Date: 30.6.2017 / Article Rating: 5 / Votes: 621 #Music thesis idea

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Music thesis idea

Music thesis idea

Oct/Tue/2017 | Uncategorized

Music therapy thesis ideas

Music thesis idea

Order Your Own Writing Help Now -
Spring thesis music ideas by | Free Listening on…

Army Reserves - Battalion S3 (Training and Operations Officer) Resume Example. Training support operations Equipment accountability Purchasing experience Leadership skills. Indianapolis , WI Supervise eleven full time unit staff. Idea? Coordinate the daily functions of facility management, training, update Defense Training Management System (DTMS), and current operations. Writing? Interpret policy; implement guidance, review unit readiness reports, and music thesis idea plan future operations. Conduct annual inspections on subordinate units and on knapp assess their readiness through Unit Status Reporting and recommend corrective action plans. Prepare briefings, Yearly Training Briefs (YTB), and idea facilitate collective training through Unit Training System (UTS). Responsible for school essay supporting Mission Command to music idea six subordinate units with the following logistical capabilities; Ammunition Supply, Field Maintenance, Water Purification, and Financial Management.

Complete training guidance for of morals the Battalion Commander and develop training plans for music thesis the future. Indianapolis , Iraq Supported two sustainment brigades and a transportation battalion, providing mission command to more than 5,000 Soldiers and Airmen throughout Iraq. Responsible for developing tactical SOP, logistical reports, briefings, and provided valuable direction and guidance to the Supervisor of Logistics. Good Essay? Supervised four sections within the thesis idea, G4/7/9: Logistical Plans and Operations, Asset Visibility, Maintenance, Food Service, Facility Engineering, and Civil Military Affairs. Worked with contractors for food service support, equipment accountability, and distribution throughout Iraq. Facilitated the Foreign Exchange of Personal Property (FEPP) transfer to Iraq and Financial Liability Investigation Property Loss (FLIPL) process for base closure. Andrew Indian Removal Act Essay? Facilitated Operational Needs Statements (ONS) and thesis idea reviewed equipment authorizations through Force Management Systems. Managed the distribution and turn in of Theater Provided Equipment (TPE) through the Redistribution Property Assistance Teams and the 402nd Army Field Support Brigade (AFSB). Good Titles? Served as the 310th ESC Government Purchase Card (GPC) Billing Official and supported equipment and service contracts.

Approved Purchase Requests and Commitments (PRC) in support of music idea, contingency operations. Responsible for collecting, moving, and redistributing 650 sea-land containers filled with more than $20 million worth of base life support and engineer equipment during the draw down of forces from trip essay Iraq. Fort Lee , VA Attended phases 2A, 2B, 3, and 4 of the Logistics Captains Career Course that tested and prepared me to plan and coordinate logistical operations through the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP). Music? Effectively communicated orally and in writing with staff, vendors and on knapp commission management. Established working relationships with peers, government agencies, public officials, Active and National Guard military components. Indianapolis , IN Provided supplies, services, and sustainment through multi-echelon logistic operations. Responsible for fielding 100 percent of music, all required and authorized Standard Army Maintenance System Enhanced (SAMS-E) systems within the 310th ESC. Review and approve Class IX parts requisitions through the Management Review File (MRF). Worked with United States Army Reserve Command (USARC) LMR service contractors to support SAMS-E maintenance training in order to maximize operations. Served as the 310th ESC GPC Program Coordinator and managed a monthly budget of more than 250K dollars.

Reviewed service contracts that supported the Expeditionary Sustainment Command Mission Command. Worked with internal review (11-2-R) each year on the GPC program and developed Memorandums of resume, Agreement/ Understanding (MOA/MOU) in support of logistical operations. Developed maintenance programs, policy, and music thesis operations for the 310th ESC G4 and all supported units. Facilitated and prepared maintenance readiness reports through Army Material Status System (AMSS) reporting. Essay Of Experience Best Teacher? Worked with automated systems to include; PBUSE, LOGDAT, FMS Web, and thesis LIW tools to facilitate maintenance and supply operations. Served 27 months with the Army Reserve Civil Affairs Team. Of Experience Is The? C-40C Aircraft Commander and Assistant Chief of [email protected] Airlift Squadron, DC Air National Guard. Senior Pastor/Army [email protected] Hope Christian Church/FLARNG.

Infantry [email protected] States Army. Music? Second Lieutenant Military Intelligence Basic Officer Leader [email protected] Army. Finance and Supply Officer, Chief Warrant Officer [email protected] States Coast Guard, Intelligence Corrdination Center (ICC) Poolee (an indiviual who has already pledged into the Marines)@Pledged in the USMC. Featured Jobs in school educational trip, Holmen:View More Holmen Jobs.

Get job alerts sent to your inbox for. Battalion S3 (Training and Operations Officer) Deputy G4/7/9 (Logistics/Facility/Civil Affairs Operations) Student (Captains Career Course) G4 Maintenance Officer. Columbia Southern University Arkansas Tech University. Music Idea? MBA : Business Administration Finance. Bachelor of Science : Emergency Administration Management. Bachelor of Arts : History Political Science. Where can I find a Army Reserves Battalion S3 (Training and Operations Officer) resume example in Holmen, Wisconsin 54636? This is an actual resume example of of experience is the teacher, a Battalion S3 (Training and music idea Operations Officer) who works in the Officers Industry. LiveCareer has 3115 Officers resumes in its database. LiveCareer’s Resume Directory contains real resumes created by good titles subscribers using LiveCareer’s Resume Builder.

Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.

Essay Writing Service -
Thesis Idea - Any Questions, Answers or Concerns

Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the direction of the sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies.

The results of music thesis, our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the commission, rating process. In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. Music Thesis Idea? In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in on knapp commission assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in thesis the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language tests. Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to write essays 1 according to a set of on knapp commission, instructions. Then the essays are scored by human raters based on established rating scales.

In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of stable and thesis uniform standards, and writing then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in music thesis a sequence of responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). Even if the rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and educational validity of the rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and thesis Magee, 1992). Because of variations in both the good, characteristics and status of music idea, raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.

These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on both the educational trip, reliability and validity of the resulting scores. Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and music thesis idea restriction of range. While these four types of rater effects have attracted the most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the is the best teacher, essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of responses in a certain sequence. Music Idea? It is likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by their quality. School Trip? Sequential effects are said to be present if the score of an essay is affected by previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. On the one hand, previous responses of lower quality can make the current response appear better, and vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the previous responses.

This phenomenon is music known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). Essay? On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in idea Psychophysics and Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and social judgments were the first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Most studies in school educational trip these areas revealed the existence of contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and music idea Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of essay best, how essays are rated.

In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and idea Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). Resume Writing? For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to thesis, score each sequence. The results showed that the essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at indian act essay, similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to those conducted in psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and untrained, and a limited number of ratings were made. When it came to the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of thesis idea, professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and andrew removal automatic or semi-automatic, with the idea, result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to rate essays toward the resume, same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the process of performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. In a study conducted by Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.

In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for thesis idea, present ones, and essay is the teacher vice versa, indicating the existence of assimilation effects. In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the thesis idea, order was not random. Existing Methods for Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to rates, investigate sequential effects in ratings. In an experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.

The statistical method used in this approach was an music analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is not feasible to conduct studies in experimental settings. Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. Genealogy Of Morals Essay? One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and scores made previously by the same raters. A significant positive correlation would indicate the existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Music Thesis Idea? However, the drawback for use of the correlation method is that it is unable to examine the joint influence of good titles, multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.

During the rating process of music thesis idea, most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is employed. Writing? For this approach, raters and music thesis essays are partially crossed, which violates the educational trip, independence requirement for correlation coefficient estimation. Thesis? If the data structure is not taken into account, the resulting standard errors of the parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to handle such structures.

In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to trip essay, detect rater effects during the rating process of music idea, a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to good essay titles, the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of sequential effects can prove useful for music thesis, revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for research in trip essay this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the thesis, significance of investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and commission nature of the thesis, data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of this research was to explore sequential effects in essay ratings in large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. Genealogy Of Morals Essay? The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the thesis, sequential effects of previous scores on on knapp, subsequent scores positive or negative?

(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and idea rating quality? The remainder of this paper is essay on knapp organized as follows. In the next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the results. The paper closes with our conclusions and suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.

If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and music idea raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. In Figure 1, the units of different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of school trip essay, different levels is music thesis idea represented by arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the relationship between different units is jackson act essay not purely hierarchical. Music? For example, students may be nested within classes, and essay on knapp classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to thesis idea, a particular primary school and secondary school.

In this case, the classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay? Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is common. As illustrated in music thesis Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and essay teacher raters. Each score, the lower level unit, is music simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to on knapp, adjust for the data non-independence, improve the quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and music thesis idea Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for essay of experience teacher, the essay ratings to account for the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the vector of slope parameters. The random part of the model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for idea, the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the model grows more complex, the random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Moreover, the variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to essay of experience best, some extent. Methods for Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the music thesis idea, parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and Bayesian methods can be used.

Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and essay best teacher then used an idea iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and Nelder, 2000). However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for cross-classified models using the of morals third essay, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the thesis idea, need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the MCMC method can produce estimates of all the posterior distributions of the unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. Genealogy Of Morals Third? These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and thesis idea these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).

When estimating models with the MCMC algorithm, the deviance information criterion (DIC) is recommended for model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to indian removal act essay, compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. With the music, DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of one writing item that was part of an jackson act essay English test administered in a province of China. Music? The English test was one of four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. A student#x2019;s total raw score on titles, the four tests as a whole served as the idea, sole criterion for essay on knapp commission, whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. The writing section of the English test was designed to measure the comprehensive language competence of high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of two items. Music Idea? Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on andrew indian removal act essay, a 20-point scale. This item provided a series of pictures describing an event, based on which students were instructed to write an essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in music accordance with the Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.

The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in third the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the test. All raters involved were recruited by the organization, and were highly qualified. The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in the rater group. To ensure the effective administration of the ratings, the raters were divided into seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. In allocating raters to teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into account to ensure the homogeneity of the teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. The start time and idea end time of each rating were recorded in addition to the rating itself.

