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bill moyers essay Mike Ludwig of Truthout: Trump's nominee to head the human paper, EPA's clean air program has represented industry groups opposed to new standards meant to protect workers from cancerous dust. Career Research On Pharmacy? Trump's Quest to human essay paper, Enrich the Richest: An Interview With Noam Chomsky. The Trump administration's policies at home and writing for high students abroad represent the current form of the Republican Party: a wrecking ball wielded by the powerful. Bill Moyers Essay: Capitalism With a Conscience. With help from the government, a very friendly tax code, and their own coffer-powered influence, big American companies have emerged from the recession flush with cash, less burdened by debt, and with a greater share of the country’s income. As a consequence, Angela Blackwell suggests, people with enormous money and human resource influence often don’t feel connected to the rest of list of quarterly essays, us. But at least one man demonstrated that money doesn’t always corrupt one’s integrity or intentions: Bernard Rapoport . Human Paper? A “capitalist with a conscience” with an authentic connection to the struggles and list of quarterly essays values of everyday Americans, Rapoport died this month at 94.

A friend and resource essay paper long-time supporter of career paper on pharmacy, Bill Moyers’ work on public television, Rapoport gave millions to help low-income children in Waco,Texas. He also supported civil rights and resource essay voting rights, arts and culture, and social justice across the country and in Israel. He urged the politicians he supported to research, raise his taxes, and felt morally obligated to argue against his own privilege. In this essay, Moyers pays tribute to the man he admired, and resource essay paper the vital causes they shared. BILL MOYERS : Not a day passes, that we can’t see evidence of the great divide you just heard me talk about with Angela Blackwell. All you have to do is look at the news. The Wall Street Journal reports that big American companies have emerged from the deepest recession since World War II more profitable than ever: flush with cash, less burdened by debt, and with a greater share of the country’s income. One Child Research Paper? But, “many of the 1.1 million jobs the human resource, big companies added since 2007 were outside the U.S. So, too, was much of the $1.2 trillion added to corporate treasuries.” To add to this embarrassment of riches, corporate taxes today are at a 40-year low. Then look at career paper this report in the New York Times , last year, among the resource essay paper, 100 best-paid C.E.O.'s, the titles in research papers, median income was more than $14 million, compared with the average annual American salary of resource, $45,230. Combined, this happy hundred executives pulled down more than two billion dollars.

And according to of quarterly, the Times , “these C.E.O.’s might seem like pikers. Human Paper? Top hedge fund managers collectively earned $14.4 billion last year.” That’s Wall Street—the metaphorical bestiary of the top summer writing school, financial universe. But there is nothing metaphorical about the paper, earnings of hedge fund tigers, private equity lions, and the top dogs at those big banks that were bailed out by tax dollars after they helped chase our economy off a cliff. Creative Programs For High? So what do these Wall Street nabobs have to complain about? Why are they whining about reform? And why are they funneling cash to super PACs aimed at bringing down Barack Obama, who many of them supported four years ago? Because, says Alec MacGillis in “The New Republic” -- the president wants to human resource essay paper, raise their taxes. That’s right. While ordinary Americans are taxed at a top rate of 35 percent on one child research, their income, Congress allows hedge fund and private equity tycoons to pay only 15 percent on their compensation.

The president wants them to human resource essay, pay more, still at a rate below what you might pay, and for that he’s being accused of underline titles, – hold onto your combat helmets -- “class warfare.” One Wall Street Midas, once an Obama fan, now his foe, told MacGillis that that by making the rich a primary target, Obama is “… on people who are successful,” you fill in the blank. Paper? And can you believe this? Two years ago, when President Obama first tried to close that gaping loophole in our tax code, Stephen Schwarzman, who runs the world’s largest private equity fund, compared the do you movie titles papers, president’s action to Hitler’s invasion of Poland. Resource Essay? That’s the same Stephen Schwarzman whose agents in 2006 launched a predatory raid on a travel company in Colorado. His fund bought it, laid off 841 employees, and do you underline movie papers recouped its entire investment in human, just seven months. Last year alone, Schwarzman took home over $213 million in pay and dividends, that’s a third more than 2010. So Angela Blackwell was on the mark when she said this is a wealthy country, she also nailed it when she said one reason so many are not doing so well, despite that great wealth, is because the decision makers, and the people who have the money and influence, don’t feel connected to the rest of us. So you can understand why I’m going to miss Bernard Rapoport, who died this month at career age 94. B was my friend for half my life, and a long-time supporter of my work on public television. Human Resource? But more important, he was a capitalist with a conscience. His parents were Jewish immigrants from Russia who landed in Texas, where B was born dirt poor.

Poverty there either broke your heart or bit your ankles. And like a man with a bulldog at his heels, B scrambled up and out. He worked his way through the University of Texas, where he “flunked German,” he said, “to spite Hitler.” At age 24, he met his future wife Audre on a blind date – they were engaged the next day. Together they invested $25,000 to start a life insurance company, which they later sold for half a billion dollars. B would have given it all away, except for an uncanny ability to make money faster than he could dispose of essays, it. He and Audre gave millions to help low-income children in essay paper, Waco, the heart of Texas, where they lived modestly and career research paper on pharmacy where he died. Millions more to our beloved alma mater, the University of human paper, Texas; supported progressive causes and politicians, civil rights and voting rights, arts and paper culture, and resource social justice across the thesis of phd, country and in essay paper, Israel – from an eye clinic serving predominately Arab patients, and a high school for children of Israeli families who wanted to co-exist with Palestinians. And yes, they were generous to independent journalism: Molly Ivins was one of his darlings. Thesis Of Phd? And so was the tough little magazine The Texas Observer , that fearless watchdog that takes on the oligarchs who run the state. Not once, not once, did he ever suggest to me a story to cover or criticize one we did. It was hands-off all the way.

B was no Mother Teresa; many a poker player might leave his table in their underwear. But he stayed close to his roots, urged the resource paper, politicians he supported to raise his taxes, and felt morally obligated to argue against his own privilege. There weren’t many Texas tycoons who believed society not only has the right, but the need, to check and balance their appetites. It was the underline titles, only way democracy and capitalism could work. B read more books than anyone in human resource, business I have ever known, and he would send us one that especially moved him, usually about how democracy works, or doesn’t, or on the contradictions of wealth and power. He fretted as his energies began to list of quarterly essays, fade, and toward the paper, end he called almost every Saturday morning, and always beginning the thesis of phd, conversation with the same question: “Moyers, what can I do to make this world a better place?” You did plenty, my friend.

You did plenty. That’s all for this week. Resource? We want to policy research, call your attention to human essay, an upcoming special report. On Friday, April 20, our colleagues at Public Television’s Need to Know , in partnership with the school, Nation Institute, investigate whether U.S. Border Patrol agents have been using excessive force to curb illegal immigration. Essay? HUMBERTO NAVARRETE : He's not resisting. Why are you guys using excessive force on expository essay favorite food, him? JOHN LARSON : As you arrived there, what was the very first thing you heard?

HUMBERTO NAVARRETE : I heard Anastacio screaming and asking for help. ASHLEY YOUNG : He was being tased for human resource, several seconds and wasn’t moving. ASHLEY YOUNG : I think I witnessed someone being murdered. BILL MOYERS : That’s Friday, April 20th. Check your local listings.

Coming up on Moyers Company , historian and commentator Eric Alterman of The Nation magazine, and research Ross Douthat, columnist for The New York Times . Human Resource Paper? At our website, BillMoyers.com, remember Angela Blackwell said Americans don’t like to talk about paper on pharmacy, race, so what do you think goes unsaid? Share your thoughts on a special spotlight section of the website or link from there to our Facebook page. That’s it for human resource essay, now. See you next time. Bill Moyers is the managing editor of Moyers Company and BillMoyers.com. Study Shows Kids' Test Scores Drop When Their Food Stamps Run Out. States and Local Advocates Lead the Way for Criminal Legal System Reform. University of New Haven and Saudi Police: Big Money Makes Strange Bedfellows. Puerto Ricans Protest Trump's Visit, Denounce Militarization Amid Lack of Aid Distribution. They Don't Care Who the Guns Go To: Experts Warn Trump Administration Plans to Widen US Weapons Exports. Bill Moyers Essay: Capitalism With a Conscience.

With help from the government, a very friendly tax code, and their own coffer-powered influence, big American companies have emerged from the recession flush with cash, less burdened by debt, and with a greater share of the country’s income. As a consequence, Angela Blackwell suggests, people with enormous money and influence often don’t feel connected to the rest of us. But at movie titles in research least one man demonstrated that money doesn’t always corrupt one’s integrity or intentions: Bernard Rapoport . A “capitalist with a conscience” with an authentic connection to the struggles and values of resource, everyday Americans, Rapoport died this month at thesis of phd 94. A friend and human essay paper long-time supporter of Bill Moyers’ work on public television, Rapoport gave millions to underline titles in research papers, help low-income children in human resource paper, Waco,Texas. He also supported civil rights and voting rights, arts and culture, and social justice across the country and in Israel.

He urged the politicians he supported to underline movie papers, raise his taxes, and felt morally obligated to essay paper, argue against his own privilege. In this essay, Moyers pays tribute to the man he admired, and the vital causes they shared. BILL MOYERS : Not a day passes, that we can’t see evidence of the great divide you just heard me talk about with Angela Blackwell. All you have to do is look at the news. The Wall Street Journal reports that big American companies have emerged from the deepest recession since World War II more profitable than ever: flush with cash, less burdened by debt, and with a greater share of the top summer programs for high school, country’s income. But, “many of the human resource essay paper, 1.1 million jobs the big companies added since 2007 were outside the U.S. So, too, was much of the $1.2 trillion added to corporate treasuries.” To add to this embarrassment of riches, corporate taxes today are at one child policy paper a 40-year low. Then look at this report in essay paper, the New York Times , last year, among the 100 best-paid C.E.O.'s, the do you movie papers, median income was more than $14 million, compared with the average annual American salary of $45,230. Combined, this happy hundred executives pulled down more than two billion dollars. And according to the Times , “these C.E.O.’s might seem like pikers.

Top hedge fund managers collectively earned $14.4 billion last year.” That’s Wall Street—the metaphorical bestiary of the paper, financial universe. But there is nothing metaphorical about the earnings of hedge fund tigers, private equity lions, and do you underline movie titles papers the top dogs at those big banks that were bailed out by tax dollars after they helped chase our economy off a cliff. So what do these Wall Street nabobs have to complain about? Why are they whining about reform? And why are they funneling cash to super PACs aimed at bringing down Barack Obama, who many of human essay, them supported four years ago? Because, says Alec MacGillis in “The New Republic” -- the career research, president wants to raise their taxes. That’s right. While ordinary Americans are taxed at a top rate of 35 percent on their income, Congress allows hedge fund and private equity tycoons to pay only 15 percent on their compensation. The president wants them to essay paper, pay more, still at do you movie a rate below what you might pay, and for human, that he’s being accused of – hold onto career research your combat helmets -- “class warfare.” One Wall Street Midas, once an Obama fan, now his foe, told MacGillis that that by making the rich a primary target, Obama is resource essay “… on thesis of phd, people who are successful,” you fill in human essay, the blank. And can you believe this?

Two years ago, when President Obama first tried to close that gaping loophole in do you underline movie titles papers, our tax code, Stephen Schwarzman, who runs the resource, world’s largest private equity fund, compared the president’s action to Hitler’s invasion of Poland. That’s the creative writing school, same Stephen Schwarzman whose agents in 2006 launched a predatory raid on a travel company in Colorado. His fund bought it, laid off 841 employees, and recouped its entire investment in just seven months. Last year alone, Schwarzman took home over $213 million in pay and human resource essay paper dividends, that’s a third more than 2010. So Angela Blackwell was on the mark when she said this is a wealthy country, she also nailed it when she said one reason so many are not doing so well, despite that great wealth, is policy research because the decision makers, and the people who have the money and influence, don’t feel connected to the rest of us.

So you can understand why I’m going to miss Bernard Rapoport, who died this month at age 94. B was my friend for half my life, and human resource paper a long-time supporter of my work on list, public television. But more important, he was a capitalist with a conscience. His parents were Jewish immigrants from Russia who landed in resource essay, Texas, where B was born dirt poor. Poverty there either broke your heart or bit your ankles. And like a man with a bulldog at his heels, B scrambled up and out. He worked his way through the University of Texas, where he “flunked German,” he said, “to spite Hitler.” At age 24, he met his future wife Audre on thesis of phd, a blind date – they were engaged the next day. Together they invested $25,000 to resource, start a life insurance company, which they later sold for half a billion dollars. B would have given it all away, except for an uncanny ability to make money faster than he could dispose of it. He and Audre gave millions to list, help low-income children in Waco, the heart of Texas, where they lived modestly and where he died. Millions more to resource essay, our beloved alma mater, the University of Texas; supported progressive causes and politicians, civil rights and voting rights, arts and favorite culture, and social justice across the country and in resource essay paper, Israel – from an expository essay, eye clinic serving predominately Arab patients, and resource essay a high school for programs for high school, children of Israeli families who wanted to co-exist with Palestinians.

And yes, they were generous to independent journalism: Molly Ivins was one of his darlings. And so was the tough little magazine The Texas Observer , that fearless watchdog that takes on the oligarchs who run the state. Not once, not once, did he ever suggest to me a story to resource, cover or criticize one we did. It was hands-off all the way. B was no Mother Teresa; many a poker player might leave his table in their underwear. But he stayed close to his roots, urged the career research on pharmacy, politicians he supported to raise his taxes, and felt morally obligated to argue against his own privilege. Human Essay? There weren’t many Texas tycoons who believed society not only has the right, but the need, to check and balance their appetites. It was the only way democracy and capitalism could work. B read more books than anyone in business I have ever known, and he would send us one that especially moved him, usually about how democracy works, or doesn’t, or on the contradictions of wealth and power. He fretted as his energies began to fade, and list of quarterly toward the human resource essay paper, end he called almost every Saturday morning, and always beginning the conversation with the same question: “Moyers, what can I do to make this world a better place?” You did plenty, my friend.

You did plenty. That’s all for this week. We want to top summer writing programs students, call your attention to human resource essay paper, an upcoming special report. On Friday, April 20, our colleagues at policy paper Public Television’s Need to Know , in partnership with the Nation Institute, investigate whether U.S. Human Paper? Border Patrol agents have been using excessive force to curb illegal immigration. HUMBERTO NAVARRETE : He's not resisting. Why are you guys using excessive force on him? JOHN LARSON : As you arrived there, what was the very first thing you heard? HUMBERTO NAVARRETE : I heard Anastacio screaming and asking for help. ASHLEY YOUNG : He was being tased for several seconds and wasn’t moving. ASHLEY YOUNG : I think I witnessed someone being murdered.

BILL MOYERS : That’s Friday, April 20th. Expository Essay? Check your local listings. Coming up on Moyers Company , historian and commentator Eric Alterman of The Nation magazine, and Ross Douthat, columnist for The New York Times .

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Image Analysis Essay Essays and human Research Papers. does an image mean?’ or ‘What is this ad saying?’. Since there is underline movie no law which can guarantee that things will have ‘one, true meaning’, or that . the meaning won’t change over human resource time, work in one child this area is essay bound to be interpretative – a debate between, not who is ‘right’ and who is creative programs for high school ‘wrong’, but between equally plausible, though sometimes competing and essay contested, meanings and interpretations” Hall, S. (1997) Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying Practices Using visual analysis , discuss. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Fashion , Iraq War 1413 Words | 5 Pages. ? Andrew Cox Image Analysis Essay - Final Draft ENG 111/25F/TR 2:30-3:50 11/13/2014 [email protected] . Men’s magazines feature articles concerning topic of writing for high school students, interest to their subscribers: alcohol, sports cars, hunting and fishing, politics, scientifc and human resource essay paper technological breakthroughs, travel, and dating.

Some also boast of interviews with the list of quarterly rich and famous and human resource essay of short stories by popular writers. You can expect there to thesis of phd be jokes and cartoons too mostly about sexul matters. The main. Advertising , Attention , Girl 1052 Words | 6 Pages. Eleanor Stalick English 101, sec DE July 26, 2013 Final Draft Essay 1 - Image Analysis on Maus Some said . they were too powerful, some said they were too different. Words like ‘inferior’, ‘outsiders’, and human essay paper ‘scapegoat’ were their labels. Those not afraid of them would ask: Did you actually cause the Black Plague? What about the research on pharmacy spread of AIDS in human paper Europe? Did you kill Jesus Christ? Regardless of how peacefully they walked down the top summer writing programs for high students street, people would cross to the opposite side. Ever since the.

Antisemitism , Hungary , Israel 1883 Words | 5 Pages. consequences of binge drinking Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board released a series of resource, Public Service Announcements and essays launched a website to educate its . target young audience to resource paper be careful while drinking. The public service announcements use very specific image and thesis of phd text placement, typography, and color to make their message evident in the still PSAs. In general when a person looks at something they scan left to right, top to bottom, or at least primarily in English speaking areas, as that is how we read. Advertising , Binge drinking , Drinking culture 914 Words | 4 Pages.

Rhetorical Analysis on Ads in Magazines Magazines are gaining in popularity nowadays as a tool not only to provide information, but also to . advertise ads on products that are available on the market. Since magazines gain readers with different kinds of resource essay, interest, what are the rhetorical strategies used by advertisers to market similar products to different target audiences of similar culture? Capturing the writing programs for high school target audiences’ attention requires understanding about the audiences which open new avenues. Advertising , Audience , Audience theory 1818 Words | 4 Pages. down in front of resource essay, a glass wall. Creative Programs Students! The young girl, appearing to be a young teenager, has a look of paper, inspiration on her face as she stares through the essay favorite food foggy glass . at a small dog. The focus of the picture is the dog and it’s owner because of the blurred image of the girl behind the glass.

However, the actual focus of the picture is the human resource essay little girl, patiently hoping to get out of radiation, and to live her life happily like the dog. The vantage point of thesis of phd, this photo instills power into the photo because it. Chernobyl disaster , Lists of resource essay, nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents , Nuclear fission 1334 Words | 4 Pages. There are various image analysis concepts that are used in the Bell Ross watch advertisement to portray its meaning. These . include image choice and cropping, visual modality, anchorage, and topography. This essay will analyse the different analysis concepts used and favorite food explain how these are used by the advertiser to convey the potential meanings behind this particular advertisement. This will be done through its visual content, both image and text. Image choice and cropping is a media-specific code. 1920s , Advertising , Clock 1104 Words | 3 Pages. Analyzing the Power and the Impact of Images Assignment: In a text based, thesis driven essay , develop a detailed explanation . of the relationship between image and reality, and analyze the significance of human resource paper, your findings. To develop your discussion, consider the psychological and/or emotional appeals behind the images presented by list of quarterly essays, the media, and the intended impact thereof.

Further, juxtapose what these images convey, the resource essay paper stereotypes and/or the promises they make, with reality, to expose the. Bibliography , Essay , Essays 808 Words | 3 Pages. and van Leeuwen theoretical framework, an image simultaneously performs three semiotic tasks to make meaning which are representational . metafunction, interpersonal metafunction, and top summer writing school compositional metafunction. In this paper, I will analysis the below image (Firgure 1) basic on these three metafunctions. Resource! The choosen image is an re-made image extract from top summer creative writing programs school students South Chinese Morning Post. It is a combination of image and text.

This paper will mainly focus on image analysing. [pic] Figure 1. Agence France-Presse , Aung San Suu Kyi , E-participation 1228 Words | 4 Pages. ‘Esquire Magazine’ (March 1965) Contextual Studies Essay , GD Year 1, Sophie Costello Image Analysis I’ll be . researching the image on human paper the front cover of an Esquire magazine, titled 'The Masculinisation of the list American Woman' Issue no. 376 (March, 1965), the Verna Lisi cover in a photo shoot showcasing the iconic blonde caught mid-shave. I found the image in resource paper a book by Richard Hollis called ‘Graphic Design, A concise History’ (2001).

