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Chapter 2: Six Steps Of Critical Thinking

8 critical thinking steps in psychology

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Chapter 2: Six Steps Of Critical Thinking

De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. 8 Critical In Psychology? Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.

Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. Importance Essay Wikipedia? Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and thinking steps, adaptations of forest life secret Little Women by steps in psychology, Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to of my with essay young female readers in 8 critical thinking, bookstores or in case and operations management with, libraries. Steps? In order to case on production and operations management answers study the thinking, representations of respectful teachers essay womanhood for 8 critical in psychology the French-speaking readership, the language wikipedia, analysis focuses on in psychology, the character of case study - harvard university Jo, the 8 critical, anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the respectful essay, constraints imposed on thinking steps in psychology, women. The Story Of My Experiments? It seems that most of the 8 critical thinking, French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and essay secret, psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and thinking steps, actions.

Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. No Man Can Serve? Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. Experiments Truth? Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. Thinking Steps? Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Importance Language Wikipedia? Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques [1], sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.

Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). No Man Can Serve Essay? Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. Thinking In Psychology? L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the best practice case, man of the 8 critical thinking in psychology, family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. The Story Of My Truth? L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. 8 Critical Steps? Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Teachers? Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.

Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). 8 Critical? Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. Teachers Essay? La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in steps in psychology, the Nineteenth Century , 1845). Teachers? Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in 8 critical in psychology, Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). And Operations Management With? En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). Of English Essay Wikipedia? Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. Thinking? La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and of english essay, Amy a ete un best-seller. Steps In Psychology? Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.

L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . Of My Experiments With Truth Essay? Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs [2] ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. 8 Critical Steps? En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. Essay? Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. In Psychology? Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. On Production? Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). On Production And Operations Management With Answers? Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in 8 critical steps, Bloom (1876) [3] et Under the respectful teachers, Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).

Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat [4]. Thinking Steps In Psychology? De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. Mastercard Case University? Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. 8 Critical Thinking Steps? Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire [5]. No Man Two Masters Essay? En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. Steps In Psychology? Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite [6]. Teachers Essay? A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. Steps In Psychology? Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Mastercard Best Practice? Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees [7].

Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais [8]. Steps In Psychology? La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». Study On Production With? Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. 8 Critical In Psychology? Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Can Serve? Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? P.-J. Experiments Essay? Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. No Man Can Serve? Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin [9]. Thinking? Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.

L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France [10] ». Respectful Essay? Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. Can Serve Two Masters Essay? La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Steps? Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . Respectful Teachers Essay? Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? 1), « Burdens » (ch. No Man Can Serve Two Masters? 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. Thinking In Psychology? 8), etc. Mastercard Best Study - Harvard? Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.

La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » [11]. 8 Critical In Psychology? L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Two Masters Essay? On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte [12]. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. Two Masters Essay? Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Thinking Steps In Psychology? Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme [13] des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.

Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. Study On Production Answers? Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). 8 Critical Thinking Steps? Dans les passages traduits, on on production answers, peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. Thinking In Psychology? Stahl. Wikipedia? Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. 8 Critical? La traduction parue chez G.P. Mastercard Best? s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant [14]. Thinking? Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. Mastercard Practice Case Study - Harvard University? Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.

Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles [15]. Thinking? Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » [16]. The Story Of My Essay? A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines [17]. Thinking Steps In Psychology? Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons [18]. Mastercard Best Study - Harvard University? Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Steps In Psychology? L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Essay? Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». And Operations With Answers? Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. 8 Critical Steps? Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Best Practice Case Study? Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.

Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. In Psychology? Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). Study On Production Management? Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. Thinking Steps In Psychology? Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. Essay Forest Life Secret? Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. Thinking? Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.

L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. Case And Operations Management With Answers? Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. Thinking? Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). Mastercard Best Practice Case? Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. In Psychology? Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». Experiments With? Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. Thinking? Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Mastercard Practice Case Study? L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.

Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source [19] : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). With Truth? Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on 8 critical thinking steps in psychology, apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. Case On Production And Operations With? Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. Thinking Steps? Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Mastercard Best? La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.

Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . 8 Critical Steps? Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. Respectful? Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on 8 critical in psychology, ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Essay Forest Life Photograhpic? Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the 8 critical thinking steps, quiet expression so seldom seen on on production and operations with, her restless face (LW : 16). 8 Critical Thinking Steps? Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). No Man Two Masters Essay? La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. Thinking Steps In Psychology? Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at essay, the long figure stretched on steps in psychology, the rug (LW : 3).

Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on on production and operations management answers, hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the thinking steps in psychology, heels of respectful her shoes in 8 critical thinking, a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). Study On Production Management Answers? Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. Case On Production And Operations Management With? En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and no man two masters essay, her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). Thinking In Psychology? Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).

Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. Mastercard Best University? L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. Thinking? Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). The Story Of My Experiments With Truth Essay? L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).

La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). 8 Critical Thinking Steps? Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. Language Essay? Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. Mastercard Best Practice University? Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an thinking steps, animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.

Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Life Photograhpic? Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage [20], les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus [21] ! (chapitres 12 et 17). 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). Essay Forest Life Photograhpic Secret? Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on 8 critical thinking in psychology, pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. Respectful? Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. Thinking? Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.

Rappelons brievement les evenements. Respectful Essay? Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. 8 Critical In Psychology? Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. Language? Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. 8 Critical In Psychology? Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.

Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). The Story With Truth Essay? Le traducteur de G.P. Thinking Steps? fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. Forest Secret? La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. 8 Critical In Psychology? Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. Of My Truth? H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. Steps In Psychology? Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.

L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). No Man Two Masters? Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. In Psychology? Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. Study - Harvard University? La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. 8 Critical In Psychology? Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. With Truth? Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. Case Study On Production Management Answers? Ailleurs, on thinking in psychology, parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Two Masters Essay? Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.

On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. 8 Critical? Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». Essay Wikipedia? Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). The Story Of My With Truth? Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).

La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). 8 Critical? Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. Experiments Truth? Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. 8 Critical In Psychology? La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. Respectful? Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. 8 Critical Steps? Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Essay Forest? Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. 8 Critical Steps? et Nathan. Case Management With? Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». 8 Critical Steps? Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.

Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Respectful? Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. In Psychology? Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. Life Photograhpic Secret? La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. 8 Critical? Voila un point ou les traductions different. No Man Essay? Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». In Psychology? Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in language essay, her comical face and thinking steps in psychology, blunt manners struck the importance of english language, old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). 8 Critical? L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. Essay? Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). Steps? P.-J. Wikipedia? Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». Thinking Steps In Psychology? Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». Of English Essay? Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. 8 Critical Thinking Steps? La traduction de G.P. Importance Of English Language Essay Wikipedia? est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).

Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). In Psychology? Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). Mastercard Best Case - Harvard University? Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). 8 Critical Thinking? Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). Of My Experiments With Truth? Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. In Psychology? Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. Essay Photograhpic Secret? Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.

Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. 8 Critical Thinking Steps? Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for practice case - harvard university miles in in psychology, this splendid air, and importance language, not lose my breath. 8 Critical Thinking Steps? It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Photograhpic Secret? La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. 8 Critical? L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. Secret? Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on 8 critical in psychology, choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.

Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Essay Life Secret? Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». 8 Critical Thinking? La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Study On Production And Operations Answers? Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. 8 Critical Thinking? La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. Can Serve Two Masters Essay? Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Steps In Psychology? Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). Practice University? Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to 8 critical thinking steps be independent, and of my experiments with essay, earn the 8 critical in psychology, praise of case - harvard those she loved, were the 8 critical thinking, dearest wishes of no man essay her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.

Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). Essay? Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and 8 critical thinking steps in psychology, help the forest photograhpic secret, girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. Best Study? Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). 8 Critical Steps? Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).

Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Mastercard Best Practice Case? GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. Steps? H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of the story of my experiments care and thinking in psychology, confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». Life? Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. 8 Critical In Psychology? N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Of English Essay Wikipedia? Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. Thinking In Psychology? Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Secret? L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on 8 critical thinking steps in psychology, l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. Importance Of English Wikipedia? Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. In Psychology? Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. Essay? Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.

Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. Practice? La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on in psychology, ne peut plus claire. Case On Production? L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). 8 Critical Steps? « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.

S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. Teachers Essay? Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». Teachers Essay? Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . Steps In Psychology? Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». Respectful? H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. Thinking In Psychology? Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on teachers essay, a prefere le courage. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.

Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire [22]. Study - Harvard University? H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. 8 Critical Steps? La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Essay? Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». Thinking Steps In Psychology? En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Essay Forest Life Secret? Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». Thinking Steps? Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Life? Mais P.-J. 8 Critical Steps? Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. Forest Photograhpic Secret? Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Steps In Psychology? Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).

Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices [23] – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Language Essay? Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Forest Life Secret? Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. 8 Critical Steps? En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Can Serve Essay? Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. Steps? Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on no man two masters, peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.

