60s, doctors thought it was a symptom of homosexuality itself, just one of many manifestations of is an of 250, what was, at essay the time, known as #x201C;sexual inversion.#x201D; As the gay rights movement gained steam, though, homosexuality disappeared from the DSM and the explanation shifted to how long essay of 250 words trauma. Gay men were being kicked out of their own families, their love lives were illegal. Of course they had alarming rates of suicide and depression. #x201C;That was the idea I had, too,#x201D; Salway says, #x201C;that gay suicide was a product of a bygone era, or it was concentrated among adolescents who didn#x2019;t see any other way out.#x201D; And then he looked at words the data.

The problem wasn#x2019;t just suicide, it wasn#x2019;t just afflicting teenagers and of 250, it wasn#x2019;t just happening in areas stained by homophobia. Why Did In 1642 Essay! He found that gay men everywhere, at every age, have higher rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, incontinence, erectile dysfunction,#x2060; allergies and asthma#x2014;you name it, we got it. How Long Essay Of 250! In Canada, Salway eventually discovered, more gay men were dying from suicide than from AIDS, and had been for years. (This might be the case in the U.S. too, he says, but no one has bothered to study it.) #x201C;We see gay men who have never been sexually or physically assaulted with similar post-traumatic stress symptoms to people who have been in words combat situations or who have been raped,#x201D; says Alex Keuroghlian, a psychiatrist at the Fenway Institute#x2019;s Center for Population Research in LGBT Health. Gay men are, as Keuroghlian puts it, #x201C;primed to expect rejection.#x201D; We#x2019;re constantly scanning social situations for ways we may not fit into is an of 250 words, them. We struggle to assert ourselves. We replay our social failures on a loop. The weirdest thing about these symptoms, though, is that most of us don#x2019;t see them as symptoms at all.

Since he looked into the data, Salway has started interviewing gay men who attempted suicide and in 1642 essay, survived. #x201C;When you ask them why they tried to kill themselves,#x201D; he says, #x201C;most of them don#x2019;t mention anything at how long essay words all about being gay.#x201D; Instead, he says, they tell him they#x2019;re having relationship problems, career problems, money problems. #x201C;They don#x2019;t feel like their sexuality is the most salient aspect of their lives. And yet, they#x2019;re an words, order of magnitude more likely to kill themselves.#x201D; The term researchers use to explain this phenomenon is #x201C;minority stress.#x201D; In its most direct form, it#x2019;s pretty simple: Being a member of a marginalized group requires extra effort. When you#x2019;re the words, only woman at a business meeting, or the check how many words in essay, only black guy in how long is an essay your college dorm, you have to think on a level that members of the majority don#x2019;t. If you stand up to your boss, or fail to, are you playing into stereotypes of women in the civil war started in 1642 the workplace? If you don#x2019;t ace a test, will people think it#x2019;s because of is an essay of 250, your race?

Even if you don#x2019;t experience overt stigma, considering these possibilities takes its toll over time. For gay people, the effect is magnified by the fact that our minority status is hidden. Create Cd! Not only do we have to do all this extra work and is an essay of 250, answer all these internal questions when we#x2019;re 12 , but we also have to do it without being able to d'amour talk to our friends or parents about it. For more stories that stay with you, subscribe to our newsletter. John Pachankis, a stress researcher at Yale, says the real damage gets done in the five or so years between realizing your sexuality and starting to tell other people. Even relatively small stressors in this period have an outsized effect#x2014;not because they#x2019;re directly traumatic, but because we start to expect them. #x201C;No one has to call you queer for you to adjust your behavior to avoid being called that,#x201D; Salway says. James, now a mostly-out 20-year-old, tells me that in is an words seventh grade, when he was a closeted 12-year-old, a female classmate asked him what he thought about resume another girl. #x201C;Well, she looks like a man,#x201D; he said, without thinking, #x201C;so yeah, maybe I would have sex with her.#x201D;

Immediately, he says, he panicked. #x201C;I was like, did anyone catch that? Did they tell anyone else I said it that way?#x201D; This is how I spent my adolescence, too: being careful, slipping up, stressing out, overcompensating. Words! Once, at a water park, one of my middle-school friends caught me staring at the civil in 1642 him as we waited for a slide. #x201C;Dude, did you just check me out?#x201D; he said. I managed to deflect#x2014;something like #x201C;Sorry, you#x2019;re not my type#x201D;#x2014;then I spent weeks afterward worried about how long is an essay of 250 what he was thinking about the civil essay me. But he never brought it up. How Long Is An Essay Words! All the bullying took place in my head. #x201C;The trauma for gay men is the dissertation, prolonged nature of it,#x201D; says William Elder, a sexual trauma researcher and is an essay of 250, psychologist. Why Did The Civil War Started Essay! #x201C;If you experience one traumatic event, you have the kind of PTSD that can be resolved in four to six months of therapy. But if you experience years and years of small stressors#x2014;little things where you think, Was that because of my sexuality?#x2014;that can be even worse.#x201D; Or, as Elder puts it, being in how long the closet is like someone having someone punch you lightly on the arm, over and over. At first, it#x2019;s annoying.

After a while, it#x2019;s infuriating. Eventually, it#x2019;s all you can think about. And then the stress of dealing with it every day begins to build up in your body. Growing up gay, it seems, is check how many, bad for how long is an essay of 250 words, you in many of the same ways as growing up in resume extreme poverty. A 2015 study found that gay people produce less cortisol, the hormone that regulates stress.

Their systems were so activated, so constantly, in adolescence that they ended up sluggish as grownups, says Katie McLaughlin, one of the study#x2019;s co-authors. In 2014, researchers compared straight and is an essay words, gay teenagers on cardiovascular risk. Verb! They found that the gay kids didn#x2019;t have a greater number of #x201C;stressful life events#x201D; (i.e. straight people have problems, too), but the ones they did experience inflicted more harm on their nervous systems. Annesa Flentje, a stress researcher at the University of essay of 250 words, California, San Francisco, specializes in the effect of minority stress on gene expression. All those little punches combine with our adaptations to them, she says, and become #x201C;automatic ways of thinking that never get challenged or turned off, even 30 years later.#x201D; Whether we recognize it or not, our bodies bring the closet with us into adulthood. #x201C;We don#x2019;t have the school, tools to is an of 250 process stress as kids, and cd, we don#x2019;t recognize it as trauma as adults,#x201D; says John, a former consultant who quit his job two years ago to make pottery and lead adventure tours in the Adirondacks. #x201C;Our gut reaction is to deal with things now the way we did as children.#x201D; Even Salway, who has devoted his career to understanding minority stress, says that there are days when he feels uncomfortable walking around Vancouver with his partner. Essay Of 250! No one#x2019;s ever attacked them, but they#x2019;ve had a few assholes yell slurs at them in public. That doesn#x2019;t have to happen very many times before you start expecting it, before your heart starts beating a little faster when you see a car approaching.

But minority stress doesn#x2019;t fully explain why gay men have such a wide array of health problems. Because while the in tamil, first round of damage happens before we come out of the closet, the second, and how long, maybe more severe, comes afterward. the fucking jungle. No one ever told Adam not to act effeminate. How Many! But he, like me, like most of us, learned it somehow. #x201C;I never worried about how long is an essay of 250 my family being homophobic,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I used to do this thing where I would wrap a blanket around myself like a dress and dance around in medicine the backyard.

My parents thought it was cute, so they took a video and showed it to my grandparents. When they all watched the tape, I hid behind the couch because I was so ashamed. I must have been six or seven.#x201D; By the time he got to high school, Adam had learned to manage his mannerisms so well that no one suspected him of being gay. How Long Is An Of 250! But still, he says, #x201C;I couldn#x2019;t trust anyone because I had this thing I was holding. I had to operate in the world as a lone agent.#x201D; He came out at 16, then graduated, then moved to San Francisco and started working in HIV prevention. Check In Essay! But the feeling of how long essay of 250, distance from other people didn#x2019;t go away. So he treated it, he says, #x201C;with lots and lots of why did war started in 1642 essay, sex. It#x2019;s our most accessible resource in the gay community.

You convince yourself that if you#x2019;re having sex with someone, you#x2019;re having an intimate moment. Essay Of 250 Words! That ended up being a crutch.#x201D; He worked long hours. D'amour! He would come home exhausted, smoke a little weed, pour a glass of red wine, then start scanning the hookup apps for someone to invite over. Sometimes it would be two or three guys in a row. How Long Essay Of 250! #x201C;As soon as I closed the door on the last guy, I#x2019;d think, That didn#x2019;t hit the essays in tamil language students, spot, then I#x2019;d find another one.#x201D; It went on like this for years. Last Thanksgiving, he was back home to visit his parents and felt a compulsive need to essay of 250 have sex because he was so stressed out. When he finally found a guy nearby who was willing to hook up, he ran to his parents#x2019; room and started rifling through their drawers to see if they had any Viagra. #x201C;So that was the rock-bottom moment?#x201D; I ask. #x201C;That was the third or fourth, yeah,#x201D; he says. Adam#x2019;s now in a 12-step program for sex addiction.

It#x2019;s been six weeks since he#x2019;s had sex. Before this, the longest he had ever gone was three or four days. #x201C;There are people who have lots of sex because it#x2019;s fun, and that#x2019;s fine. Resume Verb! But I kept trying to wring it out like a rag to get something out of it that wasn#x2019;t in how long is an essay of 250 words there#x2014;social support, or companionship. It was a way of not dealing with my own life. And I kept denying it was a problem because I had always told myself, #x2018;I#x2019;ve come out, I moved to San Francisco, I#x2019;m done, I did what I had to do as a gay person.#x2019;#x201D; For decades, this is essay, what psychologists thought, too: that the key stages in identity formation for gay men all led up to coming out, that once we were finally comfortable with ourselves, we could begin building a life within a community of people who#x2019;d gone through the same thing. But over the last 10 years, what researchers have discovered is that the of 250 words, struggle to resume verb list fit in only grows more intense.

A study published in is an essay words 2015 found that rates of anxiety and depression were higher in men who had recently come out than in men who were still closeted. #x201C;It#x2019;s like you emerge from the closet expecting to be this butterfly and the gay community just slaps the idealism out of you,#x201D; Adam says. When he first started coming out, he says, #x201C;I went to West Hollywood because I thought that#x2019;s where my people were. But it was really horrifying. It#x2019;s made by gay adults, and it#x2019;s not welcoming for gay kids. Create Cd! You go from your mom#x2019;s house to is an essay a gay club where a lot of dissertation, people are on drugs and it#x2019;s like, this is my community? It#x2019;s like the fucking jungle.#x201D; #x201C;I came out when I was 17, and I didn#x2019;t see a place for myself in how long is an the gay scene,#x201D; says Paul, a software developer. #x201C;I wanted to fall in love like I saw straight people do in movies. But I just felt like a piece of meat. It got so bad that I used to resume go to the grocery store that was 40 minutes away instead of the one that was 10 minutes away just because I was so afraid to walk down the of 250 words, gay street.#x201D;

The word I hear from Paul, from everyone, is dissertation d'amour, #x201C;re-traumatized.#x201D; You grow up with this loneliness, accumulating all this baggage, and of 250 words, then you arrive in in essay the Castro or Chelsea or Boystown thinking you#x2019;ll finally be accepted for how long is an of 250 words, who you are. And then you realize that everyone else here has baggage, too . Professionalism Medicine! All of a sudden it#x2019;s not your gayness that gets you rejected. It#x2019;s your weight, or your income, or your race. Essay! #x201C;The bullied kids of our youth,#x201D; Paul says, #x201C;grew up and became bullies themselves.#x201D; #x201C;Gay men in resume particular are just not very nice to of 250 words each other,#x201D; says John, the adventure tour guide. #x201C;In pop culture, drag queens are known for professionalism, their takedowns and it#x2019;s all ha ha ha. Of 250 Words! But that meanness is almost pathological. The Civil! All of us were deeply confused or lying to ourselves for essay of 250 words, a good chunk of our adolescence. But it#x2019;s not comfortable for us to words show that to other people. How Long Is An Essay Words! So we show other people what the in tamil language, world shows us, which is nastiness.#x201D; Every gay man I know carries around a mental portfolio of all the shitty things other gay men have said and done to how long is an words him. I arrived to a date once and dissertation, the guy immediately stood up, said I was shorter than I looked in my pictures and left. Alex, a fitness instructor in Seattle, was told by a guy on his swim team, #x201C;I#x2019;ll ignore your face if you fuck me without a condom.#x201D; Martin, a Brit living in Portland, has gained maybe 10 pounds since he moved there and got a Grindr message#x2014; on Christmas Day #x2014;that said: #x201C;You used to be so sexy.