The reason I chose to study this advert was because it stood. How to underline titles in research papers Murder Your Wife , Jessica Simpson , La Reine Margot 2095 Words | 6 Pages. ? Image Analysis Introduction For this . term, I choice the image above about a sculpture called “The Young Family” by Patricia Piccinini in human resource paper the Bendigo Art Gallery. This series as her the most famous work have been exhibited in essays many galleries and museums. The Young Family, which Piccinini created for the 50th Venice Biennale, shows a creature between animal and human that we respect her as something more than just.

Art , Human , Meaning of life 1101 Words | 4 Pages. 093-46C Advertisement Analysis Essay #2 March 19, 2013 Pepsi Next “Dancing Baby” There are several different types of . advertising in human resource essay the world today, like newspaper ads and thesis of phd magazine ads. Human Essay Paper! Then there are commercials, they can be very manipulative in persuading specific audiences to buy their products. In the Pepsi Next “Dancing Baby” commercial, they use what is called a trick image . It is the funniest part of the commercial and is what makes it so appealing. This trick image is the thesis of phd baby in the back. Appeal , Coca-Cola , Comedy 1010 Words | 3 Pages.

?Kalena Farrington Ms. Chavis 1113/Comp. Human Essay Paper! 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are . destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging our sentences; raping our vocabulary. And they must be stopped.” This quote from John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by career research, abbreviating a lot of our words. How people, more specifically. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Analysis on human resource “Shoot an Elephant” Essar Essay Analysis 1 Running Head: ESSAY ANALYSIS PAPER Essay . Analysis on “Shoot an Elephant” Michael J. Writing! Charley University of human resource, Phoenix Instructor: Dr. Career Paper! Vanessa Holmes Course: Business Literature Essay Analysis 2 George Orwell's essay 'Shooting an Elephant' gives a great insight into the human mind. The essay gives a good theme of human resource, inner conflict. Thesis Of Phd! Orwell feels strong inner conflict between what he believes as a human being, and what he believes and should do as an imperial.

British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1289 Words | 4 Pages. and discuss two images of Jesus from the New Testament. What is resource essay paper their relevance today? Word Count: 1528 Throughout the . New Testament we are presented with various images of Jesus Christ, this is in no small part due to the wealth of his personality and the many aspects of this we are introduced to through the thesis of phd Gospels and in Paul’s letters. This essay will discuss and analyse two of these images : “The Teacher and “The Healer.” Whilst discussing what these images tell us about. Gospel , Gospel of resource essay, John , Gospel of expository favorite, Mark 1766 Words | 5 Pages. Body Image , Self Concept and resource essay paper Self Esteem Summary: Sports and career research paper media advertising effect people's perception of body image and . present an unrealistic view of how one's body should look. This can cause body image and self-esteem issues for human resource essay some people, causing them to attempt unhealthy diets. Body Image , Self Concept and Self Esteem Awareness of one child policy paper, body image and self esteem issues has become a prevalent issue in human resource essay paper today's culture. Paper! Doctors at the forefront of teen physiological development and research. Advertising , Beach volleyball , Body image 1916 Words | 5 Pages.

February 5, 2013 ENG 401 Word Count: 1705 Analysis Essay Since the first GI Bill was passed after World War II, the resource . Of Quarterly! number of universities in the United States has been steadily increasing. Currently there are more than 4000 college-like institutions in resource the United States. Public policy has made higher education more reachable than it was in the past. Top Summer Creative Students! For example, by creating federal student loan programs have been created so everyone has an equal opportunity to attend college, if they. Academic degree , College , Community college 1708 Words | 5 Pages. ? Analysis of an essay essay A nice cup of tea By: George Orwell Submitted by: submitted to: Vincent B. One Child Policy! Reyes . Mme. Cecilia III-Justice Valdez A nice cup of tea If you look up ‘tea’ in essay paper the first cookery book that comes to hand you will probably find that it is unmentioned; or at most you will find a few lines of movie titles, sketchy instructions which give no ruling on human resource paper several ofthe most important points. This is do you underline movie titles in research curious, not only because tea is one of the main. Caffeine , Coffee , Sri Lanka 1428 Words | 4 Pages. TEXTUAL ANALYSIS ESSAY By Bianca A Like advertisements, magazine covers are skilfully and essay paper purposely crafted to do you underline in research tempt and lure . Human Essay! consumers into buying the product. It is in the best interest of the thesis of phd producers (sender) to resource essay aim their text (message/sign system) towards their desired target audience (receiver).

Using the techniques of semiology, I will analyse the types and one child components of signs and resource codes, with which the media communicates through magazine covers. This method of textual analysis is the breaking. Advertising , Connotation , Denotation 1788 Words | 5 Pages. Analysis Essay CJ/407 Monday May 26, 2014 The Attica Prison Riot This paper reflects on . two crisis situations, The 1972 Olympic Terrorist attack in Munich, Germany, and The Attica Prison Riot of 1971. This paper will discuss what went wrong on behalf of the negotiators and how things could’ve of different with a properly trained crisis negotiation team. The ongoing crisis staging in prisons and at local police departments makes it possible for a crisis team. Hostage , Negotiation , Nelson Rockefeller 865 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis Essay : “Shooting an programs for high school Elephant” by George Orwell How we choose to govern ourselves has taken many forms throughout world . Human Essay Paper! history.

From dictatorships to policy paper democracies, the rulers and the ruled struggle for power. This struggle was a topic Orwell wrote about often, including his essay “Shooting an Elephant.” Leaders are always seeking ways to maintain control over resource essay paper the people and in some societies this has resulted in very authoritarian rulers. The notion that individual thought is dangerous. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 915 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Meta Image Not to Be Reproduced Not to be Reproduced (La reproduction interdite, 1937) Rene Magritte Paige Williams Media Aesthetics (Huma 1600) Dustin Brown October 22, 2012 . Essay One Often in art galleries one can find masses of people carefully inspecting precious paintings and paper other works. Currently, the common practice for resource essay both novices and experts alike is to closely examine each piece of work for a deeper, disguised meaning that every artist has somehow instilled in list his or her creations. Despite the popularity of. Face , Human , Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen 770 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Photo Analysis Image from: Hudson, Joshua. (2008, June 28).

Fun With f/stops-The Secret of f/2.8. The Camera Chronicle. . Resource Essay Paper! Retrieved September 29, 2010, from thesis of phd http://camerachronicle.com/2008/06/28/fun-with-fstops-the-secret-of-f28/ There exist many factors one might both examine and manipulate in order to create a photograph that creates more appeal and emotional impact than an image that has simply been “snapped”. I will consider several of these variables in resource an examination of a photograph of. Angle of view , Depth of field , Focal length 807 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Analysis of Thus Spoke Zarathustra Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra is a philosophical piece of . Research! work, which speaks about human resource, crises, which exist in humanity based on the soul of the “last man” in different ways. The last man’s soul is unable to reach fully its full meaning and the values beyond it. Essay Food! This essay analyses six sections in light of this.

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Thesis Statement (one sentence that sums up your specific interpretation of the of quarterly story): In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Feminism , Historiography 634 Words | 3 Pages. big-busted blond is essay paper hard to miss and is definitely successful with the intended goal. It is easy to career research paper on pharmacy assume this ad specifically targets men with the . Human Resource Essay Paper! over-indulged woman as the main focus, but subliminally also targets women with appearance and body image pressure. This advertisement uses the provocative imagery of an expository favorite food unnaturally large-chested woman to represent the societal norms where finding something genuine is uncommon, the way the fries are portrayed, giving an insight to social reality, its. Heteronormativity , Mores , Reality 842 Words | 3 Pages. Francis Bacon died at Highgate, in the Earl of human paper, Arundel's house. “Of Studies” is the first essay of the first collection of ten . essays of Francis Bacon which was published in list of quarterly 1597. But it was revised for the edition of human resource, 1612.

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African American , Black people , Race 866 Words | 3 Pages. 1458 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 20, NO. 5, MAY 2011 IMAGE Resolution Enhancement by Using Discrete and resource paper . Expository Essay! Stationary Wavelet Decomposition Hasan Demirel and Gholamreza Anbarjafari Abstract—In this correspondence, the authors propose an image resolution enhancement technique based on interpolation of the essay paper high frequency subband images obtained by research paper, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the input image . The edges are enhanced by introducing an human resource essay intermediate stage by using stationary. 2027 Words | 7 Pages. Object-Based Image Analysis Using Multiscale Connectivity.’

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Character Analysis Essay English II As part of our study of the novel Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, you will be writing . a character analysis essay . Below are the criteria of this assignment. Criteria ? Choose a character to analyze. ¦ George, Lennie, Slim, Curly, Curly’s Wife ? Identify one dominant characteristic of thesis of phd, that character. ¦ DO NOT choose a physical characteristic. ¦ Choose a PERSONALITY trait. ? Develop your analysis of the character by finding and analyzing. Character , Fiction , John Steinbeck 474 Words | 3 Pages. ? Images offer a powerful way to communicate. Paper! A single image can relate more to a person than text can. An artist can create a . piece of artwork to top summer creative programs school students express how he or she feels or how they see something. Over time the art that was created long ago can change meaning from what the artist originally intended and the perception can change as well, either through mystification or personal experiences. Author John Berger in his book Ways of Seeing writes about the human essay paper various ways in which this can happen. Aesthetics , Art , John Berger 1244 Words | 5 Pages.

Essay Analysis Paper “Each year I watched the field across from the Store turn caterpillar green, then gradually frosty white. . I knew exactly how long it would be before the big wagons would pull into the front yard and programs school students load on the cotton pickers at daybreak to carry them to human resource essay paper the remains of thesis of phd, slavery’s plantations” (Angelou, p. Human Resource Paper! 115). Maya Angelou describes the top summer students life of cotton-pickers in the nonfiction story, “Cotton-Picking Time.” This paper will give an analysis of “Cotton-Picking Time” and human essay discuss. Cotton , Cotton picker , Essay 907 Words | 3 Pages.

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Subchapter B. PERMITS, TRANSFERS AND OBJECTIONS. 78.12. Compliance with permit. 78.14. Transfer of well ownership or change of paper, address. 78.16. Accelerated permit review. 78.18. Disposal and enhanced recovery well permits. 78.19. One Child Research! Permit application fee schedule.

78.21. Opportunity for objections and conferences; surface landowners. 78.22. Objections by paper owner or operator of coal mine. 78.23. Time for filing objections by owner or operator of coal mine. 78.24. Information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of top summer writing students, coal mine. 78.26.

Agreement at conference. 78.27. Continuation of conference. 78.28. Final action if objections do not proceed to panel. 78.29. Composition of panel. 78.30. Jurisdiction of panel. 78.31. Scheduling of meeting by the panel.

78.32. Recommendation by the panel. 78.33. Effect of panel on time for essay paper, permit issuance. (a) No person may drill or alter a well unless that person has first obtained a permit from the Department. (b) No person may operate a well unless one of the following conditions has been met: (1) The person has obtained a permit under the act. (2) The person has registered the well under the act. (3) The well was in operation on do you underline titles, April 18, 1985, under a permit that was obtained under the paper, Gas Operations Well-Drilling Petroleum and Coal Mining Act (52 P. S. § § 2104, 2208, 2601 and 2602) (Repealed). The provisions of career research paper, this § 78.11 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.18 (relating to disposal and enhanced recovery well permits). A person may not drill, alter or operate an oil or gas well except in paper, accordance with a permit or registration issued under the act and in compliance with the paper on pharmacy, terms and conditions of the permit, this chapter and the statutes under which it was promulgated. Resource Essay! A copy of the permit shall be kept at the well site during drilling or alteration of a well. The provisions of top summer creative writing programs, this § 78.12 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138804). (a) No transfer, assignment or sale of rights granted under a permit or registration may be made without prior written approval of the Department. Permit transfers may be denied for the reasons set forth in section 201(e)(4) and human resource essay paper (5) of the act (58 P. Career Research Paper On Pharmacy! S. § 601.201(e)(4) and (5)). (b) The Department may require the transferee to fulfill the drilling, plugging, well site restoration, water supply replacement and resource other requirements of the act, regardless of whether the transferor commenced the essay food, activity and regardless of whether the transferor failed to human resource essay, properly perform the transferor#146;s obligations under the of quarterly essays, act. The provisions of this § 78.13 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. § 78.14.

Transfer of well ownership or change of address. (a) Within 30 days after the sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance or exchange of a well, the essay paper, new owner or operator shall notify the Department, in on pharmacy, writing, of the transfer of ownership. (b) The notice shall include the following information: (1) The names, addresses and telephone numbers of the former and human resource new owner, and the agent if applicable. (2) The well permit or registration number. (3) The effective date of the list essays, transfer of ownership. (4) An application for a well permit transfer if there is a change in paper, the well operator. (c) The permittee shall notify the Department of a change in address or name within 30 days of the change.

The provisions of this § 78.14 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Thesis Of Phd! 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234. Essay Paper! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (193955) to (193956). (a) An application for a well permit shall be submitted on forms furnished by the Department and thesis of phd contain the information required by paper the Department to evaluate the application. (b) The permit application will not be considered complete until the policy research paper, applicant submits a complete and accurate plat, an approvable bond or other means of complying with section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215), the human paper, fee in compliance with § 78.19 (relating to permit application fee schedule), proof of top summer school, notification, necessary requests for variance or waivers or other documents required to be furnished by law or the human resource paper, Department.

The person named in the permit shall be the same person named in the bond or other security. The provisions of this § 78.15 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended April 17, 2009, effective April 18, 2009, 39 Pa.B. Thesis Of Phd! 1982. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276300). In cases of hardship, an operator may request an accelerated review of human resource, a well permit application. Research Paper! For the purposes of this section, hardship includes cases where immediate action is necessary to human resource essay paper, protect public health or safety, to control pollution or to effect other environmental or safety measures, and extraordinary circumstances beyond the control of the operator. Permits issued shall be consistent with the thesis of phd, requirements of the act. The provisions of this § 78.16 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. An operator may request a 1-year renewal of a well permit. The request shall be accompanied by a permit fee, the surcharge required in section 601 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.601), and an affidavit affirming that the information on the original application is still accurate and complete, that the well location restrictions are still met and that the surface owners, coal owners and operators, gas storage operators, where the permit renewal is for human, a proposed well location within an underground gas storage reservoir or the reservoir protective area, and water supply owners within 1,000 feet have been notified of this request for renewal. The request shall be received by movie in research the Department at human resource essay, least 15 calendar days prior to the expiration of the original permit. The provisions of this § 78.17 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (263008).

§ 78.18. Disposal and enhanced recovery well permits. (a) A person may not drill a disposal or enhanced recovery well or alter an expository favorite food, existing well to be a disposal or enhanced recovery well unless the person: (1) Obtains a well permit under § 78.11 (relating to permit requirements). (2) Submits with the well permit application a copy of the well permit, approved permit application and required related documentation submitted for the disposal or enhanced recovery well to the EPA under 40 CFR Part 146 (relating to underground injection control program). (3) Submits a copy of a control and disposal plan for human essay paper, the disposal or enhanced recovery well and related facilities that meets the requirements of list essays, § 91.34 (relating to activities utilizing pollutants). (4) Submits a copy of an erosion and human resource essay sedimentation plan for do you underline movie titles, the disposal or enhanced recovery well site that meets the requirements of Chapter 102 and § 78.53 (relating to erosion and resource sediment control; and erosion and sedimentation control). (b) By December 18, 1995, an operator of disposal or enhanced recovery wells which were operating before December 18, 1995, shall submit to the Department a list of the operator#146;s disposal or enhanced recovery wells including: (1) The Department#146;s permit or registration number for each well on this list. (2) The corresponding permit number issued to each well on this list by list of quarterly essays the EPA. (c) A person who operates multiple well projects may submit one copy of the documents required under subsection (a) if the documents are applicable to the entire project. The provisions of this § 78.18 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78a.18 (relating to disposal and enhanced recovery well permits); and 25 Pa. Code § 95.10 (relating to treatment requirements for new and expanding mass loadings of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)). § 78.19. Human Resource Paper! Permit application fee schedule. (a) An applicant shall pay a permit application fee according to the following schedule: (b) An applicant for a conventional well exceeding 12,000 feet in total well bore length shall pay a permit application fee of $1,950 + $100 for every 500 feet the well bore extends over thesis of phd 12,000 feet. Fees shall be rounded to the nearest 500-foot interval under this subsection. (c) If, when drilled, the total well bore length of the conventional well exceeds the length specified in the permit application due to target formation being deeper than anticipated at human resource essay, the time of application submittal, the operator shall pay the difference between the amount paid as part of the permit application and the amount required under subsections (a) and career research on pharmacy (b).

(d) An applicant for a conventional well with a well bore length of human resource essay, 1,500 feet or less for essays, home use shall pay a permit application fee of $200. (e) At least every 3 years, the Department will provide the EQB with an evaluation of the fees in this chapter and recommend regulatory changes to the EQB to address any disparity between the program income generated by the fees and the Department#146;s cost of administering the human essay paper, program with the objective of one child policy research paper, ensuring fees meet all program costs and programs are self-sustaining. The provisions of human, this § 78.19 amended under sections 201(d) and 604 of the Oil and Gas Act (58 P.S. § § 601.201(d) and thesis of phd 601.604) (Repealed); sections 1917-A and 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-17 and 510-20); 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3211(d), 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of human, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the underline movie in research, Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and resource Encroachments Act (32 P.S. § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and expository food 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); and section 13.2 of the act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E). The provisions of this § 78.19 adopted April 17, 2009, effective April 18, 2009, 39 Pa.B. Resource Essay Paper! 1982; amended October 23, 2009, effective October 24, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 6232; amended June 13, 2014, effective June 14, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 3517; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (372299) to thesis of phd, (372300). This section cited in human resource paper, 25 Pa. Code § 78.15 (relating to application requirements). § 78.21. Opportunity for objections and conferences; surface landowners. (a) The surface landowner of the tract on which the proposed well is located may object to the well location based on the assertion that the well location violates section 205 of the act (58 P. Policy! S. § 601.205) or on the basis that the human paper, information in the application is untrue in a material respect, and request a conference under section 501 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.501).

(b) The objection and request for a conference shall be filed in writing with the Department within 15 calendar days of receipt of the plat by one child policy the surface landowner. The objection shall contain the following: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person submitting the objection. (2) The name of the well operator, and the name and number of the resource paper, proposed well. (3) A statement of the objection and a request for a conference if a conference is being requested. The provisions of this § 78.21 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Research! 3229. § 78.22. Objections by owner or operator of coal mine. The owner or operator of an resource essay, operating coal mine or a coal mine already projected and platted, but not yet being operated, may file written objections to a proposed well location with the thesis of phd, Department if the following apply: (1) The well, when drilled, would penetrate within the outside coal boundaries of such a mine or within 1,000 feet beyond the human resource, boundaries. (2) In the opinion of the owner or operator, the well will unduly interfere with or endanger the movie titles in research papers, mine or persons working in the mine. The provisions of human resource, this § 78.22 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.23. Time for filing objections by owner or operator of coal mine. (a) A coal mine owner or operator who objects to a proposed gas well for of quarterly, financial considerations, and wishes to go before a panel with an objection over which the panel has jurisdiction, shall file objections to a proposed gas well within 10-calendar days of the receipt of the plat. (b) A coal mine owner or operator who does not wish to go before a panel with an objection over which the panel has jurisdiction, or who is not raising financial objections to resource, the proposed gas well, shall file objections to a proposed oil or gas well within 15 calendar days of the receipt of the plat.

The provisions of this § 78.23 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. One Child Policy Paper! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.24. Information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine.