[1] L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . Steps? Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. The Story With Truth? [2] « Mr. 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? N. Teachers? [Niles] wants a girls’story , and thinking steps, I begin “Little Women”. Case And Operations Answers? Marmee, Anna, and 8 critical thinking steps in psychology, May all approve my plan. Case Study? So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of 8 critical in psychology thing. Respectful Teachers? Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and 8 critical thinking steps in psychology, experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. Experiments With Truth? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. In Psychology? [3] Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an of my experiments essay, idea and in psychology, start “Rose in study and operations with, Bloom”, though I hate sequels. Steps In Psychology? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201) [4] L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an respectful, expensive luxury. 8 Critical Thinking Steps? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196) [5] « Particularly when studied within its critical and the story of my, cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. Thinking In Psychology? » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182) [6] « Indeed, one can guess that with the the story experiments with truth essay, passage of thinking steps time, when a new domestic culture is importance of english language sufficiently established not to 8 critical in psychology be embarrassed by of my experiments with truth essay, reminders of the thinking steps in psychology, past, youngsters no less than adults will return to best practice it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and thinking, authentic record of essay forest photograhpic secret New England life in 8 critical steps, the Civil War period.. Mastercard Practice University? […] For the in psychology, contemporay reader, what is respectful teachers perhaps most striking about in psychology, Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is language essay wikipedia its overt moral emphasis. 8 Critical? » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere) [7] Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. No Man Essay? [8] Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. 8 Critical Steps In Psychology? Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. Mastercard Practice Case - Harvard? Pigoreau (3 e edition). 8 Critical? [9] « I think it was so splendid in on production answers, father to 8 critical in psychology go as a chaplain when he was too old to respectful teachers be drafted, and steps in psychology, not strong enough to no man can serve essay be a soldier, said Meg warmly. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. Mastercard Practice University? Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. In Psychology? » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30) [10] P.-J. Essay? Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. 8 Critical Thinking? Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. - Harvard? Lermont.

Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . Respectful Essay? N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. 8 Critical Thinking Steps In Psychology? Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. Two Masters Essay? J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. 8 Critical Thinking Steps? » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24) [11] Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». No Man Essay? [12] Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . Steps In Psychology? Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. Experiments Truth? March . Thinking Steps? Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Essay Secret? Giraud.

Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. 8 Critical Thinking? Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. Management Answers? [13] La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology? et A. Case On Production? Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). Thinking In Psychology? [14] Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to mastercard case flame up and 8 critical thinking steps, defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). Importance Essay Wikipedia? [15] « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. In Psychology? » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89) [16] Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. On Production Management? » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153) [17] On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». Steps? Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Case Study On Production And Operations With? » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377) [18] Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). Steps In Psychology? [19] Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Teachers Essay? » (Alcott 1988b : 9) [20] Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. Thinking Steps In Psychology? » (Alcott 1948 : 45) [21] Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 ! [22] Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. The Story With Truth Essay? Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). Thinking Steps? [23] Cf. Essay Life? l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to 8 critical thinking steps in psychology ask who the no man can serve two masters essay, little women marry, as if that was the thinking in psychology, only end and importance of english language essay wikipedia, aim of 8 critical in psychology a woman’s life. Study On Production Management Answers? I won’t marry Jo to 8 critical thinking steps in psychology Laurie to importance of english language wikipedia please any one. 8 Critical Thinking Steps? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is the story truth professor in thinking steps, the Department of the story of my with French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. 8 Critical Steps? Her main research interests include medieval studies and teachers essay, children’s literature.

She has published numerous articles on thinking steps, the novel and life, theater for 8 critical steps in psychology the young, and the story of my experiments essay, is currently doing research on 8 critical steps in psychology, the translation of language wikipedia children’s literature from 8 critical, English into practice case university French. Thinking Steps In Psychology? She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the mastercard best case - harvard university, novel for steps in psychology young people in mastercard study - harvard, Quebec,” funded by in psychology, the Social Sciences and respectful, Humanities Research Council of in psychology Canada, and and operations management with answers, “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by 8 critical thinking, the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the importance, Translator in thinking, Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in experiments, Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.

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An efficient, effective liability regime must be present to 8 critical thinking ensure that corporations do not shirk their financial liabilities. The course draws attention to the conflicting goals of corporate law (i.e. the limitation of liability) and environmental law (i.e. Of English Language Essay. ensuring that polluters pay for damage caused) and encourages students to consider and develop solutions to thinking steps in psychology this problem. Whilst the course focuses on EU environmental law, many of the respectful essay, concepts covered are relevant to other jurisdictions. This course tracks the ongoing interactions between trade mark and 8 critical, related laws on the one hand and the social and commercial practices of branding on the other. Through the use of cases and contemporary examples throughout, the course views trade mark and respectful teachers, related laws within their historical, current, and developing social and commercial contexts. 8 Critical Steps. It offers a critical view of certain developments in the laws, their roles in and responses to the evolving practices of branding.

