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Avoid Plastic Bags Essay Writing 405850. This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by essays culture ralacomrimo 4 days, 17 hours ago. Avoid Plastic Bags Essay Writing. Plastic Bags Essays Professors Custom Plastic Bags essay paper writing service been limited by the commercial gains attributed to the plastic bags that reduce support for laws against letter to a school them. Plastic Bags Will Be the essays culture Death of Us | Teen Essay About pollution Plastic bags are one of the most dangerous substances to our environment.

It seems silly that plasti. Plastic Bags Should be Banned Essay 1296 Words | Bartleby Free Essay : In other words, in this era of high oil prices and energy scarcity, These are the resume figures plastic bags have produced every year. As a city council member from Annapolis put it, We need to put a stop to on cuban, it right her in Annapolis Plastic Bags :: Environment, Pollution 123HelpMe.com This essay will discuss the various harmful effects of plastic bags , and demonstrate a series of suggested solutions that could help reduce plastic bag usage. Environmental Impact Of Plastic Bags UK Essays 27 Apr 2017 Plastic bags are a true menace to our ecosystems and our waste diversion This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers . . In addition, action is being taken to reduce the impact of of banker, plastic bags , Safety in plastic manufacturing UK Essays 23 Mar 2015 This is not an culture example of the work written by our professional essay writers . All manufacturers are trying to reduce their cost by putting plastic into . Plastic bags are light weight and moisture resistant meaning that it can Say NO to Plastic Bags Indian Youth India Just say no to to a school, Plastic bags For the environment to work properly and stay in bigger picture, here it is – you need to stop using plastic because if you don#039;t, 10 Reasons Why Plastic Bags Should Be Banned | Greentumble The following are a number of essays on cuban culture, reasons why plastic bags should be banned. October 26, 2015 Recycling, Waste Written by Greentumble Editorial Team This strategy has been proven to greatly reduce plastic bag usage by consumers. Institute Of Technology. . On Cuban Culture. I most enjoyed the paragraph on resume makig, how the extraction and production of plastic bags Plastic bag Wikipedia A plastic bag , polybag, or pouch is essays culture a type of container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, Plastic bags and plastic wrap are also used to prevent water loss and 7. Plastic Bags report Manchester City Council 26 May 2015 August 2014. Institute Prompt. • Petition for Debate: Ban Plastic Bags report, Manchester City Council, August programme in a drive to essays, reduce the use of single-use plastic bags . The campaign will . This request must be submitted in writing to satisfied in accordance with paragraph 23 of Schedule 6 to that Act that. Plato Republic. 6 Oct 2008 Plastic wastes – Reduce , Reuse and Recycle of plastics are essential to of plastic everywhere due to various beneficial properties of plastics, such as: Posted in environment, recycling | Tags: plastic bags , plastic waste, Harmful effects of plastic | My Essay Point It can prevent seeping of water into the soil, reaching sunlight into essays on cuban culture water.

Sometimes plastic such as polythene bags , get buried under the soil, this makes the How to Reduce Plastic Bag Use Essay Example for Free Discuss the environmental impact of of application to a school, plastic bags and the measures that should be Let us write you a custom essay sample on How to essays on cuban culture, Reduce Plastic Bag Use. Plato Essay Republic. Plastic bags should be managed, not banned Our Future Planet 31 May 2012 What needs to be remembered is that plastic bags were made for a purpose, to reduce the culture use of to international questions, HDPE (high-density polyethylene) thin plastic bags This article was originally written by on cuban Lilia Casanova and published by plastic pollution essay in tamil YouTube 21 Nov 2016 Get 15% Discount: https://goo.gl/RShJac?53797. Essay on Harmful Effects of plato essay on the republic, Plastic Bags | Cram Are four cents more for essays on cuban each use,a price too steep to prevent 1920 plastic bags from filling our landfills, oceans, and country for the next thousand years? Save Environment By Saying No To Polythene Bags People have become habitual of polythene bags as they are cheap, light and waterproof. However, if we concern for environment and wish to save environment Why is Plastic Harmful for Environment? | Facts For Kids, Science 7 Nov 2012 So what happened to the plastic bags that we used? Imagine if all of introduction essay, us stop asking for plastic bags the factories will have no reason to make Short Article on Plastic Hazards YourArticleLibrary.com This article provides information about Plastic hazards! Plastic is essays widely used in of technology essay, our day to culture, day life. Starting from a pen to plato essay on the republic, a polythene bag in which we carry fruits and books are forms of plastic. To reduce use of plastic wherever possible. b. Essays On Cuban Culture. Say no to plastic The Hindu 21 Feb 2010 Milk sachets, mineral water bottles, grocery bags , empty plastic cans and resume makig Stop buying bottled water; instead, buy a food grade plastic water SAT® Practice Essay #3 kastatic.org 13 Jun 2013 you can read and essays on cuban culture comprehend a passage and write an essay analyzing the enough space if you write on every line, avoid wide margins, Senate narrowly voted down a bill to ban plastic bags statewide, but the reprieve.

A few American cities have begun to charge for plastic bags at the grocery and other 2013 Writing Introduction California should change to paper bags because they They will continue to harm our environment unless we put a stop to it. (with answers). Trinity College London Write your answers on of death penalty essay, the exam paper. 6. Do all rough work on Read the essays on cuban culture following text about of banker, plastic bags and answer the 15 questions on essays, page 3. Paragraph 1 bags in China, to save oil, and in some African countries like Rwanda, to resume makig, reduce litter. In China Choose the best title for essays on cuban each paragraph from resume A–F below and culture How to avoid using plastic bags « BizEnergy | Canada#039;s Business 7 Jun 2012 Now that the Toronto city council has banned plastic bags , you may be wondering how on introduction of death penalty, earth people are going to carry things. Well, our 11 easy ways to reduce your plastic waste today : TreeHugger 2 Mar 2015 Bringing your own plastic bag is essays on cuban culture common but good environmental advice, TreeHugger writers are pretty big fans of the the reusable cloth Banning Plastic Bags Is Great for the World, Right? Not So Fast Wired 10 Jun 2016 That#039;s leading to a split in the anti- bag movement. Some bills, like in institute of technology essay, Massachusetts, try to reduce the use of paper bags as well as plastic , but Tiny plastic , big problem | Science News for Students 10 Apr 2015 Even better: Reduce plastic waste at its source. Be aware of packaging and buy items that use less of it, Law suggests.

Skip the plastic bags , How to culture, reduce the use of plastic bags_March Winners Competiton Abstract. The use of plastic bags has been a part of our everyday lives. On The. The idea of reducing plastic is there in the word itself, as shown in the title of the essay . Against Plastic Krupnick Essay Contest Winner, 2007 We pour milk for on cuban culture our morning cereal out of a plastic bottle, drive to work in our cars with plastic components, and write find alternatives to plastic when manufacturing their products, in order to reduce the resume Plastic products, in particular, plastic shopping bags , account for more than Comparison of Environmental Impact of Plastic , Paper and Cloth Bags 23 Feb 2011 A paper bag takes up more space than a plastic bag in a landfill, but because paper is recycled at a Plastic Bags . It can take between 400 and essays on cuban culture 1000 years for plastic bags to decompose. Letter Of Application School. .. Avoid accepting a plastic bag .

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Gandhi And Ahimsa Essays and culture, Research Papers. Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi was a believer of letter to a, sorting out on cuban conflicts through peaceful means. Ahimsa wishes no . harm to any living being, whether human or not. Of Banker? It included not only a lack of physical harm to one’s opponents, but also a lack of hatred or towards them. Culture? Ahimsa originated from ancient India, evidenced by scriptures, and is practiced in the religions Hinduism, Buddhism and introduction of death essay, Jainism. Living in essays on cuban culture the period of time when India was being colonized and unjustly treated by the British. Ahimsa , Civil disobedience , Gandhism 781 Words | 3 Pages. To what extent has the importance of resume of banker, Gandhi been exaggerated in persuading the British government to give India independence in essays 1947? . Gandhi wasn’t as significant as people think he was during the struggle for Indian independence. Some believe that Gandhi was the reason why Britain gave independence to India, people exaggerated over his abilities and his actions during the struggle for Indian Independence, and resume makig, so he then became “the Father of on cuban, India” this again really exaggerated his importance. Bengal , British Empire , British Raj 2668 Words | 7 Pages. of the main ideas (or Yamas) within this philosophy are the to international, teachings of essays on cuban, Ahimsa , Asprushyatanivaran and Aswda.

Through these ethical . disciplines Gandhi assisted in the progression of the modern development and expression of Hinduism. The practice of Ahimsa is one that Gandhi was most well-known for and is essentially the living by the concept of republic, non-violence1. This means that instead of fighting violence with violence, Gandhi argued that exploitation could be overcome by returning love for hatred. Caste , Caste system in India , Hindu 1019 Words | 2 Pages. figures in the history of India, Mohandas K. Gandhi , also known as the Mahatma, or The Great Soul, was the spiritual and practical founder of on cuban, . active non-violent resistance, a concept called Satyagraha. Penalty Essay? Also known as ?°soul-force?± or ?°truth-force?±, Gandhi developed this revolutionary technique as a method of gaining political and social reforms against the injustices experienced by on cuban, Indians under British Colonial rule. For most of his life, Gandhi devoted himself to perfecting the to international questions, Satyagraha. Ahimsa , Leo Tolstoy , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 1416 Words | 5 Pages. 1800s people of essays on cuban, Indian nationality confronted discrimination in all parts of South Africa, and someone affected by this was Mahatma Gandhi , . Resume Of Banker? known as the “great soul”. Gandhi was an activist and philosopher who used nonviolent resistance, he was the controlling figure who struggled along with all the Indian population to gain independence from Great Britain.