The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. The rating rubric divided the school educational essay, 20 points allotted to the writing item into five classes. Scores in thesis the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the two scores served as the final score. However, if the difference between the two scores given by the original raters was equal to or greater than four points 2 , the essay would be scored a third time by another rater chosen at random.

When an essay was rated three times, the good essay titles, final recorded score was the average of the two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on thesis, the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of 20 points. In the present rating process, 17% of the essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by a third rater.

In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and of morals third rated by the 88 raters, were included in music thesis the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by two raters, and 11,727 essays were scored by three raters. Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to take the resume, complex hierarchical structure of the data into account. In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and non-independence of music, multiple ratings for the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and the proportion of high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of essay on knapp, sequential effects. Idea? The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in resume rates Table 1. Music? To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of of morals third essay, variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on which Model 2 was built and compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on the rating sequence.

Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the rating process, and whether the thesis, possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and highpro_9 . On Knapp? The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the music thesis idea, same English test, which represented general language competence. The variable writing stood for raw scores given on the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the school educational essay, proportion of high scores (i.e., scores in the range of music idea, 16 to 20 points) in good titles the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the same raters. This variable was added to Model 2 to idea, clarify the existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for sequential effects was inspired by the research of school trip, Attali (2011), in music thesis idea which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and indian removal the work of Ramineni (2008), in which the proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.

First, the proportions of high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to the model. Second, the adoption conformed to the nature of the music thesis, rating process. During the present rating process, all raters were asked to follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an essay, allocate it to one of five classes, and commission calibrate a final score within the class. During the intensive and thesis exhausting rating process, it was easier for andrew removal, raters to have an music idea overall impression of the several previous scores they gave. Finally, in a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on raters than low scores. In Model 2, the indian, slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.

The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the proportion of high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the present scores. In other words, a positive slope for thesis, highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the school educational essay, presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the idea, presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of essay on knapp, highpro_9 was allowed to vary across raters in order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to sequential effects. If the credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of high scores and thesis idea the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the number of times the rater had participated in jackson indian act essay rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. Music Idea? The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and essay commission operationalized as the proportion of essays rated by idea a third rater out of all the essays marked by essay is the best teacher a specific rater.

In addition to considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in idea this study were estimated using the school educational trip, MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at music thesis, its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). Genealogy Of Morals? In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for the variance parameters. Both the burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Convergence was monitored and explored for each model by thesis checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the writing, autocorrelation function (ACF), the music thesis idea, partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the essay on knapp commission, Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). Music Idea? The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for resume, each model was presented and used to compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in music Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the influence of essays themselves.

The former accounted for only 1.6% of the resume writing, total variance, while the latter accounted for thesis, 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on act essay, the rating sequence, and that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to music idea, be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in model fit. As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. Genealogy Of Morals Essay? The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. This finding meant that higher proportions of high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of assimilation effects. Specifically, if an essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to idea, be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.

On the whole scale of the present essay item, the estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. Andrew Jackson? The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the total cases. Hence, comparing the more common setting of four previous high scores to the case of one previous high score, the score of the target essay was expected to music idea, be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of one standard deviation for of experience, the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of thesis, Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the rating process. School Educational Essay? However, we also needed to consider whether the raters differed in music the demonstrated effects. To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and Model 3 was developed. The fit of Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.

The slope of good essay titles, highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only were sequential effects present in terms of assimilation effects, but the strength of these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. To facilitate the thesis, interpretation of the essay, results from Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and plotted in Figure 2. In the figure, the slopes were ranked and plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in Figure 2, the results suggested that the thesis, slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the on knapp, 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Thesis Idea? Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on resume rates, Sequential Effects. During the rating process, information about the music thesis, raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of times a rater had served as a rater on similar tasks.

The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by a third rater, and the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of each rater. Jackson Act Essay? In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on the estimated sequential effects, the music idea, main effect term of the three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the school trip, rater variables and highpro_9 . All slopes of the idea, newly added terms were set to be fixed. The results are given in Table 3. Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Compared to Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by 48.3%. Hence, the inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the individual differences of andrew, sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and music idea model 4.

As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and genealogy of morals third still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the new variables were included in the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an influence on the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of music, highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by andrew removal 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of experience did not differ in terms of severity or leniency, the raters did differ in their inclination to music thesis, give scores that were influenced by previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the raters were, the higher the andrew, scores they gave, which was consistent with the music idea, operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by one point was associated with a decrease in rates the slope of music, highpro_9 by resume writing rates 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the difference between the thesis, most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in the slope of highpro_9 of 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to giving lower scores.

In addition, trirate had a positive influence on the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to sequential effects. When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of highpro_9 increased by writing rates 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. Music Thesis Idea? More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an essay best teacher advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Cross-classified models can take into account the complex structure of the music thesis idea, data in large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of andrew jackson indian, Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the idea, present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in situations when perceived similarities existed between target and reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). Essay On Knapp? The present rating task shared similarities with all of the idea, above three situations.

The essays being scored possessed the same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to discriminate between essays of different quality. All raters had direct experience and were skilled in scoring essays. Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to jackson indian act essay, prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of thesis idea, real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of experience differed from each other. Essay On Knapp Commission? Rating experience is a domain-specific experience that has an influence on both the thesis, long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). That experience had a negative influence on assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and essay could conform to music thesis idea, the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. The finding that there was a high proportion of high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in the model to represent the degree of consistency of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.

This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the good titles, more experienced, lenient, and thesis idea qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. These results had the following implications for the rating practice of educational examinations. First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.

Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the writing rates, rating process to some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the effects. For example, extending the music, intervals between essays or lowering the workload of raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and good reinforce the rubric properly. Thesis? In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.

Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of essay commission, modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the thesis, reliability and validity of examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and adjust the genealogy of morals third, resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.

In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to music thesis, demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to apply when the data have this type of structure. An advantage of multilevel modeling is titles that predictors of various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and music central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. In addition, the andrew jackson removal act essay, fluctuation of rater effects over time can also be modeled by choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in China. The scores given by thesis idea raters to an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of high scores among the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the resume rates, predictor of sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures.

While this research contributed information about rater performance that can be applied to improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. Music Thesis Idea? In the present study, the proportion of high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the limited capacity of the study. Another limitation of the of morals third, present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.

Times of thesis, rating similar tasks could provide only essay one aspect of rating experience. The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of rating quality. Finally, the present study was based on data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. Future research might be designed and conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to ascertain the idea, net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the essay on knapp commission, mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The manuscript is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

We thank LetPub ( for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. ^ In the present study, the music idea, term #x2018;essays#x2019; denotes the responses of essay, examinees to a writing assessment task or a writing item. ^ The difference threshold was set according to official guidelines issued by thesis the National Educational Examination Authority of essay of experience best teacher, China. The guidelines demanded that when essays of national educational examinations were scored, the differences of scores given by two raters should be less than one sixth or one fifth of the total of the item. The writing item in our research was assigned a total of 20 points, so the difference threshold was set at four points. Aiken, L. Music Thesis Idea? R. (1996). Rating Scales and school trip Checklists: Evaluating Behaviors, Personality, and Attitudes . New York, NY: John Wiley #x0026; Sons.

Akaike, H. (1974). A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans. Music Thesis? Automatic Control 19, 716#x2013;723. doi: 10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705. Attali, Y. (2011).

Sequential effects in essay ratings. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 71, 68#x2013;79. doi: 10.1177/0013164410387344. Barcikowski, R. S. (1981). Andrew Jackson Removal Act Essay? Statistical power with group mean as the unit of music thesis idea, analysis. Andrew Act Essay? J. Educ. Behav. Stat.

6, 267#x2013;285. doi: 10.3102/10769986006003267. Brown, J. D., Novick, N. J., Lord, K. A., and Richards, J. M. (1992). When Gulliver travels: social context, psychological closeness, and self-appraisals. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Music? 62, 717#x2013;727. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.62.5.717.

Browne, W. J., Goldstein, H., and resume writing Rasbash, J. (2001). Music Thesis Idea? Multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) models. Stat. Model. 1, 103#x2013;124. School Educational Essay? doi: 10.1191/147108201128113.

Clayton, D. Music Thesis Idea? G., and Rasbash, J. (1999). Estimation in large crossed random-effects models by data augmentation. J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. A 162, 425#x2013;436. doi: 10.1111/1467-985X.00146. Congdon, P. J., and McQueen, J. (2000). The stability of rater severity in larger-scale assessment programs. J. Educ.

Meas. 37, 163#x2013;178. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.2000.tb01081.x. Daly, J. A., and Dickson-Markman, F. (1982). Contrast effects in andrew jackson act essay evaluating essays. J. Educ. Music Idea? Meas. Essay Teacher? 19, 309#x2013;316. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1982.tb00136.x.

Damisch, L., Mussweiler, T., and Plessner, H. (2006). Olympic medals as fruits of comparison? Assimilation and contrast in sequential performance judgments. J. Thesis? Exp. Andrew Removal Act Essay? Psychol. Appl. 12, 166#x2013;178. doi: 10.1037/1076-898X.12.3.166. Fielding, A., and Goldstein, H. (2005). Cross-Classified and Multiple Membership Structures in idea Multilevel Models: An Introduction and Review . Research Report RR791. London: Department for Education and Skills.

Hales, L. W., and Tokar, E. (1975). Essay On Knapp Commission? The effect of the quality of preceding responses on the grades assigned to subsequent responses to an essay question. J. Educ. Meas. Music Thesis Idea? 12, 115#x2013;117. Essay Is The Best Teacher? doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1975.tb01014.x. Helson, H. (1964).

Adaptation-Level Theory. New York, NY: Harper #x0026; Row. Hughes, D. C., and Keeling, B. Music Idea? (1984). The use of model essays to reduce context effects in essay scoring. Essay? J. Educ. Meas.

21, 277#x2013;281. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1984.tb01034.x. Hughes, D. C., Keeling, B., and Tuck, B. F. (1980a). Essay marking and the context problem. Educ. Res. 22, 147#x2013;148. Hughes, D. C., Keeling, B., and Tuck, B. F. Idea? (1980b).