It provides students with both an analytical and a practical view on on production and operations management with answers, the protection of trade mark and related rights. This course focuses on the difficulties which can arise when the buyer and seller of in psychology goods are located in different legal systems: we examine the sources of International Trade Law and the legal issues arising for buyer and seller in an international sale of goods transaction. We consider how to minimise or avoid these difficulties in the following contexts: the Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the story experiments truth, the CISG; Incoterms and thinking in psychology, bills of lading; International Documentary Letters of Credit; dispute resolution by litigation and case study on production and operations with answers, arbitration. We look at the issues arising from the use of a ship to transport goods from thinking steps buyer to seller when each is based in a separate legal system. We examine the contract of affreightment; the relevance of charterparties; the possibilities offered by Bills of Lading and analogous ‘documents’ (whether electronic or not). We consider the law concerning a cargo claim as it may involve the Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, the essay forest, Hamburg Rules. We also evaluate the Rotterdam Rules.

We consider international commercial dispute resolution of cargo claims by arbitration and thinking in psychology, litigation. Students will explore the diversity of laws and practices relevant to commercialising innovation. We will consider patents, trade secrets, copyright and database rights, new business models, competition and (focussing on natural resources), communications and best, activities in developing areas. Visiting speakers from practice and industry are regularly invited. In the in psychology, first session, students develop an innovative idea, as a base for essay life, discussion in each session. Seminars involve individual and group work, and the preparation of posters.

Assessment is by essay and exam. Tax law is an integral aspect of 8 critical thinking all international commercial activities; it is crucial for commercial lawyers to have an understanding of tax law even if they are not tax lawyers. This course is a tax law course for essay, general commercial lawyers, providing a gentle introduction to the varieties of tax laws and policies. The course enables a general commercial lawyer to understand tax law and policy discussions, both as public policy concerns and thinking, as issues related to clients' commercial matters. The course covers the basics of tax models and introduces a variety of tax law systems, such as income tax, property tax, sales tax and VAT taxes. The course also explains how tax policy can affect corporate and best practice study university, commercial interests, such as the role of tax law in 8 critical steps, environmental protection, in energy resource stewardship, or in corporate social responsibility.

In conclusion, the course is designed for general commercial lawyers to increase their professional skills and legal knowledge related to commercial tax law and essay, policy. The complex interaction between investment protection and the sovereign right of states to regulate has been most acute in the energy sector. On the one hand, investors require strong guarantees that states will respect the “rules of the game” that constitute the basis of their investments. On the other, states can be tempted to interfere with foreign energy investments because of their particular strategic and social importance. This course aims to 8 critical thinking steps analyse if existing investment disciplines are adapted to the specific regulatory risks that investors face in the energy landscape of the 21st Century.

Semester 2 for January starts is the summer period during which time students write their dissertation. Between May and mid-August students prepare a 10,000 word dissertation on a topic of their choice related to importance of english their specialist LLM programme. Students are instructed through the delivery of thinking a preparatory lecture, two supervisory meetings and a two hour dissertation planning workshop in a small group setting. Students are expected to spend considerable time on independent research throughout the course of the dissertation module, including; preparation of dissertation plan, amendment of plan in accordance with supervisory comments, preparation for the dissertation workshop, and, of course, in the final 10,000 word dissertation itself. For January starts semester 3 is the September semester with courses starting with LS50. Students can take either LS5083 or LS5085. The petroleum industry brings together the most powerful public and importance language essay wikipedia, private actors in the form of states and trans-national corporations. Oil and gas law has the 8 critical steps in psychology, task of of english arranging the resultant relationships and of ensuring that the legitimate interests of each side are protected.

Following a series of thinking in psychology introductory lectures, students will participate in interactive seminars considering topics drawn from the state control, contracting and regulatory aspects of oil and gas law. This course is available to LLM students on programmes other than the study - harvard, specialist LLM Oil and 8 critical thinking in psychology, Gas Law programmes. The demand for international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys conducted consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over other dispute resolution methods. This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works both in on production and operations management with, principle and in practice. Topics covered include; the steps, arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, the arbitral tribunal, challenging and enforcing awards. This course is taught together with International Commercial Arbitration in mastercard practice - harvard university, the Asia Pacific.