(a) The objections shall be filed in writing and shall contain the essay paper, following information, if applicable: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person filing the objection, and the date on which a copy of the plat was received. (2) The name and address of the applicant for the well permit and the name and number of the well. (3) The type of well#151;for example, oil, gas, injection and the like#151;that is the subject of the objections. (4) The location of the well in relation to the coal owned or operated by the objecting party. (5) The area through which the well will be drilled, specifically: (i) Whether the thesis of phd, well will be drilled through a mining area that is projected, platted or permitted, but not yet being operated. (ii) Whether the well will be drilled through a perimeter area. (iii) Whether the well will penetrate a workable coal seam. (iv) Whether the well will be located above an paper, active mine. (v) Whether the well will penetrate an operating mine. (6) A copy of the plans, maps or projections of the mining area underlying the proposed gas well showing the location of the proposed well. (7) Whether the owner or operator believes that the well will pose undue interference or endangerment to the mine, and of quarterly the nature of the threat.

(8) The financial impact posed by essay the well, to which objections may be heard by a panel under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel). (9) Whether the well will violate the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. Of Quarterly! S. § § 501#151;518) or another applicable law administered by the Department. (b) The objections shall include an alternate location, if possible, on the tract of the human resource paper, well operator that would overcome the objections or at creative, which the interference would be minimized. Resource Essay Paper! The Department is research paper, not bound to consider alternate locations that are proposed after the close of the first conference. The provisions of this § 78.24 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Resource Essay Paper! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). (a) If a timely objection to the location is filed by the coal owner or operator under § § 78.22#151;78.24 (relating to thesis of phd, objections by paper owner or operator of coal mine; time for filing objections by owner or operator of policy research, coal mine; and information to essay, be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine), or if objections are made by essay the Department, the Department will fix a time and place for a conference within 10 calendar days from the date of service of the objections upon the well operator, unless all parties agree to an extension of time for the conference. (b) The Department may decide not to hold a conference if it determines that the objections are not valid or if the human resource essay paper, objection is resolved. (c) The Department will attempt to schedule the conference as late as possible in the 10-day period if the well is thesis of phd, subject to human, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § § 501#151;518). The Department will not schedule a conference under section 202 of the act (58 P. S. Thesis Of Phd! § 601.202) if it receives written notice that the gas well operator or the coal mine owner or operator has made a written request to convene a panel to resolve objections to the location of a gas well over which a panel has jurisdiction in human resource essay paper, accordance with § § 78.29#151;78.33. (d) The conference shall be governed by § § 78.26#151;78.28 (relating to agreement at conference; continuation of conference; and career research paper on pharmacy final action if objections do not proceed to panel). (e) The Department or a person having a direct interest in the subject matter of the act may request a conference any time to attempt to resolve by mutual agreement a matter arising under the act. The provisions of this § 78.25 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in resource essay, 25 Pa. Code § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel). (a) If the parties reach an agreement at the conference, and if the Department approves the location, the list, Department will cause the agreement to be reduced to writing. (b) If the human essay, Department does not reject the agreement within 10 calendar days after the agreement is reduced to writing, the agreement becomes effective. (c) An agreement reached at the conference shall be consistent with the requirements of the act and applicable statutes. Programs Students! An agreement that is not in accordance with the act, the human essay paper, Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § § 501#151;518) and applicable law shall be deemed to be null and underline titles papers void. The provisions of this § 78.26 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general).

The Department may continue the conference for good cause. Resource! Good cause includes one or more of the one child, following: (1) The need for supplemental data, maps or surveys. (2) The need to verify that the agreement or a proposed well location is consistent with the requirements of the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P.S. Resource Essay! § § 501#151;518) and other applicable requirements. (3) The need for the presence of essential witnesses whose unavailability is due to good cause. (4) The need for further investigation into the allegations that are the basis for the objections. (5) Agreement by all parties that a continuance is beneficial to the resolution of the objections. The provisions of this § 78.27 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in thesis of phd, 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.28. Final action if objections do not proceed to panel. If the panel does not have jurisdiction of the objections, under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel), or if the panel has jurisdiction but the parties choose not to paper, proceed to a panel, the Department may proceed to issue or deny the permit, under sections 201 and 202 of the act (58 P. S. § § 601.201 and 601.202). No permit will be issued for a well at a location that in thesis of phd, the opinion of the Department would endanger the safety of persons working in a coal mine. The provisions of this § 78.28 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). (a) If the gas well operator and the objecting coal owner or operator are unable to agree upon resource essay a drilling location, and the gas well is subject to the jurisdiction of research, a panel under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel), the well operator or a coal owner or operator may convene a panel. (b) The panel shall consist of one person selected by the objecting coal owners or operators, a second person selected by the permit applicant and a third selected by these two. (c) The parties shall submit their positions to the panel within such time as the panel prescribes, in essay, accordance with section 12 of the expository, Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § 512). The provisions of this § 78.29 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). (a) A panel shall hear objections by the owner or operator of the coal mining area only if the proposed gas well is not subject to the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P. S. § § 401#151;419) and one of the following applies: (1) The well will be drilled through an area that is projected and permitted, but not yet being operated. (2) The well will be drilled through a perimeter area.

(3) The well will penetrate a workable coal seam, and will be located above an active mine, but will not penetrate an operating mine. (b) The panel shall hear only objections that were filed by the owner or operator of the mining areas set forth in subsection (a). (c) If after a conference in accordance with § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general), the Department has unresolved objections, the panel does not have jurisdiction to convene or to hear objections. The provisions of this § 78.30 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.24 (relating to information to be provided with objections by resource paper owner or operator of coal mine); 25 Pa. Essay Favorite! Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general); 25 Pa. Code § 78.28 (relating to human resource essay paper, final action if objections do not proceed to panel); and of quarterly essays 25 Pa.

Code § 78.29 (relating to composition of human essay, panel). § 78.31. Scheduling of meeting by the panel. The panel shall convene a meeting within 10-calendar days of the panel chairperson#146;s receipt of one child policy research paper, a written request to do so by the permit applicant or by the objecting coal owner or operator. The provisions of this § 78.31 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.32 (relating to recommendation by the panel). (a) The panel shall make its recommendation of resource paper, where the proposed well should be located, based upon the financial considerations of the parties. (b) The panel shall make its recommendation within 10-calendar days of the close of the meeting held under § 78.31 (relating to scheduling of meeting by the panel). (c) If the do you underline movie in research papers, Department determines that the first recommended location endangers a mine or the public, it will reject the location and notify the resource, panel to make another recommendation. The panel shall submit another recommended location to the Department within 10 calendar days of the Department#146;s notification. (d) If the Department determines that the second recommended location endangers a mine or the public, the Department may designate a location where it has determined that the well will not unduly interfere with or endanger the mine or the public and issue a permit for underline movie, the well at human paper, that designated location. However, if the Department has not designated such a location, and if the Department determines that a well drilled at any proposed or panel-recommended alternate location will unduly interfere with or endanger the mine or the public, it will deny the permit. (e) No permit will be issued for policy research paper, a well at a location that would, in the opinion of the Department, endanger the safety of persons working in human essay, a coal mine. The provisions of policy research paper, this § 78.32 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.33. Effect of panel on time for permit issuance. The period of time during which the objections are being considered by a full panel is not included in resource, the 45-day period for thesis of phd, the issuance or denial of a permit under section 201(e) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201(e)). The provisions of this § 78.33 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to human resource essay, conferences#151;general). Subchapter C. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 78.51. Protection of water supplies. 78.52.

Predrilling or prealteration survey. 78.53. Erosion and sediment control. 78.55. Control and disposal planning. 78.56. One Child Research! Pits and human tanks for list, temporary containment. 78.57. Human Essay Paper! Control, storage and disposal of production fluids. 78.58. Existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of production fluids.

78.61. Disposal of drill cuttings. 78.62. Disposal of residual waste#151;pits. 78.63. Disposal of residual waste#151;land application. 78.64. Containment around oil tanks. § 78.51. Protection of water supplies. (a) A well operator who affects a public or private water supply by pollution or diminution shall restore or replace the affected supply with an alternate source of water adequate in quantity and quality for the purposes served by the supply as determined by the Department.

(b) A landowner, water purveyor or affected person suffering pollution or diminution of policy research paper, a water supply as a result of drilling, altering or operating an oil or gas well may so notify the Department and human request that an investigation be conducted. In Research Papers! The notice and request must include the following: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person requesting the investigation. (2) The type, location and use of the water supply. (3) Available background quality and quantity data regarding the water supply, if known. (4) Well depth, pump setting and water level, if known. (5) A description of the pollution or diminution. (c) Within 10 days of the receipt of the investigation request, the Department will investigate the paper, claim and top summer writing programs for high school will, within 45 days of receipt of the resource, request, make a determination. Research Paper On Pharmacy! If the Department finds that pollution or diminution was caused by the drilling, alteration or operation activities or if it presumes the well operator responsible for resource essay paper, polluting the one child paper, water supply of the human, landowner or water purveyor under section 208(c) of the act (58 P. S. Research Paper! § 601.208(c)), the Department will issue orders to the well operator necessary to assure compliance with this section. (d) A restored or replaced water supply includes any well, spring, public water system or other water supply approved by the Department, which meets the criteria for human resource, adequacy as follows: (1) Reliability, cost, maintenance and control. A restored or replaced water supply, at a minimum, must: (i) Be as reliable as the previous water supply.

(ii) Be as permanent as the previous water supply. (iii) Not require excessive maintenance. (iv) Provide the water user with as much control and accessibility as exercised over do you movie in research the previous water supply. (v) Not result in human paper, increased costs to operate and expository essay favorite food maintain. If the operating and maintenance costs of the human paper, restored or replaced water supply are increased, the operator shall provide for permanent payment of the increased operating and maintenance costs of the restored or replaced water supply. (2) Quality. The quality of a restored or replaced water supply will be deemed adequate if it meets the standards established under the Pennsylvania Safe Drinking Water Act (35 P. S. § § 721.1#151;721.17), or is comparable to the quality of the water supply before it was affected by the operator if that water supply did not meet these standards. (3) Adequate quantity. A restored or replaced water supply will be deemed adequate in quantity if it meets one of the following as determined by the Department: (i) It delivers the amount of water necessary to satisfy the water user#146;s needs and the demands of any reasonably foreseeable uses.

(ii) It is established through a connection to a public water supply system that is capable of expository favorite, delivering the amount of human paper, water necessary to satisfy the underline titles papers, water user#146;s needs and the demands of any reasonably foreseeable uses. (iii) For purposes of human essay paper, this paragraph and with respect to agricultural water supplies, the term reasonably foreseeable uses includes the underline titles in research, reasonable expansion of use where the essay, water supply available prior to drilling exceeded the actual use. (4) Water source serviceability. Replacement of a water supply includes providing plumbing, conveyance, pumping or auxiliary equipment and do you in research facilities necessary for the water user to utilize the water supply. (e) If the water supply is for uses other than human consumption, the operator shall demonstrate to the Department#146;s satisfaction that the resource essay paper, restored or replaced water supply is adequate for the purposes served by the supply. (f) Tank trucks or bottled water are acceptable only as temporary water replacement for a period approved by the Department and do not relieve the research paper on pharmacy, operator of the resource, obligation to provide a restored or replaced water supply. (g) If the well operator and the water user are unable to reach agreement on the means for restoring or replacing the water supply, the Department or either party may request a conference under section 501 of the act (58 P. Thesis Of Phd! S. § 601.501). (h) A well operator who receives notice from a landowner, water purveyor or affected person that a water supply has been affected by pollution or diminution, shall report receipt of notice from an resource essay, affected person to the Department within 24 hours of paper on pharmacy, receiving the notice.

The provisions of this § 78.51 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (350764) and (317133). § 78.52. Predrilling or prealteration survey.

(a) A well operator who wishes to preserve its defense under section 208(d)(1) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.208 (d)(1)) that the pollution of a water supply existed prior to the drilling or alteration of the well shall conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey in accordance with this section. (b) A person who wishes to document the quality of human resource essay, a water supply to support a future claim that the drilling or alteration of the thesis of phd, well affected the human essay, water supply by pollution may conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey in accordance with this section. (c) The survey shall be conducted by an independent certified laboratory. Of Quarterly Essays! A person independent of the well owner or well operator, other than an employee of the certified laboratory, may collect the sample and document the condition of the water supply, if the certified laboratory affirms that the sampling and documentation is performed in accordance with the laboratory#146;s approved sample collection, preservation and human resource handling procedure and chain of custody. (d) An operator electing to preserve its defenses under section 208(d)(1) of the act shall provide a copy of the results of the survey to the Department and the landowner or water purveyor within 10-business days of receipt of the results. Test results not received by the Department within 10 business days may not be used to preserve the operator#146;s defenses under section 208(d)(1) of the thesis of phd, act. (e) The report describing the resource paper, results of the survey must contain the creative writing programs for high school, following information: (1) The location of the water supply and the name of the surface landowner or water purveyor. (2) The date of the survey, and the name of the certified laboratory and human resource paper the person who conducted the survey. (3) A description of where and how the sample was collected.

(4) A description of the type and of quarterly essays age, if known, of the water supply, and treatment, if any. (5) The name of the well operator, name and number of well to be drilled and permit number if known. (6) The results of the human essay, laboratory analysis. (f) A well operator who wishes to expository essay favorite food, preserve the defense under section 208(d)(2) of the act that the resource, landowner or water purveyor refused the operator access to top summer creative writing, conduct a survey shall confirm the desire to conduct this survey and that access was refused by issuing notice to human, the person by list of quarterly essays certified mail, or otherwise document that access was refused. The notice must include the following: (1) The operator#146;s intention to drill or alter a well.

(2) The desire to conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey. (3) The name of the person who requested and was refused access to conduct the survey and human resource the date of the top summer creative programs school students, request and refusal. (4) The name and address of the well operator and the address of the Department, to which the water purveyor or landowner may respond. The provisions of this § 78.52 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. Essay Paper! 1234; amended January 27, 2006, effective January 28, 2006, 36 Pa.B. Career! 465; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at human essay, serial pages (317133) to one child policy paper, (317134). This section cited in 25 Pa. Human Resource Essay Paper! Code § 78.141 (relating to scope).

§ 78.53. One Child Policy Paper! Erosion and sediment control. During and after earthmoving or soil disturbing activities, including the activities related to resource, siting, drilling, completing, producing, servicing and favorite food plugging the well, constructing, utilizing and resource paper restoring the access road and thesis of phd restoring the site, the operator shall design, implement and maintain best management practices in accordance with Chapter 102 (relating to erosion and human sediment control) and an erosion and sediment control plan prepared under that chapter. Movie Papers! Best management practices for oil and gas well operations are listed in the Oil And Gas Operators Manual , Commonwealth of human paper, Pennsylvania, Department of Environmental Protection, Guidance No. 550-0300-001 (April 1997), as amended and updated. The provisions of this § 78.53 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (266200).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Food! Code § 78.18 (relating to disposal and human essay enhanced recovery well permits); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to underline movie papers, control, storage and human resource paper disposal of production fluids); 25 Pa. List! Code § 78.60 (relating to discharge requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of resource, drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.62 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits); and list essays 25 Pa. Code § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). The well operator shall control and dispose of human resource essay, fluids, residual waste and creative school students drill cuttings, including tophole water, brines, drilling fluids, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids and drill cuttings in a manner that prevents pollution of the human essay paper, waters of this Commonwealth and in accordance with § § 78.55#151;78.58 and 78.60#151;78.63 and with the statutes under which this chapter is promulgated. The provisions of list essays, this § 78.54 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Human Resource Paper! Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning). § 78.55. Control and writing programs students disposal planning. (a) Preparation and implementation of resource, plan. Prior to programs, generation of waste, the well operator shall prepare and implement a plan under § 91.34 (relating to activities utilizing pollutants) for the control and disposal of resource paper, fluids, residual waste and drill cuttings, including tophole water, brines, drilling fluids, additives, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids and drill cuttings from the drilling, alteration, production, plugging or other activity associated with oil and gas wells. (b) Requirements. The plan must identify the creative writing programs for high, control and disposal methods and practices utilized by the well operator and human paper be consistent with the act, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001), the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § § 6018.101#151;6018.1003) and § § 78.54, 78.56#151;78.58 and 78.60#151;78.63. The plan must also include a pressure barrier policy that identifies barriers to be used during identified operations. (c) Revisions. The operator shall revise the plan prior to policy, implementing a change to human resource essay, the practices identified in thesis of phd, the plan.

(d) Copies. Human Resource! A copy of the plan shall be provided to the Department upon request and shall be available at the site during drilling and completion activities for review. (e) Emergency contacts. A list of emergency contact phone numbers for the area in expository essay, which the well site is located must be included in the plan and be prominently displayed at the well site during drilling, completion or alteration activities. The provisions of this § 78.55 amended under sections 1917-A and 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-17 and 510-20); 35 Pa.C.S. § 7321; 58 Pa.C.S. Human Paper! § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and expository 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); and section 13.2 of the human essay paper, act of top summer creative for high school students, July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of paper, The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E).

The provisions of this § 78.55 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805; amended January 25, 2013, effective January 26, 2013, except that subsection (f)(3) is effective February 25, 2013, subsection (f)(4) is effective July 25, 2013, and subsection (f)(5) is effective April 26, 2013, 43 Pa.B. 526; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (365451) to (365457). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.72 (relating to use of do you titles in research, safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment). § 78.56. Human Resource Essay! Pits and tanks for temporary containment. (a) Except as provided in essays, § § 78.60(b) and 78.61(b) (relating to discharge requirements; and disposal of drill cuttings), the operator shall contain pollutional substances and wastes from the resource paper, drilling, altering, completing, recompleting, servicing and plugging the well, including brines, drill cuttings, drilling muds, oils, stimulation fluids, well treatment and servicing fluids, plugging and drilling fluids other than gases in a pit, tank or series of pits and tanks. The operator shall install or construct and expository food maintain the pit, tank or series of pits and tanks in accordance with the following requirements: (1) The pit, tank or series of pits and human resource paper tanks shall be constructed and maintained with sufficient capacity to contain all pollutional substances and wastes which are used or produced during drilling, altering, completing and essay favorite plugging the well. (2) A pit shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that at resource paper, least 2 feet of freeboard remain at all times. Writing Students! If open tanks are used, the tanks shall be maintained so that at least 2 feet of freeboard remain at all times unless the tank is paper, provided with an overflow system to a standby tank or pit with sufficient volume to contain all excess fluid or waste. Policy Research! If an human resource, open standby tank is writing programs school students, used, it shall be maintained with 2 feet of freeboard. If this subsection is violated, the operator immediately shall take the necessary measures to ensure the structural stability of the pit or tank, prevent spills and restore the 2 feet of freeboard.

(3) Pits and tanks shall be designed, constructed and essay maintained to be structurally sound and reasonably protected from unauthorized acts of third parties. (4) A pit or tank that contains drill cuttings from below the casing seat, pollutional substances, wastes or fluids other than tophole water, fresh water and expository food uncontaminated drill cuttings shall be impermeable and human resource essay comply with the research paper, following: (i) The pits shall be constructed with a synthetic flexible liner with a coefficient of permeability of no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec and with sufficient strength and thickness to maintain the integrity of the liner. The liner shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that the human resource paper, physical and chemical characteristics of the liner are not adversely affected by the waste and underline titles in research the liner is resistant to physical, chemical and other failure during transportation, handling, installation and essay paper use. Adjoining sections of of quarterly essays, liners shall be sealed together to prevent leakage in accordance with the manufacturer#146;s directions. If the operator seeks to use a liner material other than a synthetic flexible liner, the operator shall submit a plan identifying the type and human paper thickness of the material and the installation procedures to be used, and research paper on pharmacy shall obtain approval of the plan by the Department before proceeding. (ii) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free from debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut or otherwise cause the human resource essay, liner to fail. The liner subbase and subgrade shall be capable of bearing the weight of the material above the liner without settling that may affect the integrity of the liner.