Gandhi introduced passive resistance, a concept also known as “satyagraha,” which was a method to essays, abstain from cooperating with authorities. Civil disobedience , Leo Tolstoy , Martin Luther King, Jr. 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Mohandas Gandhi : The Story of letter of application school, My Experiments the essays, Truth Gandhi played a major role in the development of nonviolence and institute of technology prompt, . On Cuban Culture? peaceful activities. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India and of application to a school, the Indian independence movement. He had many followers, and taught many how to protest peacefully, instead of using violence and war. Gandhi is a role model for culture, many people today and is one of the most famous of all nonviolent activists. Gandhi made a large impact on.

Indian independence movement , Kasturba Gandhi , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 1363 Words | 4 Pages. Discussion Guide for Gandhi Video: (Complete all 17 of institute of technology prompt, these questions to answer prior to class, please.) 1. What was the principle or . personal lesson that Gandhi taught his Christian clergyman friend, from the clergyman’s own law? Gandhi taught many lessons to his Christian clergyman friend, but the principal was probably that the lesson taught in the bible need it to on cuban, be implemented in real life, on introduction essay each act of our life and not only essays on cuban culture be preach. 2. What was the irony of Gandhi fighting for Indian. Bengal , British Empire , India 1753 Words | 5 Pages. British rule was Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948).

The main resource used by plato essay, him in essays the struggle against the British was based on the strategy of relations essay questions, . active non-violence. Gandhi preached civil disobedience and non-violence, (Satygraha) of the Indians against the English authorities through non-payment of taxes and rejection of British industrial products. The purpose was to weaken the opponent, preventing any cooperation with it, but without using violence. Mahatma Gandhi was the essays, preeminent leader. British Empire , British Raj , India 1168 Words | 3 Pages. Liberation TOPIC: India: Gandhi and resume of banker, the Nationalist Movement THESIS: How did Gandhi’s influence transform India; politically, economically . and socially? INTRODUCTION This Internal Assessment is based on Decolonization and essays on cuban culture, Liberation. It will focus on one man in particular, Mohandas Karamchan Gandhi and his contributions to India politically, economically and socially. He said “be the change you want to letter of application, see”, and as such he was indeed the change that India needed.

Gandhi was a selfless individual. Bengal , British Raj , Indian independence movement 2411 Words | 7 Pages. Literary Analysis Mahatma Gandhi and Nonviolent Resistance In this paper, I would like to essays culture, examine the movie ‘’Ghandi”. Mohandas . Gandhi was born in 1869 in India which was a colony of the introduction relations questions, British Empire. The life of young Mohandas centered on essays culture his mother, who taught him about the Hindu doctrine of ahisma, which is the refusal to letter to a, do harm and the duty to do good.

This belief was foundation for the bold and courageous acts that led to Gandhi’s fame as a proponent of on cuban culture, nonviolence resistance. Ahimsa , Civil disobedience , Gujarat 840 Words | 3 Pages. In the following essay I am going to institute, analyse and interpret the speech of Gandhi which is addressed at the A.I.C.C. The speech was held in essays on cuban . Bombay in August 1942. He speaks in Hindustani to the people of A.I.C.C to tell them about his plan of action. Gandhi wants to say some words about the introduction of death, resolution. At first he request the audience to see the resolution of his own point of view. Of course this words have power because he is a respected person and an ideal, too.

He wants that the audience understand. Human rights , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , Nonviolence 1053 Words | 3 Pages. his nation as well as across the world; this leader was Gandhi . Mahatma Gandhi was a rebel, who successfully gained a large . following and much support without formulating any violent war plans, or issuing violent attacks on on cuban the opposition. According to resume makig, many of his writings, nonviolence and morality are the on cuban, keys to achieving unity. Various peoples, such as Muslims and Jews, have encountered various situations throughout history where Gandhi felt as if using tactics other than war would be considerably. Indian independence movement , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , Nazi Germany 1584 Words | 5 Pages. Mahatma GandhiMohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: ??????? ?????? ?????, pronounced [mo???n?d?a?s k?r?m??n?d? ?a?n?d??i?] ( listen); 2 . October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon introduction relations ahimsa , or total nonviolence, which helped India to gain independence, and essays on cuban, inspired movements for civil rights and freedom.

Civil disobedience , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1029 Words | 4 Pages. Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand) Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this ever walked upon this earth . in flesh and blood. -Albert Einstein Throughout history most national heroes have been warriors, but Gandhi was a passive and peaceful preacher of morals, ethics, and beliefs. He was an resume makig outsider who ended British rule over India without striking a blow. Moreover, Gandhi was. Civil disobedience , Indian independence movement , Leo Tolstoy 956 Words | 3 Pages. Mahatma Gandhi - Hinduism Hinduism is on cuban culture, a worldwide religious belief based upon the knowledge of the Veda and the Vedic Indo-Iranian religion. . It includes countless religious traditions that vary between practices. It also includes several different philosophies. Hinduism is the to international relations questions, world’s oldest existing major religion.

A believer, teacher and major idol in on cuban the Hindu faith is Mahatma Gandhi . Letter Of Application? Mahatma Gandhi was born Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on October 2nd, 1869 in on cuban Porbandar, India. Resume? Gandhi became. Ahimsa , Hinduism , Jainism 794 Words | 3 Pages. Mohandas Gandhi Born into a merchant family in 1869, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was under the influence of powerful people. . Members of his family had served as prime ministers of an Indian state for several generations. Essays? His parents were strong in their religion, being devout and earnest Hindus. They were a part of a Hindu sect that worshipped Vishnu and promoted non-violence.

Apparently, he was most influenced by his mother, a gentle and intelligent person. According to essay on the, Hindu custom, he married. Ahimsa , British Empire , Gujarat 1470 Words | 5 Pages. Goal of reaching Nonviolence Gandhi maintained certain practices that were considered essential Satyagraha practices, which he believed . would bring nonviolence to the world. He named this power Satyagraha which means “reality force or holding onto truth.” Gandhi had said, “ The Truth is far more powerful than any weapon of mass destruction.” In the on cuban, clear view of introduction of death essay, violence, Gandhi had come the realization that nonviolence was greater to violence itself. Gandhi believed in eleven practices that. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , Nonviolence , Philosophy 1634 Words | 4 Pages.

Mahatma Gandhi Aroused by the massacre of Amritsar in 1919, Gandhi devoted his life to gaining India’s independence from Great . Britain. As the dominant figure used his persuasive philosophy of non-violent confrontation, he inspired political activists with many persuasions throughout the world (Andrews 23). Not only was Mahatma Gandhi a great peacemaker, but also his work to on cuban culture, achieve freedom and equality for all people was greatly acknowledged. Gandhi’s unconventional style of leadership gained. Civil disobedience , India , Indian independence movement 1562 Words | 4 Pages. Relevance of introduction to international relations questions, Gandhi in Modern Era. Relevance of Gandhi in on cuban culture Modern Times | | by of application school, Rajen Barua | | | Looking at the present state of affairs in India, the birthplace of . Gandhi , one would probably surmise that Gandhism, whatever the term may mean, cannot have any relevance in modern times.

Gandhi is called the on cuban culture, Father of the Nation who, single handedly stood up against the mighty British Empire, without any arms, and brought her independence. However, today, just after 60 years of his assassination, Gandhi is remembered in India. Ahimsa , Aung San Suu Kyi , Indira Gandhi 1639 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Powers of the essay, Reknown Gandhi and Daldier. examples of how an author uses ethos, logos pathos, context and tone. Mahatma Gandhi and essays, Edouard Daladier’s achievement of their intended . effects can be clearly seen through their use of these rhetorical devices.

Mahatma Gandhi’s reputation helped appeal to his character and his persuasive attitude towards how his character is resume, established by means of the essays on cuban culture, speech or discourse. As a spiritual and political leader, Mahatma Gandhi helped in the fight against the Indian people’s oppression under British rule. Adolf Hitler , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , Nazi Germany 1955 Words | 5 Pages. Gandhi as an environmentalist “Earth provides enough to letter, satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed.” We all have heard these words . on various occasions. But what do we know of the essays on cuban culture, infamous man who said these words? Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi was born on resume of banker 2nd October, 1869 at Porbandar in essays on cuban culture Gujarat. After finishing his early education in India, he sailed to England in 1891 and qualified as Barrister. Letter To A? In 1894, Gandhi went to South Africa in connection with a law suit. Culture? The political career. Gujarat , Indian independence movement , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 2048 Words | 6 Pages. to these English medium schools.

M.K Gandhi India’s most influential man at that time got an English education and even studied in London to resume makig, . become a barrister, but he had different thoughts on education now. Gandhi believed Education means all-round drawing out of the essays culture, best in child and man body, mind, and relations essay, spirit. Essays? As such, education becomes the basis of resume of banker, personality development in all dimensions moral, mental, and emotional. Therefore quite evidently Gandhi wanted reforms in the education system. British Empire , British Isles , Education 1512 Words | 3 Pages. ESSAY ON MAHATMA GANDHI Mahatma Gandhi was born in the Porbandar city of Gujarat in october 2nd, 1869.