The influence of context position and scoring method on essay scoring. Trip Essay? J. Idea? Educ. Essay? Meas. 17, 131#x2013;135. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1980.tb00821.x. Hughes, D. C., Keeling, B., and Tuck, B. F. (1983). The effects of instructions to idea, scorers intended to reduce context effects in essay scoring. Educ. Psychol. Meas.

43, 1047#x2013;1050. doi: 10.1177/001316448304300413. Jones, M., Love, B. C., and Maddox, W. T. Educational Trip Essay? (2006). Recency effects as a window to generalization: separating decisional and perceptual sequential effects in category learning. J. Exp. Psychol. 32, 316#x2013;332. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.32.3.316. Leckie, G., and Baird, J. (2011). Rater effects on idea, essay scoring: a multilevel analysis of severity drift, central tendency, and essay rater experience. J. Educ. Meas. 48, 399#x2013;418. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.2011.00152.x.

Lee, Y., and Nelder, J. (2000). Hierarchical generalised linear models: a synthesis of generalised linear models, random-effect models and structured dispersions. Biometrika 88, 987#x2013;1006. doi: 10.1093/biomet/88.4.987. Lumley, T. (2005). Assessing Second Language Writing: The Rater#x2019;s Perspective. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Martin, L. L., Seta, J. J., and Crelia, R. Music? A. (1990). Assimilation and resume contrast as a function of people#x2019;s willingness and ability to music thesis idea, expend effort in forming an impression. J. Pers. Soc.

Psychol. 59, 27#x2013;37. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.59.1.27. Mellers, B. A. Genealogy Third? (1986). #x201C;Fair#x201D; allocations of salaries and thesis idea taxes. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. Of Experience Is The Teacher? 12, 80#x2013;91. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.12.1.80.

Mussweiler, T. Idea? (2003). Comparison processes in social judgment: mechanisms and consequences. Psychol. Rev. 110, 472#x2013;489. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.3.472. Myford, C. M., and Wolfe, E. W. Good Essay? (2003). Detecting and measuring rater effects using many-facet Rasch measurement: Part I. J. Appl. Meas. 4, 386#x2013;422. Overall, J. E., and Magee, K. N. Thesis Idea? (1992).

Estimating individual rater reliabilities. Appl. Psychol. Meas. 16, 77#x2013;85. doi: 10.1177/014662169201600109. Pan, J., and Thompson, R. (2000). #x201C;Generalized linear mixed models: an improved estimating procedure,#x201D; in COMPSTAT: Proceedings in Computational Statistics , eds J. G. Bethlehem and P. G. M. van der Heijden (Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag), 373#x2013;378. Parducci, A., and Marshall, L. (1962). Assimilation versus contrast effects of anchoring stimuli on judgments. J. Exp.

Psychol. 63, 426#x2013;437. doi: 10.1037/h0048727. Parducci, A., Perrett, D. S., and March, H. W. (1969). Assimilation and contrast as range frequency effects of anchors. J. Exp. Psychol. 81, 281#x2013;288. doi: 10.1037/h0027741. Pelham, B. W., and Wachsmuth, J. O. (1995).

The waxing and waning of the social self: assimilation and contrast in social comparison. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 69, 825#x2013;838. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.825. Ramineni, C. (2008). Genealogy Third Essay? Rater Contrast Effects in Performance Assessments Using the Medical Licensure Examination. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Delaware, Newark, DE. Rasbash, J., Browne, W. J., Healy, M., Cameron, B., and music thesis idea Charlton, C. Writing? (2015a).

MLwiN Version 3.44 [Computer software]. Bristol: Centre for Multilevel Modeling, University of Bristol. Rasbash, J., and music Goldstein, H. (1994). Efficient analysis of mixed hierarchical and crossclassified random structures using a multilevel model. J. Educ. Behav. Stat. 19, 337#x2013;350. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.03.015.

Rasbash, J., Steele, F., Browne, W. J., and Goldstein, H. (2015b). A User#x2019;s Guide to MlwiN (Version 2.33). Bristol: Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol. Raudenbush, S. W. Essay On Knapp? (1993). A crossed random effects model for unbalanced data with applications in cross-sectional and longitudinal research. J. Educ. Idea? Behav. Stat. 18, 321#x2013;349. Third? doi: 10.3102/10769986018004321. Raudenbush, S. W., and Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods , 2nd Edn.

Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Saal, F. E., Downey, R. G., and Lahey, M. A. (1980). Rating the ratings: assessing the psychometric quality of rating data. Psychol. Bull.

88, 413#x2013;428. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.88.2.413. Scariano, S. M., and Davenport, J. M. (1987). The effects of music thesis, violations of independence assumptions in the one-way ANOVA. Am. Stat. 41, 123#x2013;129. doi: 10.1080/00031305.1987.10475459. Sherif, M., Taub, D., and Hovland, C. I. (1958).

Assimilation and contrast effects of anchoring stimuli on judgments. J. Exp. Psychol. 55, 150#x2013;155. doi: 10.1037/h0048784. Spear, M. (1997). Andrew Jackson Removal Act Essay? The influence of contrast effects upon teachers#x2019; marks. Educ. Music Thesis? Res.

39, 229#x2013;233. doi: 10.1080/0013188970390209. Spiegelhalter, D. J., Best, N. G., Carlin, B. Essay? P., and music thesis van der Linde, A. (2002). Bayesian measures of model complexity and school trip fit (with discussion). J. Music? R. Stat. Soc. Resume? Seri. B 64, 191#x2013;232. doi: 10.1111/1467-985X.02021. Thornton, B., and Moore, S. (1993). Physical attractiveness contrast effect: implications for self-esteem and evaluations of the social-self. Thesis Idea? Pers.

Soc. Psychol. Bull. 19, 474#x2013;480. doi: 10.1177/0146167293194012. Weigle, S. C. (1998). On Knapp? Using FACETS to model rater training effects. Lang. Thesis Idea? Test. 15, 263#x2013;287. doi: 10.1177/026553229801500205.

Wolfe, E. W. (2004). Resume Writing Rates? Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Psychol. Sci. Idea? 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of essay, Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Front. Psychol. 8:933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.

Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of thesis, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of essay, Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for Testing and music idea Evaluation, Israel.

Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the school essay, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Music Idea? The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is essay of experience is the teacher permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Custom Essay Writing Service -
Music education thesis ideas | BTG (Bilgi ve Teknoloji…

Tips for Academic Writing and music thesis Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of essay on knapp commission problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and thesis idea poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. Resume Writing. James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated.

Formal writing is music thesis, used in good essay titles, academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to thesis idea, be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is good essay, not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to music thesis, write as you would speak. In conversation, the teacher, listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the thesis idea, speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to rates, write but very easy to read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the idea, time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the commission, thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. Music. In a short essay, the on knapp, main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph.

In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the music thesis idea, introductory section. The reader should never be in writing, any doubt about music, what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in third, doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to idea, the topic. At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the resume writing rates, subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say.

The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about music thesis idea, everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in educational trip, your argument or discuss some merits of an thesis opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the is the teacher, few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to music idea, complain :-) . Essay Titles. Often such opposing observations fit well just after the thesis idea, introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow.

Whenever you do include such material, i.e. Good Titles. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to idea, achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the writing, reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in music idea, your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the essay on knapp, preceding paragraph. The world is music thesis idea, arguably an is the teacher unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to thesis, read from start to finish needs to good essay titles, be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends.

If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to idea, do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to on knapp commission, provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of music idea your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much.

In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. On Knapp. Once the organization is thesis idea, good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in school essay, casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the thesis, extra mile, at jackson indian removal act essay, the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the music thesis, words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in jackson act essay, another part of the world. Music Idea. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and essay on knapp its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of music thesis idea English. It is jackson, a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written.

Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is music thesis idea, no need to third essay, use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. Music Thesis. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an titles essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and idea the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Of Experience Is The Best Teacher. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea.

In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the music thesis, author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. Is The Best. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and idea not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of genealogy third essay problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to music thesis idea, figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the on knapp, sentences in what you are reading right now!). Music Idea. E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for genealogy essay more details).).

A formal document needs to music idea, be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for andrew indian act essay an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to music idea, convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the essay titles, reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is music thesis, almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to essay on knapp, be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction.

Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in thesis idea, a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an essay of experience teacher entire thought, not just a fragment or the music thesis, beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to of experience, a sentence or a part of one.

To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to music, be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of good essay titles your commas in music, turn. Good Essay. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in idea, case you have two sentences that need to resume rates, be linked in thesis, some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to trip essay, leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Music. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an jackson indian act essay experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and idea Conclusion.

If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about good essay, what is in music thesis idea, that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. Writing. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of music single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and good titles conclusion Everyone who looks at idea, your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the of morals third essay, best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and music idea unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the resume writing rates, paper is unconvincing, and thesis (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the writing rates, subsections.

That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. Thesis. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of is the teacher what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the idea, next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article.

In such cases, you must ensure that all of the indian, main points of the idea, figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the commission, article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to thesis idea, have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the good essay titles, main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is music thesis, clear. Writing. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of music thesis what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the rates, caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to music thesis, avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. Andrew Jackson Indian Act Essay. These words have no meaning in idea, themselves, but in conversation the resume, meaning is thesis, usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?.

For such a reference to make sense, the of morals essay, object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to thesis, which of several items you might be referring. Good Essay. E.g. for thesis the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to good essay titles, which you are referring. Music. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for genealogy detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words.

As a result, homonyms are probably the thesis idea, most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the school educational trip, differences between words like: If you do not know the thesis idea, difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to essay on knapp commission, use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is idea, now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and rates replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation.

I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item.

Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in thesis, doubt, use lower case.

Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Essay Of Experience. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. Music Thesis Idea. When in essay teacher, doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for idea technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to trip, group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression.

They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the thesis idea, dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an essay adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. Music Thesis. But the best, phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the thesis, English language, and genealogy using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of idea ambiguity: a learner of the writing, English language ( NEVER a learner of the thesis idea, English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an school trip adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. Idea. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an trip essay early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes.

In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to music, read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to of experience is the, avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the music thesis, same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation).

Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the jackson indian removal, spellings to make e.g. all the music thesis idea, papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Of Experience Is The Best. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the music thesis, document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and school trip computer science generally follow the music, APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and good essay titles reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.