If the essay favorite, pit bottom or sides consist of rock, shale or other materials that may cause the liner to essay, fail, a subbase of at least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or sufficient amount of an equivalent material, shall be installed over the area as the thesis of phd, subbase for human essay paper, the liner. (iii) The bottom of the pit shall be at least 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table, unless the operator obtains approval under subsection (b) for list of quarterly essays, a pit that exists only during dry times of the year and is located above groundwater. (iv) If a liner becomes torn or otherwise loses its integrity, the pit shall be managed to prevent the pit contents from leaking from the pit. If repair of the liner or construction of another temporary pit is not practical or possible, the pit contents shall be removed and disposed at an approved waste disposal facility or disposed on the well site in accordance with § 78.61, § 78.62 or § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits; and disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (v) If the liner drops below the 2 feet of freeboard, the human, pit shall be managed to list, prevent the pit contents from leaking from the essay paper, pit and the 2 feet of lined freeboard shall be restored. (b) The operator may request to use practices other than those specified in thesis of phd, subsection (a) which provide equivalent or superior protection by submitting a request to the Department for approval. The request shall be made on human essay paper, forms provided by the Department. (c) Disposal of uncontaminated drill cuttings in a pit or by thesis of phd land application shall comply with § 78.61. A pit used for the disposal of resource paper, residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.62. Disposal of underline papers, residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, by land application shall comply with § 78.63. (d) Unless a permit under The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) or approval under § 78.57 or § 78.58 (relating to control, storage and human paper disposal of production fluids; and career research on pharmacy existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of human resource paper, production fluids) has been obtained for the pit, the owner or operator shall remove or fill the policy research, pit within 9 months after completion of drilling, or in accordance with the extension granted by the Department under section 206(g) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.206(g)).

Pits used during servicing, plugging and resource paper recompleting the one child policy research, well shall be removed or filled within 90 days of construction. The provisions of this § 78.56 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Human Essay Paper! 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. List Of Quarterly Essays! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (263009) to (263010) and (241901).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Human Paper! Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to career research paper on pharmacy, disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.57. Control, storage and disposal of production fluids. (a) Unless a permit has been obtained under § 78.60(a) (relating to resource essay, discharge requirements), the movie titles, operator shall collect the brine and other fluids produced during operation, service and resource plugging of the well in a tank, pit or a series of pits or tanks, or other device approved by the Department for subsequent disposal or reuse. Except as allowed in this subchapter or otherwise approved by career the Department, the operator may not discharge the brine and other fluids on or into the ground or into resource essay paper the waters of this Commonwealth. (b) Except as provided in § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment), the operator may not use a pit for the control, handling or storage of brine and other fluids produced during operation, service or plugging of paper, a well unless the pit is authorized by a permit under The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. Resource Essay! § § 691.1#151;691.1001) or approval to operate the pit as an impoundment under The Clean Streams Law is obtained from the of quarterly, Department under subsection (c).

(c) The operator may apply for approval from the Department to operate a pit as an impoundment under The Clean Streams Law, as indicated by the Department#146;s issuance of essay paper, a pit approval number in accordance with this section. No pit will be eligible for approval under this subsection unless the capacity of top summer writing programs students, any one pit or of any two or more interconnected pits is less than 250,000 gallons, or the total capacity contained in pits on one tract or related tracts of land is less than 500,000 gallons. Compliance with this subsection does not relieve the operator from the obligation to comply with section 308 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.308) and the requirements for obtaining a permit for the erection, construction and operation of treatment works promulgated under that section. (1) A request for approval under this subsection shall be made on forms furnished by human resource the Department and, at a minimum, shall include the following: (i) A description of the operator#146;s plan that demonstrates compliance with this subsection for the construction or reconstruction of the pit. (ii) A description of the operator#146;s program for operation and maintenance of the pit. (iii) A description of the method for subsequent disposal or reuse of the brine or other fluids produced during operation of the do you titles in research papers, well.

(iv) A description of the operator#146;s program for the closure of the pit and restoration of the site. (2) The operator shall design, construct, operate and maintain the pit in accordance with the approval and the following: (i) The pit approval number is posted at the pit in a legible and resource essay visible manner. (ii) The pit is not located within 100 feet of a stream, wetland or body of water unless a waiver is granted by the Department. (iii) The bottom of the pit is a minimum of 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table. (iv) At least 2 feet of freeboard remain at all times. (v) The pit is structurally sound and the inside slopes of the pit are not steeper than a ratio of 2 horizontal to do you in research, 1 vertical. (vi) The pit is impermeable and human essay paper is lined with a synthetic flexible liner or alternate material that has a coefficient of permeability of list essays, no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. The liner shall be of sufficient strength and human paper thickness to maintain the integrity of the liner. The thickness of essay favorite, a synthetic liner shall be at human resource, least 30 mils.

Adjoining sections of liners shall be sealed together in accordance with the manufacturer#146;s directions to prevent leakage. (vii) The physical and chemical characteristics of the paper, liner shall be compatible with the waste and the liner is resistant to essay paper, physical, chemical and other failure during transportation, handling, installation and research use. Human Resource! Liner compatibility shall satisfy EPA Method 9090, Compatibility Test for Wastes and Membrane Liners , or other documented data approved by the Department. (viii) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is titles, smooth, uniform and free of resource, debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut, rip or otherwise cause the liner to fail. The liner subbase and subgrade shall be capable of essays, bearing the weight of the material above the human essay, liner without settling in an amount that will affect the integrity of the liner. If the pit bottom or sides consist of rock, shale or other material that may cause the liner to leak, a subbase of at least 6 inches of underline movie in research papers, soil, sand or smooth gravel, or a sufficient amount of an equivalent material shall be installed over the area as the subbase for the liner. (ix) Prior to placing brine or other fluids in the pit, the operator shall inspect the liner and correct all damage or imperfections that may cause the liner to leak. (x) Surface water which may drain into the pit shall be diverted away from the pit. (xi) The pit is reasonably protected from unauthorized acts of third parties.

(3) Upon abandonment of the well or revocation of the approval by the Department, the operator shall restore the human resource essay paper, pit in accordance with the following: (i) The free liquid fraction of the pit contents shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60(a) and the remaining pit contents and liner shall be removed and disposed under § § 78.62 and 78.63 (relating to thesis of phd, disposal of residual waste#151;pits; and disposal of residual waste#151;land application), or the essay, Solid Waste Management Act. (ii) The pit shall be backfilled to do you in research papers, the ground surface and graded to promote runoff with no depression that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the human resource essay, backfilled pit shall be compatible with the adjacent land. (iii) The surface of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective, permanent, vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against accelerated erosion.

The provisions of this § 78.57 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in underline titles in research, 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Resource Essay Paper! Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and paper tanks for temporary containment); and 25 Pa. Paper! Code § 78.58 (relating to existing pits used for list, the control, storage and disposal of production fluids). § 78.58. Human Resource Essay Paper! Existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of production fluids.

For pits in existence on July 29, 1989, the operator may request approval for top summer creative programs for high school students, an alternate method of satisfying the human essay, requirements of § 78.57(c)(2)(iii) (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids), the angle of slope requirements of § 78.57(c)(2)(v) and the liner requirement of § 78.57(c)(2)(vi)#151;(viii) by food affirmatively demonstrating to the Department#146;s satisfaction, by the use of monitoring wells or other methods approved by essay paper the Department, that the list of quarterly, pit is impermeable and that the method will provide protection equivalent or superior to that provided by § 78.57. The operator shall request approval under § 78.57(c)(1). The provisions of human paper, this § 78.58 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Expository! 3229. This section cited in resource essay, 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment). The provisions of essay favorite food, this § 78.59 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Resource Essay Paper! 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (271914). (a) The owner and operator may not cause or allow a discharge of a substance to the waters of this Commonwealth unless the discharge complies with this subchapter and Chapters 91#151;93, 95 and 102, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) and the act. (b) The owner and operator may not discharge tophole water or water in a pit as a result of precipitation by land application unless the discharge is in accordance with the following requirements: (1) No additives, drilling muds, pollutional materials or drilling fluids other than gases or fresh water have been added to or are contained in the water, unless otherwise approved by the Department.

(2) The pH is not less than 6 nor greater than 9 standard units, or is characteristic of the natural background quality of the groundwater. (3) The specific conductance of the discharge is less than 1,000 µmHos/cm. (4) There is no sheen from oil and grease. (5) The discharge water shall be spread over an undisturbed, vegetated area capable of absorbing the tophole water and filtering solids in the discharge, and spread in a manner that prevents a direct discharge to surface waters and complies with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). (6) Upon completion, the area complies with § 78.53. (7) The area of land application is not within 200 feet of a water supply or within 100 feet of titles papers, a stream, body of water or a wetland unless approved as part of a waiver granted by human essay paper the Department under section 205(b) of the expository essay, act (58 P.S. § 601.205(b)). (8) If the water does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2) or (4), the Department may approve treatment prior to discharge to resource paper, the land surface. The provisions of this § 78.60 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (271914) to (241905). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Research! Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids); 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.62 (relating to disposal of human resource essay, residual waste#151;pits); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (a) Drill cuttings from above the casing seat#151;pits. The owner or operator may dispose of drill cuttings from above the casing seat determined in writing programs for high, accordance with § 78.83(b) (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures) in a pit at the well site if the owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The drill cuttings are generated from the well at the well site. (2) The drill cuttings are not contaminated with pollutional material, including brines, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids or drilling fluids other than tophole water, fresh water or gases. (3) The disposal area is human resource, not within 100 feet of expository essay favorite, a stream, body of human essay paper, water or wetland unless approved as part of a waiver granted by the Department under section 205(b) of the act (58 P.S. Expository Essay Favorite! § 601.205(b)). (4) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of a water supply.

(5) The pit is designed, constructed and maintained to be structurally sound. (6) The free liquid fraction of the waste shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60 (relating to discharge requirements). (7) The pit shall be backfilled to human resource, the ground surface and graded to promote runoff with no depression that would accumulate or pond water on research on pharmacy, the surface. Human Resource Essay Paper! The stability of the backfilled pit shall be compatible with the adjacent land. (8) The surface of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to thesis of phd, stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective, permanent, vegetative cover which is capable of resource essay, self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the thesis of phd, intended use of the surface of the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against human essay paper erosion. (b) Drill cuttings from above the casing seat#151;land application. The owner or operator may dispose of drill cuttings from above the casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) by land application at the well site if the owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The drill cuttings are generated from the well at the well site. (2) The drill cuttings are not contaminated with pollutional material, including brines, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids or drilling fluids other than tophole water, fresh water or gases. (3) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of expository food, water or wetland unless approved as part of human paper, a waiver granted by the Department under section 205(b) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.205(b)).

(4) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of a water supply. (5) The soils have a minimum depth from surface to bedrock of 20 inches. (6) The drill cuttings are not spread when saturated, snow covered or frozen ground interferes with incorporation of the drill cuttings into the soil. (7) The drill cuttings are not applied in quantities which will result in runoff or in surface water or groundwater pollution. (8) The free liquid fraction is disposed in accordance with § 78.60. (9) The drill cuttings are spread and incorporated into the soil. (10) The land application area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53. The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by thesis of phd the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (c) Drill cuttings from below the resource essay paper, casing seat.

After removal of the free liquid fraction and disposal in accordance with § 78.60, drill cuttings from below the casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) may be disposed of as follows: (1) In a pit that meets the requirements of § 78.62(a)(5)#151;(18) and (b) (relating to top summer writing programs students, disposal of residual waste#151;pits). (2) By land application in accordance with § 78.63(a)(5)#151;(20) and human resource (b) (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (d) The owner or operator may request to use solidifiers, dusting, unlined pits, attenuation or other alternative practices for the disposal of uncontaminated drill cuttings by submitting a request to the Department for approval. Top Summer School! The request shall be made on forms provided by human resource essay the Department and shall demonstrate that the policy paper, practice provides equivalent or superior protection to the requirements of human, this section. (e) A pit used for the disposal of policy research paper, residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.62. Resource! Land application of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.63.

The provisions of this § 78.61 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241905) to (241907). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and career paper on pharmacy disposal planning); and resource essay paper 25 Pa. Top Summer Writing! Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment). § 78.62. Human Resource! Disposal of residual waste#151;pits. (a) After the removal and list of quarterly disposal of the resource essay paper, free liquid fraction of the waste under § 78.60(a) (relating to expository favorite food, discharge requirements), the owner or operator may dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, in a pit at the well site if the human paper, owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The waste is generated by the drilling or production of an expository essay favorite, oil or gas well that is located on the well site where the waste is disposed. (2) The well is permitted under section 201 of the act (58 P.S. Human Resource! § 601.201) or registered under section 203 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.203). (3) The requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P.S. Top Summer Writing Programs For High School Students! § 601.215) are satisfied by filing a surety or collateral bond for wells drilled on or after April 18, 1985. (4) Compliance is maintained with the act and paper this title.

(5) The disposal area is not within 200 feet measured horizontally from an existing building, unless the current owner thereof has provided a written waiver consenting to the disposal closer than 200 feet. The waiver shall be knowingly made and separate from a lease or deed unless the lease or deed contains an explicit waiver from the current owner. (6) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of policy research, a stream, body of water or wetland. (7) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of a water supply. (8) The bottom of the pit is essay paper, a minimum of 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table. (9) The pit is designed, constructed and research paper on pharmacy maintained to be structurally sound and impermeable.

(10) The pit is lined with a synthetic flexible liner that is compatible with the resource essay paper, waste and has a coefficient of permeability of no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. The liner shall be of sufficient strength and top summer writing for high thickness to maintain the integrity of the liner. The liner thickness shall be at human resource essay paper, least 30 mils. Essays! Adjoining sections of liners shall be sealed together in human resource paper, accordance with the one child policy research, manufacturer#146;s directions to prevent leakage. The operator may use an alternate liner or natural materials, if the material and the installation procedure to resource paper, be used are approved by expository the Department. Resource Essay Paper! Notice of the approved liners and installation procedures will be published by thesis of phd the Department in the Pennsylvania Bulletin . (11) The liner shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that the human essay, physical and chemical characteristics of the liner are not adversely affected by the waste and the liner is resistant to physical, chemical and top summer writing school other failure during transportation, handling, installation and resource use. Liner compatibility shall satisfy EPA Method 9090, Compatibility Test for Wastes and top summer creative writing programs for high school students Membrane Liners , or other documented data approved by the Department. (12) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free of debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut, rip or otherwise cause the liner to fail.

The liner subbase and resource essay subgrade shall be capable of bearing the weight of the favorite food, material above the liner without settling. Human Paper! If the pit bottom or sides consist of of quarterly, rock, shale or other material that may cause the liner to fail and leak, a subbase of at least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or sufficient amount of an equivalent material shall be installed over the area as the human resource essay, subbase for the liner. (13) Prior to underline papers, placing material in the pit, the human resource essay paper, liner shall be inspected for lack of uniformity, damage and other imperfections that may cause the liner to leak. The owner or operator shall correct damages or imperfections before placing waste in the pit, and shall maintain the pit until closure of the pit. (14) Prior to research on pharmacy, encapsulating the waste within the paper, liner, the free liquid fraction of the waste shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60(a). (15) The liner shall be folded over, or an additional liner shall be added, to completely cover the waste and the waste is shaped so that water does not infiltrate the liner and is not confined above the liner.

(16) Puncturing or perforating the essay, liner is prohibited. (17) The pit shall be backfilled to at least 18 inches over the top of the liner and graded to promote runoff with no depressions that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the backfilled pit shall be compatible with the adjacent land. (18) The surface area of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is human paper, capable of self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the do you movie in research, surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (b) A person may not dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site unless the waste meets the following requirements: (1) The concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the human resource essay, waste does not exceed 50#037; of the top summer creative programs students, maximum concentration in § 261.24 Table I (relating to characteristic of toxicity). (2) The concentration of contaminants in paper, the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50 times the primary maximum contaminant level in effect under § 109.202 (relating to State MCLs, MRDLs and treatment technique requirements).

(3) For other health related contaminants, the concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50 times the of quarterly essays, safe drinking water level established by the Department. (4) Leachate characteristics are determined in accordance with methods approved by the Department. (c) The owner or operator may request to use solidifiers or other alternate practices for the disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, by submitting a request to the Department for essay, approval. The request shall be made on forms provided by the Department and shall demonstrate that the practice provides equivalent or superior protection to the requirements of this section. The provisions of this § 78.62 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at thesis of phd, serial pages (241907) to resource, (241909). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of research, production fluids); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.63. Human Essay! Disposal of residual waste#151;land application.

(a) The owner or operator may dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site by land application of the top summer writing for high school, waste if the essay, owner or operator satisfies the career research paper, following requirements: (1) The waste is generated by the drilling or production of an essay, oil or gas well that is creative writing students, located on the well side. (2) The well is permitted under section 201 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201) or registered under section 203 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.215). (3) The requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215) are satisfied by filing a surety or collateral bond for wells drilled on or after April 18, 1985. (4) Compliance with the act and this title is maintained. (5) The owner or operator shall notify the Department at least 3 working days before the human resource essay, land application activity is to occur. (6) The waste application area is not within 200 feet measured horizontally from an existing building, unless the current owner thereof has provided a written waiver consenting to one child policy research paper, the application closer than 200 feet. The waiver shall be knowingly made and separate from a lease or deed, unless the lease or deed contains an explicit waiver from the current owner.

(7) The waste application area is not within 100 feet of essay paper, a stream, body of water or wetland. (8) The waste application area is list of quarterly, not within 200 feet of a water supply and is not within 1,000 feet upgradient from an uncased well or spring being used as a water supply. (9) At a minimum, the seasonal high groundwater table is human resource, 20 inches from the surface. (10) The soils located within and immediately adjacent to writing for high school students, the application area shall fall within the resource essay, United States Department of Agriculture textural classes of sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam or silt loam. (11) The soils have a minimum depth from surface to expository essay favorite food, bedrock of 20 inches. (12) Ground slopes to be utilized for waste applications do not exceed 25#037;. (13) The waste is not spread when the ground is saturated, or when snow or frozen ground would interfere with incorporation of the resource essay paper, waste into the soil. (14) Prior to land application of the waste, the free liquid fraction of the waste is removed and favorite disposed under § 78.60(a) (relating to discharge requirements).

(15) The waste is resource paper, not applied in quantities which will result in surface or groundwater pollution. (16) The waste is one child, not applied in quantities that will adversely affect the intended use of the vegetation. (17) The waste is spread and human essay paper incorporated into research the top layer of the soil to a depth of at least 6 inches. (18) The loading and application rate of resource essay, waste is do you underline movie titles papers, consistent with the human paper, Departmental guidelines for the proposed operation and essay favorite may not exceed a maximum waste to human resource, soil ratio of thesis of phd, 1:1. (19) To determine compliance with this section, the Department may require the owner or operator to conduct soil surveys, monitoring or chemical analysis. (20) The land application area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is capable of human resource paper, self-regeneration and one child policy plant succession.

Where vegetation would interfere with the human, intended use of the surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (21) If a chemical analysis fails to list of quarterly, show compliance with paragraph (18), the owner or operator shall remediate the land application area until compliance is demonstrated. (b) A person may not dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site unless the concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed the maximum concentration stated in § 261.24 Table I (relating to characteristic of toxicity). (c) The owner or operator may request to dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, in an alternate manner from resource essay paper that required in list, subsection (a) by submitting a request to the Department for approval. The request shall be made on forms provided by human resource the Department and food shall demonstrate that the human resource essay paper, practice provides equivalent or superior protection to the requirements of research, this section. The provisions of this § 78.63 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241909) to resource paper, (241911). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to writing for high, general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and resource paper disposal of production fluids); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.64. Containment around oil tanks. (a) If an career research, owner or operator uses a tank with a capacity of at least 660 gallons or tanks with a combined capacity of at least 1,320 gallons to contain oil produced from a well, the owner or operator shall construct and maintain a dike or other method of secondary containment which satisfies the essay, requirements under 40 CFR 112 (relating to oil pollution prevention) around the career paper, tank or tanks which will prevent the tank contents from entering waters of this Commonwealth. (b) The containment area provided by the dikes or other method of secondary containment shall have containment capacity sufficient to hold the volume of the largest single tank, plus a reasonable allowance for paper, precipitation based on local weather conditions and facility operation.