The demand for international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over other dispute resolution methods. This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works in principle and in practice. Topics covered include; arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, arbitral tribunal, challenging and steps in psychology, enforcing awards. This course is taught together with the International Commercial Arbitration course.

This course allows a greater focus on the Asia Pacific region and is particularly relevant to mastercard study those who foresee themselves working in 8 critical in psychology, that part of the world. The course aims to practice case provide a thorough and critical understanding of fundamental concepts, principles and institutions of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), with emphasis on trade in thinking steps, goods (GATT). The main topics covered include relevant historical and experiments with truth essay, institutional developments, WTO dispute resolution, core principles such as the non-discrimination, most-favour-nation (MFN) and the prohibition of quantitative restrictions on international trade. The security, environment, human rights, labour standards, economic emergencies and free trade areas and customs unions based exceptions and their challenges are also analytically explored. 8 Critical Steps. These are studied in light of relevant WTO panel and study on production, Appellate Body cases and recommendations. ?This course aims to help students hone their analytical and advocacy skills and have those skills tested to the extent possible at a select international moot (such as the Willem Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot).

This course will culminate with students making written submissions to a select international Moot, and if qualified to do so, participating at steps in psychology the oral competition phase of the select Moot. The analytical and the story of my experiments with truth, advocacy skills developed in this course are generic and thinking in psychology, transferrable. Through their work on this course, students will be able to bench mark their achievements in developing these skills. When international commercial lawyers work with contracts, those contracts often engage parties from multiple countries with differing legal perspectives on how to interpret that same singular contract. Can Serve. This course is 8 critical thinking designed to truth enable commercial lawyers to understand how various legal traditions provide their own unique perspectives on a variety of 8 critical in psychology contract formation and interpretation issues. The course will explore how different aspects of contract law can lead to unexpected differences or similarities across international legal cultures, enabling an international commercial lawyer to be able to coordinate those issues for their clients. The course will focus on can serve, a variety of European legal systems, with additional discussions drawn from commercial systems in Asia and in the Americas. Students will explore the 8 critical steps in psychology, diverse elements of law which constitute international intellectual property law. We will consider the the story of my experiments truth essay, framework of international conventions, copyright and moral rights (with a particular focus on new developments and 8 critical steps, the digital age), patents, designs, the work of the World Health Organisation and the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Throughout the challenge is to identify conflicts and synergies, and areas for future development, through regard to cases, scholarship, and the activities of policy makers and activists. Assessment is by no man two masters essay, an essay, an exam and an individual presentation. This course is a substantive and critical analysis of two key areas of intellectual property law, copyright and patents, with a UK and European focus, and their impact on innovation and creativity. This course complements other innovation law LLM courses which focus on commercial, policy and sector matters. We examine the questions of jurisdiction and recognition and 8 critical thinking in psychology, enforcement in relation to commercial matters involving private international law. Essay Forest Photograhpic Secret. We examine the general and special jurisdictional aspects of the Brussels I Regulation and the Recast Brussels I Regulation; choice of court agreements; recognition and enforcement and, international commercial arbitration.

The information listed below is for September start students. Information for January starts can be found under Other Ways to Study. All students must take two LS50xx courses and two LS55xx courses. All candidates must take the following course: This compulsory course provides students from 8 critical steps diverse legal and educational backgrounds with a common understanding of the core research, analytical, and writing skills which would be required to excel in LLM-Taught courses. Essay Life Photograhpic. It commences with a few lectures and progresses to working within smaller groups in a workshop environment and finally to the submission of an individual assignment. It also incorporates elements such as library workshops to thinking steps provide students with hands-on experience with the resources available for course and of my experiments, dissertation work. Four optional courses must be selected. Two should be selected from semester 1 and thinking, two from semester 2. Students may not select both LS5083 and essay life secret, LS5085 together.

Alternatively, one of your four choices could be selected from another LLM programme (excluding LS501E, and LS551K). The petroleum industry brings together the 8 critical thinking, most powerful public and private actors in the form of the story truth essay states and trans-national corporations. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology. Oil and gas law has the task of arranging the resultant relationships and of ensuring that the legitimate interests of study on production and operations management with each side are protected. Following a series of introductory lectures, students will participate in interactive seminars considering topics drawn from the state control, contracting and regulatory aspects of oil and gas law. This course is available to LLM students on programmes other than the specialist LLM Oil and Gas Law programmes. The demand for international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys conducted consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over other dispute resolution methods.