It#x2019;s a shame you messed it up.#x201D; For other minority groups, living in a community with people like them is is an essay, linked to professionalism essay lower rates of anxiety and how long is an words, depression. It helps to be close to create cd people who instinctively understand you. But for how long essay of 250, us, the effect is the opposite. Several studies have found that living in in tamil school students gay neighborhoods predicts higher rates of risky sex and is an, meth use and why did essay, less time spent on is an essay, other community activities like volunteering or playing sports. A 2009 study suggested that gay men who were more linked to the gay community were less satisfied with their own romantic relationships. #x201C;Gay and dissertation, bisexual men talk about the gay community as a significant source of stress in essay of 250 their lives,#x201D; Pachankis says. The fundamental reason for this, he says, is that #x201C;in-group discrimination#x201D; does more harm to your psyche than getting rejected by members of the majority. It#x2019;s easy to check words in essay ignore, roll your eyes and put a middle finger up to straight people who don#x2019;t like you because, whatever, you don#x2019;t need their approval anyway.

Rejection from other gay people, though, feels like losing your only way of essay of 250 words, making friends and finding love. D'amour! Being pushed away from your own people hurts more because you need them more. The researchers I spoke to is an essay explained that gay guys inflict this kind of d'amour, damage on each other for two main reasons. The first, and essay of 250 words, the one I heard most frequently, is that gay men are shitty to each other because, basically, we#x2019;re men. #x201C;The challenges of masculinity get magnified in a community of essays in tamil language students, men,#x201D; Pachankis says. #x201C;Masculinity is essay words, precarious. It has to be constantly enacted or defended or collected. We see this in studies: You can threaten masculinity among men and then look at the dumb things they do. They show more aggressive posturing, they start taking financial risks, they want to punch things.#x201D; This helps explain the pervasive stigma against feminine guys in the gay community. According to Dane Whicker, a clinical psychologist and researcher at Duke, most gay men report that they want to professionalism medicine essay date someone masculine, and that they wished they acted more masculine themselves. Maybe that#x2019;s because, historically, masculine men have been more able to blend into straight society.

Or maybe it#x2019;s internalized homophobia: Feminine gay men are still stereotyped as bottoms, the receptive partner in how long essay of 250 anal sex. A two-year longitudinal study found that the longer gay men were out of the closet, the more likely they were to become versatile or tops. Researchers say this kind of training, deliberately trying to appear more masculine and taking on a different sex role, is just one of the ways gay men pressure each other to attain #x201C;sexual capital,#x201D; the equivalent of going to list the gym or plucking our eyebrows. #x201C;The only reason I started working out was so I would seem like a feasible top,#x201D; Martin says. When he first came out, he was convinced that he was too skinny, too effeminate, that bottoms would think he was one of them. How Long Essay! #x201C;So I started faking all this hyper-masculine behavior.

My boyfriend noticed recently that I still lower my voice an octave whenever I order drinks. Essay! That#x2019;s a remnant of is an essay words, my first few years out in tamil language students, of the closet, when I thought I had to speak in this Christian Bale Batman voice to get dates.#x201D; Grant, a 21-year-old who grew up on Long Island and now lives in how long essay Hell#x2019;s Kitchen, says he used to be self-conscious about the way he stood#x2014;hands on hips, one leg slightly cocked like a Rockette. So, his sophomore year, he started watching his male teachers for their default positions, deliberately standing with his feet wide, his arms at his sides. These masculinity norms exert a toll on everyone, even their perpetrators. Feminine gay men are at higher risk of verb, suicide, loneliness and mental illness. How Long Is An Essay! Masculine gay men, for their part, are more anxious, have more risky sex and why did the civil in 1642 essay, use drugs and tobacco with greater frequency. One study investigating why living in the gay community increases depression found that the effect only showed up in masculine gay guys. The second reason the gay community acts as a unique stressor on its members is not about how long of 250 words why we reject each other, but how . In the last 10 years, traditional gay spaces#x2014;bars, nightclubs, bathhouses#x2014;have begun to disappear, and have been replaced by social media. At least 70 percent of gay men now use hookup apps like Grindr and resume list, Scruff to meet each other. In 2000, around 20 percent of essay of 250 words, gay couples met online.

By 2010, that was up to 70 percent. Meanwhile, the share of gay couples who met through friends dropped from essays language school, 30 percent to 12 percent. Usually when you hear about the shocking primacy of hookup apps in gay life#x2014;Grindr, the most popular, says its average user spends 90 minutes per is an essay of 250 day on it#x2014;it#x2019;s in some panicked media story about essays in tamil school murderers or homophobes trawling them for victims, or about the troubling #x201C;chemsex#x201D; scenes that have sprung up in London and New York. How Long Essay! And yes, those are problems. But the real effect of the apps is quieter, less remarked-upon and, in essays in tamil language school students a way, more profound: For many of us, they have become the primary way we interact with other gay people. #x201C;It#x2019;s so much easier to meet someone for how long is an of 250 words, a hookup on medicine, Grindr than it is to go to a bar by how long essay of 250 words yourself,#x201D; Adam says. #x201C;Especially if you#x2019;ve just moved to a new city, it#x2019;s so easy to create cd let the dating apps become your social life. It#x2019;s harder to look for social situations where you might have to make more of an how long is an essay of 250 words, effort.#x201D; #x201C;I have moments when I want to verb list feel desired and how long is an words, so I get on the civil war started, Grindr,#x201D; Paul says. #x201C;I upload a shirtless picture and I start getting these messages telling me I#x2019;m hot.

It feels good in the moment, but nothing ever comes of how long is an words, it, and those messages stop coming after a few days. It feels like I#x2019;m scratching an why did in 1642 essay, itch, but it#x2019;s scabies. It#x2019;s just going to is an of 250 spread.#x201D; The worst thing about the apps, though, and why they#x2019;re relevant to the health disparity between gay and essays, straight men, is not just that we use them a lot. It is that they are almost perfectly designed to underline our negative beliefs about ourselves. In interviews that Elder, the post-traumatic stress researcher, conducted with gay men in 2015, he found that 90 percent said they wanted a partner who was tall, young, white, muscular and masculine. For the vast majority of us who barely meet one of essay, those criteria, much less all five, the hookup apps merely provide an efficient way to feel ugly. Paul says he#x2019;s #x201C;electrified waiting for rejection#x201D; as soon as he opens them. John, the former consultant, is 27, 6-foot-1 and has a six-pack you can see through his wool sweater . A Resume! And even he says most of his messages don#x2019;t get replies, that he spends probably 10 hours talking to people on of 250 words, the app for create a resume cd, every one hour he spends meeting for coffee or a hookup. It#x2019;s worse for gay men of color.

Vincent, who runs counseling sessions with black and Latino men through the San Francisco Department of how long, Public Health, says the apps give racial minorities two forms of feedback: Rejected (#x201C;Sorry, I#x2019;m not into black guys#x201D;) and why did in 1642 essay, fetishized (#x201C;Hi, I#x2019;m really into essay of 250 words, black guys.#x201D;) Paihan, a Taiwanese immigrant in Seattle, shows me his Grindr inbox. Cd! It is, like mine, mostly hellos he has sent out to no reply. One of the few messages he received just says, #x201C;Asiiiaaaan.#x201D; None of this is new, of is an essay of 250 words, course. Walt Odets, a psychologist who#x2019;s been writing about social isolation since the 1980s, says that gay men used to be troubled by the bathhouses in the same way they are troubled by Grindr now. The difference he sees in his younger patients is that #x201C;if someone rejected you at a bathhouse, you could still have a conversation afterwards. Maybe you end up with a friend out of check words, it, or at least something that becomes a positive social experience. On the words, apps, you just get ignored if someone doesn#x2019;t perceive you as a sexual or romantic conquest.#x201D; The gay men I interviewed talked about the dating apps the same way straight people talk about verb Comcast: It sucks, but what are you gonna do? #x201C;You have to use the apps in smaller cities,#x201D; says Michael Moore, a psychologist at Yale. #x201C;They serve the how long is an of 250 words, purpose of the civil war started in 1642 essay, a gay bar. But the downside is that they put all this prejudice out there.#x201D; What the apps reinforce, or perhaps simply accelerate, is the adult version of what Pachankis calls the Best Little Boy in the World Hypothesis.

As kids, growing up in the closet makes us more likely to concentrate our self-worth into whatever the outside world wants us to be#x2014;good at sports, good at school, whatever. As adults, the is an essay of 250 words, social norms in in tamil school our own community pressure us to concentrate our self-worth even further#x2014;into our looks, our masculinity, our sexual performance. But then, even if we manage to essay of 250 compete there, even if we attain whatever masc-dom-top ideal we#x2019;re looking for, all we#x2019;ve really done is condition ourselves to dissertation be devastated when we inevitably lose it. #x201C;We often live our lives through the eyes of others,#x201D; says Alan Downs, a psychologist and the author of The Velvet Rage , a book about gay men#x2019;s struggle with shame and social validation. #x201C;We want to have man after man, more muscles, more status, whatever brings us fleeting validation. Then we wake up at how long essay words 40, exhausted, and why did the civil war started, we wonder, Is that all there is? And then the depression comes.#x201D; the source of of 250, our wit, our resilience, dressing and dancing and check, karaoke. Perry Halkitis, a professor at NYU, has been studying the how long is an of 250, health gap between gay people and straight people since the early #x2019;90s.

He has published four books on gay culture and has interviewed men dying of HIV, recovering from party drugs and struggling to plan their own weddings. That#x2019;s why, two years ago, his 18-year-old nephew James showed up trembling at his doorstep. He sat Halkitis and his husband down on the couch and announced he was gay. #x201C;We told him, #x2018;Congratulations, your membership card and welcome package are in the other room,#x2019;#x201D; Halkitis remembers. Check In Essay! #x201C;But he was too nervous to get the joke.#x201D; James grew up in Queens, a beloved member of how long is an essay of 250 words, a big, affectionate, liberal family. How Many Words In Essay! He went to a public school with openly gay kids. How Long Is An! #x201C;And still,#x201D; Halkitis says, #x201C;there was this emotional turmoil. He knew rationally that everything was going to list be fine, but being in the closet isn#x2019;t rational, it#x2019;s emotional.#x201D; Over the years, James had convinced himself that he would never come out. He didn#x2019;t want the attention, or to have to field questions he couldn#x2019;t answer.

His sexuality didn#x2019;t make sense to him#x2014;how could he possibly explain it to how long essay words other people? #x201C;On TV I was seeing all these traditional families,#x201D; he tells me. #x201C;At the same time, I was watching a ton of gay porn, where everyone was super ripped and single and having sex all the resume verb, time. So I thought those were my two options: this fairy-tale life I could never have, or this gay life where there was no romance.#x201D; James remembers the exact moment he decided to go into the closet. He must have been 10 or 11, dragged on a vacation to how long is an of 250 words Long Island by his parents. #x201C;I looked around at our whole family, and in tamil language, the kids running around, and I thought, #x2018;I#x2019;m never going to have this,#x2019; and I started to cry.#x201D; I realize, the second he says it, that he is describing the is an essay of 250, same revelation I had at his age, the how many words in essay, same grief. James#x2019; was in 2007. Mine was in 1992. How Long Is An Essay Of 250 Words! Halkitis says his was in 1977.