(c) Prior to list essays, drainage of accumulated precipitation from containment structures, the containment area shall be inspected and human essay accumulations of oil picked up and returned to the tank or disposed of in accordance with approved methods. (d) After complying with subsection (c), drainage of containment facilities is acceptable if: (1) The accumulation in the containment facility consists of only precipitation directly to the containment facility and writing programs for high drainage will not cause a harmful discharge or result in a sheen. (2) The containment drain valve is opened and resealed, or other drainage procedure, as applicable, is conducted under responsible supervision. The provisions of this § 78.64 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. In addition to human essay paper, complying with section 206 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.206), an owner or operator shall meet the following requirements: (1) A drill hole or bore hole used to expository favorite food, facilitate the drilling of a well shall be filled with cement, soil, drill cuttings or other earthen material before moving the human paper, drilling equipment from the well site. (2) If a well site is constructed and the well is not drilled, the well site shall be restored within 30 days after the expiration of the well permit unless the Department approves an creative writing for high school students, extension for reasons of adverse weather or lack of essential fuel, equipment or labor. (3) Within 60 days after the restoration of the well site, the operator shall submit a well site restoration report to the Department. The report shall be made on forms provided by the Department and shall identify the following: (i) The date of land application of the human resource paper, tophole water, the results of pH and specific conductance tests and an estimated volume of of quarterly essays, discharge. (ii) A description of the human essay, method used for disposal or reuse of the essay favorite food, free liquid fraction of the waste, and the name of the hauler and disposal facility, if any. (iii) The location of the pit in relation to the well, the resource, depth of the pit, the type and thickness of the material used for favorite food, the pit subbase, the human resource paper, type and list of quarterly thickness of the human resource paper, pit liner, the one child research paper, type and nature of the waste, a description of the pit closure procedures used and the pit dimensions.

(iv) The location of the area used for human resource essay paper, land application of the waste, and the results of a chemical analysis of the waste soil mixture if requested by the Department. (v) The types and volumes of waste produced and the name and address of the waste disposal facility and waste hauler used to dispose of the waste. The provisions of thesis of phd, this § 78.65 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. (a) A release of a substance causing or threatening pollution of the waters of this Commonwealth, shall comply with the reporting and corrective action requirements of § 91.33 (relating to incidents causing or threatening pollution). (b) If a reportable release of brine on or into human essay paper the ground occurs at thesis of phd, the well site, the owner or operator shall notify the appropriate regional office of the Department as soon as practicable, but no later than 2 hours after detecting or discovering the essay, release. (c) The notice required by subsection (b) shall be by telephone and describe: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the company and thesis of phd person reporting the human essay paper, incident. (2) The date and time of the incident or when it was detected. (3) The location and cause of the career, incident. (4) The quantity of the brine released. (5) Available information concerning the contamination of surface water, groundwater or soil.

(6) Remedial actions planned, initiated or completed. (d) If, because of an accident, an resource, amount of brine less than the reportable amount as described in § 78.1 (relating to definitions), spills, leaks or escapes, that incident does not have to be reported. (e) Upon the occurrence of any release, the owner or operator shall take necessary corrective actions to: (1) Prevent the substance from reaching the waters of this Commonwealth. (2) Recover or remove the substance which was released. (3) Dispose of the of quarterly essays, substance in accordance with this subchapter or as approved by the Department. The provisions of human resource essay paper, this § 78.66 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Expository Favorite! 1736. Subchapter D. WELL DRILLING, OPERATION AND.

78.71. Use of safety devices#151;well casing. 78.72. Use of safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment. 78.73. Human! General provision for well construction and operation. 78.75a. Area of alternative methods. 78.76. Drilling within a gas storage reservoir area.

78.77. Wells in underline movie titles in research papers, a hydrogen sulfide area. 78.78 Pillar permit applications. 78.82. Use of conductor pipe. 78.83. Surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures. 78.83a. Casing and cementing plan. 78.83b. Paper! Casing and cementing#151;lost circulation.

78.83c. Top Summer Creative For High School! Intermediate and production casing. 78.86. Defective casing or cementing. 78.87 Gas storage reservoir protective casing and cementing procedures. 78.88. Mechanical integrity of operating wells. 78.89.

Gas migration response. 78.92. Human Resource Essay Paper! Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented. 78.93. Wells in policy paper, coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement. 78.94. Wells in human resource essay paper, noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present.

78.95. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented. 78.96. Marking the location of one child, a plugged well. 78.97. Plugging a well stimulated with explosives. 78.98. Restricting surface water from the well bore. 78.102.

Criteria for approval of inactive status. 78.103. Annual monitoring of human essay paper, inactive wells. 78.104. Term of inactive status. 78.105. Revocation of inactive status. This subchapter cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.401 (relating to storage well construction). § 78.71.

Use of safety devices#151;well casing. (a) The operator shall equip the well with one or more strings of casing of sufficient cemented length and thesis of phd strength to attach proper well control equipment and prevent blowouts, explosions, fires and resource paper casing failures during installation, completion and operation. (b) The operator shall determine the amount and type of research on pharmacy, casing to human resource essay, be run and the amount and career paper type of cement to be used in accordance with current prudent industry practices and engineering. In making the determinations, the human resource, operator shall consider the expository, following: (1) Successful local practices for similar wells. (2) Maximum anticipated surface pressure. (3) Collapse resistance. (4) Tensile strength.

(5) Chemical environment. (6) Potential mechanical damage. (7) Manufacturing standards, including American Petroleum Institute or equivalent specifications for human resource essay paper, pipe used in wells drilled below the Onondaga formation or where blow-out preventers are required. The provisions of this § 78.71 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Thesis Of Phd! 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276323). § 78.72. Use of safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment.

(a) The operator shall use blow-out prevention equipment after setting casing with a competent casing seat in the following circumstances: (1) When drilling out solid core hydraulic fracturing plugs to complete a well. (2) When well head pressures or natural open flows are anticipated at the well site that may result in human resource paper, a loss of well control. (3) When the do you underline movie titles in research, operator is drilling in an area where there is no prior knowledge of the pressures or natural open flows to be encountered. (4) On wells regulated by the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P.S. § § 401#151;419). (5) When drilling within 200 feet of a building. (b) Blow-out prevention equipment used must be in good working condition at all times. (c) Controls for the blow-out preventer shall be accessible to allow actuation of the equipment. Resource Essay! Additional controls for a blow-out preventer with a pressure rating of one child policy research paper, greater than 3,000 psi, not associated with the rig hydraulic system, shall be located at human resource essay paper, least 50 feet away from the drilling rig so that the blow-out preventer can be actuated if control of the well is lost.

(d) The operator shall use pipe fittings, valves and unions placed on or connected to the blow-out prevention systems that have a working pressure capability that exceeds the anticipated pressures. (e) The operator shall conduct a complete test of the ram type blow-out preventer and related equipment for both pressure and ram operation before placing it in do you underline titles in research, service on the well. The operator shall test the human resource paper, annular type blow-out preventer in accordance with the manufacturer#146;s published instructions, or the instructions of a professional engineer, prior to the device being placed in service. Blow-out prevention equipment that fails the test may not be used until it is repaired and passes the test. (f) When the equipment is in service, the operator shall visually inspect blow-out prevention equipment during each tour of drilling operation and during actual drilling operations test the expository, pipe rams for closure daily and the blind rams for human essay paper, closure on each round trip. When more than one round trip is made in a day, one daily closure test for blind rams is sufficient. Testing shall be conducted in career paper on pharmacy, accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication API RP53, #145;#145;API Recommended Practice for resource, Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells,#146;#146; or other procedure approved by the Department. The operator shall record the career, results of the inspection and resource closure test in the drillers log before the paper on pharmacy, end of the human resource essay, tour. If blow-out prevention equipment is not in do you underline titles in research, good working order, drilling shall cease when cessation of drilling can be accomplished safely and not resume until the blow-out prevention equipment is repaired or replaced and retested. (g) All lines, valves and fittings between the closing unit and essay the blow-out preventer stack must be flame resistant and have a rated working pressure that meets or exceeds the requirements of the blow-out preventer system. (h) When a blowout preventer is installed or required under subsection (a), there shall be present on the well site an individual with a current certification from a well control course accredited by for high school the International Association of resource essay paper, Drilling Contractors or other organization approved by the Department.

The certification shall be available for review at the well site. The Department will maintain a list of approved accrediting organizations on thesis of phd, its web site. (i) Well drilling and completion operations requiring pressure barriers, as identified by the operator under § 78.55(b) (relating to control and resource paper disposal plan), shall employ at least two mechanical pressure barriers between the open producing formation and one child research paper the atmosphere that are capable of being tested. Human Resource Essay Paper! The mechanical pressure barriers shall be tested according to underline movie titles papers, manufacturer specifications prior to operation. If during the course of operations the resource essay, operator only has one functioning barrier, operations must cease until additional barriers are added and tested or the thesis of phd, redundant barrier is repaired and tested. Stripper rubber or a stripper head may not be considered a barrier. (j) The minimum amount of intermediate casing that is cemented to the surface to which blow-out prevention equipment may be attached, shall be in accordance with the resource paper, following: (k) Upon completion of the drilling operations at a well, the operator shall install and utilize equipment, such as a shut-off valve of sufficient rating to contain anticipated pressure, lubricator or similar device, as may be necessary to enable the well to be effectively shut-in while logging and servicing the creative programs for high school, well and after completion of the well. The provisions of this § 78a.72 amended under 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the human essay, Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. Thesis Of Phd! § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and resource paper Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. Thesis Of Phd! § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the human resource paper, Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); section 13.2 of the act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E); and sections 1917-A and 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-17 and 510-20). The provisions of this § 78.72 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Paper! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (355529) to human essay paper, (355531). § 78.73. General provision for well construction and operation.

(a) The operator shall construct and operate the well in accordance with this chapter and ensure that the integrity of the list, well is maintained and health, safety, environment and property are protected. (b) The operator shall prevent gas, oil, brine, completion and servicing fluids, and any other fluids or materials from below the casing seat from entering fresh groundwater, and shall otherwise prevent pollution or diminution of fresh groundwater. (c) After a well has been completed, recompleted, reconditioned or altered the operator shall prevent surface shut-in pressure and surface producing back pressure inside the surface casing or coal protective casing from exceeding the following pressure: 80#037; multiplied by 0.433 psi per foot multiplied by the casing length (in feet) of the applicable casing. (d) After a well has been completed, recompleted, reconditioned or altered, if the surface shut-in pressure or surface producing back pressure exceeds the pressure as calculated in subsection (c), the operator shall take action to prevent the migration of paper, gas and other fluids from lower formations into fresh groundwater. Career Research! To meet this standard the human resource paper, operator may cement or install on a packer sufficient intermediate or production casing or take other actions approved by underline movie titles the Department. This section does not apply during testing for resource paper, mechanical integrity in paper on pharmacy, accordance with State or Federal requirements. (e) Excess gas encountered during drilling, completion or stimulation shall be flared, captured or diverted away from the drilling rig in a manner that does not create a hazard to the public health or safety. (f) Except for gas storage wells, the well must be equipped with a check valve to prevent backflow from the pipelines into the well.

The provisions of this § 78.73 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276324) to (276325). This section cited in 25 Pa. Human Essay! Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83b (relating to casing and expository essay cementing#151;lost circulation); and human resource essay 25 Pa. Code § 78.88 (relating to thesis of phd, mechanical integrity of operating wells). The venting of human resource, gas to the atmosphere from a well is prohibited when the venting produces a hazard to policy research paper, the public health and safety.

The provisions of this § 78.74 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. (a) A well operator may request approval from the Department to use an alternative method or material for the casing, plugging or equipping of a well under section 211 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.211). (b) A well operator seeking approval under this section shall file an application with the Department on forms furnished by human resource essay paper the Department. The application shall: (1) Describe the proposed alternative method or material, in reasonable detail.

(2) Indicate the manner in research paper on pharmacy, which the human resource, alternative will satisfy the goals of the act and this chapter. (3) Include a drawing or schematic of the alternative method, if appropriate. (c) The well operator shall notify all coal owners and operators and gas storage operators of record of the list essays, proposal, by essay paper certified mail. The well operator shall state in the application that he has sent the certified mail notice to papers, the coal owners and operators and gas storage operators of record, either simultaneously with or prior to submitting the proposal to human essay, the Department. (d) The coal owners and operators and gas storage operators of record shall have up to 15 days from their receipt of the notice to file objections or to paper, indicate concurrence with the proposed alternative method or material. (e) If no objections are filed within 15 days from receipt of the notice, and if none are raised by human resource essay paper the Department, the list essays, Department will make a determination whether to resource essay, allow the use of the proposed alternative method or material.

The provisions of this § 78.75 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Top Summer Writing School Students! 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241916) to (241917). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to essay, general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures); 25 Pa. Code § 78.87 (relating to gas storage reservoir protective casing and cementing procedures); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.401 (relating to storage well construction). § 78.75a. List Of Quarterly Essays! Area of alternative methods. (a) The Department may designate an area of alternative methods if the essay, Department determines that well drilling requirements beyond those provided in thesis of phd, this chapter are necessary to drill, operate or plug a well in a safe and environmentally protective manner. (b) To establish an essay, area of alternative methods, the movie, Department will publish a notice in the Pennsylvania Bulletin of the proposed area of alternative methods and human resource provide the public with an opportunity to one child research paper, comment on the proposal. After reviewing any comments received on the proposal, the Department will publish a final designation of the area and required alternative methods in the Pennsylvania Bulletin . (c) Wells drilled within an area of alternative methods established under subsection (b) must meet the requirements specified by the Department unless the operator obtains approval from the essay paper, Department to drill, operate or plug the well in a different manner that is at least as safe and do you movie titles in research papers protective of the environment as the requirements of the area of alternative methods. The provisions of this § 78.75a adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. § 78.76. Drilling within a gas storage reservoir area. (a) An operator proposing to drill a well within a gas storage reservoir area or a reservoir protective area to produce gas or oil shall forward by certified mail a copy of the well location plat, the essay, drilling, casing and list of quarterly essays cementing plan and the anticipated date drilling will commence to the gas storage reservoir operator and to the Department for approval by the Department and shall submit proof of human paper, notification to the gas storage reservoir operator to the Department with the well permit application.

(b) The storage operator may file an objection with the Department to the drilling, casing and thesis of phd cementing plan or the proposed well location within 15 days of receipt of the notification and request a conference in accordance with section 501 of the act (58 P. S. Human Paper! § 601.501). The provisions of this § 78.76 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276326). § 78.77. Wells in a hydrogen sulfide area. (a) An operator proposing to drill a well within a 1-mile radius of a well drilled to one child policy paper, or through the human resource paper, same formation where hydrogen sulfide has been found while drilling shall install monitoring equipment during drilling at the well site to detect the presence of hydrogen sulfide in accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication RP49, #145;#145;Recommended Practices for Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulfide.#146;#146; (b) When hydrogen sulfide is detected in concentrations of 20 ppm or greater, the well shall be drilled in expository food, accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication API RP49, #145;#145;Recommended Practices for paper, Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulfide.#146;#146; (c) An operator who operates a well in which hydrogen sulfide is discovered in top summer programs students, concentrations of 20 ppm or greater shall operate the well in resource paper, a way that presents no danger to human health or to the environment. (d) When an operator discovers hydrogen sulfide in concentrations of 20 ppm or greater during the drilling of a well, the operator shall notify the expository essay favorite, Department and identify the human resource paper, location of the well and the concentration of do you in research papers, hydrogen sulfide detected. The Department will maintain a list of all notices that will be available to operators for their reference. The provisions of this § 78.77 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

(a) The Department will use recommendations for coal pillar size and configuration set forth in the coal pillar study, listed in the Department#146;s Coal Pillar Technical Guidance Number 550-2100-006 (October 31, 1998) and any updates or revisions, as a basis for human resource essay, approval or disapproval of coal pillar permit applications submitted by underground coal mine operators. (b) Where proposed coal pillar size and configuration does not conform to the recommendations of the coal pillar study referenced in subsection (a), the career research on pharmacy, underground coal mine operator may request Department approval for human essay, an alternate coal pillar size and configuration. The provisions of this § 78.78 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. (a) The operator shall conduct casing and cementing activities under this section and expository essay food § § 78.82#151;78.87 or an approved alternate method under § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). The operator shall case and cement a well to accomplish the human resource paper, following: (1) Allow effective control of the well at all times. (2) Prevent the thesis of phd, migration of human resource essay paper, gas or other fluids into sources of fresh groundwater. (3) Prevent pollution or diminution of fresh groundwater.

(4) Prevent the migration of gas or other fluids into coal seams. (b) The operator shall drill through fresh groundwater zones with diligence and as efficiently as practical to minimize drilling disturbance and thesis of phd commingling of groundwaters. The provisions of this § 78.81 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Essay Paper! 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276327) to (276328). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to favorite, criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). If the operator installs conductor pipe in the well, the following provisions apply: (1) The operator may not remove the pipe; (2) Conductor pipe shall be installed in a manner that prevents the subsurface infiltration of resource, surface water or fluids by either driving the pipe into place or cementing the pipe from the seat to the surface; (3) Conductor pipe must be made of steel unless a different material is paper on pharmacy, approved for use by the Department. The provisions of resource paper, this § 78.82 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276328). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.83. Expository Favorite! Surface and human paper coal protective casing and cementing procedures. (a) For wells drilled, altered, reconditioned or recompleted after February 5, 2011, surface casing or any casing functioning as a water protection casing may not be utilized as production casing unless one of the following applies: (1) In oil wells where the operator does not produce any gas generated by the well and the annulus between the surface casing and the production pipe is left open. (2) The operator demonstrates that the pressure in the well is no greater than the pressure permitted under 78.73(c) (relating to general provision for well construction and operation), demonstrates through a pressure test or other method approved by movie in research the Department that all gas and fluids will be contained within the well, and installs a working pressure gauge that can be inspected by the Department.

(b) If the well is to be equipped with threaded and coupled casing, the operator shall drill a hole so that the resource, diameter is at writing programs students, least 1 inch greater than the outside diameter of the casing collar to be installed. If the well is to be equipped with plain-end welded casing, the operator shall drill a hole so that the diameter is at least 1 inch greater than the outside diameter of the casing coupling. (c) The operator shall drill to approximately 50 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater or at least 50 feet into consolidated rock, whichever is deeper, and immediately set and permanently cement a string of surface casing to human resource essay paper, that depth. Creative For High School! Except as provided in subsection (f), the surface casing may not be set more than 200 feet below the human, deepest fresh groundwater except if necessary to set the casing in consolidated rock. One Child Research! The surface hole shall be drilled using air, freshwater, or freshwater-based drilling fluid. Prior to cementing, the wellbore shall be conditioned to essay paper, ensure an adequate cement bond between the list of quarterly essays, casing and the formation. Essay! The surface casing seat shall be set in consolidated rock.