If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of music thesis idea Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Jackson Removal Act Essay. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and thesis seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is third essay, distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in music idea, the paper. Use last names Never refer to essay, the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends.

They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the thesis, original founders of a field of essay of experience teacher research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an thesis author's last name is like the key in good essay titles, a database lookup -- if the name is music idea, misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by resume rates that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work.

So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to music thesis, the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the essay titles, authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in the text.

Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive.

Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the music idea, hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Essay Of Experience Is The Best Teacher. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into idea the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into essay commission a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only music thesis when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of rates British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . Music Thesis Idea. and writing rates In this paper the authors . . Try to thesis idea, avoid this redundancy.

If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. School Educational Essay. Academic writing is music idea, always about papers and resume writing rates authors, and idea thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of trip research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of music doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is of morals third essay, going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and music thesis how you are going to do some of commission what has not been done. Idea. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to educational trip, make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the idea, person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to andrew indian removal act essay, make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by music idea attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely.

Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is essay commission, never acceptable to music idea, announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is school trip, something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to music, try to answer, the resume writing rates, specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the idea, discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. Essay Is The Best Teacher. The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to music thesis, be relevant.

In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and of morals explicitly state why the music idea, topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at indian removal, all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the music idea, page numbers, and some indication of andrew jackson indian act essay who published it. Without having every bit of idea this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in genealogy essay, all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of music thesis citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to andrew act essay, follow.

One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the music thesis, grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the school trip essay, sentence. Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to music thesis idea, omit when reading aloud, as in andrew indian, Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in thesis, rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and good essay titles not . Music Thesis Idea. as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for genealogy of morals third a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to idea, has been established (but for genealogy third a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and music we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences.

Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is writing rates, being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by music thesis a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and resume thus there is no need to idea, emphasize the role of the authors. Of Experience Is The Best Teacher. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on idea this page I happily use my own rules instead. Jackson Act Essay. You might wish to follow the music idea, accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to essay is the teacher, fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for music points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for genealogy of morals British English), punctuation following a bit of idea quoted text is good titles, traditionally placed inside the quotation.

However, I consider that rule an music thesis egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the of morals essay, comma outside the thesis idea, quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is essay, hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is music thesis, a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for commission an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and idea after the dash. Without the on knapp, spaces the dash appears to thesis, be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and writing connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash.

Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an music thesis error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and writing awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and thesis some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in of morals third essay, a list.

For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to music, be collections of good essay titles equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and idea eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Essay On Knapp. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the music thesis idea, Wikipedia serial comma entry. School. Again, this insistence on thesis using appropriate syntax is trip, probably driven by the computer programmer in music, me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and genealogy of morals third e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and thesis e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. Essay Of Experience Is The Best Teacher. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an music idea important distinction to know).

However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in good essay titles, many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the thesis, comma after the abbreviation, and resume rates sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to idea, copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.

If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

Academic Proofreading -
Music Education Thesis Ideas - 447757 - Красноярье без…

95 theses text on music thesis idea the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther, 1517. Earthquake victims in Haiti need your help! Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther. on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther (1517) Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D. Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans.

Eds. (Philadelphia: A. Of Morals. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of love for the truth and music idea the desire to bring it to of experience is the best, light, the music, following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the writing rates, Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and music thesis of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the essay, Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the music, whole life of believers should be repentance. 2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is andrew jackson removal no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for music thesis this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.

5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into essay, subjection to His vicar, the priest. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the music thesis idea, Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to of morals third, us, because in music idea his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the essay, dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. 11. This changing of the music idea, canonical penalty to rates, the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the thesis idea, bishops slept.

12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13. Good. The dying are freed by thesis idea death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. Essay On Knapp Commission. 14.

The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the music thesis idea, imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of indian necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear. 15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase. 18.

It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of music thesis their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. 20. Therefore by genealogy of morals third essay full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Thesis. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and of morals third saved; 22. Whereas he remits to thesis, souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life.

23. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the of experience is the, remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty. 25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is music idea just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish. 26.

The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by is the teacher the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession. 27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. 29. Music Thesis. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to resume, be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal. 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31.

Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the thesis, man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. 32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of is the their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33. Men must be on their guard against idea, those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.

35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is essay not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of music pardon. 37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.

38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission. Commission. 39. It is thesis most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and essay is the teacher loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Apostolic pardons are to thesis idea, be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love. 42.

Christians are to be taught that the essay titles, pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. Music Thesis Idea. 43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and of experience is the best teacher man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. 45. 45. Music Idea. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46.

Christians are to genealogy of morals third, be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons. 47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to music, very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold. School Essay. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to music thesis, stake his soul upon it. 53.

They are enemies of Christ and of the rates, pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Injury is idea done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word. 55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the school educational essay, people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them. 58. Nor are they the idea, merits of Christ and genealogy essay the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and music the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.

59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the essay titles, Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61. For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.

62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last. 64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the music thesis idea, last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches. 66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men.

67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. 68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of genealogy God and music the piety of the Cross. 69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the essay titles, pope. 71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!

72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to music, thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth.

75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God -- this is madness. 76. We say, on of morals essay the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of idea venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. Genealogy Third. 77.

It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against thesis, the pope. 78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and essay of experience best any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to music idea, wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is jackson act essay written in thesis I. Corinthians xii. 79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render. 81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82. To wit: -- Why does not the essay is the best teacher, pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. Music Idea. Again: -- Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?

84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to essay of experience, buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and music idea do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Again: -- Why are the jackson removal, penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in thesis idea force? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? 87.

Again: -- What is school educational it that the music, pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation? 88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and indian removal bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the thesis idea, pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91.

If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. 92. Essay Commission. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of music thesis idea Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and essay hell; 95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the music idea, assurance of peace. This text was converted to ASCII text for Project Wittenberg by Allen Mulvey, and is in the public domain. You may freely distribute, copy or print this text.

Please direct any comments or suggestions to: Rev. Robert E. Essay. Smith. Concordia Theological Seminary. Music Idea. Surface Mail: 6600 N. Clinton St., Ft. Wayne, IN 46825 USA.

Write My Essays Today -
Thesis music ideas

Code Of Chivalry Essays and Research Papers. The Code of Chivalry The term chivalry has its origin in the medieval institution of knighthood. . Music Idea. Chivalry and knighthood have been popularly studied by scholars. The term chivalry originates from the old French word chevalerie. This word itself derives from the Latin term caballarius that means someone on the horseback. Chivalry is not a legal or technical term, rather the jackson indian word has its root in the vernacular of twelfth century. The meaning of this word as used in the French literature of the High. Chivalry , Dark Ages , King Arthur 1628 Words | 5 Pages. must face temptation to thesis idea, stray away from their values.

True to the code , they stay with the on knapp commission idea of being honorable. From Sir Gawain to music, . Arveragus, all knights demonstrate their loyalty to morality. In every story, the school men remain true to the code of chivalry , which enhances the idea of thesis honor, even when the easiest decision implores their attention. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Sir Gawain does not disobey the code of chivalry , even when ample opportunities to do so present themselves to him. Knights of the Round Table , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , The Canterbury Tales 907 Words | 3 Pages. ? Chivalry ; To Be or Not To Be? The Knights of King Arthur’s court where known for their combat skills, their bravery, and their . chivalry . Educational Trip Essay. In the music idea tale Sir Gawain and andrew jackson indian act essay the Green Knight, Sir Gawain offers his life in place of his king by accepting the challenge of the thesis idea Green Knight. That act among many was a display of Sir Gawain’s overly chivalrous demeanor. Sir Gawain indisputably represents chivalry to the best of school essay his ability.

While Gawain develops and demonstrates chivalric qualities he has some. Castle , Chivalric order , Chivalry 944 Words | 4 Pages. CHIVALRY Meaning: is the traditional code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood. . Chivalry arose from an idealized German custom.[1] It was originally conceived of as an aristocratic warrior code — the term derives from the thesis French term for horseman — involving honor, gallantry, and individual training and service to others. Over time its meaning has been refined to is the best teacher, emphasize more ideals such as knightly virtues, honor, courtly love, courtesy, and less martial aspects. Bishop , Canon law , Catholic Church 1287 Words | 4 Pages. Knights and music thesis idea Chivalry Chivalry was a system of ethical ideals developed among the knights of genealogy essay medieval Europe. Arising out . of the feudalism of the period, it combined military virtues with those of Christianity, as epitomized by he Arthurian legend in England and the chansons de geste of medieval France. The word chivalry is derived from the French chevalier, meaning horseman or knight. Chivalry was the code of conduct by which knights were supposedly guided. In addition to military prowess. Chivalric order , Chivalry , Courtly love 944 Words | 3 Pages.

the term, “ Chivalry is dead” and you could never really understood how it was supposed to music thesis, be interpreted. What is Chivalry . you may ask? Well Chivalry was morals that taught honor, courage, respect for women, and fear of God to name some points. Chivalry’s roots stretch way back to the 9th and 10th centuries, the system of Chivalry flourished most vigorously in the 12th and 13th centuries before deteriorating at the end of the Middle Ages. Unfortunately, Chivalry is jackson indian removal act essay, close to.

21st century , Centuries , Female 562 Words | 3 Pages. Chivalry ; the music thesis idea act of being gentlemanly; has changed dramatically over resume rates, the years. Is Chivalry Dead? is the most frequently asked . question on music idea the topic. There are obviously going to be different views on the answer but the educational trip changing eras need to be taken into consideration first. Chivalry first came to be known in the medieval ages thanks to thesis idea, Knights. It was referred to the title of the medieval institution of knighthood and genealogy essay the values/ideals of; knightly virtues, honour and courtly love. It was assimilated. Chivalry , Courtly love , Gentleman 983 Words | 3 Pages. The European Chivalry: the Ideals and Practices.

The European Chivalry : The Ideals and Practices Andrew Daniels Strayer University Abstract This paper focuses on the ideals and . practices of chivalry , specifically in the Middle Ages. During this time, a list of Ten Commandments pertaining to chivalry existed. Knights were expected to uphold a certain code that impacted their country, church, king, and fellow man. Music Idea. This paper will elaborate on those individual commandments and explore what each mandate meant for a knight, and it will. Chivalry , Moses , Ritual Decalogue 1914 Words | 6 Pages.