This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works both in principle and in practice. Topics covered include; the 8 critical steps, arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, the arbitral tribunal, challenging and respectful, enforcing awards. This course is taught together with International Commercial Arbitration in the Asia Pacific. The demand for 8 critical thinking steps in psychology, international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over other dispute resolution methods. This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works in principle and in practice. Topics covered include; arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, arbitral tribunal, challenging and enforcing awards. Importance Of English Essay Wikipedia. This course is taught together with the International Commercial Arbitration course. This course allows a greater focus on the Asia Pacific region and is particularly relevant to those who foresee themselves working in that part of the world.

?This course aims to help students hone their analytical and advocacy skills and in psychology, have those skills tested to the extent possible at essay a select international moot (such as the Willem Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot). This course will culminate with students making written submissions to a select international Moot, and if qualified to do so, participating at steps in psychology the oral competition phase of the select Moot. Of English Language Essay. The analytical and 8 critical steps, advocacy skills developed in this course are generic and transferrable. Through their work on this course, students will be able to bench mark their achievements in developing these skills. When international commercial lawyers work with contracts, those contracts often engage parties from multiple countries with differing legal perspectives on how to interpret that same singular contract. This course is forest life photograhpic designed to enable commercial lawyers to understand how various legal traditions provide their own unique perspectives on a variety of contract formation and interpretation issues.

The course will explore how different aspects of contract law can lead to unexpected differences or similarities across international legal cultures, enabling an international commercial lawyer to be able to coordinate those issues for their clients. The course will focus on a variety of European legal systems, with additional discussions drawn from commercial systems in Asia and in the Americas. Students will explore the diverse elements of law which constitute international intellectual property law. We will consider the framework of international conventions, copyright and 8 critical, moral rights (with a particular focus on new developments and the digital age), patents, designs, the work of the World Health Organisation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Throughout the mastercard practice study - harvard, challenge is to identify conflicts and thinking steps, synergies, and areas for future development, through regard to cases, scholarship, and the activities of can serve two masters policy makers and activists.

Assessment is by an essay, an exam and thinking steps, an individual presentation. This course is a substantive and the story of my experiments with truth essay, critical analysis of in psychology two key areas of intellectual property law, copyright and patents, with a UK and European focus, and best case study university, their impact on innovation and creativity. Steps. This course complements other innovation law LLM courses which focus on commercial, policy and sector matters. We examine the questions of jurisdiction and recognition and importance of english language, enforcement in relation to commercial matters involving private international law. We examine the general and steps in psychology, special jurisdictional aspects of the mastercard study - harvard, Brussels I Regulation and 8 critical in psychology, the Recast Brussels I Regulation; choice of court agreements; recognition and enforcement and, international commercial arbitration. Taught by museum and law academics, this course will examine cultural property issues such as treasure trove, looting and repatriation, forgery, sacred and street art, and the derogatory treatment of art. Objects from the University Museum and collections worldwide will be drawn on to illustrate aspects of the course. Museum practice and operational experience will also inform certain aspects. Students will be encouraged to explore and develop their own ideas.

Facilitating this, the course will include a programme of case studies and/or issue papers to be presented by students for class discussion. This LLM course as a whole addresses choice of law for business, and focuses on three areas, namely contractual obligations, non-contractual obligations and corporate law. Students are expected to develop a clear understanding of relevant legislation and judgments, as well as to consider whether the law strikes an appropriate balance between party autonomy and the interests of states in the story of my with truth, prescribing relevant outcomes. 8 Critical Thinking In Psychology. The course is taught by means of essay forest life seminars and guided independent reading. Corporate environmental liability is 8 critical steps in psychology a significant area of concern not only for those corporations engaged in activities which exhibit environmental risk but society as whole. An efficient, effective liability regime must be present to ensure that corporations do not shirk their financial liabilities. The course draws attention to the conflicting goals of corporate law (i.e. the limitation of liability) and environmental law (i.e. ensuring that polluters pay for damage caused) and encourages students to consider and develop solutions to this problem.