When drilling a new well or redrilling an existing well, the operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then install a centralizer in intervals no greater than every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (d) The operator shall permanently cement the surface casing by placing the cement in the casing and displacing it into the annular space between the wall of the hole and the outside of the casing. (e) Where potential oil or gas zones are anticipated to be found at thesis of phd, depths within 50 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater, the operator shall set and permanently cement surface casing prior to essay, drilling into a stratum known to contain, or likely containing, oil or gas. (f) If additional fresh groundwater is encountered in one child policy paper, drilling below the permanently cemented surface casing, the operator shall document the depth of the fresh ground water zone in the well record and protect the additional fresh groundwater by installing and cementing a subsequent string of casing or other procedures approved by the Department to completely isolate and protect fresh groundwater. The string of casing may also penetrate zones bearing salty or brackish water with cement in the annular space being used to segregate the various zones. Human Essay Paper! Sufficient cement shall be used to cement the thesis of phd, casing to the surface. The operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then install a centralizer in intervals no greater than, if possible, every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (g) The operator shall set and human cement a coal protective string of casing through workable coal seams. The base of the coal protective casing shall be at least 30 feet below the lowest workable coal seam.

The operator shall install at least two centralizers. One centralizer shall be within 50 feet of the casing seat and the second centralizer shall be within 100 feet of the surface. (h) Unless an alternative method has been approved by list of quarterly the Department in accordance with § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods), when a well is human essay, drilled through a coal seam at a location where the coal has been removed or when a well is drilled through a coal pillar, the operator shall drill to a depth of at least 30 feet but no more than 50 feet deeper than the bottom of the coal seam. The operator shall set and cement a coal protection string of casing to this depth. The operator shall equip the casing with a cement basket or other similar device above and as close to the top of the coal seam as practical. The bottom of the casing must be equipped with an career research, appropriate device designed to prevent deformation of the bottom of the casing. The interval from the bottom of the casing to the bottom of the resource, coal seam shall be filled with cement either by the balance method or by the displacement method. Cement shall be placed on top of the basket between the wall of the hole and the outside of the casing by pumping from the surface.

If the operator penetrates more than one coal seam from which the coal has been removed, the operator shall protect each seam with a separate string of casing that is set and cemented or with a single string of career research paper on pharmacy, casing which is stage cemented so that each coal seam is protected as described in this subsection. The operator shall cement the well to isolate workable coal seams from each other. (i) If the operator sets and human resource cements casing under subsection (g) or (h) and subsequently encounters additional fresh groundwater zones below the deepest cemented casing string installed, the operator shall protect the fresh groundwater by installing and cementing another string of casing or other method approved by the Department. Sufficient cement shall be used to cement the casing to the surface. One Child Policy! The additional casing string may also penetrate zones bearing brackish or salt water, but shall be run and paper cemented prior to penetrating a zone known to or likely to contain oil or gas.

The operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then, if possible, install a centralizer in intervals no greater than every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (j) If it is anticipated that cement used to permanently cement the surface casing cannot be circulated to the surface a cement basket may be installed immediately above the depth of the anticipated lost circulation zone. The casing shall be permanently cemented by the displacement method. Additional cement may be added above the cement basket, if necessary, by pumping through a pour string from the research, surface to fill the annular space. Filling the annular space by this method does not constitute permanently cementing the surface or coal protective casing under § 78.83b (relating to casing and cementing-lost circulation). The provisions of this § 78.83 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276328) to (276330). This section cited in 25 Pa. Human Essay Paper! Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83c (relating to intermediate and production casing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Thesis Of Phd! Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of human resource, inactive wells). (a) The operator shall prepare and maintain a casing and cementing plan showing how the well will be drilled and completed.

The plan must demonstrate compliance with this subchapter and include the following information: (1) The anticipated depth and thickness of writing for high, any producing formation, expected pressures, anticipated fresh groundwater zones and the method or information by which the depth of the deepest fresh groundwater was determined. (2) The diameter of the borehole. (3) Casing type, whether the casing is new or used, depth, diameter, wall thickness and burst pressure rating. (4) Cement type, yield, additives and estimated amount. (5) The estimated location of centralizers.

(6) The proposed borehole conditioning procedures. (7) Alternative methods or materials as required by the Department as a condition of the well permit. (b) The plan shall be available at the well site for review by the Department. (c) Upon request, the operator shall provide a copy of the well-specific casing and cementing plan to the Department for essay, review and approval. (d) Revisions to the plan made as a result of thesis of phd, onsite modification shall be documented in the plan and be available for review by the Department. The person making the human resource paper, revisions to thesis of phd, the plan shall initial and date the revisions.

The provisions of this § 78.83a adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. § 78.83b. Casing and cementing#151;lost circulation. (a) If cement used to resource essay, permanently cement the surface or coal protective casing is top summer programs for high school, not circulated to the surface despite pumping a volume of essay, cement equal to or greater than 120#037; of the calculated annular space, the operator shall determine the top of the cement, notify the Department, and meet one of the following requirements as approved by the Department: (1) Run an additional string of casing at least 50 feet deeper than the string where circulation was lost and cement the one child policy research, additional string of human resource, casing back to the seat of the string where circulation was lost and thesis of phd vent the annulus of the additional casing string to the atmosphere at all times unless closed for well testing or maintenance. Shut-in pressure on the casing seat of the additional string of casing may not exceed the requirements of § 78.73(c) (relating to intermediate and production casing).

(2) Run production casing and set the production casing on a packer in a competent formation below the string where circulation was lost and vent the annulus of the production casing to the atmosphere at all times unless closed for human essay paper, well testing or maintenance. (3) Run production casing at least to the top of the list of quarterly, formation that is being produced and cement the production casing to the surface. (4) Run intermediate and production casing and cement both strings of human essay paper, casing to the surface. (5) Produce oil but not gas and paper on pharmacy leave the annulus between the surface casing and the production pipe open. (b) In addition to meeting the requirements of subsection (a), the operator may also pump additional cement through a pour string from the surface to human essay, fill the annular space. The provisions of this § 78.83b adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures). § 78.83c. Intermediate and production casing. (a) Prior to cementing the intermediate and thesis of phd production casing, the borehole, mud and cement shall be conditioned to ensure an adequate cement bond between the casing and the formation. (b) If the well is to be equipped with an intermediate casing, centralizers shall be used and the casing shall be cemented to the surface by essay the displacement method.

Gas may be produced off the intermediate casing if a shoe test demonstrates that all gas will be contained within the well and a relief valve is installed at the surface that is set less than the shoe test pressure. The shoe test pressure shall be recorded in the completion report. (c) Except as provided in § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures), each well must be equipped with production casing. List Of Quarterly Essays! The production string may be set on a packer or cemented in place. If the production casing is cemented in human, place, centralizers shall be used and top summer students cement shall be placed by the displacement method with sufficient cement to fill the annular space to a point at least 500 feet above true vertical depth or at least 200 feet above the resource essay, uppermost perforations, whichever is greater.

The provisions of this § 78.83c adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. (a) The operator shall install casing that can withstand the effects of do you underline movie, tension, and prevent leaks, burst and collapse during its installation, cementing and subsequent drilling and producing operations. (b) Except as provided in subsection (c), all casing must be a string of human, new pipe with an research paper, internal pressure rating that is at human resource, least 20#037; greater than the anticipated maximum pressure to which the casing will be exposed. (c) Used casing may be approved for use as surface, intermediate or production casing but shall be pressure tested after cementing and before continuation of drilling. A passing pressure test is holding the research, anticipated maximum pressure to which it will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease in pressure. (d) New or used plain end casing, except when being used as conductor pipe, that is welded together for use must meet the following requirements: (1) The casing must pass a pressure test by holding the human essay paper, anticipated maximum pressure to which the casing will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease in pressure. Top Summer! The operator shall notify the Department at paper, least 24 hours before conducting the test. One Child Policy Research Paper! The test results shall be entered on the drilling log. (2) The casing shall be welded using at least three passes with the joint cleaned between each pass. (3) The casing shall be welded by a person trained and human certified in the applicable American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Welding Society or equivalent standard for welding casing and pipe or an equivalent training and expository favorite certification program as approved by the Department.

The certification requirements of this paragraph shall take effect August 5, 2011. A person with 10 or more years of experience welding casing as of February 5, 2011, who registers with the Department by human essay paper November 7, 2011, is deemed to be certified. (e) When casing through a workable coal seam, the operator shall install coal protective casing that has a minimum wall thickness of 0.23 inch. (f) Casing which is attached to thesis of phd, a blow-out preventer with a pressure rating of human resource essay, greater than 3,000 psi shall be pressure tested after cementing. A passing pressure test must be holding the anticipated maximum pressure to which the casing will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease. Policy Research Paper! Certification of the resource paper, pressure test shall be confirmed by entry and signature of the person performing the test on the driller#146;s log. The provisions of programs for high school, this § 78.84 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Human Resource Essay! 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. List Of Quarterly Essays! 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276330). This section cited in human resource essay, 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Thesis Of Phd! Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for human resource essay, approval of inactive status); and thesis of phd 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to human, annual monitoring of thesis of phd, inactive wells). (a) When cementing surface casing or coal protective casing, the operator shall use cement that meets or exceeds the ASTM International C 150, Type I, II or III Standard or API Specification 10. The cement must also: (1) Secure the casing in the wellbore. (2) Isolate the wellbore from fresh groundwater. (3) Contain any pressure from drilling, completion and production. (4) Protect the casing from corrosion from, and degradation by, the geochemical, lithologic and physical conditions of the surrounding wellbore. For wells employing coal protective casing, this includes, but is not limited to, formulating cement to withstand elevated sulfate concentrations and other geochemical constituents of coal and associated strata which have the potential to adversely affect the integrity of the cement.

(5) Prevent gas flow in the annulus. In areas of known shallow gas producing zones, gas block additives and low fluid loss slurries shall be used. (b) After the casing cement is placed behind surface casing, the operator shall permit the cement to set to a minimum designed compressive strength of 350 pounds per square inch (psi) at the casing seat. Human Paper! The cement placed at the bottom 300 feet of the surface casing must constitute a zone of critical cement and achieve a 72-hour compressive strength of 1,200 psi and the free water separation may be no more than 6 milliliters per 250 milliliters of cement. If the surface casing is less than 300 feet, the entire cemented string constitutes a zone of critical cement. (c) After any casing cement is placed and cementing operations are complete, the casing may not be disturbed for research on pharmacy, a minimum of 8 hours by doing any of the following: (1) Releasing pressure on resource essay paper, the cement head within 4 hours of cementing if casing equipment check valves did not hold or casing equipment was not equipped with check valves. After 4 hours, the pressure may be released at movie titles, a continuous, gradual rate over the next four hours provided the resource paper, floats are secure. (2) Nippling up on or in conjunction to the casing. (3) Slacking off by the rig supporting the thesis of phd, casing in the cement sheath. (4) Running drill pipe or other mechanical devices into or out of the wellbore with the exception of human resource, a wireline used to essay food, determine the top of cement.

(d) Where special cement or additives are used, the operator may request approval from the Department to reduce the cement setting time specified in subsection (d). (e) The operator shall notify the Department a minimum of 1 day before cementing of the surface casing begins, unless the cementing operation begins within 72 hours of resource essay, commencement of drilling. (f) A copy of the cement job log shall be available at the well site for inspection by the Department during drilling operations. The cement job log must include the mix water temperature and pH, type of cement with listing and quantity of additive types, the volume, yield and density in pounds per gallon of the cement and the amount of cement returned to the surface, if any. List! Cementing procedural information must include a description of the pumping rates in resource, barrels per minute, pressures in do you underline titles in research, pounds per square inch, time in minutes and sequence of events during the cementing operation. (g) The cement job log shall be maintained by the operator after drilling operations for at human resource essay paper, least 5 years and research on pharmacy be made available to the Department upon request. The provisions of this § 78.85 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at human resource essay paper, serial pages (276330) to (276331). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.86. List Of Quarterly! Defective casing or cementing. In a well that has defective, insufficient or improperly cemented casing, the operator shall report the defect to the Department within 24 hours of discovery by the operator and shall correct the human resource paper, defect.

The operator shall correct the defect or submit a plan to correct the defect for approval by list essays the Department within 30 days. If the defect cannot be corrected or an essay paper, alternate method is not approved by the Department, the well shall be plugged under § § 78.91#151;78.98 (relating to plugging). The provisions of this § 78.86 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.87. Gas storage reservoir protective casing and cementing procedures. (a) In addition to the other provisions in do you titles in research, this subchapter, a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir or a gas storage reservoir protective area shall be drilled, cased and cemented as follows: (1) An operator shall use drilling procedures capable of human resource essay, controlling anticipated gas flows and expository food pressures when drilling from the surface to 200 feet above a gas storage reservoir or gas storage horizon.

(2) An operator shall use drilling procedures capable of controlling anticipated gas storage reservoir pressures and flows at all times when drilling from 200 feet above a gas storage reservoir horizon to the depth at which the gas storage protective casing will be installed. Operators shall use blow-out prevention equipment with a pressure rating in excess of the allowable maximum storage pressure for the gas storage reservoir. (3) To protect the gas storage reservoir, an operator shall run intermediate or production casing from a point located at least 100 feet below the gas storage horizon to the surface. The operator shall cement this casing by circulating cement to a point at least 200 feet above the gas storage reservoir or gas storage horizon. (4) When cementing casing in a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir, the operator shall insure that no gas is present in resource, the drilling fluids in an amount that could interfere with the integrity of the cement. (b) A request by an operator for approval from the Department to use an alternative method or material for thesis of phd, the casing, plugging or equipping of a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir under section 211 of the human, act (58 P. S. § 601.211) shall be made in accordance with § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). The provisions of this § 78.87 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions). § 78.88. Mechanical integrity of operating wells. (a) Except for research, wells regulated under Subchapter H (relating to human resource paper, underground gas storage) and wells that have been granted inactive status, the operator shall inspect each operating well at least quarterly to ensure it is in compliance with the well construction and one child policy research operating requirements of this chapter and the act. The results of the inspections shall be recorded and human essay retained by thesis of phd the operator for at least 5 years and be available for review by the Department and essay paper the coal owner or operator. (b) At a minimum, inspections must determine: (1) The well-head pressure or water level measurement. (2) The open flow on top summer programs students, the annulus of the production casing or the annulus pressure if the annulus is resource essay, shut in. (3) If there is evidence of gas escaping from the well and the amount escaping, using measurement or best estimate of quantity. (4) If there is evidence of progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of equipment deterioration.

(c) For structurally sound wells in of quarterly, compliance with § 78.73(c) (relating to surface and human resource coal protective casing and cementing procedure), the operator shall follow the reporting schedule outlined in subsection (e). (d) For wells exhibiting progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of equipment deterioration that compromise the integrity of the well, or the well is not in creative for high school students, compliance with § 78.73(c), the essay paper, operator shall immediately notify the Department and take corrective actions to career research paper, repair or replace defective equipment or casing or mitigate the human resource, excess pressure on the surface casing seat or coal protective casing seat according to the following hierarchy: (1) The operator shall reduce the shut-in or producing back pressure on the casing seat to achieve compliance with § 78.73(c). (2) The operator shall retrofit the well by one child policy installing production casing to reduce the pressure on the casing seat to achieve compliance with § 78.73(c). The annular space surrounding the human resource essay paper, production casing must be open to the atmosphere. The production casing shall be either cemented to the surface or installed on a permanent packer. List! The operator shall notify the Department at least 7 days prior to initiating the corrective measure. (3) Additional mechanical integrity tests, including, but not limited to, pressure tests, may be required by the Department to demonstrate the integrity of the well. (e) The operator shall submit an annual report to the Department identifying the compliance status of human resource essay paper, each well with the mechanical integrity requirements of this section. Writing Programs School! The report shall be submitted on forms prescribed by, and available from, the Department or in a similar manner approved by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.88 adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805. (a) When an human paper, operator or owner is notified of underline movie titles in research papers, or otherwise made aware of a potential natural gas migration incident, the operator shall immediately conduct an investigation of the resource paper, incident. Thesis Of Phd! The purpose of the investigation is to determine the nature of the incident, assess the potential for essay paper, hazards to public health and safety, and mitigate any hazard posed by the concentrations of thesis of phd, stray natural gas. (b) The investigation undertaken by the operator under subsection (a) must include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) A site visit and interview with the complainant to obtain information about the complaint and to assess the reported natural gas migration incident. (2) A field survey to essay, assess the presence and concentrations of natural gas and top summer creative writing for high aerial extent of the stray natural gas. (3) If necessary, establishment of monitoring locations at human, potential sources, in potentially impacted structures, and top summer writing programs school the subsurface. (c) If combustible gas is detected inside a building or structure at concentrations equal to resource, or greater than 10#037; of the L.E.L., the list essays, operator shall do the following: (1) Immediately notify the Department, local emergency response agency, gas and electric utility companies, police and fire departments and, in paper, conjunction with the Department and local emergency response agencies, take measures necessary to ensure public health and safety. (2) Initiate mitigation measures necessary to control and prevent further migration. (3) Implement the additional investigation and mitigation measures as provided in subsection (e)(1)#151;(5). (d) The operator shall notify the Department and, in list, conjunction with the human resource essay paper, Department, take measures necessary to ensure public health and safety, if sustained detectable concentrations of combustible gas satisfy any of the following: (1) Greater than 1#037; and essay favorite less than 10#037; of the essay paper, L.E.L., in a building or structure.

(2) Equal to or greater than 25#037; of the L.E.L. in a water well head space. (3) Detectable in on pharmacy, the soils. (4) Equal to or greater than 7 mg/l dissolved methane in water. (e) The Department may require the operator to take the paper, following additional actions: (1) Conduct a field survey to assess the presence and concentrations of combustible gas and the areal extent of the combustible gas in the soils, surface water bodies, water wells, and list of quarterly other potential migration pathways. (2) Collect gas or water, or both, samples at human paper, a minimum for career research on pharmacy, molecular and stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses from the impacted locations such as water wells, and human resource paper from potential sources of the thesis of phd, migration such as gas wells. (3) Conduct an immediate evaluation of the operator#146;s adjacent oil or gas wells to determine well cement and casing integrity and to evaluate the potential mechanism of migration. This evaluation may include assessing pressures for all casing intervals, reviewing records for indications of defective casing or cement, application of cement bond logs, ultrasonic imaging tools, geophysical logs, and other mechanical integrity tests as required. The initial area of resource essay paper, assessment must include wells within a radius of 2,500 feet and may be expanded if required by of quarterly essays the Department. (4) Take action to correct any defect in the oil and gas wells to mitigate the stray gas incident. (5) Establish monitoring locations and monitoring frequency in consultation with the Department at potential sources, in potentially impacted structures, and the subsurface. (f) If concentrations of human, stray natural gas as defined in subsection (c) or (d) are not detected, the essay food, operator shall notify the Department, and do the following if requested by the Department: (1) Conduct additional monitoring.

(2) Document findings. (3) Submit a closure report. (g) If concentrations of human resource paper, stray natural gas are detected inside a building or structure at concentrations equal to or greater than 10#037; of the L.E.L., the operator and owner shall file a report with the Department by phone and email within 24 hours after the interview with the complainant and paper field survey of the extent of stray natural gas. Additional daily or weekly reports shall be submitted if requested by the Department. (h) For all stray natural gas migration incidents, a final written report documenting the results of the investigation shall be submitted to the Department for approval within 30 days of the close of the incident, or in a time frame otherwise approved by the Department. The final report must include the following: (1) Documentation of all results of the investigation, including analytical data and monitoring results.

(2) Operational changes established at the operator#146;s oil and gas wells in paper, this Commonwealth. (3) Measures taken by policy research the operator to human resource, repair any defects at any of the one child policy research paper, investigated oil and paper gas wells. (i) Reports submitted in accordance with this section that contain an analysis of geological or engineering data shall be prepared and sealed by policy a geologist or engineer licensed in this Commonwealth. The provisions of this § 78.89 adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. (a) Upon abandoning a well, the owner or operator shall plug the human resource essay paper, well under § § 78.92#151;78.98 or an approved alternate method under section 211 of the list, act (58 P. S. § 601.211) to stop the essay, vertical flow of fluids or gas within the well bore unless one of the following applies: (1) The Department has granted inactive status under § § 78.101#151;78.105 (relating to inactive status).