In years of King Arthur and the round table, the knights lived by a code . This code was called the Code of . Essay. Chivalry . Idea. Knights abided by these rules and good essay titles were punished both physically but socially if they broke one. Today, this code can be translated into modern day unspoken rules. “This above all. to thine own self be true.” In medieval times, Knights had to fight for themselves and always put themselves and what they think is right, first. Today there is a similar idea of thesis how people need to be. Age of Discovery , Knight , Knights Templar 831 Words | 2 Pages. Ivanhoe - Strenghth, Honor , and Chivalry. they strive for. Breaking a law in this code would be considered a disgrace, and would bring a dishonor that was worse than death itself. . However, by applying the Code of essay Chivalry , the knights in the medieval time displayed certain character traits which would secure success and honor in both battle and music thesis idea morality. Educational Trip Essay. In the book Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott, a knight named Ivanhoe illustrates this by devoting his attention to keeping the rules of the idea Code of Chivalry , which consisted of love of adventure. Character , Crusades , Ivanhoe 1620 Words | 5 Pages. Is Chivalry Dead?

Chivalry is genealogy of morals third, still a part of today's society. The idea of respect for women still remains in today's society. . Women have gained respect since the music thesis Middle Ages, when the essay of experience teacher idea of chivalry first began. Men are on their best behavior when in the presence of women. Women have more opportunities in today's society than in the past. Men will go out of their way to express their respect for idea women. These are some ways that men show their respect for women. Men show respect toward women by.

Castle , Italy , Middle Ages 570 Words | 2 Pages. On warfare without chivalry-source analysis. Mortimer, Ian. “What Hundred Years War?.” History Today 59 (2009): 27-33. Accessed September 16, 2013 on of morals third JSTOR. “The Sack of Limoges: On warfare without . chivalry ” in Sources of idea Western Society, edited by McKay, John P. et al., 195-196. Andrew Act Essay. Boston: Bedford/St. Thesis. Martin’s, 2010. Writing Rates. Source Analysis-On warfare without chivalry On Warfare without Chivalry (The Sack of Limoges) written by idea, Jean Froissart and published around 1400 in on knapp commission, The Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the adjoining countries outlines. Battle of Crecy , Chivalric order , Chivalry 757 Words | 3 Pages. Chivalry and Courtly Love in “The Middle Ages” The romance of Medieval Courtly Love practiced during the medieval times of the Middle Ages . was combined with the music thesis Code of Chivalry and the art of Chivalry . There were strict rules of courtly love and the art of Medieval Courtly Love was practiced by the members of the courts across Europe during the Medieval times and era. The romance, rules and art of essay on knapp commission Medieval Courtly Love allowed knights and ladies to show their admiration regardless of their marital. Chivalry , Europe , Horses in the Middle Ages 708 Words | 2 Pages.

?Outline: Q.1 Intro: • Chivalry , or the chivalric code , is the idea traditional code of conduct associated with the good . medieval institution of knighthood. Thesis: In Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales and Barbara Tuchman’s The Code of Chivalry and Courtly Love, both authors describe qualities of music thesis a knight. Some main characteristics of a knight included loyalty, prowess, and courtly love P.1: Loyalty: the quality of being loyal to someone or something Quote 1: “Loyalty, meaning the pledged. Chivalry , Courtly love , Feudalism 359 Words | 2 Pages. The Nature of Chivalry Developed in writing, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The Nature of Chivalry developed in “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” Throughout his adventures in music idea, the story, . Gawain discovers, develops, and demonstrates his own chivalric qualities. He makes a few mistakes along the way, but strives to settle for nothing less than perfection in loyalty, courage and courtesy. However, this is good essay, investigated in relation to an ideal, the notion of Chivalry , or how a medieval knight is supposed to act. Gawain showed his loyalty to. Green Knight , Guinevere , Holy Grail 912 Words | 3 Pages.

Chivalry, Contradictions, and Crazy Spanish Guys. ? Chivalry , Contradictions, and Crazy Spanish Guys Since the beginning of recorded history, people have been telling stories. These stories . have often been grand tales of heroes that reflected the virtues of the time in which the hero lived. Starting in the Middle Ages, these stories started to focus on tales of music thesis knights, specifically King Arthur and his knights of the round table. The most prevalent virtue accounted for of morals third essay in these stories was that of chivalry . Chivalry is music idea, a somewhat contradictory.

Don Quixote , Knight , Knight-errant 2764 Words | 9 Pages. Essay on Concepts of 'Chivalry' as Evident in Keats’s La Belle Dame Sans Merci and Chaucer’s the good titles Knight’s Tale. Chivalry . It is an music thesis, ardently admired characteristic, which is scarcely seen, in its pure form in today’s society. Chivalry is . Of Experience. thought of today as a mythical medieval practice, which goes hand in hand with dragons, tumultuous quests and fair maidens. Having a chivalric nature is to have the sum of the idea ideal qualifications of a knight, including courtesy, generosity, valor, and dexterity in arms.

Chivalry has been admired and respected consistently throughout the ages and audiences have responded well. Feudalism , Frodo Baggins , Knight 1779 Words | 5 Pages. Is Chivalry Dead?! What do you think of when you hear the andrew jackson indian removal act essay word “ chivalry ”? I can’t speak for music thesis everyone but I know most of us, . when we hear or think about the word chivalry , automatically we picture images of rates such figures as the legendary King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table, Prince Charming, Gawain and thesis The Green Knight, castles, and images of heavily armor knights saving princess or the cliche-ic “damsels in distress”. Though myths and fairytales illustrate this picture of chivalry , this. Castle , Feudalism , Knights of the Round Table 440 Words | 2 Pages. R.M. Chivalry is writing, not dead, but perhaps slowly dying off; it has simply evolved and is evolving continuously as time and people do.

In . Medieval Period, chivalry was a system of ethical ideals lived by daily. Music Thesis. The chief chivalric virtues were piety, honor, nobility, valor, courtesy, chastity, and loyalty, and protecting the weak (women). Essay Of Experience Is The. It is apparent in today’s society that the definition and application of chivalry has changed through history. During the idea middle Ages, chivalry was a code of brave. Castle , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 872 Words | 2 Pages. Chivalric Code in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

Chivalric Code in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Darla Hale Chivalric Code in essay on knapp commission, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Life . during fourteenth century England was woven with traditions and rituals. Court life was extravagant and plentiful. A man’s honor and virtue were among the most significant aspects of his life. Music Thesis. Although there was not a precise list of codes , which composed chivalric code , many lists coincide and provide a good idea of what was considered important during those times. Chivalric.

Chivalry , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 2073 Words | 5 Pages. multilinguals tend to switch languages within the sameutterance. This phenomenon is referred to as code -switching. Eyamba Bokamba, a professor . of Second Language Acquisition at the University of Illinois defines code -switching as, ' [. ] themixing of words, phrases and sentences from indian two distinct grammatical (sub) systems across sentence boundaries within the thesis idea same speech event' (Bokamba, 1989). Code -switching is then one phenomenon that results from trip essay bilingualism and multilingualism. Sociolinguists. English language , German language , Japanese language 1810 Words | 6 Pages.

Choctaw, in music thesis, the place of codes (Paul 7). The use of ancient languages in essay best, modern times had also been attempted by various governments, but the . risk of music any national understanding the language chosen would compromise the educational trip entire code . During World War II, the Allied forces cracked the idea Enigma, the main encoding system for Nazi Germany and also the codes Red and Purple used by Imperial Japan. Andrew Jackson Indian Act Essay. The need for an unbreakable code was absolutely necessary for frontline action. However, this code had to be quick, effective. Code talker , Marine , Native Americans in the United States 910 Words | 3 Pages. Code Ethics Issues Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between . 'right' and 'wrong' and in idea, applying that understanding to their decisions. An ethical code generally implies documents at three levels: codes of business ethics, codes of jackson removal conduct for employees, and codes of professional practice. Code of ethics (corporate or business ethics) A code of business ethics often focuses on music thesis idea social issues.

It may set out general principles about. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Code of resume writing conduct 644 Words | 3 Pages. Individual Project: Code of idea Conduct As a consultant for the merger between UWEAR and PALEDENIM, I have gathered much information pertaining . the creating and implementation of a code of conduct. There are many different ways this code of conduct can be implemented and delivered. While understanding that each company will have different preferences as to how to implement the code , I will submit an outline of essay of experience is the teacher what I believe is the best and most efficient way to deliver the music thesis idea code of conduct for both. Business ethics , Code of conduct , Employment 1022 Words | 4 Pages. Code of Ethics Comparison Paper Melissa J. Andrew. Diehl Liberty University September 2, 2012 . Abstract Different organizations are driven by music idea, specific sets of code of ethics, which are used to protect many different aspect of the of morals third organizations, specifically the client, counselor, and organization.

Concerning the standards of a counselor, their ethics are not only provided by the laws of the state or their. 1921 , Applied ethics , Business ethics 1285 Words | 4 Pages. ? Code of Ethics Essay The pharmacy code of ethics is an music thesis idea, important guide to ensure the . safety and wellbeing of the patients. The pharmaceutical industry has a professional code of ethics which all pharmacists are expected to follow. I feel this code of ethics is currently attainable.

The code of third essay ethics does not expect pharmacists to go above and beyond the societal expectations. There are 8 principles that make up the thesis pharmacists code of ethics. The first. American Pharmacists Association , Ethics , Health care 720 Words | 3 Pages. first 31 ASCII codes control commands, or non printable characters that control how the data will be interpreted. ASCII is a computer . code originally based on the letters of the English alphabet. It is an acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange and is used to represent text in computers, communications equipment, and texting devices. Each letter and number is given an essay on knapp, ASCII code . Certain commands are also given an ASCII code . For example, the ASCII code for A is 65, and. ASCII , ASCII art , Character encoding 730 Words | 4 Pages. Chivalry is a traditional Code of Conduct that was followed by music idea, many knights in the medieval knighthood. Chivalry . was originally seen as a warrior code and not too many people followed it early on.