Surprised that someone his nephew#x2019;s age could have the same experience he did, Halkitis decided his next book project would be about the trauma of the closet. #x201C;Even now, even in New York City, even with accepting parents, the coming out process is challenging, Halkitis says. #x201C;Maybe it always will be.#x201D; So what are we supposed to do about it? When we think of marriage laws or hate crime prohibitions, we tend to think of dissertation, them as protections of our rights. What#x2019;s less understood is how long essay words, that laws literally affect our health. One of the verb, most striking studies I found described the spike in anxiety and depression among gay men in how long essay 2004 and 2005, the years when 14 states passed constitutional amendments defining marriage as being between a man and professionalism medicine, a woman. How Long Is An Essay Of 250! Gay men in those states showed a 37 percent increase in check words mood disorders, a 42 percent increase in alcoholism and a 248 percent increase in generalized anxiety disorder. The most chilling thing about how long of 250 those numbers is that the legal rights of gay people living in those states didn#x2019;t materially change.

We couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan before the amendment passed, and professionalism, we couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan after it passed. How Long Is An Essay Of 250! The laws were symbolic. Verb List! They were the majority#x2019;s way of informing gay people that we weren#x2019;t wanted. What#x2019;s worse, the rates of anxiety and depression didn#x2019;t just jump in the states that passed constitutional amendments. They increased (though less dramatically) among gay people across the entire country. The campaign to make us suffer worked.

Now square that with the fact that our country recently elected a bright orange Demogorgon whose administration is publicly, eagerly attempting to reverse every single gain the gay community has made in the last 20 years. The message this sends to gay people#x2014;especially the youngest ones, just grappling with their identity#x2014;couldn#x2019;t be clearer and more terrifying. Any discussion of essay of 250, gay mental health has to how many words start with what happens in schools. Despite the progress taking place around them, America#x2019;s educational institutions remain dangerous places for is an essay, kids, filled with aspiring frat boys, indifferent teachers and retrograde policies. Emily Greytak, the director of research for essay, the anti-bullying organization GLSEN, tells me that from 2005 to 2015, the percentage of teenagers who said they were bullied for how long essay words, their sexual orientation didn#x2019;t fall at all. Only around 30 percent of school districts in the country have anti-bullying policies that specifically mention LGBTQ kids, and in 1642, thousands of other districts have policies that prevent teachers from speaking about homosexuality in a positive way. These restrictions make it so much harder for how long essay, kids to cope with their minority stress. But luckily, this doesn#x2019;t require every teacher and every teenage lacrosse bro to accept gay people overnight. For the last four years, Nicholas Heck, a researcher at Marquette University, has been running support groups for gay kids in high schools. He walks them through their interactions with their classmates, their teachers and their parents, and tries to help them separate garden-variety teenage stress from the the civil war started in 1642, kind they get due to their sexuality. One of his kids, for how long is an of 250 words, example, was under pressure from his parents to major in art rather than finance.

His parents meant well#x2014;they were just trying to d'amour encourage him into a field where he would encounter fewer homophobes#x2014;but he was already anxious: If he gave up on finance, was that surrendering to stigma? If he went into art and still got bullied, could he tell his parents about how long is an of 250 words it? The trick, Heck says, is getting kids to ask these questions openly, because one of the hallmark symptoms of essay, minority stress is avoidance. Kids hear derogatory comments in the hall so they decide to walk down another one, or they put in earbuds. They ask a teacher for help and get shrugged off, so they stop looking for is an of 250 words, safe adults altogether. But the kids in verb list the study, Heck says, are already starting to how long is an of 250 words reject the responsibility they used to take on when they got bullied. The Civil In 1642 Essay! They#x2019;re learning that even if they can#x2019;t change the environment around them, they#x2019;re allowed to stop blaming themselves for it.

So for kids, the goal is to hunt out and prevent minority stress. But what can be done for those of us who have already internalized it? #x201C;There has been a lot of how long words, work with queer youth, but there#x2019;s no equivalent when you#x2019;re in your 30s and essay, 40s,#x201D; Salway tells me. #x201C;I don#x2019;t even know where you go.#x201D; The problem, he says, is that we#x2019;ve built entirely separate infrastructures around mental illness, HIV prevention and substance abuse, even though all the evidence indicates that they are not three epidemics, but one. People who feel rejected are more likely to how long essay self-medicate, which makes them more likely to have risky sex, which makes them more likely to contract HIV, which makes them more likely to feel rejected, and resume list, so on. In the last five years, as evidence of this interconnectedness has piled up, a few psychologists and epidemiologists have started to treat alienation among gay men as a #x201C;syndemic#x201D;: A cluster of health problems, none of how long essay words, which can be fixed on their own. Pachankis, the stress researcher, just ran the check in essay, country#x2019;s first randomized controlled trial of #x201C;gay-affirming#x201D; cognitive behavior therapy. After years of emotional avoidance, many gay men #x201C;literally don#x2019;t know what they#x2019;re feeling,#x201D; he says. Their partner says #x201C;I love you#x201D; and they reply #x201C;Well, I love pancakes.#x201D; They break it off with the guy they#x2019;re seeing because he leaves a toothbrush at their house. Or, like a lot of the guys I talked to, they have unprotected sex with someone they#x2019;ve never met because they don#x2019;t know how to listen to their own trepidation.

Emotional detachment of this kind is pervasive, Pachankis says, and many of the men he works with go years without recognizing that the things they#x2019;re striving for#x2014;having a perfect body, doing more and better work than their colleagues, curating the ideal weeknight Grindr hookup#x2014;are reinforcing their own fear of rejection. Simply pointing out these patterns yielded huge results: Pachankis#x2019; patients showed reduced rates of anxiety, depression, drug use and condom-less sex in just three months. Essay! He#x2019;s now expanding the study to include more cities, more participants and a longer timeline. These solutions are promising, but they#x2019;re still imperfect. Professionalism Essay! I don#x2019;t know if we#x2019;ll ever see the mental health gap between straight people and gay people close, at least not fully. There will always be more straight kids than gay kids, we will always be isolated among them, and we will always, on how long essay of 250, some level, grow up alone in our families and our schools and our towns. But perhaps that#x2019;s not all bad. Our distance from the mainstream may be the source of some of a resume, what ails us, but it is also the source of our wit, our resilience, our empathy, our superior talents for dressing and dancing and karaoke. We have to recognize that as we fight for is an essay words, better laws and better environments#x2014;and as we figure out how to be better to each other. I keep thinking of something Paul, the software developer, told me: #x201C;For gay people, we#x2019;ve always told ourselves that when the dissertation d'amour, AIDS epidemic was over we#x2019;d be fine.

Then it was, when we can get married we#x2019;ll be fine. Now it#x2019;s, when the how long essay of 250, bullying stops we#x2019;ll be fine. We keep waiting for the moment when we feel like we#x2019;re not different from other people. But the fact is, we are different. It#x2019;s about time we accept that and how many words, work with it.#x201D;

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famous biographers Biographies of scientists and explorers. honored in the names of plants. shown on this web site. Last names beginning with A-F on this page. G-M N-Z. K nowing about the people who collected, studied, described, named, and cataloged the plants of an area gives us a better understanding of the how long is an of 250 history of that area, the relationships among scientists and explorers at that time, the progress of check words, science, and the rigors endured in how long of 250 the quest for knowledge and beauty. The botanists who roamed the American West in the 19th century are an especially interesting group because they collected and cataloged at a time of worldwide enthusiasm for language school students, exploration and scientific advancement. And they were exploring virgin lands where almost every tree and is an essay of 250 words, flower was excitingly new. Enthusiasm and joy in discovery floods out of their reports, journals, newspaper articles, and books.

It was a very heady time for all explorers. The biographies below also indicate that the botanists were not just Botanists; they were intrepid hikers, climbers, campers, geologists, paleontologists, surveyors, and the civil in 1642 essay, writers. Many of the botanists were college educated, and, interestingly, many of them had medical degrees. Their schooling in the use of how long is an essay words, plants for medicinal purposes and in in tamil the scientific method served them well in their search for new plants and essay of 250, new knowledge. There was, of course, a financial aspect to collecting plants. Expeditions had to be paid for and explorers' city homes had mortgages. Thus it was common to solicit the assistance of philanthropists, intellectual societies, universities, and gardens to finance trips. Check In Essay! It was also common to collect multiple specimens in the field, returning some of how long essay words, these to those who had financed the trip and selling other sets to private collectors, herbaria, and universities. If we look only at a neatly typed catalog of plants collected on an expedition, it is easy to d'amour be unaware of the arduous work that went into collecting those plants.

The explorer/botanists were often out for weeks, months, or years at a time, often in unexplored lands, frequently under the threat of starvation, dehydration, and how long of 250, attacks from natives and ruffians. They lived with sunburn, mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, cactus thorns, and check words, lightning. Eleven men froze to how long death on create a resume cd a Fremont expedition, Douglas was trampled to death, Gunnison and his crew were murdered. How Long Is An Essay Words! These are not unusual cases. Resume Verb! Collectors worldwide suffered: both Captain Cook and Captain Bligh had botanical collecting as a primary purpose of their seafaring voyages; Cook was murdered and Bligh became (unfairly) a Hollywood villain. Lives were lost and collections, too, were lost: it was maddeningly common for how long is an essay words, specimens of plants, rocks, and fossils, and surveying data to be lost when rains and essay, floods soaked them or pack animals carrying them toppled off mountain ledges, or rats on ships ate them. Much of the Lewis and Clark botanical collection and some journals were lost in the Expedition's river travels. Fourteen of Fremont's pack animals (carrying all his botanical specimens) fell to their death in how long is an a winter crossing of the Sierras. Fendler lost his equipment in a flood and was so discouraged he never collected in the West again. But mounds of collected plants (and birds, rocks, skulls, weather information, and professionalism medicine essay, maps) did make it East (and to Europe, especially, England) where the preeminent scientists of the time analyzed, classified, and named.

For much of the 19th century (when thousands upon thousands of plant discoveries in the West were made) the botanical taxonomic authorities were John Torrey and Asa Gray in the United States and how long of 250 words, William and Joseph Hooker (father and son) in d'amour England. These men assigned names that described plant characteristics, geographical locations, and plant relationships, or (relevant to our discussion here) honored people who were important botanists, naturalists, and explorers in the West, the United States, or in other parts of the world. Over twenty percent of the plants shown in this web site have a person's name as part or all of their scientific name. (Because a plant bears someone's name it does not mean, though, that person discovered the plant -- or even saw it.) (See also scientific name .) The people honored in plant names have also been honored in other ways. Essay Of 250! Several fourteen thousand foot peaks in create a resume cd Colorado are named for eminent botanists: Gray's Peak (at 14,274 the 9th highest peak in Colorado) and Torrey's Peak (at 14,267 the 11th highest peak in Colorado); the Stansbury Mountains of how long is an essay words, Utah honor Howard Stansbury; birds carry their names (Lewis' Woodpecker, Clark's Nutcracker, Nuttall's Woodpecker, Townsend's Solitaire); and towns, rivers, lakes, and create cd, canyons honor them: Fremont, Gunnison, Lewis, Powell. Threads linking many of the naturalists discussed below weave through the biographies. Many were on expeditions together, were student/teacher, shared botanical and other scientific collections with each other, were brought together by mutual friends, or competed.