(2) The well is part of a plugging schedule that has been approved by the Department and the operator is complying with that schedule, and career research paper on pharmacy the schedule takes into account potential harm that the well poses to the environment or public health and safety. (3) The Department has approved the identification of the essay, well as an orphan well under section 203 of the do you underline movie papers, act (58 P. S. § 601.203), and the Department has not determined a prior owner or operator received economic benefit after April 18, 1979, from this well other than economic benefit derived only as a landowner or from essay a royalty interest. (b) The operator shall plug a well where a radioactive logging source has been lost under § § 78.92#151;78.98 and 78.111. (c) When a well is being plugged from the attainable bottom, the operator shall install a 50-foot plug of cement at the attainable bottom and plug the remainder of the policy, well under § § 78.92#151;78.98. (d) If the production casing cannot be retrieved, the operator shall plug strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water by perforating the human resource, casing and squeezing cement into the annulus or other method approved by the Department. The maximum distance the policy research paper, stub of the human paper, uncemented production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface casing seat or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. The uncemented portion of the casing left in the well above the thesis of phd, total depth or attainable bottom may not extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water or extend to a point where it interferes with subsequent plugging requirements of § § 78.92(a)(2) and 78.93(a)(2) and (b)(4) (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented; and human wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement).

The remainder of the well shall be plugged under § § 78.92#151;78.98. (e) When plugging a well, an operator shall insure that no gases are present in the well in an amount that could interfere with cementing the well. (f) When plugging a well with a casing string cemented through a gas storage reservoir or reservoir protective area, an operator shall use bridge plugs immediately above and below the gas storage reservoir unless an alternate plugging plan has been approved by thesis of phd the Department. (g) When a well located in a coal area is essay, plugged to expository, allow mining through it, the person authorized by the Department to plug the well under the paper, act or section 13 of the Coal and expository favorite food Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. Human Resource! S. Of Quarterly Essays! § 513) shall clean out the human essay paper, gas well to list essays, a depth of at least 200 feet below the coal seam which will be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the deepest minable coal seam the well penetrates. (h) In lieu of the plugging requirements of § § 78.92#151;78.95 and 78.97, an operator may cement a well from the total depth or attainable bottom to the surface. Wells in coal areas still shall meet the venting requirements of human resource, § 78.92 or § 78.93 (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented; and wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement). The provisions of this § 78.91 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241923) to (241924). This section cited in 25 Pa. List! Code § 78.86 (relating to human essay paper, defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.92 (relating to wells in essay favorite, coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.93 (relating to resource essay paper, wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement); 25 Pa. Code § 78.94 (relating to wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is thesis of phd, not cemented or not present); 25 Pa. Code § 78.95 (relating to wells in resource, noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.92. Wells in do you underline movie titles in research papers, coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented. (a) In a well underlain by resource essay paper a workable coal seam, where the surface casing or coal protective casing is cemented and the production casing is not cemented or the production casing is not present, the owner or operator shall plug the creative, well as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the human, casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the do you underline in research papers, casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is resource essay paper, greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the list, well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which shall extend for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Resource Essay Paper! Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to career, a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material. The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials approved by the Department. Where the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions).

(2) After plugging strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. At this point, a 100-foot plug of cement shall be installed. (3) After the plug has been installed below the casing seat, the inner casing shall be emptied of liquid from the surface to human essay paper, the plug of cement. Underline Movie Papers! A vent or other device approved by the Department shall then be installed on top of the inner string of casing to prevent liquids and solids from entering the well but permit access to the full internal diameter of the inner casing when required. The vent or other device approved by the Department must extend, when finally in place, a distance of at least 72 inches above ground level and paper the permit or registration number must be permanently affixed. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing, coal protective casing and production casing are cemented, as follows: (1) If the list of quarterly essays, total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the human resource essay, operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1).

(2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the career research paper, production casing so that the plugs will extend from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to human essay paper, a point at thesis of phd, least 100 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne, oil, gas or water. A Department-approved mechanical plug may be set 20 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water as a substitute for the plug of cement. Human Resource Essay! Nonporous material must separate each cement plug or mechanical plug. List Essays! The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and human resource paper plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the production casing shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is creative writing programs for high school students, greater. If this fails, an resource essay, attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by underline movie in research the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater.

The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing whichever is lower. In no case may the uncemented portion of the essay paper, casing left in the well extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Policy Research! Other stratum above the resource paper, cemented portion of the underline in research papers, production casing bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by human resource essay filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the research paper on pharmacy, stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other material as approved by the Department. When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d). (4) After plugging all strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. At this point a 200-foot cement plug shall be placed so that the plug extends from human 100 feet below the casing seat to a point at least 100 feet above the casing seat. (5) After the 200-foot plug has been installed, the remainder of the well shall be plugged and vented as described in subsection (a)(3). (c) A person authorized by the Department under the act or section 13 of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. Top Summer Programs For High School Students! § 513) to plug a gas well that penetrates a workable coal seam that was drilled prior to November 30, 1955, or which was permitted after that date but not plugged in human essay, accordance with the one child policy paper, act, shall plug the well to mine through it in the following manner: (1) The gas well shall be cleaned out to a depth of at least 200 feet below the human resource, coal seam which is proposed to be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the deepest mineable coal seam that the well penetrates. (2) The gas well shall be plugged in of quarterly essays, accordance with section 13(a)(1), (2), (3) or (4) of the human resource, Coal and essay food Gas Resource Coordination Act.

The provisions of this § 78.92 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Resource Paper! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at thesis of phd, serial pages (276333) to (276335). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.86 (relating to defective coating or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to human resource, plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.93. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement. (a) In a well where the surface casing or coal protective casing and essays production casing are anchored with a packer or cement, the owner or operator shall plug the human essay, well as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by do you underline movie titles in research papers applying a pulling force at essay, least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by policy research paper the Department, and making a second attempt to resource, remove the one child policy research paper, casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which must extend for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to a point 50 feet above this formation. Resource Essay Paper! The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material. The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other material as approved by the Department. When the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions). (2) The well shall then be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 200 feet below the lowest workable coal seam, or surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is expository favorite, deeper.

Beginning at human resource paper, this point a 100-foot plug of cement shall be installed. (3) After it has been established that the surface casing or coal protective casing is programs school, free and can be retrieved, the surface or coal protective casing shall be retrieved by applying a pulling force at paper, least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. If this fails, an attempt shall be made to expository essay favorite food, separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. Human Essay! A string of casing with an outside diameter of at least 4 1/2 inches for gas wells, or at least 2 inches for thesis of phd, oil wells, shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (2) and cemented to the surface. (4) If the surface or coal protective string is resource paper, not free and cannot be retrieved, it shall be perforated or cut below the lowest workable coal to allow the cement used to cement the 4 1/2-inch or 2-inch casing to communicate between the paper, surface casing or coal protective casing, or both, and resource essay paper the well bore.

A string of casing of at least 4 1/2 inches for gas wells or at least 2 inches for oil wells shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (2) and thesis of phd cemented to the surface. (5) The inner casing shall then be emptied of liquid and cement from the base of the casing to the surface and a vent or other device approved by essay paper the Department shall be installed on the top of the casing to prevent liquids and solids from entering the well, but permit ready access to the full internal diameter of the inner casing. The inner string of casing and the vent or other device approved by the Department must extend, when finally in policy, place, a distance of at least 72 inches above ground level and the permit or registration number must be permanently affixed to the vent. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing and coal protective casing is anchored with a packer or cement and human the production casing is of quarterly, cemented, as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the human resource essay paper, cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) A cement plug shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that the plugs extend from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at least 100 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne, oil, gas or water. List Essays! A Department approved mechanical plug may be set 20 feet above the stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water as a substitute for the plug of cement.

Nonporous material shall separate each cement plug or mechanical plug. Resource Essay Paper! The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in one child research, this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the production casing shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved. The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing whichever is lower. In no case may the uncemented portion of the casing left in the well extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum above the cemented portion of the production casing bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by human essay paper filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this paragraph with a single column of cement or other material approved by the Department. When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d). (4) The well shall be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 300 feet below the bottom of the surface casing or coal protective casing, whichever is deeper. Career Paper On Pharmacy! In this case, a 100-foot plug of cement shall then be placed in the well beginning at that point and extending to a point approximately 200 feet below the bottom of the casing seat.

(5) After it has been established that the surface casing or coal protective casing is free and can be retrieved, the surface or coal protective casing shall be retrieved and a string of casing with an outside diameter of human essay, not less than 4 1/2 inches for gas wells, or not less than 2 inches for oil wells, shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (4) and cemented to the surface. (6) If the surface or coal protective string is not free and cannot be retrieved, it shall be perforated or cut below the list, lowest workable coal seam to allow the human resource essay, cement used to cement the 4 1/2-inch or 2-inch casing to communicate between the surface casing or coal protective casing, or both, and the well bore. Food! A string of casing of not less than 4 1/2 inches for gas wells or not less than 2 inches for oil wells shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (4) and cemented to the surface. (7) The inner casing shall then be emptied of liquid and human essay cement from the base of the casing to the surface and a vent or other device approved by the Department shall be installed on the top of the casing to prevent liquids and solids from entering the well, but permit ready access to the full internal diameter of the titles papers, inner casing. The inner string of casing and human essay the vent or other device approved by the Department shall extend, when finally in place, a distance of not less than 72 inches above ground level and the permit or registration number shall be permanently affixed to the vent.

(c) A person authorized by the Department under the act or section 13 of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § 513) to plug a gas well that penetrates a workable coal seam which was drilled prior to list of quarterly essays, November 30, 1955, or which was permitted after that date but not plugged in accordance with the act shall plug the well to mine through it in the following manner: (1) The gas well shall be cleaned out to a depth of at least 200 feet below the coal seam which is proposed to be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the deepest minable coal seam which the well penetrates. (2) The well shall be plugged in human essay paper, accordance with section 13(a)(2) or (4) of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act. The provisions of this § 78.93 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Top Summer Creative Writing Students! 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Human Essay Paper! 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276335) to career paper on pharmacy, (276338).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells).

§ 78.94. Wells in resource paper, noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present. (a) The owner or operator shall plug a noncoal well, where the surface casing and production casing are not cemented, or is do you underline titles papers, not present as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. Essay Paper! If this fails, an for high students, attempt shall be made to separate the casing by paper cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. Favorite Food! The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which must extend for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material.

The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this paragraph with a single column of human essay paper, cement or other materials as approved by the Department. When the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to writing programs for high school, general provisions). (2) After plugging strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to approximately 100 feet below the surface casing seat and there shall be placed another plug of cement or other equally nonporous material approved by the Department extending at human, least 50 feet above that point. (3) After setting the uppermost 50-foot plug, the retrievable surface casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by essay exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the human resource, casing weight, whichever is greater. The hole shall be filled from the top of the 50-foot plug to list of quarterly, the surface with nonporous material other than gel. If the surface casing is not retrievable, the hole shall be filled from the top of the 50-foot plug to the surface with a noncementing material. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing is not cemented or not present, and the production casing is cemented as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that each plug extends from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at least 100 feet above each stratum. A Department-approved mechanical plug may be used as a substitute for the plug of cement.

The mechanical plug shall be set 20 feet above each stratum having borne oil, gas or water. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in human, this subsection with a single column of cement or other material approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the production string shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved. The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface casing. One Child Policy! In no case may the uncemented portion of the production casing left in the hole extend through stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of essay, cement. When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d). (4) The remainder of the expository essay favorite, well shall be plugged under subsection (a)(2) and (3). The provisions of this § 78.94 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Human Essay Paper! 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276338) to (276340). This section cited in top summer creative writing programs school, 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to human resource, defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and thesis of phd 25 Pa.

Code § 78.407 (relating to human resource essay, plugging gas storage wells). § 78.95. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented. (a) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the thesis of phd, surface casing is cemented and the production casing is not cemented or not present, as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is human resource essay, greater. If this fails, an thesis of phd, attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by human essay paper the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the thesis of phd, casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Resource Essay Paper! At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which extends for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material.

The cement plugs shall be placed in expository essay favorite, a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of human resource essay, cement or other materials as approved by the Department. Do You Movie Titles In Research Papers! When the resource, production casing is not retrievable, the essay food, operator shall plug this portion of the essay paper, well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions). (2) After plugging all strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to list of quarterly, approximately 100 feet below the human essay paper, surface casing seat. Another plug of cement, or other equally nonporous material approved by the Department, shall be placed extending at least 50 feet above that point. (3) After setting the 50-foot plug, the hole shall be filled from the top of the 50-foot plug to the surface with a noncementing material or the operator shall set a 100-foot cement plug which extends 50-feet into the surface casing and thesis of phd fill the hole to human resource essay paper, the surface with noncementing material.

(b) The owner or operator shall plug a noncoal well, where the policy research, surface casing and production casing are cemented, as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the essay paper, cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) Cement plugs shall be set in thesis of phd, the cemented portion of the production casing so that each plug extends from at human resource essay paper, least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at least 100 feet above the stratum. A Department-approved mechanical plug may be used as a substitute for the plug of cement. The mechanical plug shall be set 20 feet above each stratum having borne oil, gas or water. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the list of quarterly, production casing, the uncemented portion of the production string shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved. The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is human, 100 feet below the surface casing. In no case may the food, uncemented portion of the resource essay paper, production casing left in career, the hole extend through stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d).

(4) The remainder of the well shall be plugged under subsection (a)(2) and (3). The provisions of this § 78.95 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276340) and (241931). This section cited in 25 Pa. Human Paper! Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. List Of Quarterly Essays! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Human Resource Essay! Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.407 (relating to list essays, plugging gas storage wells). § 78.96. Marking the location of resource paper, a plugged well. Upon the completion of plugging or replugging a well, the operator shall erect over the plugged well a permanent marker of research paper on pharmacy, concrete, metal, plastic or equally durable material. Resource Paper! The marker must extend at least 4 feet above the ground surface and enough below the surface to make the underline movie titles, marker permanent. Cement may be used to hold the marker in place provided the human resource, cement does not prevent inspection of the adequacy of the well plugging. The permit or registration number shall be stamped or cast or otherwise permanently affixed to the marker. In lieu of placing the marker above the ground surface, the marker may be buried below plow depth and shall contain enough metal to be detected at one child research paper, the surface by conventional metal detectors. The provisions of this § 78.96 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Human Paper! Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241932). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and of quarterly essays 25 Pa. Essay Paper! Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.97. Plugging a well stimulated with explosives. Where strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water in top summer for high school, the well have been stimulated with explosives, thereby creating cavities which cannot be readily filled as described in § § 78.92#151;78.95, the well operator shall place at the nearest suitable point, but at least 20 feet above the stratum, a plug of cement which extends at least 50 feet above that point.

If the stimulation has been done above one or more strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water in the well, plugging in the applicable manner specified in § § 78.92#151;78.95 shall be done at the nearest suitable points, to paper, at least 20 feet below and at one child policy research, least 20 feet above the paper, stratum stimulated. From a point immediately above and of quarterly essays below these plugs, the well shall be plugged under § § 78.94 and 78.95 (relating to wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present; and wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is human resource essay paper, cemented). The provisions of this § 78.97 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in top summer, 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Essay! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to one child policy, plugging gas storage wells). § 78.98. Restricting surface water from the resource essay paper, well bore. When casing, including conductor pipe, is left in the well at the surface, the area between the casings or the casing and the well bore shall be permanently filled to the surface with a nonporous material to restrict surface water from the well bore.

The provisions of this § 78.98 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in list of quarterly, 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Human Paper! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Food! Code § 78.407 (relating to paper, plugging gas storage wells). Upon application, the Department will grant inactive status for thesis of phd, 5 years for a permitted or registered well if the application meets the requirements of human resource essay paper, section 204 of the expository essay, act (58 P. Resource! S. § 601.204) and top summer writing programs for high students § § 78.102#151;78.105.

The Department may require information to demonstrate that the conditions imposed by § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status) are satisfied. The provisions of human resource paper, this § 78.101 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Movie Titles In Research! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138850). This section cited in resource, 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions). § 78.102. Criteria for approval of underline movie papers, inactive status. To obtain inactive status, the applicant shall affirmatively demonstrate to the Department#146;s satisfaction that: (1) The condition of the well is essay paper, sufficient to: (i) Prevent damage to the producing zone or contamination of fresh water or other natural resources or surface leakage of substances. (ii) Stop the vertical flow of top summer creative for high, fluid or gas within the well bore.

(iii) Protect fresh groundwater. (iv) Pose no threat to the health and safety of persons, property or the resource paper, environment. (2) The well complies with one of the following: (i) The well meets casing and cementing requirements of § § 78.81#151;78.86 (relating to casing and research paper on pharmacy cementing). (ii) For wells not drilled in conformance with casing and cementing requirements of § § 78.81#151;78.86, and for the purpose of the annual monitoring of wells granted inactive status as required by § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of human resource essay, inactive wells), the applicant demonstrates that: (A) For oil and gas wells equipped with surface casing, the operator shall demonstrate that the liquid level in the well bore is maintained at thesis of phd, a level at no higher than the water protection depth. For purposes of this clause where oil or gas bearing formations are encountered less than 100 feet below the surface casing seat, the water protection depth shall be that point midway between the top of the oil or gas bearing formation and the surface casing seat. (B) If the essay paper, liquid level in an oil or gas well equipped with surface casing stands above the water protection depth and below the groundwater table depth, the operator shall test the liquid to determine its quality.

If the liquid has a total dissolved solids content or conductivity generally equivalent to do you movie papers, fresh groundwater in resource essay, the immediate area, the top summer writing students, casing is assumed to be either leaking or not set deep enough to shut off groundwater, and mechanical integrity is not demonstrated and inactive status will not be granted unless the operator demonstrates that the well is in compliance with the shut-in portion of the mechanical integrity test requirements of the resource essay, Under Ground Injection Control program under the career research on pharmacy, Safe Drinking Water Act (21 U.S.C.A. Human Essay Paper! § 349; 42 U.S.C. Top Summer For High Students! § § 201, 300f#151;300j-11). If the paper, liquid has a total dissolved solids content or conductivity equivalent to the production formation or production liquid, mechanical integrity is considered to be demonstrated. (C) For oil wells not equipped with surface casing or for oil wells equipped with surface casing that cannot be approved for list of quarterly essays, inactive status under paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B), the operator shall modify the well to meet one of the following: (I) The operator shall set a string of casing on a packer sufficiently deep to isolate the fresh groundwater system. The casing shall be set to essay paper, the water protection depth for wells in the area, and the requirements of paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B) shall be met. (II) The operator has set a temporary plug or mechanical seal at the water protection depth and top summer creative writing programs for high students isolated the fresh groundwater system. The operator may demonstrate the resource, integrity of the plug by demonstrating that water standing above the plug is, and continues to be, fresh water not contaminated by production fluids, or by other means acceptable to the Department. (III) The operator shall fill the well with a freshwater bentonite gel or other material approved by the Department which will restrict vertical migration of gas or fluids in the well bore. Essays! The operator shall monitor the gel level and human paper report significant changes to the Department on an annual basis and take remedial action approved by the Department.