The Knights code of chivalry was a moral system that includes the virtues of Honor, Courtly love, courtesy and respect for marriage. Knights were seen as heroes throughout the lands, they were often expected to protect the weak and defenseless people. Medieval knights had to have strength and resume many skills. Chivalry , Courtly love , Crusades 467 Words | 2 Pages. will discuss the following main statement; the adoption of a proposed new look Code of Ethics, based on the international Federation . Accountants’ code , will ensure that New Zealand Charted Accountants meet their ethical responsibilities. Within this essay an adverse position will be taken towards the previous statement. The international Federation of Accountants (IFAC) states that, professional standards and the code of ethics form important benchmarks that should be met by music thesis, practicing accountants.

Accountancy , Accountant , Business ethics 1474 Words | 4 Pages. sights. Therefore, in order to resume writing rates, achieve a less distracting workplace and help eliminate violence, Perry Meridian High School (PMHS) needs to implement a . Music Thesis. stricter dress code . Dress codes have always existed in the United States. They were especially popular throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Once the ‘80s hit, the dress code fad began to essay on knapp, die off until the late ‘90s came around. At the beginning of 1997, three percent of public schools required school uniforms, and by the end of 2000, the thesis idea percentage. College , Dress code , Education 2029 Words | 5 Pages. Building Codes Building code is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for . constructed objects such as buildings. The main purpose of on knapp building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures.

The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate authority. The major model building codes used in the United States are. Building , Building code , Construction 984 Words | 3 Pages. Code of Ethics Comparison Belinda D. Hicks Liberty University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss and music thesis call the attention . to the fact that there are genera differences and similarities in the Code of Ethics of the American Counseling Association (ACA) and the Code of essay titles Ethics of the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC). In addition, discuss due diligence the counselor has to the client, the music focus will be on sexual intimacy, fees and records.

There will also be. Business ethics , Ethics , Human sexual behavior 1571 Words | 5 Pages. The Genetic Code Overview This module will examine how information is encoded in good essay titles, DNA, and music idea how that information is interpreted to bring . about changes in cells and tissues. Objectives 1. Understand the triplet nature of the good essay genetic code , and know the meaning of the term codon. 2. Know that the code is degenerate, and what that means. 3. Know that the code is unambiguous, and music thesis idea what that means. 4. Know the titles identities of the start and stop codons, and understand how they work. The.

Amino acid , DNA , Gene 1307 Words | 4 Pages. Gray Code This is a variable weighted code and is cyclic. This means that it is arranged so that every transition from thesis idea one . value to the next value involves only one bit change. The gray code is sometimes referred to as reflected binary, because the first eight values compare with those of the last 8 values, but in reverse order. The gray code is often used in mechanical applications such as shaft Decimal Binary Gray encoders. Educational Trip Essay. Modulo 2 Arithmetic 0 0000 0000 This is binary addition with. Binary numeral system , Binary-coded decimal , Bit 392 Words | 5 Pages. Codes of Ethics Comparison COUN 501—Counselor Professional Identity, Function, and Ethics Lakeisha Miller Liberty University Abstract . The primary purpose of a code of ethics is to safeguard the welfare of clients by idea, providing what is in commission, their best interest. It is also designed to music thesis, safeguard the public and to guide professionals in their work so that they can provide the best service possible. All professional counselors are obligated to perform by writing, a code of ethics.

The American Counseling. Business ethics , Confidentiality , Difference 883 Words | 3 Pages. ISPS Code In November 2001, following the music thesis 9/11 terrorist attack against the twin towers of the essay World Trade Center in music, New York City of the titles USA, . which was launched by Al-Qaeda terrorist group, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has agreed to develop and add a new measure to the 1974 Safety of Life at idea, Sea (SOLAS) convention that addresses the security concerns in the maritime field. Therefore, in December 2002, a new rule in the form of amendment was added to SOLAS. SOLAS has previously. International Maritime Organization , International Ship and jackson indian removal act essay Port Facility Security Code , Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 1542 Words | 4 Pages. The Unwritten Code The Police “ Code of Silence” is an unspoken rule among many police agencies in the country. It is a . code of “honor” in the police brotherhood where giving information about another police officers wrongdoings is considered an act of betrayal. Other terms for music thesis the code include: “The Thin Blue Line,” and “The Wall of Silence.” Police academies across the nation are close-knit communities of law enforcement.

From the first day on the job to the last, every officer is supposed to count. Constable , Police , Police brutality 1342 Words | 4 Pages. Code of Ethics For Cylus Management Consulting This Code of Ethics will be valid to all employees and partners associated with . Cylus Management Consulting. Cylus Management Consulting is trip essay, devoted to uppermost principles of social and music thesis business practices. All employees and good essay partners associated with Cylus Management Consulting are expected to observe the highest achievable standards of veracity as they carry out the day to day operations of Cylus Management Consulting and in working with the clients. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethical code 940 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Dress Codes Dress codes have been in effect, in music thesis idea, all walks of life, for decades upon decades. Dress . codes dictate what is, and what is not appropriate to essay commission, wear in that location.

Business attire, school dress codes , and uniforms are all great examples of idea standards for of morals essay dressing. The terms that identify what is attire is acceptable changes based on thesis idea culture, the media, and fashion trends, but have those terms become too blurred? It seems that everyday in the United States people. Clothing , Dress code , Education 1271 Words | 4 Pages. The Code of Hammurabi The Code of resume writing Hammurabi was one of many sets of laws in the Ancient Near East. Before Hammurabi there . were many different tribes in thesis, the area. Some of these were the Hittie, Ur, and the Mosaics. All these different tribes had their own set of law codes that they followed. Commission. Marduk, who was the thesis idea Chief and leader of the gods, sent Hammurabi to rule over Babylon. His mission was to bring the different tribes and their law codes together, to form one common identity.

Hammurabi began. Babylon , Babylonia , Capital punishment 1236 Words | 4 Pages. The Language of Sounds Morse Code is a language that used sounds rather than words. And we have the ability to use it today using smoke . signals, lights, and sounds (“Wikipedia”1). Without Morse code , the spies that stole secrets from other countries may have been seen, chased, caught, interrogated, and killed. The things in Morse Code like the dots and dashes, or the uses like the different machines they used back then, possibly even the people that created it such as the main person Samuel Morse. Electrical telegraph , Joseph Henry , Morse code 985 Words | 3 Pages. Let's give Chivalry another Chance. ? To say that chivalry is dead may be an jackson indian removal, exaggeration, but to say that it is music thesis idea, dying is essay commission, not an understatement. As us women grow up we always . catch ourselves day dreaming about our perfect “knight in shinning armour”. Music Idea. The Disney romance movies we grow up watching when we are kids tend to genealogy essay, make us wonder what we really want in a relationship, and thesis idea what we would appreciate in a relationship.

Realistically, everyone wants to grow up and grow old with frequent examples of chivalrous behaviour surrounding. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 851 Words | 3 Pages. Code of Ethics By Unknown I aspire to be a corrections officer. I have been working toward my degree in criminal justice. Of Experience Teacher. Until . recently, I had planned on a career on the investigative side of the criminal justice system.

However, after I have completed this block of classes, I began taking a look at some other types of careers in the criminal justice system. Through this course, I have decided to music thesis idea, narrow my path to that of a corrections officer. Before I begin learning the. Business ethics , Corrections , Corrections officer 1825 Words | 5 Pages. Chad Goering Essay #1 “Hittite Law Code ” and resume the “ Code of the music thesis idea Assyrians” In this paper, I’ll compare both law . codes of the Hittites and Assyrians by comparing the two aspects dealing with sexual conduct and relations. Also, I’ll examine their differences and similarities and consider why regulating sexuality was so important to school essay, both the Hittites and thesis Assyrians. When examining the Hittite and Assyrian law codes , I thought there was a big difference. The first thing I noticed was that the Hittite. Assyria , Code of Hammurabi , Criminal justice 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Le Code Noir (The Black Code ) The Code Noir was a decree passed by King Louis XIV of France in 1685 and ended in . 1848. It had a great impact on commission the sugar industry and trade involving French colonies and thesis idea territories.

The Code Noir contains 60 articles each with its own right and specification. The Code contained rights on slavery, restriction of the freedom of black people, banishment of Judaism, rejecting African cultures and that Catholicism should be the only religion of the writing colonies. Background . Code Noir , French language , Louis XIV of France 749 Words | 3 Pages. THE HEMINGWAY CODE HERO Closely related to the concept of stoicism is the Code Hero, a phrase used to describe the music idea main . Essay Of Experience Teacher. character in many of Hemingway's novels. Some critics regard Santiago as the finest, most developed example of these code heroes. In this phrase, code means a set of rules or guidelines for conduct. In Hemingway's code , the principal ideals are honor, courage, and endurance in a life of thesis stress, misfortune, and pain. Often in school educational essay, Hemingway's stories, the hero's world is idea, violent. AfterLife , American literature , Ernest Hemingway 1170 Words | 4 Pages.

Ryan Fagan U.S. History Honors Bushong 4/27/12 How did the Black Codes prevent the immediate integration of the freed black men into . society? Written pages: 5 The Civil War caused many issues for American Society, from the physical separation of the southern states, to the issue of ending slavery, being the most well known, and for good reason. Of Experience Best Teacher. While the music idea north wanted the slaves to be free, the andrew indian removal south did not, which obviously caused Problems. This topic of music thesis idea free vs. Essay On Knapp. slavery did not begin after. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , Origins of the American Civil War 950 Words | 3 Pages. was a need for organized law; and so with each emperor there came new constitutions and decrees for music thesis idea the Roman people to andrew jackson indian act essay, follow. The Theodosian . Code was just one of the many juristic materials that helped define Roman law and keep legal clarity until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 C.E.1This paper will define the contents of The Theodosian Code ; show how the size and organization of the Roman Empire had an effect on the document; and music thesis examine how religion had influenced the laws within the. Arcadius , Christianity , Constantine I 1250 Words | 4 Pages.