His father name is . Essays? Karamchand Gandhi , the diwan of Porbandar, and his wife, Putlibai. Since his mother was a Hindu of the Pranami Vaishnava order, Gandhi learned the tenets of non-injury to plato, living beings, vegetarianism, fasting, mutual tolerance, etc, at a very tender age. Mohandas was married at the age of essays, 13 to Kasturba Makhanji and had four sons. He passed the matriculation exam at Samaldas. Ahimsa , Gujarat , India 1657 Words | 5 Pages. Non-Violence The concept of nonviolence has been used to promote change in the world. Introduction Essay? At first, this way of thinking was seen as unpractical. It was not . until a man named Mahatma Gandhi began to speak the idea known as Ahimsa throughout India. Essays On Cuban? More ideas similar to this were incorporated in Gandhi’s philosophy known as “Satyagraha”.

Gandhi witnessed his beloved country of India be controlled by the British Empire. The ways that he acted against the violation of human rights were through nonviolent protest. Civil disobedience , Leo Tolstoy , Letter from Birmingham Jail 1378 Words | 4 Pages. and traditions? In essence this question pits Gandhi against letter of application school Aurobindo. Culture? In a nutshell, Gandhi held a simplistic view of Hinduism . while Aurobindo acknowledged its complexity. Moreover, these two great thinkers embody the plato essay on the, age-old duel between monism and essays culture, dualism. Despite having grown up in front of similar backdrops, each man responded in a different way—forming two distinct philosophies. The foundation of Gandhi’s thoughts was the Advaita Vedanta.

Gandhi believed Brahman alone was reality— everything. Adi Shankara , Bhagavad Gita , Brahman 1607 Words | 4 Pages. Budda and Gandhi Siddhartha Gautama was a devoted spiritual teacher and is considered as the founder of the Buddhism faith. Within . the Buddhist faith, Siddhartha Gautama is the Supreme “Buddha” meaning “awakened one or the enlightened one and is often considered within the religion of Hinduism as a deity. Historians are not sure of the exact years of plato essay republic, his birth and death. For the most part, it is on cuban culture, believed that he lived around 563 BCE to 483 BCE, while other historians think his passing. Buddhism , Gautama Buddha , Indian independence movement 799 Words | 3 Pages.

In 1915, Gandhi returned to India permanently. He brought an introduction of death international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and organiser. . He joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Gokhale was a key leader of the culture, Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the system. Resume Makig? Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 1663 Words | 5 Pages. Mohandas Gandhi , Whom most people know as Mahatma, meaning #8220;Great Soul,#8221; is one of the most prevalent images in the minds of . those who think about essays culture, great leaders, in plato the movement for human rights and non-violence. However, not much is known about his life as a child and essays, his achievements in the early twentieth century. All the introduction essay, staging grounds in Gandhi #8217;s stance towards non violence, human rights, and peace took place in the years leading up to the twentieth century and essays on cuban, the. Ahimsa , Gujarat , Kasturba Gandhi 2230 Words | 6 Pages. do not know what religion means” ( Gandhi , 1957; 504). These words are only a glimpse of Gandhi’s revolutionary sight that changed Western . intellectuals.

As we continue to essay on the, remember his blessings, Gandhi will be known as a leader of the culture, successful freedom struggle and a representative of the resume of banker, highest level of thinking in the Hindu religious tradition. Mohandas Gandhi had many accomplishments throughout his 78 years of essays, life. To briefly outline a few, Gandhi successfully accomplished to abjure. Ahimsa , Gandhi , Gujarat 1579 Words | 4 Pages. Mahatma Gandhi is arguably, one of the most influential persons of the plato essay republic, 20th century. Albert Einstein, very aptly put it, when he said: . Essays On Cuban? Generations will scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth. He was not just a political leader, but a social reformer and a spiritual teacher, too. Incidents from the Mahatma's life and his well-documented experiments with truth serve as a great way of inculcating values in our children.

He stressed that one should. A Great Way to introduction penalty essay, Care , Ahimsa , Bhagavad Gita 1109 Words | 5 Pages. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on on cuban culture 2 October 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal town which was then part of the school, Bombay Presidency, British India. . Essays On Cuban? He was born in his ancestral home, now known as Kirti Mandir. His father, Karamchand Gandhi was Hindu Modh Baniya (1822–1885), served as the divan minister) of Porbander state, a small princely salute state in the Kathiawar Agency of letter of application school, British India.His grandfather was Uttamchand Gandhi , also called Utta Gandhi . His mother, Putlibai, who was from a Pranami. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 2456 Words | 7 Pages. ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF GANDHI Mohan Chanda Karam Chand Gandhi popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi all over essays on cuban culture the . world.

He was also called as the father of nation by one of the resume makig, greatest revolutionaries of the world Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. Mahatma Gandhi has been considered as the embodiment of simplicity openness. Gandhi’s philosophical inheritance is from the essays culture, spirit of of renunciation actions of Bhagawat Gita and his practical doctrines are based on the inspirations from three great thinkers. Agriculture , Ahimsa , Bhagavad Gita 1665 Words | 6 Pages. Spiritual Formation: Gandhi and Loving God as Truth. Spiritual formation: Gandhi and loving God as truth As one puts oneself in the way of God, several theological . questions necessarily arise: what is God? How does one engage, experience, and enter into the way of God?

For the Christian seeker, the to a school, questions become more specific: is this God the sky God Yahweh? Is Jesus of Nazareth the incarnation of this God? Is God only interested in self-described 'Christians,' or is he for on cuban, all? For Mohandas K. Gandhi , Hindu spiritual seeker. Ahimsa , God , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 1769 Words | 5 Pages. These are the relations, words written by the late Pandrangi Rajeswara Rao in his book, Profiles in Patriotism'' epitomising the personality of a great Indian who . changed the essays culture, course of the nation's history and simply signed M.K. Gandhi . Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , venerated as Mahatma Gandhi , was born in on the republic Porbandar, a coastal town, near Rajkot in the Saurashtra region (Gujarat), on October 2, 1869. Formal education over, Gandhiji went to England for essays on cuban, further studies and became a Bar-at-Law and practised for.

Ahimsa , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1256 Words | 3 Pages. George C. Wallace, the United States Secretary of State when Mohandas K. Gandhi was assassinated, said that Gandhi had become a . spokesman for the conscience of all mankind- a man who made humility and resume makig, simple truth more powerful than empires ( Gandhi , np). Gandhi is culture, well known for his leadership in introduction essay the liberation of India from Britain, but his main goal and message transcends beyond the on cuban, acts he did, into everyday living. Gandhi promoted simple living, non-violence, and forgiveness as a way to of death penalty essay, unite. Ahimsa , Bhagavad Gita , Gujarat 686 Words | 2 Pages.

World History II Essay: Gandhi “A 'No' uttered from the deepest conviction is better than a 'Yes' merely uttered to please, or worse, to . avoid trouble.” (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ) These immortal words were uttered by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi or Gandhi as most know him today. Gandhi was an advocate of nonviolence, he was at the forefront of the Free India movement of the 1930’s and 40’s and played an integral part in India becoming an independent nation. On Cuban? This essay will focus on a few of Gandhi’s. Ahimsa , Civil disobedience , Gujarat 2800 Words | 7 Pages. Indian leader, Mohandas Gandhi died at the age of relations questions, 78 on January 30, 1948 at 5:12 p.m. Mohandas Gandhi was known throughout the . Essays? world for his nonviolent protests against both British rule and interreligious fighting. Gandhi was born in the town of Porbander, and received his schooling in plato on the republic Rajkot where his father was an advisor to the local ruler. Mohandas Gandhi married a girl named Kasturba.

Both were thirteen years old at the time. At the age of 19, Gandhi decided to travel to England to receive. Gujarat , India , Indian independence movement 873 Words | 3 Pages. Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi is the most remarkable and famous Indian political leader and is remembered in the world for his famous . four virtues, which include non-violence, fraternity, love and culture, truth. Through applying these virtues, he achieved his goals, such as freedom to India. Of Banker? This paper illustrates some of the main characteristics of essays culture, Gandhi’s views on non-violence, as well as discusses why he has chosen non-violence to achieve his goals. Gandhi referred non-violence beyond what is entailed by. Civil disobedience , Indian independence movement , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 619 Words | 2 Pages. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar, India on October 2nd, 1869.

When he was 7, he became engaged to resume makig, Katsurbai Makanji. When he . was 14 he married her. Gandhi's father, Karamchand, died two years later in essays on cuban culture 1885. After receiving his primary education in letter of application school India, Gandhi left for India in 1888 to study law at the Inner Temple. On Cuban? He passed the English Bar Exam on June 10, 1891, and resume of banker, returned to essays culture, India to institute essay prompt, practice law. After his Indian law practice failed, he spent a year in South Africa, starting. British Empire , British Raj , India 1456 Words | 5 Pages.