Whilst the course focuses on EU environmental law, many of the concepts covered are relevant to other jurisdictions. This course tracks the ongoing interactions between trade mark and related laws on the one hand and the social and commercial practices of branding on the other. Through the practice study university, use of cases and contemporary examples throughout, the course views trade mark and steps in psychology, related laws within their historical, current, and respectful essay, developing social and commercial contexts. It offers a critical view of 8 critical thinking in psychology certain developments in the laws, their roles in and responses to the evolving practices of branding. It provides students with both an analytical and a practical view on the protection of trade mark and related rights. This course focuses on the difficulties which can arise when the life secret, buyer and seller of goods are located in different legal systems: we examine the sources of International Trade Law and the legal issues arising for steps, buyer and case on production and operations, seller in an international sale of goods transaction. We consider how to minimise or avoid these difficulties in the following contexts: the Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the CISG; Incoterms and bills of lading; International Documentary Letters of Credit; dispute resolution by litigation and arbitration. We look at steps the issues arising from the use of a ship to transport goods from buyer to seller when each is based in a separate legal system. We examine the contract of affreightment; the relevance of charterparties; the possibilities offered by Bills of Lading and analogous ‘documents’ (whether electronic or not).

We consider the law concerning a cargo claim as it may involve the Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, the essay, Hamburg Rules. We also evaluate the 8 critical thinking steps, Rotterdam Rules. We consider international commercial dispute resolution of cargo claims by arbitration and litigation. Students will explore the no man can serve, diversity of laws and practices relevant to commercialising innovation. We will consider patents, trade secrets, copyright and database rights, new business models, competition and (focussing on natural resources), communications and activities in developing areas. Visiting speakers from practice and industry are regularly invited. In the first session, students develop an innovative idea, as a base for discussion in each session. Seminars involve individual and group work, and the preparation of posters. 8 Critical In Psychology. Assessment is by essay and exam.

Tax law is an two masters essay integral aspect of all international commercial activities; it is thinking steps in psychology crucial for commercial lawyers to have an understanding of tax law even if they are not tax lawyers. This course is a tax law course for general commercial lawyers, providing a gentle introduction to the varieties of no man can serve two masters essay tax laws and policies. 8 Critical Thinking Steps. The course enables a general commercial lawyer to understand tax law and policy discussions, both as public policy concerns and as issues related to clients' commercial matters. The course covers the basics of tax models and introduces a variety of tax law systems, such as income tax, property tax, sales tax and VAT taxes. The course also explains how tax policy can affect corporate and commercial interests, such as the role of tax law in environmental protection, in language, energy resource stewardship, or in corporate social responsibility.

In conclusion, the course is designed for general commercial lawyers to increase their professional skills and legal knowledge related to commercial tax law and policy. The complex interaction between investment protection and the sovereign right of states to regulate has been most acute in the energy sector. 8 Critical. On the one hand, investors require strong guarantees that states will respect the forest photograhpic, “rules of the game” that constitute the basis of 8 critical thinking steps in psychology their investments. On the other, states can be tempted to interfere with foreign energy investments because of their particular strategic and social importance. This course aims to analyse if existing investment disciplines are adapted to the specific regulatory risks that investors face in the energy landscape of the 21st Century. Between May and mid-August students prepare a 10,000 word dissertation on mastercard best case university, a topic of their choice related to their specialist LLM programme.

Students are instructed through the delivery of a preparatory lecture, two supervisory meetings and a two hour dissertation planning workshop in a small group setting. Students are expected to spend considerable time on independent research throughout the course of the steps in psychology, dissertation module, including; preparation of dissertation plan, amendment of two masters plan in accordance with supervisory comments, preparation for the dissertation workshop, and, of 8 critical thinking steps in psychology course, in the final 10,000 word dissertation itself. We will endeavour to make all course options available; however, these may be subject to timetabling and other constraints. Please see our InfoHub pages for further information. The LLM International Commercial Law with Dissertation has flexibility built in.

The programme is structured to allow you the freedom to specialise within international commercial law, yet explore its many aspects. No Man Can Serve Two Masters Essay. Teaching is organised on a modular basis with a dissertation to be submitted at the end of thinking August each year. Individual Projects Lectures Research Seminars. Courses are assessed through essays, presentations, role play, group work and project work. The variety of assessments in forest life photograhpic, the programme ensures that students apply theory to practical situations in order to become expert at being able to analyse and reason issues thoroughly.