Two threads that I particularly enjoyed following were the how long relationships with Charles Darwin and membership in essay the National Academy of Sciences. It is is an of 250 words, fascinating to read about the reaction of major 19th century botanists to the publication in 1859 of Darwin's The Origin of a resume cd, Species . Many botanists came through splendidly as open-minded scientists who, when faced with a theory that contradicted some of words, their most cherished and fundamental beliefs, recanted. They studied The Origin of Species and were awed at the weight of Darwin's evidence and his twenty years of work challenging, analyzing, and ordering this evidence before he published. Asa Gray and Joseph Hooker , the two greatest botanists of the 19th century, studied The Origin of Species and immediately saw the power of Darwin's evidence and the truth of dissertation d'amour, his conclusions. See the how long is an essay of 250 entries for Gray and Hooker for details. Another thread to follow through the following biographies is about the formation of the National Academy of Sciences by an act of why did the civil in 1642 essay, Congress signed into law by essay President Lincoln in 1863. Four botanists, George Engelmann, Asa Gray, John Newberry, and John Torrey, all of whom have biographies in this web site, were chosen by Congress to be among the fifty charter members of the Academy. The National Academy of Sciences was soon called on by Congress to settle a complex and contentious question about the administrative guidance for d'amour, the exploration of the West.

The numerous survey parties which detailed the topography, climate, botany, and resources of the West were primarily conducted by how long of 250 words the United States Corps of Topographical Engineers (see www.topogs.org/Links.htm ). By the 1860's there were those who believed the task could be better undertaken by more scientifically trained leaders under different federal leadership. The issue was turned over to the National Academy of Sciences for study and a recommendation to dissertation d'amour Congress. The Academy's report urged that the various surveys sponsored by the military under the leadership of Stansbury, Gunnison, Fremont, Hayden, and others be ended and how long, that a new agency, The United States Geological Survey, within the Department of the how many in essay Interior, be created. With great debate and compromise, this momentous recommendation was adopted by Congress in 1879. The members of the National Academy of Sciences are dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare . There are presently about 2,100 Academy members including 200 who have received a Nobel Prize. See The National Academy web site . Following each person's biography are links to how long plants named for that person. Numerous web sources and many books, especially those listed immediately below and those mentioned in the biographies, provided much of the professionalism essay biographical information. Joseph Ewan's Rocky Mountain Naturalists . Joseph and is an essay of 250 words, Nesta Ewan's Biographical Dictionary of Rocky Mountain Naturalists . William Goetzmann's Exploration and list, Empire: The Explorer and how long essay, the Scientist in verb list the Winning of the American West. William A. Weber's Colorado Flora . Thanks to how long essay of 250 words the staff at the Cortez, Colorado Library for their assistance in obtaining books for me.

Allioni, Carlo , 1725-1804: Italian physician, professor, and botanist. Allioni was famous for his work on malaria but became even more well known for his botanical work. Allioni was a strong supporter of the Linnaean taxonomic system. In 1785 Allioni published his 3 volume work, Flora Pedemontana , which describes over 2,800 species of d'amour, plants. Allionia incarnata. 1763: Physician, Mayor of Williamsburg, Virginia from 1750 to 1751, and an associate of the famous botanist John Clayton. The genus is most often said to have been named for an 18th century Virginia physician and traveler, Charles Amson, but research in 2004 by James Pringle shows that Charles probably never existed. Pringle traces the history of the of 250 first collected species of this genus, the variety of names given to the plant, and the confusion about the source of the genus name, which Pringle clearly establishes as John Amson, though we know very little about John. See SIDA. Amsonia tomentosa. Assisi, Saint Francis , 1181/11821226: Catholic friar and in tamil students, preacher who founded the Franciscan Order and assisted in founding other Orders.

He remains one of the most venerated Christian religious figures. Is An Essay! St. Francis led a worldly and often wild life until he was twenty-two when a vision prompted him to renounce his considerable worldly possessions and essays students, live in poverty with the poor. Essay Of 250! St. Francis is known to many as a symbol of kindness to animals, especially birds. In the early 1600s (considerably before the how many in essay city of how long essay of 250 words, San Francisco was named), Franciscan Friars established a missionary at medicine essay, the base of the how long essay words mountains at present day Flagstaff, Arizona.

The Friars gave the name San Francisco to check in essay the peaks to honor their Patron Saint, San Francis of Assisi. The Peaks are, of course, known by many other names to Native Americans. Mertensia franciscana. Bahi, Juan Francisco , 1775-1841: Professor of Botany at the University of Barcelona in the 19th century. In 1816 the genus Bahia was named for him in Genera et Species Plantarum by Mariano La Gasca, Director of the Real Jardin Botanico de Madrid. Amauriopsis dissecta. Bailey, Vernon Orlando , 1864-1942: Chief Field Naturalist with the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture from 1890 to 1933. Words! According to the Smithsonian, Bailey's chief biological interest was the study of the life history and distribution of mammals. Language School! During his career with the words Biological Survey, he made field investigations throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico, including intensive biological surveys of dissertation d'amour, Texas, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Oregon. His bibliography numbered 244 titles and included scientific monographs, as well as publications for the general reader. Among his many publications were Life Zones and Crop Zones of New Mexico and Mammals of New Mexico.

Yucca baileyi. Baker, Charles Fuller , 1872-1927: Botanist, entomologist, Professor of Agronomy and Agriculture, Assistant Entomologist with the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station in Fort Collins. Essay Words! Lived in and collected in Colorado until end of 1800s and then moved to California, returning to Colorado for several collecting expeditions. Professionalism Essay! In 1901 Edward Greene published three volumes of Baker's plant collections in Plantae Bakerianae . Baker's 100,000 specimen sheets were left to Pomona College. Oreoxis bakeri Phacelia bakeri. Barbey, William , 1842-1914: Swiss philanthropist, botanist, and how long of 250 words, student of Epilobium . Delphinium barbeyi. Barton, Benjamin Smith , 1766-1815: Physician, Professor of Botany at essays in tamil language school, the University of Pennsylvania, author of Essays Towards a Materia Medica of the how long is an words United States (1798-1804) (the first book on verb American medicinal plants) and The Elements of Botany (1803) (the first American botany textbook).

Benefactor of many botanists including Frederick Pursh and Thomas Nuttall . Jefferson held Barton in such high regard that he asked him to teach the latest botanical collecting techniques and taxonomy to Meriwether Lewis prior to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. See the entries for how long essay of 250 words, Pursh, Nuttall, Lewis, and McMahon for more details about medicine essay, Barton and these important times for the beginning of American botany. How Long Is An Essay Of 250! See also David Townsend . Bertero, Carlo , 1789-1831: Italian physician and highly accomplished and respected botanist who collected plants for a resume, many years in the West Indies and Columbia (1817-1821) and Chile (1827-1831). Berteroi disappeared with all others on his ship returning from three months of collecting in Tahiti. Is An Of 250 Words! Osmorhiza berteroi. Bessey, Charles Edwin , 1845-1915: Student of d'amour, Asa Gray, Professor of Botany at Iowa State in how long is an of 250 words Ames, Iowa, until 1884 and resume verb list, then acclaimed botanist at the University of Nebraska until his death. Bessy began teaching horticulture, botany, and zoology at Iowa State in 1870, the year after the college opened.

His and his students' botanical collections became the Iowa State Herbarium, which he remained Curator of until 1884. (The herbarium is is an essay words, now known as the Ada Hayden Herbarium, after Ada Hayden, who became, in 1918, the first woman PhD from Iowa State. She became Professor of Botany at dissertation d'amour, Iowa State in 1920 and remained at how long is an essay of 250, Iowa until her death in 1950 by which time she had increased the herbarium size to over 250,000 specimens). Under Bessey the medicine herbarium had grown to 15,000 species by 1884 when he, now Vice-President of the how long essay words College, left Iowa State because of a dispute with the state legislature. Bessey eventually became Chancellor of the University of in tamil language students, Nebraska and a great collector of Nebraska and Colorado plants. He was the first American to make major contributions to plant classification based on a phylogenetic system, the attempt to establish the most primitive to most evolved plants. Bessey was known for his contributions to botanical education: he made laboratory work a standard part of how long of 250 words, his botany courses and wrote several botanical texts that were widely used for decades. Bessey initiated the Nebraska National Forest, the first completely hand-planted forest in the world. Bigelow, John Milton , 1804-1878: Physician, botanist, and member of several Western expeditions in a resume cd the New Mexico area.

Participated in the Mexican Boundary Survey, 1850-1852, which produced over 2,500 botanical specimens. Bigelow was also a member of the Whipple 1853 explorations for a southern rail route and collected numerous new species which Torrey and Gray described. Became Professor of Botany at Detroit Medical College in 1860. Senecio bigelovii , Dieteria bigelovii , Artemisia bigelovii. Brandegee, Townshend Stith , 1843-1925 and. Brandegee, Mary Katherine (Layne, Curran) , 1844-1920: Townshend was a botanist, Civil Engineer, and surveyor. Asa Gray recommended him to Hayden for the 1875 Survey and from this Brandegee published The Flora of Southwestern Colorado in how long is an of 250 words the 1876 Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories , Bulletin V. 2, #3. He was a highly respected botanist, as was his wife, Mary Katherine Townshend. She was a physician and botanist who published a flora of essays in tamil students, Yosemite and became, in how long is an essay 1883, the d'amour first woman Curator of the California Academy of Sciences Herbarium ( Alice Eastwood succeeded her).

The Brandegees spent their 1889 honeymoon hiking from San Diego to San Francisco collecting plants. The Brandegees are honored in the names of about 120 plants in the U.S.; those dated before 1889 were named for Townshend and those after were probably named for both Townshend and Mary. Is An Words! Mary is school students, also honored in the names of several dozen plants which refer either to her maiden name of Layne or her first marriage name of Curran. The Brandegees left their library and personal plant collection of over 75,000 plants to the University of California. Trifolium brandegeei is a lovely, hot pink Pea that Townshend Brandegee was the first to collect; it is the only plant in this web site named for him. In The Flora of Southwestern Colorado Brandegee said of his new discovery, [It is] a very showy species, common in the Sierra La Plata. It is still very showy and still common in the La Platas. Bree, William Thomas , 1787-1863: Botanist and Rector of Allesley. Is An Of 250 Words! Mentioned by Charles Darwin in his correspondence. Breea arvensis (now Cirsium arvense ) Brewer, William , 1828-1910: Principal Assistant, in charge of Botanical Department on the Whitney Geological Survey of California ( 1860-1864) , Chair of Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, 1865-1903 . Wrote Up and Down California in 1860-1864; The Journal of the civil, William H. Brewer (available online at the Library of Congress American Memory).

Co-author with Sereno Watson and Asa Gray of the how long is an essay of 250 words first flora of California, the 1876 report of the botanical work of the 1860-1864 Whitney Survey and the King Survey of 1867-1869. Click to how many words read his biography of Sereno Watson. Member and President of the National Academy of Sciences. Navarretia breweri. Brickell, John , 1749-1809: Savannah Georgia physician and botanist who came to the U.S. in 1770 from Ireland. Stephen Elliott (1771-1830) named the essay words genus Brickellia for John Brickell. In Tamil! In Elliott's Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Florida , Elliott (a Georgia amateur botanist and later Professor of Botany, legislator, banker, and writer) says of the Brickellia plant, I have named it in commemoration of Dr. Essay Words! John Brickell, of Savannah, who at one period of his life paid much attention to the botany of this country, and made known to d'amour Dr. Muhlenberg, Fraser, and others, many of the how long essay words undescribed plants. (Thanks to David Hollombe of California for supplying me with some of the civil in 1642 essay, this information .) This John Brickell was not related to the John Brickell, author in 1737 of The Natural History of North-Carolina , a work known to have been greatly plagiarized from a number of people, including the Reverend John Clayton, no relation to the John Clayton of Claytonia lanceolata . Unfortunately, the modern, very nice, and widely circulated book Shrubs and Trees of the Southwest Uplands , published by essay of 250 the Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, indicates that John Brickell (1749-1809) wrote the plagiarized book and incorrectly gives the date of resume verb, publication as 1787.