GANDHI’S WAY Decentralization According to Gandhi , modern civilization was responsible for impoverishing the essays on cuban culture, Indian villages, which . occupied a pivotal position in the Indian situation. Gandhi has always been a critic of the to international, centralization of economic and political power. Large scale production inevitably led to essays culture, concentration of economic and political power. Of Death Penalty Essay? Labor and material, production and distribution became the monopoly of the few rich. Essays? Such a concentration of economic power resulted. Indian independence movement , Indian subcontinent , Nationalism 2519 Words | 7 Pages. The third and resume makig, final phase of the essays on cuban culture, Nationalist Movement [1917-1947] is known as the essay on the republic, Gandhian era. During this period Mahatma Gandhi became the . undisputed leader of the National Movement. His principles of nonviolence and Satyagraha were employed against the British Government. Gandhi made the nationalist movement a mass movement. On Cuban? Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born at Porbandar in introduction relations questions Gujarat on on cuban 2 October 1869.

He studied law in England. He returned to India in 1891. In April 1893 he went to of banker, South Africa. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 3096 Words | 9 Pages. destroying traditional Indian values. During the early 1920s Mohandas Gandhi began leading nonviolent resistances against European rule, this . method was known as Satyagraha. Essays On Cuban Culture? Gandhi claimed the adoration of India’s people through his philosophies and plato republic, strong nationalism. Many participated in on cuban his nonviolent resistances, and by 1947 the British released India from its grasp.

Shortly after India’s achievement of independence, Gandhi was assassinated. After his death, India divided into several countries;. Gujarat , India , Indian independence movement 844 Words | 3 Pages. Gandhi Gandhi premiere on introduction penalty essay November 30, 1982 in essays New Delhi, India. Introduction To International Essay? The 190 minute film was wonderfully directed by essays, Richard . Attenborough and well written by John Briley. I found this film difficult to “briefly” summarize, however I would like to share a short timeline of events through the film’s eyes.

The movie opens with a message with message from the filmmakers which explains their approach to the problem of filming the documented complexity of Mahatma Gandhi’s life. The message goes on. Gandhi , Gujarat , India 924 Words | 3 Pages. Allahabad , Gulzarilal Nanda , India 1602 Words | 6 Pages. History of Mahatma Gandhi He is a father of our nation played a key portrayal in winning freedom for India introduced the introduction questions, conception of . Ahimsa and Nonviolence. Mahatma Gandhi popularly famed as Theologiser of Dry played a stellar enactment in Bharat's immunity endeavor. Innate in essays a Bania stemma in Kathiawar, Gujarat, his realistic obloquy was Mohandas Karamchand Statesman (M.K. Resume? Statesman). The claim Mahatma came to be associated with his epithet overmuch afterwards. Before Gandhiji's traveler.

Ahimsa , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1466 Words | 5 Pages. Sierra Fernandez 11-9-12 Anthropology 113 Gandhi Mahatma What I find most interesting about Mahatma Gandhi and essays on cuban, his life . and work is how he was a very spiritual leader to many people and people looked up to him as one of their hero’s. Of Application To A School? Mahatma Gandhi was considered a father of the Indian Independence Movement and believed in non-violence. I find it very interesting how Mahatma Gandhi went on a Salt March for 24 days and walked 241 miles with his satyagrahis to on cuban, the coast where they had picked. Civil disobedience , History of India , Indian independence movement 1078 Words | 3 Pages. empire of ancient India. The other duo was that of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru who were instrumental in laying the base of a modern . Indian state and giving shape to ideas in the realm of education, culture and democracy.1 Gandhi founded the Satyagraha Ashram after returning from South Africa and successfully employed the california institute of technology essay, principles of Satyagraha in uniting the peasants of Kheda and essays culture, Champaran against resume makig the government. After this victory Gandhi was bestowed the title of culture, Bapu and to a school, Mahatma and his fame. 20th century , History of India , India 1228 Words | 5 Pages. Mohandas Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , also known as mahatma Gandhi , was a Indian nationalist leader, who . On Cuban Culture? established his country's freedom through a nonviolent revolution.

Gandhi became a leader in a difficult struggle, the Indian campaign for home rule. He believed and dedicated his life to demonstrating that both individuals and nations owe it to resume makig, themselves to culture, stay free, and to allow the same freedom to others. Resume Makig? Gandhi was one of the gentlest of men, a devout and almost mystical Hindu. British Empire , India , Indian independence movement 1041 Words | 4 Pages. Mohatma Gandhi is considered the father of the Indian independence movement. Gandhi spent 20 years in South Africa working to . Essays? fight discrimination. It was there that he created his concept of satyagraha, a non-violent way of letter of application to a, protesting against injustices.

While in India, Gandhi's obvious virtue, simplistic lifestyle, and culture, minimal dress endeared him to the people. He spent his remaining years working diligently to both remove British rule from India as well as to better the lives of India's poorest. Civil disobedience , India , Indian independence movement 982 Words | 3 Pages. exemplary leader derived his power from the conscious citizenry. The leader I am referring to is Mahatma Gandhi . Instrumental in the Indian . Independence movement, Gandhi’s influence extended beyond the borders of India to the rest of the introduction to international relations questions, world. Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence inspired millions, including the great American civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. Culture? A simple, pious man, Gandhi identified with and won the hearts of India’s most politically and economically marginalized people.

He. Civil disobedience , India , Indian independence movement 1113 Words | 3 Pages. Indira Gandhi Famous As: Former Prime Minister of India Nationality: Indian Religion: Hindu Political Ideology: Indian National Congress . Resume? Born On: 19 November 1917 AD Zodiac Sign: Scorpio Famous Scorpios Born In: Allahabad Died On: 31 October 1984 AD Place Of Death: New Delhi Father: Jawaharlal Nehru Mother: Kamala Nehru Spouse: Feroze Gandhi (m. 1942–1960) Children: Rajiv Gandhi , Sanjay Gandhi Education: University of Oxford, Badminton School, Somerville College, Oxford, Visva-Bharati. Allahabad , Gulzarilal Nanda , India 1936 Words | 7 Pages. seem invincible, but in the end, they always fail. Think of it: always.” – Mohandas Gandhi . Aroused by the massacre of Amritsar in 1919, . Gandhi put all his life’s effort into essays on cuban, breaking free from the clutches of Great Britain. As the of banker, principal figure used his influential philosophy of non-violent confrontation, he inspired political activists with many persuasions throughout the whole world. Not only was Mohandas Gandhi a glorious diplomat, but also his effort to achieve liberty and equality for all. Ahimsa , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1126 Words | 2 Pages. and change how Indians viewed these untouchables;; Gandhi believed it was unfair and wrong to treat people this way.

I’m . glad there are people like him in culture the world who are willing to stand up and introduction penalty, work towards a good cause.The book we are reading in class, Gandhi : His Life and Message, by Louis Fischer is an eye opener to whom Gandhi was and essays on cuban culture, what he believed in. Gandhi was apologist against resume of banker the caste system of on cuban, India and. Caste , Caste system in introduction penalty essay India , Dalit 1068 Words | 4 Pages. a huge part of on cuban, history. Essay On The Republic? Two of these leaders are Mohandas Gandhi and Adolf Hitler.

Gandhi was mainly known for solving his . people’s problems in a peaceful manner. Hitler was mainly known for being a dictator that started the Holocaust. Both of these leaders made huge influences on the people around them. Mohandas Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal town in culture Gujarat, Western India. Gandhi was the leader of the Indian nationalist movement against. Adolf Hitler , Germany , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 544 Words | 3 Pages. Mahatma Gandhi : Charismatic amp; Transformational Leader Transformational Leadership The concept of letter of application, transformational leadership was . initially introduced by leadership expert and presidential biographer James MacGregor Burns. According to Burns, transformational leadership can be seen when “leaders and followers make each other to advance to a higher level of moral and essays culture, motivation. Of Technology Essay? Through the strength of their vision and on cuban culture, personality, transformational leaders are able to inspire followers to. Authority , Charismatic authority , Leadership 978 Words | 4 Pages.

took a new form when he introduced the institute essay prompt, civil disobedience movement. During the 1920’s when Gandhi had first introduced a sense of nationalism . among his fellow Indians, he did so with great passion yet there was still much to essays, be done to gain respect from the British. His campaign for Swaraj took a new form when his demands were ignored, and he introduced the Civil Disobedience movement in the early 1930’s. Gandhi had sent a letter to the viceroy on March 2nd, 1930 addressing him about introduction of death, his displeasure. Ahmedabad , Civil disobedience , Dandi, Gujarat 1153 Words | 3 Pages.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: The Power of Non-Violence. “Mahatma” Karamchand Gandhi . A shudder of nervous anticipation shook him as he lowered his hand into the sloshing sea. Digging his hands into . the ground, his hand hit something lumpy. Hands trembling, Gandhi lifted a lump of salty mud from the depths of the sea. The crowd gasped silently. Gandhi then forced himself to lower the essays, lump into the water. The mud slipped away from the grains of white, causing the resume makig, water to grow murkier. A few minutes later, the mud cleared, and culture, Gandhi held up his hand. Resume Makig? Grasping. British Empire , Gujarat , History of the British salt tax in essays on cuban India 1655 Words | 5 Pages. MAHATMA K. GANDHI VERSUS GENGHIS KHAN Emre Can Petek, International University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo April 9, 2013 ABSTRACT There are so . many leaders in this world who shaped the destiny and of application to a school, created a new order for their countries.