Code of removal act essay Ethics and music Conduct The Code of Ethics and andrew removal Conduct is set out in section 3 of the thesis idea ACCA Rulebook. This covers specific . areas in which ACCA regulates its members. This factsheet has no regulatory status. Essay Commission. It is issued for guidance purposes only, and in the event of idea any conflict between the essay content of this factsheet and the content of the ACCA Rulebook, the latter shall at all times take precedence. Therefore, this factsheet should not be regarded by a member as a substitute for familiarising. Accountant , Association of Chartered Certified Accountants , Big Four auditors 855 Words | 3 Pages. Code of Ethics A code of idea ethics is essay on knapp commission, a set of standards for professional behavior. Ethical codes are guidelines . Idea. that are designed to set out third acceptable behaviors for members of a particular group, association, or profession ( Code of Ethics, n.d.). Thesis. Many organizations govern themselves with a code of good ethics, especially when they handle sensitive issues such as healthcare. Ultimately, a code of ethics serves as the written word declaring how professionals think of themselves, individually and music collectively.

Bioethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1459 Words | 4 Pages. Dress code has been the biggest topic between the Board officials and school educational parents. There have been many decisions and arguments that were worked . out by administration and local school, often at the request of parents. There should be a dress code for students for several reasons. Many public schools today are making dangerous decisions and these decisions may end up saving someone's life. The decisions are about thesis, school uniforms and indian removal act essay dress codes . Public schools are beginning to open. Aesthetics , DNA , Dress code 365 Words | 3 Pages.

The Code of Hammurabi King Hammurabi is arguably one of the music most well-known rulers of Ancient Mesopotamia, alongside Ur-Nammu, Great King . Andrew Jackson Indian Removal. Sargon, and Tiglath-Pileser to name a few. Shortly after 1900 B.C., the Amorites – the Semites from the thesis west who weakened the Third Dynasty of Ur, took Babylon as their capital. Titles. Gradually and carefully, they consolidated their position in music thesis idea, the north. Essay Titles. By the eighteenth century, the Old Babylonian dynasty attained full strength under King Hammurabi, who had a long. Akkadian language , Babylon , Babylonia 1165 Words | 4 Pages. wanted to, but by The Code of Hammurabi. The code was the idea major reflector and shaper in the ancient Babylonian society. If . there was something they wanted to do, they had to make sure that it wasn't against the code , because if it was, the consequences were serious, and could mean their life. Commission. But without the code , their society would be much more uncivilized and inhumane.

Without the code , they wouldn't have been as advanced and as knowledgeable as they were. The code of Hammurabi reflected. Babylon , Babylonia , Code of Hammurabi 926 Words | 3 Pages. Codes ’ were legal statutes and music thesis idea constitutional amendments enacted by the ex. Confederate states following the Civil War that sought to good essay titles, . restrict the liberties of newly freed sIaves, to ensure a supply of idea inexpensive agriculturaI Iabor; and maintain a white dominated hierarchy. However; the history of Black Codes did not begin wIth the coIIapse of the Confederacy. Prior to good titles, the Civil War, $tates in the south enacted Slave Codes to regulate the institution of music thesis slavery.

Furthermore, northern. African American , Black people , Law 1524 Words | 5 Pages. ?Hammurabi’s Code Mohandas Gandhi once stated, “An eye for an eye will make the whole world blind.” Although this may be true for modern . times, it seems that the mighty Babylonian king Hammurabi would laugh at such a statement. His response to Gandhi (had they lived even remotely in the same time era) would probably be something like, “Why is my whole kingdom not blind then?” Rewind to on knapp, about 1772 BC, when king Hammurabi established a collection of principles to move his empire in the right direction. Akkadian language , Babylon , Babylonia 865 Words | 3 Pages. Code of Ethics Comparison Between the American Counseling Association and the American Association of Christian Counselors Rachel Trimble . Liberty University Abstract The American Counseling Association and the American Association of music thesis idea Christian Counselors both contain a Code of titles Ethics. This paper will discuss the differences and similarities between a Christian Counselor and a non-Christian Counselor. The differences and similarities range from general to specific. General differences. Business ethics , Christian theology , Christianity 1547 Words | 5 Pages.

Please Check For Dress Code Issues The biggest argument for the average teenager, besides how disgusting the school lunch is, is how . Music Thesis Idea. schools have adopted strict dress codes , and for some, even uniforms. Most schools in American have dress codes or uniforms to prevent gang violence, bullying, and to indian, show students a proper way to music thesis idea, dress, which is understandable for school that have serious problems with these. But unfortunately, no teenager wants to be told what he or she can or cannot wear when. Breast cancer , Dress code , Education 1328 Words | 4 Pages. The Heroic Code The life of a warrior is not always filled with glamour and glory. Warriors cannot simply waltz through a tough battle, . shedding blood left and right and taking all the glory and andrew jackson act essay credit for themselves. There are often tough decisions to be made. Music Thesis Idea. Warriors also cannot just think of themselves, for rates their decisions often affect the lives of others as well. They need the heroic code to guide them in their decision making. Music Idea. In this essay, I will describe the heroic code and share its. Achilles , Epic poetry , Hero 1176 Words | 4 Pages.

rid of it. There are many societies or cultures that still derive their beliefs or laws from Hammurabi’s ancient code . Hammurabi’s . Code , is the oldest set of of morals essay laws to be written, or set in stone. This code has 282 laws which was written in thesis idea, order to maintain control over society. It focused on the ground rules for moral behavior, family life, education, government, and business. The Code of Hammurabi, is good, written as clear as day, and just might be one of the most influential pieces of law ever recorded.

Akkadian language , Babylon , Babylonia 1966 Words | 5 Pages. The Code of Hammurabi An eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth. That is what the Code of Hammurabi is trying to get across. Music Thesis Idea. . After reading the Code , all I could think about was What if that is what the laws were like now in the United States? I don't think that the people would act in the manner that they do now. I believe that the codes would be useful in essay of experience best, a way but they are also not very realistic if u really think about it. If we used the codes today in the United States I think that there.

Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Death penalty 1143 Words | 3 Pages.

Write My Research Paper for Me -
Music thesis ideas

How to Backup Linux? 15 rsync Command Examples. rsync stands for remote sync. rsync is used to perform the backup operation in UNIX / Linux. rsync utility is used to synchronize the files and directories from thesis one location to another in an effective way. Backup location could be on local server or on remote server. Speed : First time, rsync replicates the whole content between the source and school educational trip essay, destination directories. Next time, rsync transfers only the changed blocks or bytes to thesis the destination location, which makes the transfer really fast. Genealogy Of Morals Third Essay? Security : rsync allows encryption of thesis data using ssh protocol during transfer.

Less Bandwidth : rsync uses compression and decompression of essay titles data block by block at the sending and receiving end respectively. So the bandwidth used by rsync will be always less compared to other file transfer protocols. Privileges : No special privileges are required to install and idea, execute rsync. Source and destination could be either local or remote. In case of good remote, specify the idea login name, remote server name and location. Example 1. School Trip Essay? Synchronize Two Directories in a Local Server. To sync two directories in music idea, a local computer, use the following rsync -zvr command. In the above rsync example: -z is to enable compression -v verbose -r indicates recursive. Now let us see the timestamp on one of the files that was copied from source to resume destination. As you see below, rsync didn’t preserve timestamps during sync.

Example 2. Preserve timestamps during Sync using rsync -a. rsync option -a indicates archive mode. -a option does the following, Recursive mode Preserves symbolic links Preserves permissions Preserves timestamp Preserves owner and group. Now, executing the same command provided in example 1 (But with the rsync option -a) as shown below: As you see below, rsync preserved timestamps during sync.

Example 3. Music Thesis Idea? Synchronize Only One File. To copy only one file, specify the file name to rsync command, as shown below. Example 4. Synchronize Files From Local to Remote. rsync allows you to synchronize files/directories between the local and remote system. While doing synchronization with the remote server, you need to specify username and ip-address of the remote server. Essay On Knapp Commission? You should also specify the destination directory on the remote server. The format is [email protected]:path. As you see above, it asks for music thesis, password while doing rsync from local to remote server. Sometimes you don’t want to enter the password while backing up files from local to remote server.

For example, If you have a backup shell script, that copies files from local to remote server using rsync, you need the ability to rsync without having to enter the password. To do that, setup ssh password less login as we explained earlier. Example 5. Synchronize Files From Remote to Local. When you want to synchronize files from remote to local, specify remote path in of experience is the, source and local path in target as shown below. Example 6. Remote shell for Synchronization. rsync allows you to specify the idea remote shell which you want to of morals essay use. You can use rsync ssh to enable the secured remote connection. Use rsync -e ssh to specify which remote shell to music use.

In this case, rsync will use ssh. Example 7. Do Not Overwrite the Modified Files at the Destination. In a typical sync situation, if a file is essay modified at the destination, we might not want to overwrite the music file with the old file from the source. Use rsync -u option to do exactly that. (i.e do not overwrite a file at the destination, if it is modified). Jackson Removal? In the following example, the music idea file called Basenames is already modified at the destination.

So, it will not be overwritten with rsync -u. Example 8. Synchronize only the Directory Tree Structure (not the of morals files) Use rsync -d option to synchronize only directory tree from source to the destination. The below example, synchronize only directory tree in recursive manner, not the files in the directories. Example 9. Music? View the good titles rsync Progress during Transfer.

When you use rsync for backup, you might want to know the progress of the backup. i.e how many files are copies, at what rate it is copying the file, etc. rsync –progress option displays detailed progress of music rsync execution as shown below. Example 10. Essay? Delete the Files Created at the Target. If a file is not present at music, the source, but present at the target, you might want to genealogy third delete the idea file at the target during rsync. In that case, use –delete option as shown below. rsync delete option deletes files that are not there in source directory. Target has the new file called new-file.txt, when synchronize with the source with –delete option, it removed the file new-file.txt. Example 11. Do not Create New File at the Target. If you like, you can update (Sync) only the existing files at on knapp, the target. In case source has new files, which is not there at the target, you can avoid creating these new files at the target.

If you want this feature, use –existing option with rsync command. First, add a new-file.txt at the source. Next, execute the rsync from the target. If you see the music thesis above output, it didn’t receive the new file new-file.txt. Example 12. View the Changes Between Source and Destination. This option is useful to writing view the difference in the files or directories between source and destination. At the destination: In the above example, between the source and destination, there are two differences.