Click to essay of 250 see that the publication date was 1737, twelve years before our John Brickell was born. Carruth, James Harrison , 1807-1896: Yale graduate, taught, preached, moved in 1856 to medicine essay Kansas from how long essay of 250 words, Massachusetts. Create! Became increasingly interested in the flora of Kansas and cataloged 1,270 plants of that state. Taught botany, presented papers before the Kansas Academy of Science. How Long Is An Of 250! In a series of 1880 brief biographies of the Yale class of 1832, it was said of Carruth that Except a throbbing in the head, immediately consequent upon too close application to botanical studies in 1876, he is well, and can handle a flail, or a hoe, as well as he could fifty years ago, and can easily walk twenty miles in a day. School! Artemisia carruthii.

Case, Eliphalet Lewis , 1843-1925: School teacher, civil war veteran, plant collector. In 1902 he was elected Treasurer of Sierra County, California. Corydalis caseana variety brandegeei. Castillejo, Domingo , 1744-1793: Spanish botanist and Professor of Botany in Cadiz, Spain. The genus Castilleja (Paintbrush), was named for Domingo Castillejo in 1782 (in Linnaeus son's Supplementum Plantarum ) by Jose Celestino Mutis.

Mutis was born in Cadiz, became a physician with great botanical interests, went to Columbia in 1760 where he planned (but never finished) a botany of Columbia. Mutis sent plants to the father and son Linnaeus and must have known through them or other botanical sources of his countryman, Domingo Castillejo. There are, according to how long essay of 250 words Intermountain Flora , about 200 species of Castilleja, most growing in western North America, several in eastern North America and language, Asia, and about fifteen in Central and how long is an essay words, South America. It must have been at least one of the latter that Mutis discovered and dissertation, named for Domingo Castillejo. Castilleja chromosa Castilleja haydenii Castilleja integra Castilleja linariifolia Castilleja liniata Castilleja miniata Castilleja occidentalis Castilleja rhexiifolia Castilleja septentrionalis. Chamisso, Louis Charles de (Ludolf Karl von) , 1781-1838: German poet and naturalist.

Naturalist on Kotzebue's 1815 voyage. He is noted for having conducted the first complete western North America botanical profile, which included the San Francisco Bay area. See Romanzoff and of 250, Eschscholtz. Clark, William , 1770-1838: Co-leader of the Lewis and dissertation, Clark Expedition. After the Expedition, Brigadier General of the Militia for the Louisiana Territory and Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. Supervised publication of Nicholas Biddle's 1814 compilation of Lewis and Clark's journals of the Expedition: History of the Expedition under the is an essay Commands of Captains Lewis and Clark . See Meriwether Lewis . There are many books and many on-line sources about Lewis and Clark; an excellent on-line starting point is the civil war started in 1642 essay, Discovering Lewis and Clark . Some of the biographical information about Lewis, Pursh, Barton, and how long is an words, Douglas on my web site comes from James Reveal's Natural History section on why did in 1642 the Discovering Lewis and Clark web site. The original specimens collected by how long is an words Lewis and Clark are now housed in the Herbarium at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. For the most extensive collection of how many words, on-line Lewis and Clark documents see the American Journal. Clayton , John , (1694-1773): Emigrated to Virginia from England in 1715.

Clerk to the County Court of Gloucester County, Virginia from 1720 until his death. How Long Is An Essay Of 250 Words! Clayton and the great naturalist John Bartram became friends as did Clayton and Mark Catesby, artist and naturalist. Clayton probably joined Catesby on collecting expeditions and when Catesby returned to England, Clayton continued collecting and sent Catesby many specimens. Verb! Catesby shared these specimens with J. F. Gronovius who used them (without crediting Clayton) as the basis of his Flora Virginica , 1739-1743. Gronovius shared the specimens with Linnaeus. ( Sir Joseph Banks (of Captain Cook and Captain Bligh fame) bought the Gronovius-Clayton specimens in 1793.) James Reveal tells us of essay words, Mark Catesby, His travels in the Virginia colony were limited but fruitful as it was here that he began to gather specimens of the local flora and fauna, sketching each in varying degrees of exactness.

While there Catesby became acquainted with a young clerk named John Clayton who would play a future role in Catesby’s life and was destined to become a foremost source of Virginia plants prior to 1753 for Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus. (From Reveal's A NOMENCLATURAL SUMMARY OF THE PLANT AND ANIMAL NAMES BASED ON IMAGES IN MARK CATESBY’S NATURAL HISTORY (17291747). The herbarium of the Natural History Museum of London is a resume cd, named for John Clayton. Linnaeus named the Claytonia genus for John Clayton. Claytonia lanceolata , Claytonia megarhiza. Clements, Edith Gertrude , 1874-1971: Botanist, ecologist, botanical artist. Edith Clements was the first woman to receive a PhD from the University of Nebraska. She met Frederic Clements at the University, married, and the two conceived of, initiated, and worked in the Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak. 1913 authored Rocky Mountain Flowers and in 1920 Flowers of Mountain and how long essay words, Plain , both of which have many beautiful color plates that are still vivid and lovely today.

In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in essay honor of both Edith and Frederic. Clements, Frederic Edward , 1874-1945: Student of Charles Bessey at the University of Nebraska. How Long Is An! Professor of Botany at the University of Nebraska and then Minnesota. Originated the plant succession concept. Early in the 20th century established the Carnegie Institution's Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak where, during eight summers, he, his wife, and many students and co-workers studied the complex interrelationships of all influences (insects, moisture, sunlight, wind, etc.) on alpine plants. Medicine! The Clements spent their winters during these years studying the same interrelationships in the desert at the Carnegie Desert Botanical Laboratory near Tucson. In 1914 Clements published Rocky Mountain Flora . Clements wrote seminal ecological works such as Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation (1916) and how long is an essay words, Bio-Ecology (1939). In the a resume latter, co-authored with Victor Shelford, Clements argued the importance of is an essay words, studying the biome, all the plants and create a resume cd, animals in a given region. In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in honor of both Frederic and Edith. Clover, Elzada , 1897-1980: Curator of the essay of 250 University of Michigan Botanical Gardens and Professor in the Department of Botany.

Specialized in succulents. In 1938 she and her graduate student, Lois Jotter, botanized down 660 miles of the Colorado River, becoming the first women to float the Colorado River. Sclerocactus cloveriae (now Sclerocactus parviflorus subspecies parviflorus ) Collins, Zaccheus , 1764-1831: Philadelphia merchant and eminent botanist . Professionalism Essay! For over 25 years, he was a correspondent with Baldwin, Bigelow, Ives, Nuttall, Torrey, and how long is an essay, other esteemed botanists of the time. Collins was a member of the words Philadelphia Academy of Sciences and served as its Vice-President. Collinsia parviflora. Constance, Lincoln , 1909-2001: Director of the of 250 Herbarium at the University of California, Berkeley; President of the California Academy of Sciences; Dean, Vice Chancellor, and Professor Emeritus at Berkeley; and Apiaceae specialist.

Received his Ph.D. from Berkeley where he studied under Jepson. Remained at professionalism medicine, Berkeley from is an essay of 250, 1937-1976. Was a trustee of the Jepson Herbarium, founded in 1950 for the study and collection of California flora and helped edit The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. Constance is considered one of the top plant systematists of the 20th century. Medicine! In 1986, he received the Asa Gray Award of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for is an of 250 words, outstanding contributions to systematic botany. He was a fellow of the d'amour American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the is an essay of 250 words California Academy of Sciences, and check words, a member of the Linnaean Society of of 250 words, London and the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. He served as president of the American Society of why did the civil war started, Plant Taxonomists, the how long is an essay California Botanical Society, and the Botanical Society of America. Cymopterus constancei.

Cooper, James, 1830-1902: Physician, naturalist. Geologist with the geological Survey of California. Naturalist with the Pacific Railroad Survey of 1853. Wrote first book on birds of dissertation d'amour, California. (Cooper's Hawk is named for his father.) Collected plants in the Mojave Desert. Cottam, Walter , 1894-1988: Professor of Botany at Brigham Young University and then at the University of Utah from 1931-1962. Founded the Brigham Young University and University of Utah herbaria. Cottam founded the State Arboretum of essay of 250 words, Utah and Red Butte Garden and he was one of the founders of the The Nature Conservancy.

Cottam was one of the early ecologists and, from the 1940s on, he published papers and spoke often about dissertation d'amour, land degradation caused by how long is an words cattle and sheep; he warned that these animals would lead to the desertification of resume verb list, Utah. Cottam was well known for his work on hybrid Oaks. Astragalus cottamii ( now Astragalus monumentalis variety cottamii ) Coulter, John Merle , 1851-1928: Born of missionary parents in Ningpo, China. Came to Indiana when two years old. Received his PhD in words 1883 from Indiana University. From 1871-1879 was Professor of Natural Sciences at Hanover College.

During the how many words in essay field seasons of 1872-1875 Coulter served as the Assistant Geologist and Botanist to the United States Geological Survey in the Rocky Mountains (the Hayden Survey ). In his lifetime he became a revered Professor, a prolific researcher and writer, President of Indiana University, President of Lake Forest College, and Professor of Botany and Head of the Botany Department (1896-1926) at the University of Chicago. In 1874 Coulter and Thomas Porter published the first Colorado flora, Synopsis of the Flora of how long is an of 250, Colorado (click the title to read the Synopsis ). See Porter for details. Click to read Coulter's Botany of Western Texas . Click to read Coulter's A Textbook of Botany for Colleges and Universities . Coulter was the why did essay found er of the Botanical Gazette and its editor for half a century. He was a member of the American Association of University Professors; the Indiana, Illinois, and of 250 words, Chicago Academies of Science; the Botanical Society of essays in tamil language, America; and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (where he served as President). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1909. Coulter's renown was such that around 1923 he was. engaged as a consultant to how long is an words [China's] Suzhou [University's] science program.

Coulter advised more serious attention to taxonomy and studies of the local flora, as such data [are] basic to the botanical sciences in any country. Coulter's advice provided strong guidance to N. Verb List! Gist Gee, China's Suzhou University Biology Department's founder and administrator who significantly affected the direction of how long essay of 250 words, science education throughout China in how many words in essay the 1920s and 1930s . (This little known aspect of Coulter's accomplishments is discussed in Biology and Revolution in Twentieth-Century China (p. 68) by Laurence Schneider, my brother.) For more details about Coulter's life, publications, and is an, accomplishments, see the Biographical Memoir of John Merle Coulter by the eminent botanist, William Trelease. In this Memoir you will find 22 pages listing Coulter's extensive and varied publications in botany. Click for correspondence between Coulter and George Engelmann. The John Merle Coulter Nature Preserve is resume, a 92-acre Indiana State Nature Preserve located in the City of Portage. Crandall, Charles , 1851-1929: Horticulturalist, Professor of Botany and Horticulture and herbarium curator at Colorado Agricultural College (now known as Colorado State University), Professor of of 250, Horticulture at the University of Illinois; plant collector. Famous for initiating breeding studies of verb, crosses of various apples to find apples resistant to fireblight, scab, and how long of 250, powdery mildew. Crandall's crosses of Rome and Malus floribunda 821 apples formed the basis of 20th century apple breeding.

Penstemon crandallii. Cronquist, Arthur , 1919-1992: Taxonomist, Asteraceae expert, and resume verb list, one of greatest botanists of the 20th century. Essay Of 250 Words! Worked most of his career at the New York Botanical Garden. Essays In Tamil Language School Students! Published numerous articles and books, many establishing new botanical concepts. His taxonomic overview was The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants in 1968. In 1981 he published, An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants , a work setting forth a revised system of plant classification which eventually was adopted by major botanical projects including the Jepson Manual (1993) and the Flora of North America . In 1991 he and Henry Gleason published the Manual of the Vascular Plants . Cronquist did fieldwork throughout North America, but concentrated on the intermountain region and his field work there led eventually to the publication of the is an essay of 250 words first volumes of Intermountain Flora , the war started in 1642 essay most important work on this area and the most important work for this web site. The eighth and final volume was published in 2012.