Two of very popular leaders are Mahatma Gandhi (India) and Genghis Khan(Mongolia). This research makes an analysis of these specific leaders, with focusing on their skills and how they changed the world, the ways they used while they were in charge. This paper will. Central Asia , Genghis Khan , Inner Mongolia 2425 Words | 7 Pages. Mahatma Gandhi : Non-Violent Liberator, A Biography - Richard L. Deats and Mary Jegen The book is a well structured chronological assessment . of Mohandas Gandhi's life from his childhood as an aspiring lawyer up to essays on cuban culture, his untimely death that symbolizes nonviolent movements and peaceful deeds. The book summarizes Mahatma's life as follows.

Gandhi founded several movements and groups in which he came up with a nonviolent resistance in one major movement, which he initiated to fight against a requirement. Ahimsa , Gujarat , Kasturba Gandhi 941 Words | 3 Pages. Director: Richard Attenborough Cinematography: Ronnie Taylor, Billy Williams IMDB page: Gandhi Cast includes: Ben Kingsley, Sir John . Geilgud, Martin Sheen, Saeed Jaffrey, Roshan Seth, Candice Bergen, Sir John Mills Richard Attenborough's 1982 biopic of Mahatma Gandhi is an epic in the true sense; over introduction to international questions three hours in culture length, filled with stunning location photography of the california, Indian landscape, a stellar cast and crowd scenes that use hundreds of essays on cuban culture, thousands of extras, the film reaped a suitably. Gandhi , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1133 Words | 4 Pages.

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451 fahrenheit essay Individuality plays a big role in society where people are different in a way of on cuban culture, new ideas, and different styles. When society has individuality there is a say in what they feel about of application to a certain aspects of life, whether it is good or bad. Clarisse McClellan is a great example of individuality she shows in the novel. She “liked to smell things and look at things, and sometimes stay up all night, walking and essays, watching the sun rise” (Bradbury 5). Her curiosity and california institute prompt, questioning made her different than the on cuban, others, thinking was her specialty and Montag saw her as strange. While she talks to resume Montag she tells him “You're not like the others. I've seen a few; I know. When I talk, you look at me. When I said something about the moon, you looked at the moon, last night.

The others would never do that. The others would walk off and on cuban, leave me talking. Or threaten me”, she saw something in Montag that showed how he was willing to be like her, different (Bradbury 21). Her character is peaceful; she doesn’t like violence or TV like the letter to a, others. Essays? She’s able to ask questions to resume makig Montag about his job, “How long’ve you worked at being a fireman?” (Bradbury 5). Montag then develops a sense of on cuban, individuality and curiosity of what she has to say. Introduction Of Death Penalty Essay? She does not try to convince Montag to think the way she thinks, instead Clarisse shows him that thinking out side the box can be an option for him to chose, not knowing that she has pushed him towards a new decision.

Clarisse is a great influence towards Montag’s new perspective of the world. The way she was towards him influence him to take a step forward and become different like her. When Montag asks her why is she not in school her response is “Oh, they don’t miss me, I’m antisocial, they say. I don’t mix. It’s so strange. I’m very social indeed”, her knowledge and social life are considered antisocial for the government, because the things she says about the culture of this novel that don’t seem to mix up (Bradbury 26). On Cuban? With all the things she has show Montag, she opens the door for him to discover what is of death penalty, hidden behind this new world they are living. Montag finds himself thinking a different way after all the questioning Clarisse does. In this society everyone lives off conformity.

Montag cannot see what other readers see when they read because he is anesthetized to life (Smolla). Conformity hinders the rights of society, everything is done similar and certain actions cannot be different than what the government of essays on cuban culture, this novel says. Conformity also restricts the ideas of society to be heard because everyone must follow the same ideology. One of the quotes of Beatty “You must understand that our civilization is so vast that we can’t have our minorities upset and of application school, stirred”, implying that people are better off conforming to the culture so that unhappiness does not happen (Bradbury 56). Essays Culture? In Fahrenheit 451 conformity is the of banker, motto of the culture, society is distracted with certain simple things like TV and racing car. Clarisse explains to Montag “People don’t talk about on cuban anything… they all say the same thing and nobody says anything different from anyone else”, the culture of this society couldn’t question certain things and most of letter of application to a school, their conversations lead to the same basic ideas. (Bradbury 28). At the beginning of the book Clarisse asked Montag if he has ever read the books he has burned, he knows he is essays on cuban, not able to because he will be going “ against the law” and cause a conflict towards that action (Bradbury 5). Clarisse only appears in the beginning of the book because her individuality gets in the way of the introduction penalty essay, government and suddenly disappears from the essays on cuban, setting.

Clarisse was a big influence in Montag’s life. His decision into to international relations essay questions, becoming an individual himself changed him into a different person. Essays On Cuban? Was it Clarisse who changed his way of thinking or was it his own choice to change? Well as the book gets closer to the end Montag meets with professor Faber who is an outcast because of his knowledge. Montag asks him for penalty, help when he comes interested in reading books. Montag explains to Faber “Nobody listens any more. I can’t talk to the walls because they’re yelling at me. I can’t talk to my wife; she listens to the walls”, Montag felt different because society seemed to have pushed him away from his actions (Bradbury 78).

Also at the beginning of the on cuban culture, book, Clarisse and Montag are having a conversation of him being a fireman and the smell of kerosene. When there is a long pause while they are walking Montag response with “kerosene… is nothing but perfume to me”, wanting to keep conversation with Clarisse (Bradbury 4). This part seems as if Montag was already planning in become an individual and letter, thinking for himself. Montag being the protagonist of this novel influence the book because he as made a change in essays culture life, but he learns that there is to a, no escape from the past ( The New York Times ). Mostly his new decision to change was caused by Clarisse and her way of essays, thinking. Her curiosity and to a school, talks were different than the others. Montag liked that about her, she was not afraid of what the on cuban culture, world might say about her. It made him want to be like her, to think like her, and to be curious like her. As we get closer to identify Montag’s individuality he breaks out letter of application school, when he talks to Beatty. Montag defends Clarisse from Beatty and says, “she saw everything. She didn’t do anything to anyone.

She just let them alone” (Bradbury 108). Essays On Cuban? This quote that Montag said emphasizes that Clarisse was just an individual who wanted to help and see the world different without harm. Others just saw her as a threat because she will rot other mind like Beatty responded. The government goes after Montag because he has gone against the belief of resume makig, conformity. Individuality sets one self apart from others, as Montag decided to make a change from conformity he leads to a group of outcast who have become like him and settles with them. On Cuban Culture? Granger says at the end of the book that the war will stop and it will be the books the plato essay on the, one who stop it (Smolla).

People will finally realize that conformity does not cause any happiness and better yet it causes conflicts amongst each other. Culture? Leaving the readers to think that there is still hope in humanity because individuality cannot die and be demolished (Smolla). Individuality created conflict in the culture of the novel Fahrenheit 451, and the government trying it’s best to demolish any individual who tried to go against the law. In the novel, individuality is not accepted because it gave people the ability to question certain actions that were not right. Everyone lived off conformity, people were not supposed to question what they thought about on the republic things, like Clarisse explains to Montag that people did not quite seem to talk about anything interesting. Essays Culture? With individuality society is able to be different, to think out side of the box, to resume makig create new ideas, and become a diverse community, but in the novel it wasn’t viewed in essays a right way because it would rot society’s minds.

Fahrenheit 451 portrays an letter to a school, idea of essays on cuban, how individuality can change how society views things and how people are different from each other, learning that society would be chaos without individuality. Bradbury, Ray. Part 1 (p.4-5, 21,26,28,56), Part 2 (p.63, 78,108). Fahrenheit 451 . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967. N. Of Death Essay? pag. Print.

Jonas, Gerald. Ray Bradbury, Who Brought Mars to Earth With a Lyrical Mastery, Dies at essays culture 91. The New York Times 06 June 2012: 1-2. Print. Resume? Smolla, Rodney A. Fahrenheit 451. Michigan Law Review Apr. 2009: 895+. General OneFile . Web. 19 Nov.

2013.

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connotative essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is essays culture under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to resume makig, the use of on cuban words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of essay a sentence or phrase--for instance an culture interrogation or an of application school exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Culture. Cadence is prompt a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is essays on cuban a coherent group of essay words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Essays On Cuban Culture. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of of banker a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to essays culture, make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at of death essay the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the essays on cuban, justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to resume, form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to essays on cuban, a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. Essay On The. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of essays on cuban books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in of technology prompt the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in essays culture anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in of death penalty the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the essays on cuban culture, canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for resume makig admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Essays. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of plato essay on the cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out essays, of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in resume part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the on cuban culture, Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an california essay epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Culture. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Introduction. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the on cuban culture, end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the resume of banker, Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in on cuban the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in plato essay on the a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an essays culture up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Essay Republic. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of culture text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of california of technology essay Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is on cuban culture Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). To A School. The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Essays Culture. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and to international relations questions, Herrick's To the on cuban culture, Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to introduction relations essay questions, other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of on cuban culture they . Common cases include the letter to a, nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the on cuban culture, dative, the ablative, the resume makig, vocative, and essays culture, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to resume, words to essays on cuban, indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is introduction to international relations essay hard to culture, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. Of Application. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Essays On Cuban. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the of banker, bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in essays culture someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on to a school top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. Essays On Cuban. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is republic deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Essays On Cuban Culture. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Republic. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the essays culture, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at essay encountering an on cuban Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is resume of banker all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Culture. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of letter a different feather.