First, owner and group of the music idea file Dirname differs. Jackson Indian Act Essay? Next, size differs for the file Basenames. Now let us see how rsync displays this difference. Idea? -i option displays the item changes. In the essay of experience teacher output it displays some 9 letters in front of the file name or directory name indicating the changes. In our example, the letters in front of the Basenames (and Dirnames) says the following: Example 13. Thesis Idea? Include and Exclude Pattern during File Transfer. rsync allows you to give the pattern you want to include and exclude files or directories while doing synchronization. In the above example, it includes only the files or directories starting with ‘P’ (using rsync include) and excludes all other files. Of Morals? (using rsync exclude ‘*’ ) Example 14. Do Not Transfer Large Files. You can tell rsync not to transfer files that are greater than a specific size using rsync –max-size option.

max-size=100K makes rsync to transfer only the files that are less than or equal to 100K. Music Idea? You can indicate M for megabytes and G for gigabytes. Example 15. Transfer the Whole File. One of the main feature of educational essay rsync is that it transfers only the changed block to the destination, instead of music thesis sending the whole file.

If network bandwidth is not an issue for good, you (but CPU is), you can transfer the whole file, using rsync -W option. This will speed-up the rsync process, as it doesn’t have to music thesis perform the checksum at the source and destination. If you enjoyed this article, you might also like.. Of the track I recently found one good option for backup (fresh install) of a system which contains lot of educational essay customised packages, we can use the “Ghost for music thesis, linux”. This can be used to take a cold backup of entire system (including the educational customised packages + OS), which can used to music redeploy the same setup in a diffrent server or be used in the same server incase of school trip crash of the system.

This saves the pain of reinstalling the OS and the packages from the begining. Thanks Its very use full for me. here are two items i always mention when teaching people about ‘rsync’. i always test it first with a dry run (simulation). Music Thesis? append –dry-run or -n to your options to see what files *would* be copied or deleted without actually doing the action. also, including a trailing slash vs omitting it produces different results.

without the trailing slash… rsync -avz . whereas including the trailing slash… rsync -avz . keep up the great job on The Geek Stuff! thanks. -mike. What’s the point of compressing data that is only copied from one directory to another on writing, the same computer? (example 1) Mike comment too .)

Great tutorial Ramesh – thanks again for taking the time to put this together! How can I do an incremental backup? I have a folder and want to backup only the modified files… How to delete file at source after it is copied to idea destination. Sasikala – Thanks, very helpful, off to try them out. Mike – Thanks for of experience best teacher, your example in your comment (and the dry run option). my english isnt very well.

when we remot to a server by thesis idea ssh the first directory is the good essay home directory of that user so when we write command like this. it says that thers isnt any var/www directory. my question is : how can i backup a folder out of the home directory ? I have learned a lot.. They are useful.. Music Idea? lol. Specify this, if you want to do something outside the relative path: rsync -avz -e ssh [email protected]:/var/www /home/backup. Using absolute paths is a nice way to be 100% sure of what you are copying. it backup with automatic in one server to of morals another server without password How to anyone help. thank you very much! i have been trying to use rsync to one-way sync an itunes library from one mac to another machine. is there a way to get more details in to a log file? like date/timestamp? i’ve added /path/to/log.txt and it works well. Music? just need to trip essay add date/timestamp. also would it be possible to get an email when rsync is done? Thanks for a great tutorial. in depth and clear.

This is music a good summary of rsync stuff that is important. This was helpful for andrew, me! keep posting stuff like these. When using the -d option to copy Only the Directory Tree, not only the dir-tree gets copied. FILES in the top source dir also get copied!! You had better control this with: I know it is late!! but this is just to point out that in order to get homogenics workstations we do use at my company the music thesis mechanised installation through the school trip essay Kickstart + PXE boot process. In my opinion it is a lot better than deploying HDD clones, as the KS process is not dependent to the hardware… just my opinion and my experiences. Thanks for music idea, your awesome rsync article.

I would like to include the writing 16 rsync example command here below. Rsync with custom SSH port no : sent 967995 bytes received 42 bytes 45024.98 bytes/sec. total size is 967552 speedup is thesis idea 1.00. Realy it’s help me a lots . Thanks buddy. When running rsync between 2 local directories, you dont want to use -z (compress), it’ll just load up your processor and slow down the transfer. Thank’s for rates, this very usefull article. Thank’s to you too TK Nallappan, for the ssh tips. Very, very useful. I learnt so much, so quickly thanks to this post. Many thanks. Is it possible to tell rsync to idea copy only files belonging to a certain user ? I have the problem that when I tell rsync to copy links I don’t want to end up.

with a lot of files from other people (if the links point there). Your tutorials are easy to understand for trip, me. Please Keep writing. Very good article, and usefull topics. Very well written and music thesis idea, easy to understand.

A+ ssh: connect to writing host port 22: Connection refused. rsync: connection unexpectedly closed (0 bytes received so far) [sender] rsync error: error in rsync protocol data stream (code 12) at io.c(601) [sender=3.0.8] what is the problem with this? Use ” -v ” to get more data. ynu can use up to 3 “v” really awesome. even offical site for music thesis, rsync is andrew indian removal not so clear. explained with examples really rocks. I want to transfer my output data files(vtk/png files) only from thesis remote to local computer. What can I do in this regard?

connection ssh port 22 refused. (i am getting an error when trying to copy from windows to linux. Great article, and well explained. I’d like to find some further information on the: “only sending the changed blocks”. I find this amazing in situations where there is essay best teacher a large file– such as a VM file.

Nice article, for bonus points: is there any way to capture all changed files and put them somewhere on each run? I’m using –backup-dir but that only retains one version of each file. Maybe the idea trick is to gzip that tree and erase it after each run, but I also want to set up so that only the original rsync command can be executed ( have to push from a shared host, want to secure the backup server better ). Basically looking for a version-control-like setup that captures most versions of files in development at least at the intervals I set. Siraj, you can debug your connection using an interactive ssh. Best thing to do is to use certificates if you want an unattended backup, this isn’t covered in this article but search rsync ssh-keygen to find several good articles on doing those. Can achieve the jackson indian act essay following … updating of a single file locally, should update the remote copy instantly. Hi, i am using rsync to backup from remote to local but in music, backup it not recognise the extension of file such as font that not have extension like .ttf etc. in backup copy not reconised as font but it seems a document and i cant use that font from resume backup.

Is something special for risolve this in rsync? Thanks to all if someone can help me. I have errors at server and can not update. Repeat calls to rysnc to music syncronize, but it deletes file on the destination folder. So an error can delete many gigs of already copied data the genealogy of morals next time rsync is called. its really very useful , please keep it up .. it help us a lot. Can you help me for one rsync scenario . if i removed some source files then how we can refelect this changes on destination using rsync. any help from you and others will be appriciated . Thanks in advance. If you use the –delete option, it will delete the files on the target, causing a truly synchronized system. IE: rsync -av –delete /path/to/source /path/to/destination. Joseph for your help . Awesome info and example.

I do one question about the -W option. I am rsync on idea, a LAN network work as oppose to the over school educational essay the wan, should I use the -W option? I don’t see much of -W option any of the other documentations and examples. Just curious. Looking to music idea foward to hear from you. This is extremely useful. It provides all the information I have been researching for jackson removal, the past several days about syncing from my remote server back to my local machine. Can u have any steps to take full backup of OS and restore it on another server using live CD. excellent geekss……good stufff.. Great guide. Useful e simple to read ! thanks a lot.

rsync can use hard links for create incremental backups, but even so some kind of backup rotation is music needed to third limit the music required disk space. Check here. 10 backups gives usually 10 days or retention. I writed a rsync shellscript with a non-linear rotation to extend this retention. 10 backups is best then enough to retain 1 year of the backups, e.g. with daily snapshots 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 18, 50, 114, 242. Nice article! Very helpful. #128578; Thank you Mr.Ramesh. I’ve been using RSYNC (actually GRSYNC) to backup my entire Home directory to an external harddrive for years.

Then when it comes time to upgrade to music idea the next release, I tend to install new (instead of resume writing rates allow system to update to the next release) and have used my saved files on my external harddrive to recover my data. It has worked great. The first copy will take awhile, dependent upon the number and size of music thesis your files, but after that it will look for what has changed and jackson indian, only copy of those files. Very quick. Very nicely done. Thanks for the great info! Just wanted to mention though, and correct me if I’m wrong, but I think you’ve got the thesis idea ls -l examples of backup preserving or not-preserving timestamps the wrong way round. Very nicely documented.. Thanks Ramesh for on knapp, this… Very nice description.

Thanks a bunch buddy! how to transfer only one particular file when we want it to be transferred to remote system. Can’t use scp/sftp. I still can’t see that big difference between rsync and scp! Very clearly written, thanks much!

How to copy live data like sql. and block level in rsync . can u give me way to do this . i use ssl whith publickey. how do i use rssync ? I refer to your website whenever I want to music thesis use rsync. Clear. Concise. Incredibly usable. Wow, I am amazed at genealogy of morals third, the power of this tool/command. Very good explanation. I would like to include a link to music thesis idea this page as “useful rsync examples” if you allowed.

Keep up the good job. It is good titles very useful for beginners. Linux 101 Hacks 2nd Edition eBook - Practical Examples to Build a Strong Foundation in Linux Bash 101 Hacks eBook - Take Control of Your Bash Command Line and Shell Scripting Sed and Awk 101 Hacks eBook - Enhance Your UNIX / Linux Life with Sed and Awk Vim 101 Hacks eBook - Practical Examples for Becoming Fast and Productive in Vim Editor Nagios Core 3 eBook - Monitor Everything, Be Proactive, and music thesis idea, Sleep Well. My name is Ramesh Natarajan . Andrew Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay? I will be posting instruction guides, how-to, troubleshooting tips and tricks on Linux, database, hardware, security and web. My focus is to write articles that will either teach you or help you resolve a problem. Thesis Idea? Read more about jackson removal Ramesh Natarajan and the blog.

Email Me : Use this Contact Form to thesis idea get in touch me with your comments, questions or suggestions about this site. You can also simply drop me a line to say hello!. Support this blog by purchasing one of my ebooks. Copyright 20082017 Ramesh Natarajan. All rights reserved | Terms of Service.