According to the New York Botanical Garden archives: In the later 1950's Cronquist began a correspondence and collaboration with the Armenian botanist, Armen Takhtajan, of the Komarov Institute in Leningrad, U.S.S.R. Words! His work with Takhtajan and associate biologists at the Komarov proved a critical stimulus in dissertation d'amour the development of how long essay of 250, his synthetic projects in resume list general botanic systems. During his association and friendship with Takhtajan, Cronquist studied and how long is an words, became proficient in Russian, visited the (then) Soviet Union on several occasions, and promoted scientific exchanges between the two countries. Photo of Arthur Cronquist from the Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. The New York Botanical Garden archives state: As Director of create cd, Botany (1971-74) and essay, Senior Scientist (1974-92), Cronquist carried important administrative duties at the Garden and at its satellite facility, the Cary Arboretum. During this time he also held faculty appointments at Columbia University and the City University of New York, where he served on the Executive Committee on Biology. His many professional affiliations included the American Society of Plant Taxonomists (president, 1962); the Botanical Society of America (president, 1973); the International Association of Plant Taxonomy (council member); and the Torrey Botanical Club (president, 1976).

Professional awards and check words in essay, honors included the Leidy Medal of the essay of 250 Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1970); honorary vice-president of the XII International Botanical Congress, Leningrad (1975); the Asa Gray Award (American Society of Plant Taxonomists (1985); and the Medal for Botany, Linnean Society of London (1986). Arthur Cronquist was known for his towering physical stature, tall tales, and congeniality as well as for his commanding position as a botanist and educator. His advancement of essay, taxonomy, plant systematics, and how long is an of 250, floristics was of lasting significance to the science of botany. He died on March 22, 1992 while studying plant specimens in the herbarium of Brigham Young University in dissertation d'amour Utah. Cutler, Hugh Carson , 1912-1998: Anthropologist, botanist.

Received his Ph.D. in botany from Washington University in St. Louis and continued to be associated on and off with that University for the rest of his life. Is An Of 250 Words! Curator of economic botany at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and with the verb Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. Originated the MBG Systematics Symposium in 1954. Famous for his flotation methods of retrieving spores and pollen, especially from archaeological sites. Was a devoted student of plants of the Southwest U.S.

Early in his career he became interested in economic botany and the useful plants of the New World and their relatives; studies related to the taxonomy of useful plants; research on the wild relatives, variability, and kinds grown by living people; and specimens recovered from archaeological sites. (Cutler's words in his 1964, Career Statement. From the Washington University Archives as quoted on-line in a biography by David Browman.) Cutler's collection of more than 12,000 ears of native species of maize is now with the Department of Agriculture at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Asclepias cutleri Ephedra cutleri. Dale, Samuel , 1659-1739: British botanist, physician, and gardener. Is An! He wrote, Pharmacologia, seu manuductio ad materiam medicam in 1693.

Dale's herbarium is preserved in the British Museum, and his labeling of the specimens shows great care to detail. With Bobart and Sherard, Dale completed the third part of Morison's Historia (Oxford, 1699). Dalea candida variety oligophylla. Daniels, Francis Potter , 1869-1947: PhD from the University of Missouri, Professor of Romance Languages at Wabash and Georgia State Colleges, botanist. Spent one (or several) summers teaching at create cd, the University of Colorado and how long essay of 250 words, collected extensively and successfully for check words in essay, the University of Missouri, publishing in 1911 with respected scientist T. D. Cockerell, Flora of how long essay, Boulder, Colorado, and Vicinity . Was Assistant Curator of the National Herbarium for essays school, a short time. Chamerion danielsii (now Chamerion angustifolium subspecies circumvagum ) Deppe, Ferdinand , 1794-1860: Collected in Central America with Christian Julius Schiede for several years in the 1820s and then returned to his native Germany where he owned a plant nursery.

In 1828 in Veracruz, Mexico, Deppe and Schiede collected Juniperus deppeana . Dillenius, Johann , 1684-1747: Noted German physician and mycologist. With the encouragement of the how long is an English botanist, William Sherard, he emigrated from students, Germany to England in 1721. He became the first president of the how long essay of 250 Botanical Society of war started in 1642 essay, London in the 1720s. In 1732 he published a book with his own drawings and engravings of the American plants of Sherard's Eltham Garden. In 1734 Sherard endowed a botanical professorship at Oxford and had Dillenius appointed to that position. Dillenius held this chair until his death. In 1736 Linnaeus met Dillenius at how long essay of 250, Oxford and the two remained lifelong friends, correspondents, and botanical associates. Linnaeus' 1753 Species Plantarum frequently cites Dillenius' botanical work. Oxalis dillenii. Douglas, David , 1799-1834: Scottish explorer and botanist. Grew up poor, walked 12 mile round trip to professionalism essay school every day, left school at age eleven to be a gardener's assistant.

Rose steadily and quickly in the estimation of how long is an essay words, all he worked with and in 1820 was hired by the Glasgow Botanic Garden to work under William Hooker. In 1823 Hooker recommended him to the Royal Horticultural Society and they sponsored Douglas for his first trip to North America. During his six months there he met Torrey and essays in tamil school students, Nuttall, examined some of Meriwether Lewis' specimens, and collected extensively in the eastern United States and Canada. The Society report of is an of 250, his travels stated that the mission was executed by essays in tamil language school students Mr. Douglas with a success beyond our expectations. Photo of David Douglas from the Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. He was quickly engaged again by the Royal Horticultural Society in conjunction with The Hudson Bay Company and he left for the Northwest coast of how long essay of 250 words, North America in dissertation d'amour 1824.

With John Scouler, Douglas was the first to collect flora and fauna in the Galapagos on their way to the Pacific Northwest. Most of the collection was lost but Sir Joseph Hooker cited thirteen Galápagos plants gathered by Scouler and how long is an of 250 words, five from Douglas in a paper he published on Darwin in 1847. (ABC Bookworld) From 1825-1827 Douglas traveled thousands of miles by foot, horse, and canoe in in tamil language school the West: from April to December of 1825 he traveled 2,100 miles, in 1826 he traveled 4,000 miles, in 1827 he left the Pacific coast and traveled 3,000 miles to Hudson Bay and from there sailed home. (On his way to Hudson Bay, Douglas met Thomas Drummond and the Franklin Expedition in words Canada in 1827.) Through these years and thousands of miles, Douglas was an intrepid botanizer, searching, climbing, crawling, digging, collecting, studying, pressing, and drying and re-drying after soaking rivers and rains. His miles of travel in 1825-1827 took him -- often only in the company of an Indian guide/interpreter -- up the Columbia, back to the coast, to California, back to British Columbia, up the Columbia River to essays in tamil school students the Rockies, and back to the coast. He was almost always in areas no Westerner had ever been. He was wrecked in canoes, thrown into a river by his horse, lost collections and went back for more, slogged through deep snows to how long words reach alpine plants, slept many nights with no shelter, faced Indian hostilities a number of times, was next to starvation, but he continued to collect and collect. The months on end of why did the civil essay, living in wilderness, said Douglas, were looked upon by me with a sort of dread. Now I am well accustomed to essay words it so much that comfort seems superfluity. Professionalism! (From Lemmon.

See end of the Douglas section.) Douglas brought large collections of plants and how long is an essay words, seeds home with him from this trip, but he had also shipped many extensive collections home over professionalism medicine essay the years from the Pacific coast. When he arrived in England his reputation was already established and essay of 250 words, he was treated as a hero. He was elected Fellow of the Linnean, Geological, and Zoological Societies -- quite an honor for a Scottish poor boy gardener. He returned to the Pacific coast in a resume cd 1829 again under Hudson Bay patronage, spent several years botanizing up the Columbia, southward into California, to is an essay of 250 Hawaii, back to Fort Vancouver and the Columbia area, and then again to Hawaii in 1833. He loved Hawaii, climbed its volcanoes scorching his feet and collecting plants. On July 12th 1834 he set off with his terrier to explore Mauna Loa, one of the two huge volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Douglas never returned from this trip; he fell into essays in tamil school students a pit (an animal trap) and was trampled to death by a steer that had previously fallen in. Words! We don't know how the accident happened but we do know that Douglas' vision had been damaged on in tamil language students his snowy expeditions along the Pacific Coast and in Canada and it is quite possible that he did not see the pit that cost him his life -- or perhaps he saw the words pit and verb list, slipped in when he curiously looked into it. From his travels, Douglas introduced to Britain over two hundred plants (including many Pines and Firs) that were widely planted as ornamentals and plantation crop trees. See page 220 of the Oregon Historical Journal for a list of plants collected by Douglas.

Douglas described, among many other plants, the Ponderosa Pine, the of 250 Sugar Pine with its enormous cones, the Sitka Spruce, and he was the first botanist to describe the coastal Redwoods. Words In Essay! His collections formed the bases of several seminal botanical works including Hooker's Flora Boreali-Americana (see William Jackson Hooker and click the essay of 250 words Flora title to read). He was the first to collect Purshia tridentata and Erigeron speciosus . Three plants on this web site are named for Douglas: Chaenactis douglasii , Douglas Fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) , Cicuta douglasii . For an enlightening, intriguing, eye-opening, mind-boggling view into the complexities and vagaries of the naming of plants, see James Reveal's excellent discussion of Douglas Fir on the Lewis and Clark web site. For the riveting story of Douglas and other explorers in resume Britain's world-wide quest for plants from 1768-1836, see Kenneth Lemon's The Golden Age of is an essay of 250 words, Plant Hunters . Chapter after chapter is filled with calamity, success, death, heroism, and surprises: Captain Cook was leading expeditions which had as a primary goal -- botanizing. Resume! Botany Bay was named by Joseph Banks on a Cook expedition. Captain Bligh's voyage on the Bounty met with catastrophe in large part because of the rigors of botanizing.

From China to Tahiti to California to Brazil to how long is an essay of 250 Africa and India, the create a resume British were around the world collecting plants for their gardens and meals. During the reign of King George III (1761-1820) it is estimated that nearly 7,000 new species were brought to England from around the world. Douglas' role in these explorations ensconced him as a British national treasure. Drummond, Thomas , 1780-1835: Botanist, naturalist, explorer, Curator of Belfast Botanical Gardens. How Long Essay Words! William Jackson Hooker recommended him as an expedition naturalist to Rear-Admiral John Franklin for his 1825-1827 expedition to cd Western Canada and the Arctic.

Drummond walked and botanized hundreds of miles on his own during the expedition; met David Douglas in Canada in July 1827 and shared specimens. Drummond gained widespread respect for of 250, his collections of birds and plants on words the Franklin Expedition. Drummond made a second trip to America, 1830-1835: in 1830 he collected specimens from the American Southwest and in Texas alone he collected 750 species of plants and 150 specimens of birds -- the is an of 250 words first Texas collections distributed to scientists. Sir William Jackson Hooker described many of war started, Drummond's specimens in his Flora Boreali-Americana . (Click the how long essay of 250 words title to read.) Click for more biographical information about Drummond. A Resume Cd! Also see John Richardson. Boechera drummondii. Eastwood, Alice , 1859-1953: Denver high school teacher, plant collector, author of the first flora of a local area of Colorado: A Popular Flora of Denver, Colorado (circa 1893), and renown California botanist. Eastwood graduated from East Denver High School in 1879, and she was such a respected student that she was immediately offered a teaching position in botany at the school. During her ten years as a teacher, she also collected plants and taught herself botany using Gray's Manual and Coulter's Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany as guides. Eastwood invested her salary wisely in Denver real estate and by 1889 was able to quit teaching and how long is an essay, devote herself to the civil war started in 1642 essay botany.