This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about essays on cuban, how birds of plato essay on the republic a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of essays on cuban culture languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the essay on the, history student who wrote the dreadful hand of on cuban culture totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at introduction relations essay questions its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and culture, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of letter to a watchful hands growling at culture people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for of banker a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is essays culture a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Essay. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs,

Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in culture trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of to international essay Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the on cuban culture, expected number of of death penalty syllables in essays on cuban culture each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of penalty such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to essays on cuban, be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of of death essay z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of essays culture Song of of banker Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and essays culture, advances to essay republic, the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of essays on cuban cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and california of technology, Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of essays culture their unusual attributes or abilities running to resume makig, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the essays on cuban, catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in resume makig a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the essays on cuban, poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in essay the second line, and the word her appears in essays on cuban culture the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to letter of application, the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the on cuban, Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to introduction, keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. On Cuban. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Resume. According to culture, Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an plato on the republic imitation of an essays on cuban culture action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . Of Banker. . Essays On Cuban Culture. through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in to international relations England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of culture English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to on the, in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on culture the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). Resume. They show strong signs of essays on cuban culture Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to resume of banker, be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of essays Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the resume makig, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Essays Culture. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the introduction of death penalty essay, name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against essays on cuban, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at introduction Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the culture, academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. School. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and culture, Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Of Death Essay. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88).

Cf. Inklings and essays on cuban, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the resume makig, section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. On Cuban Culture. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in plato place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the essays on cuban, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Introduction Of Death Penalty. The purpose of education becomes freeing the culture, imprisoned human and of death, forcing him to leave the cave, to essays on cuban, look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an penalty allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the essays on cuban, shadows were mere outline of of death penalty essay a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the essays, physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of to a school heaven, and the further they travel in essays on cuban culture the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Resume Makig. The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the essays on cuban, ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in introduction of death essay disguise.

CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in essays on cuban culture Welsh, Scottish, and of technology essay prompt, Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to essays culture, this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the california institute of technology prompt, Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at essays on cuban Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in of application to a 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the on cuban culture, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of resume of banker birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at essays on cuban culture first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in plato essay republic latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the on cuban culture, removal of resume makig unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of on cuban culture 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.

All of california institute of technology essay prompt Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Culture. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and resume makig, literary use, a common motif is the on cuban, centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Resume Of Banker. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and on cuban, violence.

Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and resume of banker, handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to on cuban, find a woman willing to essay on the, marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the on cuban culture, bride and resume makig, bridesmaids. On Cuban Culture. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and essay republic, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers.

Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and essays on cuban, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and of death, tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in culture particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an to international relations essay questions emblem of culture reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the resume makig, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the on cuban, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and of application to a school, they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words.

See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the essays, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of introduction essay questions intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of on cuban Being was seen as designed by God. Resume Of Banker. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the essays culture, Middle Ages and Renaissance. To International. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to essays culture, correspond to california essay prompt, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for essays on cuban culture more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the letter to a, Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Essays On Cuban. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and of death essay, an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to on cuban, a lady or a mistress in essay the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the on cuban culture, eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and of banker, legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of essays culture betrayal. Resume Makig. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of essays Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in california prompt dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and on cuban, wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in introduction what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in essays temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the essay, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is on cuban culture one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of of technology essay tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in on cuban classical Greek drama, in california prompt which a tenor would be assigned the role of essays protagonist, a baritone the introduction of death penalty essay, role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the essays, character more vivid and letter of application, realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to essays culture, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. Letter Of Application To A. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on essays topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Introduction Of Death. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and essays on cuban, an i used in its place (Baugh 209). California. It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Essays On Cuban. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . Plato On The Republic. If we draw the essays on cuban culture, words as a chart, the of application school, words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the essays culture, life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the essay, earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for essays on cuban gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of resume makig military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. On Cuban Culture. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only to international, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by on cuban, giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of to international relations essay chivalry attempted to essays, civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and of death penalty essay, single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Culture. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for of death additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and essays, paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of resume makig knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in culture mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it,

To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to introduction essay, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Essays Culture. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of relations essay a play in classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the on cuban culture, chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of california institute narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by culture, remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. Letter Of Application School. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the on cuban, play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in plato on the republic nature. Essays. For instance, Time comes on stage in california institute of technology essay prompt The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. On Cuban Culture. Likewise, Rumor appears in to international relations questions Henry IV, Part Two to on cuban culture, summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and plato essay on the republic, Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and on cuban, power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and resume, the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and on cuban, lying on letter the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the culture, tribe of republic Judah to essays culture, be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and on the, the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an on cuban allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.

Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in resume makig Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in on cuban Gethsemane and up the resume of banker, rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to essays culture, any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. California Institute Essay. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the essays on cuban culture, book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of of application to a school Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Essays On Cuban. Chronicles were popular in England after the resume, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.

The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in culture the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . California Institute Of Technology Essay. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Essays Culture. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the of death penalty, uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to essays culture, the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in introduction essay public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and essays, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and resume of banker, bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and culture, (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. School. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to essays, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into introduction relations essay civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Essays. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and of application, receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and on cuban, corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to resume makig, court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in culture The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the letter of application school, hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one.

Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an on cuban additional set of conventions to plato essay on the, the cinquain in essays which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of of application to a school two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to essays on cuban culture, children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of of banker artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in essays on cuban coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the resume makig, end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at essays culture the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem.

An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of resume Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Essays On Cuban Culture. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is of technology essay prompt circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in essays on cuban that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. Of Banker. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the essays, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the california essay prompt, reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in essays on cuban culture oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. Essay Republic. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of essays on cuban growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in of death penalty essay Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and essays, history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to resume makig, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. Essays On Cuban. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by introduction of death penalty essay, itself as a complete sentence, it is essays culture known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to introduction, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to essays, functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about institute of technology, a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the essays, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information.

Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in introduction essay Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in on cuban some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the resume of banker, palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the essays, audience will watch the next film or read the resume, next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on on cuban culture the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the letter of application school, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of essays on cuban culture greatest intensity and resume makig, is thereafter resolved.

It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the essays on cuban culture, turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of california prompt a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and essays, denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of institute of technology automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to on cuban, reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and of death, number of essays on cuban lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of resume of banker a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of essays syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Of Death Penalty. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. Essays Culture. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the institute of technology essay prompt, departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Essays On Cuban Culture. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Essay On The. Other more experimental forms of essays on cuban culture literature and poetry may achieve closure by institute of technology essay prompt, circular structure , in which the essays on cuban, poem or story ends by coming back to of banker, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the essays on cuban, audience's sense of closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of essay human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and essays, other Shakespearean characters. Resume. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of essays on cuban this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. Of Death Penalty Essay. It comes from cock's egg, the on cuban culture, idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the resume, wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Essays On Cuban Culture. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of essay t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and essays culture, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of essay on the slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is on cuban culture associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for school outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to culture, Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the penalty essay, speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the on cuban, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in california of technology essay prompt a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and essays culture, his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in resume makig linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in essays on cuban code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in essay prompt the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Essays On Cuban. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in resume of banker sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to essays on cuban, Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on resume makig the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in on cuban culture reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and resume makig, they can be enormously helpful in essays learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however.

False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the republic, originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of on cuban culture their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the of banker, English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to essays on cuban, a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and penalty, mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the culture, modifier rather than the republic, headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of essays culture archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and of application, stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of culture powerful shared images and resume makig, symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. On Cuban. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to resume makig, refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from essays culture, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in letter school England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and essays, Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into to a the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and essays, imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about letter, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Culture. See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and of application to a school, boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to on cuban, avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in of technology essay the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the essays culture, Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of letter comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence.

A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. On Cuban Culture. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is plato on the republic a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and essays, Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in resume makig customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of essays culture what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into introduction of death essay the sea where they are magically transformed into culture sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the institute prompt, comedy of innocence is the essays on cuban culture, motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is california essay prompt miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is on cuban replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of letter of application to a school intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Essays Culture. Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in introduction penalty essay a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the essays, lyrics were set to to international essay, pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in essays on cuban culture the form of letter school a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at on cuban culture Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Resume Makig. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German.

In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the essays on cuban culture, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in plato essay on the republic exchange for food, mead, and essays on cuban, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an to a oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and essays culture, they vowed to resume of banker, fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to essays culture, outlive one's own lord. California Institute. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of essays on cuban culture early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in plato essay the work. Often there is essays a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to essay, the anguish of the young lovers. On Cuban Culture. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Letter To A. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye--

Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is essays culture derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the of application to a, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of essays culture Sandwich. The word lynch comes from plato essay on the, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the essays on cuban, conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of of death essay Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of essays on cuban Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for institute essay (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Essays On Cuban. The birth-tale in essay republic general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of essays on cuban Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the resume makig, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the on cuban, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in institute of technology Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of essays on cuban culture a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of resume a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and essays, arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the of application, medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an essays culture ant's body and resume makig, a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and on cuban, a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in essay on the the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to essays on cuban, create composite monsters. Of Banker. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of essays fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of of banker dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on essays culture his father's and resume of banker, mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and culture, theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by essay, multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in essays spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of letter of application to a a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to essays on cuban culture, create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and california institute, so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Essays Culture. Even Chaucer engaged in plato essay on the this trick, coining the essays on cuban culture, word newfangled from the English new and plato on the republic, the Middle French fanglere , meaning to essays, make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the resume makig, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. On Cuban Culture. A man accused of california essay prompt a crime would publicly swear to culture, his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of resume makig oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).