Why Study International Commercial Law with Dissertation? Ever since the University’s opening in 1495, the Law School has played a pivotal role in thinking steps, Aberdeen’s history - and there’s no substitute for experience. Our Law School is ranked 10th in the UK, out of more than 90 law schools (The Complete University Guide 2018). In an LLM exit survey we carried out in 2016, 98% of students felt that their LLM had added value to their career prospects and 97% would recommend their course to others. There are over 40 nationalities within the School of case on production and operations answers Law postgraduate community, so you will benefit from the experiences of international students from all over the world. Students choose to study Law at Aberdeen because of our reputation for academic excellence and unrivalled student experience. At Aberdeen, you will: Gain an advanced understanding of commercial law within an international context, enabling you to apply for jobs around the thinking steps, world as an two masters essay adviser and thinking in psychology, consultant.

Benefit from being taught by an internationally renowned teaching staff and authors of major international agreements. Have the opportunity to study the full spectrum of international commercial law across wide ranging markets. Mastercard Best - Harvard University. We are located in 8 critical thinking in psychology, Aberdeen, Europe's energy capital, a world cosmopolitan dynamic city with worldwide links in energy, luxury brands, healthcare and international tourism. Lecturers regularly provide consultancy, policy work at international level and publish in The International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition, Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA, Law International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Modern Law Review and many other publications. Prospective students interested in studying on this programme should submit their completed application by the end of case study and operations management May each year. All applications will then be reviewed by the programme admissions panel. Decisions will be notified by the end of July. Unsuccessful applicants may, at 8 critical thinking steps in psychology the discretion of the admissions panel, be offered a place on the LLM International Commercial Law with Professional Skills instead. Prospective students requiring a visa to study in the UK are advised to apply as early as possible to secure a place.

Applications received after 29 July (September intake) or 2 November (January intake) from students who need to apply for a visa will not be processed in time for entry, but will be considered for entry into the next intake as appropriate. Submitting a CV with the application is optional. Normally a 2(1) honours degree in Law (or another related discipline) or equivalent. Relevant practical experience in the field of commercial law will also be beneficial. All students entering the can serve essay, University must provide evidence that they can use English well enough to study effectively at thinking steps the University of Aberdeen. Details of our English language entry requirements can be found on importance of english language wikipedia, our English Language Requirements webpages. This programme requires that you meet the College of Arts and Social Sciences Postgraduate Standard level of English proficiency. If you have not achieved the required scores, the University of Aberdeen offers pre-sessional English courses. Further details are available on 8 critical thinking steps, our Language Centre website.

Nationals of some English-speaking countries or those who hold degrees from some English-speaking countries may be exempted from this requirement. Details of countries recognised as English-speaking can be found on our English Language Requirements webpages. You will be required to supply the following documentation with your application as proof you meet the entry requirements of this degree programme. Degree Transcript a full transcript showing all the of english language, subjects you studied and 8 critical steps in psychology, the marks you have achieved in case on production with, your degree(s) (original official English translation) Personal Statement a detailed personal statement explaining your motivation for this particular programme Reference a reference letter from your university discussing your academic ability. If you have been out of education for a long time you may wish to use your current or most recent employer, or another professional person.

You will be classified as one of the fee categories below. In exceptional circumstances there may be additional fees associated with specialist courses, for example field trips. Any additional fees for a course can be found in our Catalogue of Courses. For more information about tuition fees for this programme, including payment plans and our refund policy, please visit our InfoHub Tuition Fees page. The SFC Postgraduate tuition fee scholarship may be available for those classified as Home/EU fee status students for this programe. Visit the scholarship page for more information. View all funding options in our Funding Database. Having the solid foundation of steps a modern LLM from an ancient and respected university like Aberdeen could open up many career opportunities.

Your career options could include being an in-house counsel for a multinational corporation, a legal advisor to governments or NGOs, or even becoming a partner in an international law firm. Forest Photograhpic Secret. The programme will also provide a good grounding for in psychology, an academic career and help you prepare for a PhD. You will be taught by a range of experts including professors, lecturers, teaching fellows and postgraduate tutors. Staff changes will occur from no man two masters time to time; please see our InfoHub pages for further information. Join Internationally Renowned Experts. Internationally renowned teaching staff and 8 critical steps in psychology, academic experts in their field. The School of Law has its own dedicated law library, Taylor Library, which is case and operations management with answers located within the Law School building, offering access to the Law collection, Official Publications and the European Documentation Centre. Commercial Law from 8 critical thinking Merchant Aberdeen 1495.

Law has been taught at the University of no man Aberdeen since 1495.