Her fame in Denver as a teacher, naturalist, and how long of 250 words, botanist brought British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace to professionalism her for guiding into the nearby mountains, especially Gray's Peak. In 1891 she met Gustav Nordenskjold in a Denver library and their chance meeting and friendship led her to telling Nordenskjold of the Wetherill's newly discovered southwest Colorado native ruins (to be known as Mesa Verde). Eastwood wrote a letter of introduction to the Wetherills for Nordenskjold and thus began a major chapter in how long is an of 250 the archaeology of professionalism medicine, Mesa Verde. Eastwood had meet the Wetherills and worked with them on her southwest Colorado collecting expeditions starting in 1889 (and continuing at least until 1895). She collected plants as the how long is an of 250 Wetherills dug. As pots, sandals, and clothing were uncovered, Eastwood worked to identify the plants from which they were made and she was thus one of the first paleoethnobotanists.

In 1891, after reviewing Eastwood’s collection in Denver, Mary Katharine Brandegee, Curator of the create a resume Botany Department at the California Academy of Sciences, invited Eastwood to assist in the Academy’s Herbarium. Eastwood's botanical prowess so impressed Brandegee that in is an essay of 250 words 1892 Eastwood was offered a position as joint Curator with Katherine Brandegee and when Brandegee retired in 1894, Eastwood was made Curator and Head of the Department of Botany, positions she retained for 55 years until her retirement in 1949. (See John Thomas Howell). Top photo of Alice Eastwood from the Rancho Santa. Ana Botanic Gardens. Bottom photo from the Hunt Institute for. In the a resume 1940s, the herbarium at the University of how long essay of 250 words, Colorado acquired over 1,400 specimens from Eastwood's early collections and these, according to medicine William Weber, were the real beginning of the University of Colorado herbarium. In California, Eastwood collected widely on numerous trips, named over 100 California plants, published over 300 articles, mentored numerous budding botanists, risked her life to is an words save some of the how many in essay most precious specimens in the Herbarium during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and of 250, fire and then rebuilt the Herbarium collection to over 300,000 species.

Throughout her life Alice Eastwood was a tireless, dedicated botanist who was widely admired and create cd, acclaimed. She received praise of the highest order from such eminent fellow botanists as Mary and Townshend Brandegee, Marcus Jones, and Willis Jepson. For decades she was listed in the American Men of Science and was always denoted by a star, i.e., considered to be among the top 25% of professionals in how long is an words their discipline. She was honored at the age of 92 by being named President of the Seventh International Botanical Conference in Sweden. (Some of the above information was taken from Who's In a Name, Larry Blakely's excellent web site about California botanists.)

Eaton, Daniel Cady , 1834-1895: Professor of Botany at Yale, fern specialist, and plant collector. Grandson of Amos Eaton, famous science educator. Collected with the King Expedition in a resume Utah. How Long Is An Of 250! Mentor to Sereno Watson. Left his large collection of plants to Yale. Erigeron eatonii , Penstemon eatonii Cirsium eatonii variety hesperium. Encel, Christopher , 1517-1583: German naturalist, who, according to Stephen Jay Gould (Drawing a Gloriously False Inference), introduced the novel practice of drawing [pictures of natural history] specimens. In 1557 wrote De re metallica a book on the origin of why did war started essay, metals and fossils including a chapter on oak galls. Encelia resinifera. Engelmann, George , 1809-1884: Eminent St. Louis Ob-Gyn physician and of 250, botanist.

Engelmann was born in Germany, received his medical degree in 1831, and published his first botanical work in 1833. In Europe he was in the company of Agassiz and other eminent scientists, but in essays in tamil school 1832 his adventurous spirit brought him to New York, then to the intellectual capital of Philadelphia, and on to St. Louis in 1833. St. How Long Is An Essay Of 250 Words! Louis was, of course, a starting point for many Western explorations and throughout the next 50 years, Engelmann was sought out by many botanists for his expertise, his support (botanical, financial, and moral), and his connections with Eastern botanists Asa Gray and John Torrey. The Civil War Started In 1642 Essay! He received and described plant collections from many botanists and explorers: Augustus Fendler, John Fremont, Charles Geyer, Josiah Gregg, Charles Parry, Friedrich Wislizenus. He, himself, made a number of collecting trips to the eastern United States, through the mid-west, into how long is an essay of 250 Colorado, the Southwest, and California. Engelmann is honored in the name of many plants, especially in one of his favorite areas of expertise, the Cactaceae.

According to essays in tamil Dr. Oscar Soule, Engelmann described 108 Cacti which is over two-thirds of the forms recognized today. All thirteen of the Cactus listed in Coulter and how long essay of 250, Porter's 1874 Flora of Colorado were named and described by Engelmann. Photo of George Engelmann from. the Missouri Botanical. In St. Louis, Engelmann was chosen by Henry Shaw, wealthy St. Louis merchant, as his principal advisor in the forming of the now world famous Missouri Botanical Garden. Shaw consulted with Engelmann, Asa Gray, and check words in essay, William Hooker as he created the Garden, which opened in 1859. In 1857 Engelmann bought a 62,000 species plant collection in Europe to begin the Garden's Library.

He initiated the herbarium and in essay of 250 1860 Engelmann hired Augustus Fendler for a year and a half as curator of the Garden collections. Engelmann met Nicholas Riehl shortly after the two of dissertation d'amour, them emigrated to the United States and settled in St. Louis. Riehl was a good plant collector in France and continued collecting in St. Louis. He sold his collection, probably in the early 1850s, to Henry Shaw and that collection along with Engelmann's purchases in Europe, were the beginning of the essay words Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium, now containing 80,000 type specimens and over six million total specimens (second largest in dissertation the U.S. and essay, sixth in the world). In 1890, after Engelmann's death, his plant collection of 100,000 specimens (including his collection from Colorado) and d'amour, his personal library were donated to the Garden by his son, Dr. George J. Engelmann.

Five thousand of Engelmann's letters and 30 boxes of his botanical notes are also in the Garden's botanical library (considered one of the best in the world). The Missouri Botanical Garden is the oldest in the United States and it proved to be very popular with the public from the very beginning of its existence; in its first two decades (when the St. Louis population was about 300,000), a million people visited the Garden. Now, with the St. Louis metropolitan area at about 3,000,000, well over how long essay a million people visit the Garden each year and nearly 50,000 people are annual members. In 1863 Engelmann was elected by Congress to be one of fifty founding members of the National Academy of Sciences. Engelmann was also a member of the American Academy of Arts and check how many, Sciences.

In 1856 Engelmann was one of twelve founders of The Academy of of 250 words, Science of St. Louis and he was a frequent contributor to its prized journal, Transactions of the Academy of create cd, Science of St. Louis (which is now available on-line). In this web site Engelmann's name appears very often as mentor, collector, and botanical expert. Charles Parry honored George Engelmann in the name of a most abundant and beautiful tree, the Engelmann Spruce, Picea engelmannii . Also see Eucephalus engelmannii . Click the is an following links for more details about George Engelmann: Escobar Zerman, Numa Pompilio and Romulo Escobar Zerman , 1874-1949 and 1882-1946: Mexican agricultural engineers. In Ciudad Juarez in 1906, they founded the Private School of Agriculture, now part of the University of Chihauhau as the cd Brothers Escobar College of Agriculture. Escobaria missouriensis. Fallugi, V., Abbot , 1627-1707: Italian botanist and Abbot in Vallombrosa, Italy. He was highly respected as a rhetorician, poet, philosopher, and theologian and was considered among the best botanists of is an essay words, his time. He was offered a Professorship of Botany at the University of why did the civil, Padua, but he declined the offer.

The Vallombrosan Monastery was founded in words the 11th century by Saint Giovanni Gualberto, now Italy's patron saint of forests, and had many notable botanists. The Monastery endured several destructions, including that by Napoleon in 1808. It was rebuilt in 1815. The Monastery was closed by the Italian government in dissertation 1866 with only a few monks remaining at the main church. The Abbey is in the hills about 20 miles from how long is an essay, Florence and for several centuries has attracted famous visitors, such as, John Milton, Mary Shelley, William Wordsworth, Robert and check how many words in essay, Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Fallugia paradoxa. Fassett, Norman 1900-1954: Professor of Botany at how long of 250 words, the University of in tamil students, Wisconsin.

Specialized in taxonomic botany and in preserving Wisconsin flora and habitat. For 17 years Curator of the University of Wisconsin herbarium which grew under his directorship from is an words, 96,000 to 380,000 specimens, including over 28,000 specimens he collected. One of the resume founders of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Author Spring Flora of Wisconsin , Manual of Aquatic Plants , and Grasses of Wisconsin . Words! Fassett was a teaching colleague and good friend of Aldo Leopold and the two worked on many conservation issues together. Streptopus fassettii (now Streptopus amplexifolius ) Fee, Antoine , 1789-1874: Pharmacist, botanist, prolific author, professor, Director of the cd Botanical Garden of Strasbourg.

Just before his death, he was elected President of the Société Botanique de France. He was a cryptogamist (working on ferns, lichens, and fungi) and, among many other writings, published a 7 volume series Essai sur les Cryptogames de écorces exotiques officinales ( Essay on how long is an essay words the Cryptogams that grow on Exotic Medicinal Barks ). Why Did The Civil War Started! Cheilanthes feei . Fendler, Augustus , 1813-1883: Assiduous and highly respected (though short-time) botanical collector for the renowned Asa Gray and George Engelmann. Fendler was chosen by Engelmann to how long is an words fulfill Gray's desire to find and fund a collector to create a resume cd visit the Santa Fe area. In 1844 Fendler met with Engelmann in St. Louis for advice about collecting techniques, practiced collecting in the St.

Louis area for a time, was loaned $100 by Engelmann to begin collecting plants in the Southwest, botanized along the route to Santa Fe, and in 1846 began a year of collecting in Santa Fe. He returned to how long essay words St. Louis and received high praise from Gray for the quality of his collection to, in, and from Santa Fe: he was, said Gray, a quick and keen observer and an admirable collector (as quoted in Ewan). Gray wrote Engelmann after receiving Fendler's collection: CAMBRIDGE, December 20, 1847. I got a parcel from dissertation d'amour, New York on essay words Saturday evening, containing. a set of Fendler's from essays in tamil language school students, Santa Fe, up to Rosaceae. The specimens are perfectly charming! So well made, so full and perfect. How Long Essay Of 250 Words! Better never were made. In a week I shall take them right up to study, and they are Rocky Mountain forms of vegetation entirely, so I can do it with ease and comfort. It is a cool region that, and dry.

If these come from the plains, what will the mountains yield ? Fendler must go back, or a new collector. Resume Verb! All Fendler's collection will sell at once, no fear, such fine specimens and so many good plants. Pity that F. Is An Essay Of 250 Words! did not know enough to leave out some of the common plants, except two or three specimens for us, and bestow the same labor on the new plants around him. Send on the rest soon. Yours cordially, A. GRAY (From Asa Gray's letters) TO GEORGE ENGELMANN. CAMBRIDGE, February 29, 1848. . . . Now for Fendler himself. He ought to go back, and without delay.

He has gained much experience, and will now work to greater advantage. He makes unrivaled specimens, and the civil war started in 1642 essay, with your farther instructions will collect so as to make more equable sets. If he will stay and bide his time he can get on to the how long is an of 250 mountains, and must try the higher ones, especially those near Taos. Let him stay two years, and if he is energetic he will reap a fine harvest for botany, and accumulate a pretty little sum for dissertation, himself, and is an essay of 250 words, have learned a profession, for such that of a collector now is. Drummond made money quite largely.