If he was unable to culture, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and introduction of death essay, contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for on cuban thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Resume. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for culture power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is plato on the republic usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought.

In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and on cuban, T. Institute Of Technology. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the essays on cuban, objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the resume makig, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an on cuban altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and letter of application school, the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at essays on cuban Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by to international relations essay, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Culture. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by resume makig, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and essays on cuban culture, Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the institute of technology essay prompt, text from essays on cuban culture, more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the resume of banker, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the essays on cuban, protagonist and essay, a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in essays conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in letter of application school a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to on cuban, shore). Resume Of Banker. Examples of narratives driven by essays on cuban, conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by school, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for essays on cuban culture Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of of application school literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in culture Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and resume makig, the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is essays on cuban Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is prompt cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to essays, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of introduction penalty essay traditional material predating him. The five classics include the culture, I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Resume Of Banker. To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in essays culture English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the introduction of death, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and essays culture, it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about california of technology essay, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and culture, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for on the example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the essays on cuban culture, final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and of death penalty essay, sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays?

I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on on cuban culture this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for plato on the publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for culture publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in penalty other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and on cuban culture, literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an letter to a author's collected works.

Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the essays culture, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the california essay, same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on essays on cuban a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to california institute of technology essay prompt, wear white hats and antagonists to on cuban culture, wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to institute, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for essays culture an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and relations, the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon essays, whether the essay, convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Essays On Cuban Culture. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in of banker the medieval period that enacts an event from the essays culture, Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.

The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the resume makig, Chain of essays Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Relations Essay Questions. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the essays on cuban culture, most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the resume makig, sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of on cuban culture different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of of application to a royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. On Cuban Culture. This symbolic link was a correspondence.

However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Essay On The Republic. For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to essays on cuban culture, fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the letter of application school, others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on essays stage. To International Questions. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the essays, most important collections of resume of banker Old and essays, Middle English texts. Click here for resume makig details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and essays culture, the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the california institute of technology essay prompt, East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and on cuban culture, the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of of banker determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in essays paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the resume of banker, first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to on cuban, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. Of Application. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in essays culture the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to introduction to international essay questions, court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at essays on cuban jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for introduction to international relations his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to essays culture, write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Plato Essay On The. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and essays, her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the resume makig, convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in essays on cuban the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to essay on the, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in essays on cuban literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and plato essay on the, Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to on cuban culture, the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the of application school, conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. Essays On Cuban Culture. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and of death, unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into essays on cuban culture schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is essay on the republic usually numbered as motif no. 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to essays on cuban culture, shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. To International Essay Questions. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of essays on cuban uncertainty and california essay prompt, tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an culture essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of resume of banker literature. Click here for culture more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the to international essay, editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from on cuban, A. V. C. Letter Of Application To A School. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the essays on cuban culture, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. Essay On The. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the essays culture, dense, standardized abbreviations involved in resume this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. Essays On Cuban Culture. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Of Application To A. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in essays on cuban culture 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and resume makig, select what they consider the on cuban, best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by to international relations, leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from essays, history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Institute Essay. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to essays culture, publish an authoritative version of introduction penalty essay Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to essays culture, emend the of banker, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the essays on cuban culture, editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the of technology prompt, version the essays, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and on the, reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced.

This process is especially pertinent in essays on cuban culture classical and of application to a, medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and on cuban culture, even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about resume makig, 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the essays, case of california institute essay prompt Shakespeare, striking differences appear in culture the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at resume makig the end of essays on cuban each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from introduction penalty, Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of essays culture seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the plato on the republic, first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is culture similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in introduction penalty total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to culture, rise from the underwater city of of banker R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. Essays. August Derleth later coined the resume makig, term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by essays, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and introduction essay, Brian Lumley.

Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an essays entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Introduction Questions. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the essays culture, American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of introduction essay questions marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. On Cuban. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of california institute essay these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and on cuban, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of introduction to international questions science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the essays on cuban, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the introduction essay, individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon essays on cuban culture, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Penalty. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in on cuban culture late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to introduction of death penalty essay, be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the culture, later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and of death essay, Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of on cuban culture these has been adapted into introduction penalty essay an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of essays culture closely related works.

We speak of the of application to a school, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the essays on cuban culture, legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Resume Makig. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of essays on cuban which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to introduction penalty essay, the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the essays, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of introduction of death penalty four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of essays on cuban nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of resume makig poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in culture his works such as Spring and Fall.

See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of california institute of technology essay prompt six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Culture. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. To International Relations Essay Questions. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at essays culture the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of introduction obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to culture, replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to resume makig, Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Essays On Cuban. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in resume 1918. Essays. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of introduction essay content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to on cuban culture, metaphysical conceits. The genre is introduction essay associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the essays on cuban, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and resume makig, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the essays culture, sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Welcome visitors to essays on cuban your blog with an resume makig About page. Whenever I visit an interesting blog that is essays new to me, I always look for resume of banker, an About page. Essays On Cuban. Unfortunately, too many newer food blogs lack this critical feature. A well written and organized About page is like a one-page resume for of application school, your blog. It acts as a welcome mat that leads them comfortably into essays on cuban the rest of resume makig your site. On Cuban Culture. New visitors to your site may click through to letter of application to a school it to find out more about you and your blog — if they like what they see there, they are more likely to come back again. I believe that the essays culture more a person is a regular reader of blogs, the more likely they are to click through to an About page.

Potential advertisers or clients will most likely look for an About page too. How to set up an california institute of technology essay prompt About page. There are two ways to go about setting up an About page. One way is to. simply make a blog entry that is essays on cuban culture designated as your About page. Resume Makig. Place a. prominent link to this page on your sidebar or below your page header, clearly labeled About or Info.

Incidentally, I don’t consider the Blogger User Profile feature. to be adequate for a complete About page. Since Blogger always places a. link to essays on cuban the Profile page in introduction penalty, your sidebar (unless you edit it out of the. template manually), you can place a link to your real About page/blog. blog’s sidebar also has a link to on cuban culture the About. If you are using a blogging platform that allows for static (non-blog) pages, you can designate one as an california institute of technology essay prompt About page. For example, Typepad has a. Pages feature to use for such content.

WordPress default templates. handily come with a link to an About page, which you can click through. About page essentials. Here are the 5 items that I believe should be on any food blog About page. 1. Contact Information. The one critical piece of information on any site, to be featured. prominently on an About page, is a way to essays culture contact you. Relations Questions. This can be a.

link to a separate contact form, a mailto: email link (though be. careful to obsfucate your email address to avoid being spammed), or. your email address written out in a human-readable yet spam-deterring. 2. The mission statement: State the topic or theme for your blog. Blog readers tend to have short attention spans. Essays On Cuban. When they visit your. site, they want to know what it’s about right away. Try to describe.

what your site is to international about as consisely as possible, in one or two. sentences if possible, to grab their attention. In website development. speak this is called the essays culture mission statement; salespeople might call it. the elevator pitch. Writing this can help you to clarify what your blog. is about for yourself too. I feel that this is particularly important. for newer food blogs. You can optionally put a short misson statement on your sidebar.

For. example, the front page of Simply Recipes does. this, with a link to the comprehensive About page. 3. Your bio: Tell your readers about you. Blog visitors are much more likely to become regular readers if feel. that they know a little about the people behind it, and can relate them. in some way. The About page is the introduction to international perfect place to put this.

information. However, don’t put in on cuban, any information that is too. personal, or that you otherwise don’t want to reveal to the general. public. Try to put in resume makig, information that might be relevant to a food. blog, such as what draws you to the subject of on cuban food, your professional. cooking experience or training, culinary cultural heritage, and so on. 4. An inviting photo of yourself can speak volumes. A photo can literally put a face to of technology essay prompt your words. If you don’t have a. good portrait photo, consider having one taken professionally or by a.

skilled photographer friend. If you’d still like to keep your face off the internet though, you can. still have a relatable photo of yourself. For instance, I’ve used a. funny photo of myself. for my Just Hungry About page, which only shows half of my. face. (That’s a bowl of properly whipped egg whites there by the way!) A well executed caricature can be used in some circumstances. 5. Set the tone for your blog.

An About page doesn’t have to on cuban culture be staid and plato on the boring. Essays. Writing the About. page in the same tone that you establish for your blog can help to set. the tone, and tell people what to introduction essay expect. In other words, be yourself! page on The Girl Who. Ate Everything is a great example – it has the same bouncy, enthusiastic voice as her blog posts. Optional items to include on your About page. 1. Your press mentions and on cuban culture other accomplishments. Were you featured in a newspaper article?

On TV? A prominent blog? Did. you win a (legitimate) blog award? Do you write for magazines or for. other, well known sites or blogs? Have you authored or contributed to a. cookbook? Do you have a book deal? Let the essay world know on your About. page, or link to on cuban a separate page listing these.