I had rather Fendler would go north and west than south of Santa Fe. New Spain and Rocky Mountain botany is far more interesting to us than Mexican. (From Asa Gray's letters) Fendler began a second expedition in dissertation d'amour 1849 but lost all of his gear, notebooks, specimens -- everything -- in a flood. When he returned to St. Louis he found his possessions there had been destroyed in a major Mississippi River waterfront fire. Dejected and disgusted, he left the United States for a number of years and is an, never returned to collecting in how many words in essay the Southwest.

He did continue collecting in various other locations and even worked for a short period for Gray at Harvard. Forestier, André Robert , 1736-1812: Physician of essay of 250 words, St. Quentin, France, first botany teacher to the well-known Jean Louis Poiret (French clergyman, botanist, explorer, and Professor of Natural History at the Ecoles Centrale of Aisne, France). The following information about Forestier and the naming of the genus Forestiera , is from Michael Charter's excellent web site, California Plant Names : The Jepson Manual and dissertation, other sources such as Umberto Quattrocchi have apparently mistakenly attributed the authorship of how long is an essay words, this generic name to an early 19th century French physician and naturalist named Charles Le Forestier. However, David Hollombe's researches have indicated otherwise. The Civil War Started Essay! [Hollombe is a present-day biographical researcher.] A communication from him included the following: There was a botanist Charles Le Forestier (co-author with Lefebure of Album floral des plantes indigènes de France , Paris, 1829) but he was not a doctor and not the person for whom Forestiera was named. How Long Of 250! Jean Louis Marie Poiret (1755-1834) who chose the generic appellation, never gave Forestier's given name in print nor did Dr.

Forestier's two published articles (neither of them on botany). In 1897 Father Antoine Düss, a Swiss priest and botanist writing a flora of the French West Indies [ Flore phanérogamique des Antilles françaises ] assumed that the genus was named for Charles and in 1913 Britton and Brown [in An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada ] combined the fact that the genus was named for a physician with the incorrect name. André Robert Forestier, the son of Aimé and Marie, and a native of Paris, was a doctor of medicine and a physician of the town hospice of essay, Saint-Quentin, Aisne, which was Poiret's home town, and how long is an essay, he was Poiret's first botany teacher. Franckenius, Johannes , 1590-1661: Sweden's first Professor of Botany. Wrote about plants and medicine essay, their healing properties. Honored by Linnaeus in the name of a family and genus: Frankeniaceae and Frankenia. How Long Essay Of 250! Wrote Speculum , the first Swedish plant list, and in the Preface Franckenius urges his readers to medicine essay study plants in how long essay words their natural habitat.

Frankenia jamesii. F raser, John , 1750-1811: Scottish nurseryman who botanized frequently in the Southern Appalachians from 1786-1807. War Started In 1642! He collected for the Kew Gardens and Linnean Society and how long is an of 250 words, also sold his plants privately, including to the Empress of Russia, eventually becoming Botanical Collector for Russia for several years. Frasera speciosa , Frasera albomarginata , Frasera paniculata. Fremont, John Charles , 1813-1890: Teacher and surveyor; student of sciences including mathematics, astronomy, botany, geology, and cartography; military expedition leader; American icon; gold rush millionaire; governor, senator, twice candidate for President of the United States; strong-headed, court-martialed, impoverished, belligerent, American success and failure story. I have made Fremont's biography lengthy, not because he was a central botanical figure of the nineteenth century (although his collections were numerous and essay, many plants are named for him), but because his life shows so well the how long essay words relationship of the explorer/scientist/politician to the public, the government, and the botanical world. In 1838 Fremont was commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Topographical Engineers, and was assigned as chief assistant to the French scientist Joseph N. Nicollet for a survey between the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Nicollet tutored Fremont in all aspects of expedition logistics and in create the gathering of scientific information. Fremont then went on, between 1842 and 1854, to lead five Western expeditions, traveled over 20,000 miles, mapped large areas of the West, collected over a thousand plant specimens, and inspired a huge wave of pioneers with his reports about the lands his expeditions found.

He came to be revered as The Pathfinder (although the title should more appropriately have been given to his guide on essay three expeditions, Kit Carson). In 1841, before the check words five expeditions that he led, Fremont secretly married 17 year old Jessie Benton, the daughter of Thomas Hart Benton, the highly influential Missouri Senator. Benton was angered at how long essay of 250 words, the marriage, but he quickly reconciled with Fremont, became Fremont's powerful ally, and essays in tamil language, utilized Fremont's expeditions to expand America's boundaries. In 1842 Fremont conducted a mapping expedition of the Oregon Trail to essay of 250 the Rockies. Professionalism Medicine Essay! (Prior to the trip Fremont had received a quick course in plant collecting and preserving from the eminent George Engelmann and the expedition collected plants and how long essay, other scientific data.) Twenty thousand copies of Fremont's report (which was written by his wife) were published by Congress in 1841, and the the report then sold several hundred thousand copies when it appeared in major American newspapers and in in tamil language foreign editions. Fremont's maps of the Great Salt Lake area influenced the Mormons to settle there, and is an essay of 250, his maps of routes across the West were studied and followed by all westward moving pioneers. Fremont was thus catapulted into being the dissertation most famous American explorer of the time and his writings strongly added to Americans' belief in Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny -- both of which had long been strongly supported in Congress by his father-in-law, Senator Benton. Through all of these events and through his whole life, Fremont was rash, brash, headstrong, political, knowledgeable, persuasive, brave, and fool-hardy and these characteristics produced strong supporters and essay of 250, powerful enemies. In the mid-1840's, during his third expedition, Fremont played a significant role in taking California from war started in 1642, Mexico.

Californians then honored him by appointing him Governor of the new Territory in is an 1846, but he was a military officer at the time and war started in 1642, he was ordered to step down from the governorship. He refused and was court-martialed, convicted, and ordered dismissed from the military. President Polk upheld the how long is an essay words conviction but set aside the penalty. Even so, Fremont resigned in anger from the Army in 1848. In 1850 Fremont, running as a Democrat, was elected as one of the first two Senators from California. He served the six month short term but failed in his bid for re-election. Fremont made a fortune in the Gold Rush but only after protracted battles in courts and in Congress over land claims, payments, partners, and create a resume, promises. Fremont's popularity from of 250 words, his Western exploits and his anti-slavery position got him the newly formed Republican Party's first presidential nomination in 1856. Because Fremont was an outspoken proponent of freeing slaves, Southern states threatened to check words in essay secede if he were elected.

Fremont lost to James Buchanan. When Lincoln became President, he promoted Fremont to Major General. From Fremont's Missouri command post he ordered the confiscation of nearby Southerners' lands, freed their slaves, declared martial law, and then refused to obey Lincoln's order to rescind these unauthorized actions. How Long Is An Of 250 Words! Lincoln removed Fremont from command after six months of service, but Republican pressure on Lincoln forced him to reinstate Fremont -- which some came to regret as Fremont proceeded to lose a number of Civil War battles. Fremont was demoted again and again angrily resigned. Fremont lost his gold rush fortune, ran for President as a Democrat in 1864, was convicted by a resume the French in is an an 1873 swindle case involving the Transcontinental Railroad, and from 1878-1881 was Territorial Governor of Arizona until removed from office by public protests about dissertation, his shirking of essay of 250, duties.

Fremont's botanical collecting followed the same path as his life: a roller coaster of successes and create, failures. Is An Essay Of 250! Prior to his first expedition in a resume cd 1842 Fremont was unknown in the botanical world: On November 18th, 1842 John Torrey wrote to how long is an essay Asa Gray that a Lt. Create! Fremont who writes like a foreigner is sending Torrey some plants collected towards the Rocky Mountains. How Long Is An Of 250 Words! When Torrey received the plants he sent the Compositae (Sunflowers) to Gray and on December 5th, Gray wrote back in great excitement: Tetradymias [Horsebrush] this side of the Rocky Mts. Some new Senecios . How I would like to a resume botanize up there! Is the is an of 250 Lieutenant's name Fremont ? I wish we had a collector to go with Fremont. List! It is a great chance. If none are to be had, Lieut. F. How Long Of 250! must be indoctrinated , taught to collect both dried spec. seeds.

Tell him he shall be immortalized by having the 999th Senecio called S. fremontii . (Quotations from The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , edited by Jackson and Spence.) Fremont continued to professionalism medicine correspond frequently with Torrey for the next eight years and Torrey received and, with Gray, described Fremont's collections. Fremont thus had the best guidance and assistance, but he was headstrong and often did not listen to the expert botanical advice given him. George Engelmann , to whom Fremont was sent by Torrey for some botanical instruction, wrote Gray on December 6, 1844: Fremont appears to me rather selfish - I speak confidentially - and disinclined to let any body share in his discoveries, anxious to reap all the honour, as well as undertake all the how long is an labour himself. He objected to take any botanist or geologist along with him. even though he himself can not claim any knowledge of [botany]. It was common practice to take a botanist on expeditions, and Fremont knew this: Charles Geyer had accompanied Nicollet on expeditions that Fremont had also been on. So although Fremont's expeditions produced many significant botanical results (Torrey said of the 1842 collection, [It is] a very interesting contribution to North American botany), much more botanically could have come from his expeditions if he had taken a trained botanist. No one knows why Fremont did not take one with him (his ego is most probable), but he did finally relent on the fourth expedition, when he hired the how many botanist, Creutzfeldt.

Fremont not only refused advice about botany, but he also refused advice about the general conduct of how long words, his expeditions, often pushing on too far, too fast, and too carelessly. In his second expedition of a resume cd, 1843-1844, for instance, Fremont's collection from his westward leg of the journey through the how long words Rockies and Great Basin was lost when the mule carrying the botanical specimens went over a precipice on the final westward descent out of the Sierras following an unbelievably heroic, fool-hardy, and life-threatening crossing of the Sierras in the winter. On the return trip East his collection was lost in a flood on a small tributary of the Kansas River. Check How Many Words In Essay! But Fremont did bring back enough specimens to exhilarate Torrey and Gray. Specimens included the first records of how long is an essay of 250, Eriogonum inflatum , Coleogyne ramosissima , Populus fremontii , and many more. On the fourth expedition the losses were far more consequential. Fremont and his men fought for their lives in a winter crossing of the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. Ten men died.

Compared to this loss, it was hardly noticed that much of the botanical collections of that trip also perished in the snows of Colorado. Despite the numerous mistakes and losses, Fremont did amass a considerable botanical collection. According to professionalism medicine essay Stanley Welsh, expert on is an of 250 words Utah flora and Fremont as botanist (see Welsh's John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer ), Fremont's 1842 expedition yielded twenty-two new species of plants, his 1843-1844 expedition yielded seventy-nine, his 1845-1846 expedition yielded fifty-two, his 1848-1849 yielded ten, and his final 1853-1854 yielded one, with three more of unknown date for a total of 167 new species discovered by check how many Fremont. Welsh further indicates that, Collections of the is an first expedition were identified as representing 371 [species]; the second some 379 [species], the third 458, the fourth 60, and the fifth 8. Welsh notes that there were at least an additional 52 species for a total of well over 1,000 different species collected on all the professionalism medicine expeditions. In the late 1840's and early 50's Torrey and Gray described many of the plants Fremont collected, and they honored Fremont in the names of quite a few of these, including a number shown on this web site: Senecio fremontii , Mahonia fremontii , Populus fremontii (now Populus deltoides subspecies fremontii ) . In addition, this web site contains photographs of a number of species that Fremont was the first to collect for science: Senecio spartioides, Rydbergia grandiflora, Coleogyne ramosissima, Senecio multilobatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Lycium pallidum, Eriogonum inflatum, Astragalus preussii, and Castilleja linariifolia . In 1853 John Torrey detailed Fremont's collections in Plantae Fremontianae, part of the how long is an words Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge . (Some of the verb above information came from numerous on-line sources; most came from Mary Lee Spence, The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , 5 volumes. The primary text for the botanical accomplishments of Fremont, John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer , is by Stanley Welsh, author of A Utah Flora ). Last names beginning with A-F on this page.

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