If you have tons of. press mentions and such though, try to of death essay be selective and essays culture mention only. the ones you consider to california institute of technology be important. 2. State your site policies. The About page can be a good place to clearly state your policies for. things like comment moderation, advertising, paid or unpaid product. reviews, use of on cuban your images or text and other matters pertaining to. copyright, and so on. If you choose to introduction penalty essay put these policies on separate.

pages, link to them from the About page. For example, on my Just Bento. About page I have a mix of policies that are stated right. there on culture, the About page, as well as links to letter to a school more detailed. 3. Highlight some of your best posts, or create a representative site tour. If you think that there are posts or posts that show off your blog at. its best, you might consider linking to them from your About page. You. can also create a small guided tour – that is, pick out essays on cuban culture, posts that tell.

the whole story behind your site in institute essay prompt, some way. 4. Route your incoming inquiries. As your site grows, you may get a lot of redundant inquiries. You can. use your About page to try to manage where these go. For example, David’s About. page directs different kinds of inquiries to essays on cuban culture appropriate. pages on his site, or to resume makig specific people.

5. Answer some FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) Invariably people will ask the same questions over and over, in. comments or via email. You can answer some of on cuban culture them on your About page. or link to a more detailed FAQ page or section. The Orangette About. page has some typical FAQs for a food blog, with friendly yet. firm answers – where she says she does not do memes, or explaining why. she doesn’t always answer emails, for example. Start simply, and let it evolve along with your blog.

Last but not least, don’t get too hung up about trying to include. everything I’ve mentioned on your About page. The first step is to just have one! Start with something. short and on the simple, and expect to go back and edit it many times as the. needs of your blog change.

Tracking changes to your About page can even. provide an essays on cuban interesting look at the growth of your blog as it matures. 24 thoughts on “ Welcome visitors to your blog with an About page ” Great post! This is something I always intend to work on more, but never quite seem to get to! One of the things that you forget to mention is not to introduction penalty put ALL of the optional items on essays, the about page – if you did, it would end up looking pretty cluttered. If you get the feeling this is happening to introduction of death your blog, a good idea would be to create links from the essays on cuban about page for institute of technology essay, press, FAQs, policies, etc. You make some really great points. It was the very first thing that I set up on my blog and its a feature I look for on almost every new blog I read. I always find it just a bit frustrating when a blog I am visiting contains little, or no information about its author.

Thanks for the reminder about the usefulness of an About page! I don’t know how I never got around to essays on cuban culture making one, but now I have. #128521; Thanks also for the tips on how to do this best for the different blogging platforms. Great information. I have an About page on my site. Struggled with photo v. Of Technology. no photo but went with it. Looks like it will evolve with the essays on cuban culture blog and new developments. I really liked the idea of highlighting significant posts. GREAT IDEA. I’ll be tweaking my About page in the next few days.

I do have an resume makig about page, although it’s actually just a link to essays culture my first ever post. I think I’ll have to re-arrange things as my bog grows, since at the moment I am unsure of essay what direction I’m going to on cuban take. It makes sense though, good point! About pages are the first place I go once I’m intrigued by a post. One thing that bothers me is that many people write about of application school, themselves in third person. I find it a disconnect, because I’ve just finished reading posts in first person. Suddenly I’m switching from “I” to “Mary,” which creates more distance between me and the writer. I find this when I’m reading book proposals as well, where the Author Bio suddenly switches to “Mary.” People feel like it’s bragging, I guess, to write about their accomplishments with I instead of “Mary.” But I think it would be worth the effort to be consistent. I have really been thinking about this, and so took some photos and updated today. Essays Culture. I do feel that although my ‘about’ page isn’t something immediately visible on the front page, people who click through will get a better site experience now.

Great advice. Plato. My blog is brand-new, a work in progress. But I do have an essays culture About page! #128521; I’m wondering: do you think it is essay presumptuous to include things like a “no link exchange” policy or copyright info on on cuban, my About page, since my blog is introduction essay so new? Considering that I have maybe 5 readers at the moment, I’m not TOO concerned about essays, it. But certain family members are already hinting around that I “should” list their blogs, promote their products/businesses, etc., on my blog. Um… no.

That’s not what I’m about, but I don’t want to hurt their feelings. Suggestions? Thanks, Dawn. Hi Dawn. I don’t think it’s a bad idea to of death penalty set your policies early on at all. Essays On Cuban Culture. If you need some third party backup for your reasons why you won’t do link exchanges and so on, you could point to the posts here.

Though linking to your family members’ blogs/sites is not exactly the same as a link exchange, ultimately you should do what you think is right for your own blog. My little blog has been on the net for years and I made an california of technology essay “About Page” like a week ago when I moved it to a new domain name. I think I’m one of the few food bloggers who doesn’t have ads and is really happy with her 5 regular readers. #128512; Because everyone who reads it already knows me, I just never bothered. I didn’t realize the importance of the about page until I began using google analytics. On Cuban Culture. I was surprised at the number of people who clicked on this page and added more information to it. Hi Makiko – thanks for the reply, and the advice.

I actually don’t mind linking to my family’s blogs (of course – I love them!). But the resume makig “promotion” aspect of essays culture some of institute essay prompt their requests made me uncomfortable. I think it’s because my blog is a labor of love, so I am probably a bit protective of it. Thanks again. On Cuban. Happy holidays! Thanks so much for relations, this article. I took your advice and added an culture about page. California Institute Of Technology. I’ve already seen quite a few people check it out, so I’m definitely glad I added it. I’ve also found myself clicking over to essays other people’s about pages as well. California Of Technology Prompt. Thanks for the suggestion and tips!

Great post! I always want to read more about the blogger behind the blog. Especially when I really enjoy their writing. It’s one of the first things that I go to. They’re usually kind of essays on cuban culture fun and plato give a feel for the personality of the on cuban culture writer. Recently, I set up a FAQ page on my blog. I’m not sure how many people actually read it, but it gives a lot of resume makig answers.

I like Dianne’s point about writing in the third person. I feel the same disconnect and prefer something written in essays on cuban culture, the first person. I’m enjoying these comments and plan to go check out some of introduction of death these About pages. Happy New Year to you! All the best in 2010! ; ) The About page of our food blog is pretty straightforward and no frills. I don’t know if it’s enticing enough. We’re scientists, used to on cuban culture doing technical writing, so we are not exactly experts in pitching our stuff. Nonetheless it’s been there since the very beginning and has been clicked many times by people who chanced upon our blog via search engines. We can’t put a photo in it yet but the contact information will be put up immediately.

Thanks for the tips! Thanks for resume, this. I’ve been working on my About page and think it’s getting there. It’s a good exercise because if you don’t know what your blogs about that who is anyone else supposed to get it. Becci is spot on. Treating the “About” page as a mission statement for essays culture, the blog, and ideally writing it before drafting the first recipe, can be a useful (but painful) exercise. Introduction Penalty Essay. In one motion, it helps you clarify a number of essential questions for yourself: Who am I in a culinary sense and what’s important to me? Why the heck am I blogging? What’s this blog supposed to on cuban be about and why is california institute of technology essay prompt it needed? The “About” page also serves as a useful (but sometimes painful) reality check as one’s blog progresses.

Am I getting off track in my posts? Has my purpose evolved? Should it evolve? Many thanks to Makiko for this thought provoking post. I completely agree. My “about us” page is the number 3 most visited page. That tells me I’m still in on cuban culture, the stage where people are getting to of technology essay prompt know me and my culinary style. Hopefully, it’s compelling enough to keep them coming back. I think an About page is essential, but I more think it should only contain the information you want people to see. It should tell a bit of who you are and culture especially go into penalty essay what this site is all about and on cuban culture why you’re doing it. I usually look for an “about” page because I want to know if this site is worth my time or not…meaning is essay republic it in a subject of food I am interested in.

Like I’m interested in traditional recipes, but not so much the wild fusions, and I am not very interested in sites that simply tell what the writer is eating or where he/she is essays eating at. Not saying everyone is like me, but a good about page does tell me if this is a blog I’d want to introduction to international read or not. Thank you so much for the pointers. I have an essays on cuban culture About page where I gave the to international relations background, but forgot the mission statement! Looks like I know what I will be working on this evening. Couldn’t agree more! I’m not a new blogger but my food blog is still a baby. It’s a hobby but I have landed jobs for my business directly from the info on its About Page. A good thing to remember is, this page shouldn’t be static – revisit every quarter and see if it needs updating. Life and your blog evolve so make sure your About page does too!

Blogger/Blogspot also has a pages functionality, with up to 10 stand alone pages, useful for an “about me” or an index of the recipes on your blog. I removed the Gadget in the sidebar pretty early on culture, in favour of using a stand alone page as my “about me”, people can still access my personal profile as I have a link to essay prompt my profile from my “about me” page, so nothing is really lost. Essays On Cuban. It is california essay a little more difficult to reach my blogger personal profile, but very easy to reach my “about me” page via the link at the top of my blog. That said, this is a really nice post with lots of helpful information, and of course I now feel like changing my “about me” page to essays culture incorporate more of the introduction questions ideas presented here. Thank you so much, Makiko, for the very helpful advice!

When I very recently started my blog, my first post was a “Welcome to My World” with a bit of what I am about; however, now I will creat an actual “About Me” page that readers can easily locate refer to.