(D) For gas wells equipped with production casing separate from the policy, surface casing, the annulus between the surface or coal protective casing and paper the production casing is vented to the atmosphere. The owner or operator of list of quarterly essays, a well granted inactive status under this clause shall monitor the annular vents for gas flow volumes. If the resource, gas flow volume exceeds 5,000 cubic feet per day, the owner or operator shall notify the Department and take remedial action approved by the Department. (E) For gas wells not equipped with separate production casing, but with cemented or uncemented surface casing present, the produced gas shut-in pressure is less than the pressure necessary to cause gas migration into the adjacent formation at the surface casing seat. Compliance with this condition may be demonstrated by mechanical tests of the casing and by evidence that the do you underline movie titles in research papers, gas wellhead shut-in pressure does not exceed 0.433 psi per foot of surface or coal protective casing depth. (3) If gas exists at human essay, an inactive oil well, the operator may vent the gas to top summer programs, the atmosphere or equip the well to confine the paper, gas to the producing formation. Essay! If this gas flow is greater than 5,000 cubic feet per day, the owner or operator shall notify the Department and take remedial action approved by the Department. (4) The applicant shall certify that the well is of future utility and shall present a viable plan for utilizing the human resource, well within a reasonable time. Research Paper On Pharmacy! In addition to providing information to human essay, demonstrate compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2), the application for essay food, inactive status shall include the following: (i) A plan showing when the human essay paper, well will be used. (ii) A certification identifying that one of the following applies: (A) Significant reserves remain in place and the operator plans to produce the well. (B) The well will be used as a disposal well.

(C) The well will be used as a storage well. (D) The well will be used as an observation well. (E) The well will be used as a secondary or tertiary recovery injection well or that the underline movie titles in research, well will be used for essay, other purposes specified by the applicant. (iii) Other information necessary for the Department to make a determination on inactive status. The provisions of this § 78.102 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to thesis of phd, general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells); 25 Pa. Code § 78.104 (relating to term of inactive status); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). § 78.103. Annual monitoring of inactive wells. The owner or operator of a well granted inactive status shall monitor the integrity of the well on an annual basis and shall report the resource, results to the Department. The owner or operator shall give the Department 3 working days prior notice of the annual monitoring and mechanical integrity testing.

For wells that were drilled in expository food, accordance with the human essay paper, casing and cementing standards of § § 78.81#151;78.86 (relating to casing and cementing), the policy paper, operator shall monitor the integrity of the well by using the resource essay, method described in § 78.102(2)(ii)(A), (B), (D) or (E) (relating to criteria for approval of list of quarterly, inactive status), as appropriate. For a well that was not drilled in accordance with the casing and cementing standards, the wells shall be monitored in resource, accordance with § 78.102(1). One Child! To qualify for continued inactive status, the owner or operator shall demonstrate, by the data in the monitoring reports, that the condition of the well continues to satisfy the requirements of § 78.102. Human Resource Essay Paper! The owner or operator shall submit the report by March 31 of the do you underline, following year. The provisions of this § 78.103 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138853). This section cited in resource essay paper, 25 Pa. On Pharmacy! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Human Resource! Code § 78.104 (relating to term of inactive status); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of one child policy research, inactive status); and 25 Pa. Essay Paper! Code § 78.105 (relating to expository essay favorite, revocation of inactive status). Approval of inactive status for resource paper, a well is valid for 5 years unless revoked. After 5 years, the thesis of phd, owner or operator shall plug or return to active status a well granted inactive status unless the Department grants an application for a 1-year extension. The operator of a well granted inactive status may apply for renewal of inactive status by demonstrating that the well continues to satisfy the conditions imposed on the well by § § 78.102 and 78.103 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status; and annual monitoring of inactive wells). The provisions of this § 78.104 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138854).

This section cited in resource, 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). § 78.105. Revocation of favorite, inactive status. The Department may revoke inactive status and may order the immediate plugging of a well if one of the following applies: (1) The well is in violation of the act or regulations administered by the Department. (2) The operator of the inactive well has become insolvent, to the extent that the plan provided under § 78.102 (relating to criteria for human essay, approval of inactive status) is no longer viable to return the well to research paper, active status, or the human paper, operator otherwise demonstrates a lack of ability or intention to comply with applicable laws and regulations. (3) The condition of the well no longer satisfies the requirements of section 204 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.204) and § § 78.102#151;78.104 (relating to top summer creative students, criteria for human resource paper, approval of inactive status; annual monitoring of inactive wells; and term of inactive status).

(4) The owner or operator is career paper, unwilling or unable to perform his obligations under the resource paper, act. The provisions of this § 78.105 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. List Of Quarterly! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Human Resource! Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138854).

This section cited in thesis of phd, 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and resource paper 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions). (a) The owner or operator may not abandon a radioactive source licensed by the Commonwealth for logging purposes without consent of the Department. Approval of a plan of abandonment may be arranged with the Department by telephone and is to be followed by do you underline a written report to the Department within 30 days after abandonment of the radioactive source. The plan shall be approved by the Department. (b) The operator shall notify the Department of his intention to leave a radioactive source in a well. (c) The operator shall mechanically equip a well in human essay, which a radioactive source is abandoned to creative writing programs for high school, prevent the accidental or intentional mechanical disintegration of the radioactive source. (1) The operator shall cover the radioactive source being abandoned in the bottom of a well with a substantial standard color-dyed cement plug on top of resource essay paper, which a mechanical stop or deflector shall be set.

The dye shall contrast with the color of the formation to alert a re-entry operator prior to encountering the source. (2) In a well where a logging source has been cemented in place behind a casing string and above total depth, upon of quarterly essays plugging the well, a color-dyed cement plug shall be placed opposite the abandoned source inside the essay, well bore and a mechanical stop or deflector shall be placed on top of the do you underline movie, plug. (3) If, after expending a reasonable effort, the essay paper, operator cannot comply with paragraph (1) or (2) because of thesis of phd, hole conditions, the operator shall request Department approval to cease efforts to comply with paragraph (1) or (2) and shall obtain approval for an alternate method for essay, abandoning the source and plugging the thesis of phd, well. (d) Upon plugging a well in which a radioactive source is paper, left in the hole, the operator shall place a permanent plaque by welding or bolting or cementing it to the top of the bore hole in list of quarterly essays, a manner approved by the Department that re-entry cannot be accomplished without disturbing the plaque. The plaque shall serve as a visual warning to a person re-entering the human paper, hole that a radioactive source has been abandoned in-place in the well. In Research Papers! The plaque shall depict the trefoil radiation symbol with the words #145;#145;Caution, Radioactive Material#146;#146; under § 219.41 (relating to radiation symbol) and shall be constructed of a long-lasting material such as monel, stainless steel, bronze or brass. The marker shall bear the following information: (2) Permit number. (3) Name and address of operator. (4) The type and strength of radioactive material abandoned in the well.

(5) The total well depth. (6) Depth at which the source was abandoned. (7) A warning not to drill below the plug-back depth or to enlarge the casing. (e) Prior to workover or re-entry activity, if a radioactive source is present, the operator shall have the paper, plan of operation approved by paper the Department before the workover or re-entry is permitted. (f) This section does not relieve the licensee, owner or operator from the obligation to comply with Federal regulations and this title, including Chapters 225 and 226 (relating to radiation safety requirements for industrial radiographic operations; and licenses and radiation safety requirements for well logging). The provisions of this § 78.111 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in resource essay paper, 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and one child paper 25 Pa. Code § 226.3a (relating to abandonment of a sealed source). 78.122. Well record and completion report. 78.123. Human! Logs and additional data.

78.124. Certificate of plugging. 78.125. Disposal and enhanced recovery well reports. (a) The well operator shall submit an annual production and status report for expository food, each permitted or registered well on an individual basis, on or before February 15 of each year. When the human resource, production data is not available to top summer creative programs school, the operator on a well basis, the human resource essay, operator shall report production on top summer creative writing for high school students, the most well-specific basis available. The annual production report must include information on the amount and type of resource essay, waste produced and the method of waste disposal or reuse.

Waste information submitted to the Department in expository favorite, accordance with this subsection is deemed to satisfy the residual waste biennial reporting requirements of § 287.52 (relating to biennial report). (b) The production report shall be submitted electronically to the Department through its web site. The provisions of this § 78a.121 amended under 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. Paper! § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and list essays Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and paper 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. Thesis Of Phd! § 1003); section 13.2 of the act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of paper, The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E); and do you underline papers sections 1917-A and 1920-A of The Administrative Code of resource essay paper, 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-17 and 510-20). The provisions of this § 78.121 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. One Child Policy Paper! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (377631). This section cited in resource, 7 Pa. Code § 137b.73a (relating to career paper, gas, oil and human resource coal bed methane). § 78.122. Well record and completion report.

(a) For each well that is one child policy paper, drilled or altered, the operator shall keep a detailed drillers log at the well site available for inspection until drilling is completed. Within 30 calendar days of cessation of drilling or altering a well, the well operator shall submit a well record to resource essay paper, the Department on a form provided by the Department that includes the following information: (1) Name, address and telephone number of the for high school students, permittee. (2) Permit number, and farm name and number. (3) Township and county. (4) Date drilling started and completed. (5) Method of drilling. (6) Size and human essay depth of conductor pipe, surface casing, coal protective casing, intermediate casing, production casing and writing for high borehole. (7) Type and amount of paper, cement and results of cementing procedures. (8) Elevation and total depth.

(9) Drillers log that includes the name and depth of formations from the surface to total depth, depth of oil and gas producing zone, depth of fresh water and brines and source of information. (10) Certification by list of quarterly essays the operator that the well has been constructed in accordance with this chapter and resource any permit conditions imposed by the Department. (11) Other information required by the Department. (b) Within 30 calendar days after completion of the top summer writing programs, well, the well operator shall submit a completion report to the Department on essay paper, a form provided by the Department that includes the following information: (1) Name, address and telephone number of the permittee. (2) Name, address and telephone number of the service companies.

(3) Permit number and list farm name and human essay number. (4) Township and career research on pharmacy county. (5) Perforation record. (6) Stimulation record which includes the following: (i) A descriptive list of the chemical additives in the stimulation fluid, including any acid, biocide, breaker, brine, corrosion inhibitor, crosslinker, demulsifier, friction reducer, gel, iron control, oxygen scavenger, pH adjusting agent, proppant, scale inhibitor and surfactant. (ii) The percent by volume of human resource essay, each chemical additive in the stimulation fluid. (iii) A list of the chemicals in food, the Material Safety Data Sheets, by name and human resource essay chemical abstract service number, corresponding to the appropriate chemical additive. (iv) The percent by volume of thesis of phd, each chemical listed in the Material Safety Data Sheets. (v) The total volume of the base fluid. (vi) A list of water sources used under an human resource, approved water management plan and the volume of water used from each source.

(vii) The total volume of recycled water used. (viii) The pump rate and pressure used in the well. (7) Actual open flow production and shut in surface pressure. (8) Open flow production and shut in thesis of phd, surface pressure, measured 24 hours after completion. (c) When the well operator submits a stimulation record, it may designate specific portions of the stimulation record as containing a trade secret or confidential proprietary information. The Department will prevent disclosure of the designated confidential information to the extent permitted under the Right-to-Know Law (65 P.S. § § 67.101#151;67.3103). (d) In addition to submitting a stimulation record to the Department under subsection (b), and subject to the protections afforded for trade secrets and confidential proprietary information under the Right-to-Know Law, the operator shall arrange to provide a list of the chemical constituents of the chemical additives used to hydraulically fracture a well, by chemical name and abstract service number, unless the additive does not have an human, abstract service number, to the Department upon one child paper written request by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.122 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Human! 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (304395) to (304396). (a) If requested by the Department within 90 calendar days after the completion of drilling or recompletion of career research paper, a well, the human resource, well operator shall submit to the Department a copy of the electrical, radioactive or other standard industry logs run on career research on pharmacy, the well. In addition, if requested by the Department within 1 year of the completion of human resource, drilling or recompletion of a well, the one child policy research, well operator shall file with the Department a copy of the paper, drill stem test charts, formation water analysis, porosity, permeability or fluid saturation measurements, core analysis and lithologic log or sample description or other similar data as compiled. Do You Underline Movie Titles! No information will be required unless the operator has had the information described in human resource essay paper, this subsection compiled in the ordinary course of business.

No interpretation of the data is to be filed. (b) Upon notification by the Department prior to drilling, the thesis of phd, well operator shall collect additional data specified by the Department, such as representative drill cuttings and samples from cores taken, and essay other geological information that the operator can reasonably compile. (c) The information requested by the Department under subsections (a) and (b) shall be provided to the Department by the operator, within 3 years after completion of the well unless the Department has granted an extension or unless the Department has requested information as described in subsection (d). Thesis Of Phd! If the human essay, Department has granted an extension, the information shall be submitted in accordance with the extension, but in no case may the extension exceed 5 years from the date of list of quarterly essays, completion of the well. (d) In accordance with the request of the Department, the operator shall submit the information described in this section for human resource, use in investigation or enforcement proceedings, or in aggregate form for statistical purposes. The provisions of this § 78.123 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B.

1234. List Of Quarterly Essays! Immediately preceding text appears at human resource, serial pages (194014) to (194015). (a) Within 30 calendar days after the well has been plugged, the owner or operator of the well shall submit a certificate of plugging to expository favorite, the Department and each coal operator, lessee or owner who was sent notice by certified mail of the intent to plug the human, well. (b) The certificate of career, plugging shall be on a form provided by human resource essay paper the Department and contain information required by the Department. (c) The certificate of plugging shall be prepared and favorite signed by two experienced and qualified people who participated in the work, and shall also be signed by the well owner or operator.

The provisions of this § 78.124 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. § 78.125. Human Resource! Disposal and enhanced recovery well reports. (a) The operator of a disposal or enhanced recovery well shall submit to the Department, upon request, a copy of the annual monitoring report submitted to the EPA summarizing the results of the operator#146;s monitoring as required by 40 CFR Part 146 (relating to underground injection control program) when these reports are submitted to do you underline titles papers, the EPA. This summary, at a minimum, shall include the essay paper, following: (1) Monthly records of major changes in characteristics or sources of injected fluids. (2) Reports of volumes and pressures of injection fluids.

(3) Reports of mechanical integrity testing. (4) Other information or reports required to be submitted to the EPA under 40 CFR Part 146. (b) The operator of a disposal or enhanced recovery well shall submit to list of quarterly essays, the Department copies of periodic monitoring reports or reports of human resource essay paper, failures, releases, accidents or other incidents required to be submitted to the EPA under 40 CFR 146 when these reports are submitted to one child policy paper, the EPA. (c) The operator of a disposal well or enhanced recovery well may submit monitoring reports to the Department on a field or project basis rather than on an individual well basis provided manifold monitoring is used. The provisions of this § 78.125 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (194016). The provisions of these § § 78.141#151;78.146 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved January 27, 2006, effective January 28, 2006, 36 Pa.B.

465. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241942) to (241944) and (276341). Subchapter G. BONDING REQUIREMENTS. 78.302. Requirement to file a bond. 78.303. Form, terms and conditions of the bond. 78.304.

Terms and conditions for surety bonds. 78.305. Resource! Terms and conditions for expository favorite food, collateral bonds#151;general. 78.306. Human Resource Essay! Collateral bonds#151;letters of credit. 78.307.

Collateral bonds#151;certificates of deposit. 78.308. Collateral bonds#151;negotiable bonds. 78.309. Phased deposit of collateral. 78.310. Replacement of existing bond. 78.311. Underline Titles In Research! Failure to maintain adequate bond.

78.313. Incapacity of operators. 78.314. Preservation of remedies. In addition to the requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. Human Resource Essay Paper! S. Policy Research! § 601.215), this subchapter specifies certain requirements for surety bonds, collateral bonds, replacement of existing bonds, maintaining adequate bond and bond forfeiture. The provisions of this § 78.301 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. For a well that has not been plugged, the owner or operator shall file a bond or otherwise comply with the resource, bonding requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215) and this chapter. A bond or bond substitute is not required for a well drilled before April 18, 1985. The provisions of this § 78.302 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241946).

§ 78.303. Form, terms and conditions of the list of quarterly essays, bond. (a) The following types of security are approvable: (1) A surety bond as provided in § 78.304 (relating to terms and human resource paper conditions for surety bonds). (2) A collateral bond as provided in school students, § § 78.305#151;78.308. Paper! For individuals who meet the requirements of section 215(d.1) of the thesis of phd, act, a phased deposit of collateral bond as provided in § 78.309(b) (relating to essay paper, phased deposit of collateral). (b) A person submitting a bond shall comply with the thesis of phd, Department guidelines establishing minimum criteria for execution and completion of the bond forms and related documents. (c) A bond shall be conditioned upon compliance with the human essay paper, drilling, water supply replacement, restoration and plugging requirements in the act, this chapter and permit conditions relating thereto. The bonds are penal in do you underline in research papers, nature and are designed to essay paper, ensure compliance by the operator to protect the environment, public health and safety affected by the oil and gas well.

(d) The person named in the bond or other security shall be the same as the person named in the permit. (e) The bond amounts required under section 215 of the act are as follows: (1) Two thousand five hundred dollars for school, a single well. (2) Twenty-five thousand dollars for a blanket bond. The provisions of this § 78.303 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241946). § 78.304. Terms and conditions for surety bonds. (a) The bond of a surety company that has failed, refused or unduly delayed to pay, in full, on a forfeited surety bond is not approvable. (b) Only the bond of a surety authorized to human resource essay, do business in this Commonwealth is approvable. If the principal place of business of the surety is outside of this Commonwealth, or if the surety is not a Pennsylvania corporation, the surety bond shall also be signed by an authorized resident agency of the surety that maintains an office in this Commonwealth. (c) The surety may cancel the bond by filing written notice of cancellation with the Department, the one child paper, operator and the principal on the bond, only under the following conditions: (1) The notice of human resource essay paper, cancellation shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested. Cancellation may not take effect until 120 days after receipt of the notice of cancellation by the Department, the top summer creative programs, operator and the principal on the bond as evidenced by resource return receipts. (2) Within 30 days after receipt of a notice of cancellation, the operator shall provide the Department with a replacement bond under § 78.310 (relating to replacement of do you movie titles papers, existing bond).

(d) The Department will not accept surety bonds from a surety company when the total bond liability to the Department on resource, the bonds filed by the operator, the principal and related parties exceeds the surety company#146;s single risk limit as provided by The Insurance Company Law of 1921 (40 P. Policy Research! S. § § 341#151;991). (e) The bond shall provide that the surety and the principal shall be jointly and resource essay severally liable for of quarterly, payment of the bond amount. (f) The bond shall provide that the amount shall be confessed to judgment and execution upon forfeiture. (g) The Department will retain, during the term of the bond, and upon forfeiture of the human resource, bond, a property interest in the surety#146;s guarantee of payment under the do you underline movie titles papers, bond which is not affected by the bankruptcy, insolvency or other financial incapacity of the essay, operator or principal on the bond. (h) The surety shall give written notice to career research on pharmacy, the Department, if permissible under law, to the principal and human essay paper the Department within 10 days of a notice received or action filed by or with a regulatory agency or court having jurisdiction over the surety alleging one of the policy, following: (1) The insolvency or bankruptcy of the resource essay paper, surety.

(2) A violation of regulatory requirements applicable to top summer creative for high school, the surety, when as a result of the violation, suspension or revocation of the surety#146;s license to do business in resource paper, this Commonwealth or another state is under consideration by one child policy a regulatory agency. The provisions of this § 78.304 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.305. Terms and conditions for collateral bonds#151;general. (a) Collateral documents shall be executed by essay the owner or operator. (b) The market value of collateral deposited shall be at least equal to list essays, the required bond amount with the exception of resource paper, United States Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds which shall have a maturity date of not more than 10 years after the date of purchase and at maturity a value of at least $25,000. (c) Collateral shall be pledged and assigned to the Department free from claims or rights. The pledge or assignment shall vest in thesis of phd, the Department a property interest in the collateral which shall remain until release as provided by law and is not affected by the bankruptcy, insolvency or other financial incapacity of the operator.

(d) The Department#146;s ownership rights to deposited collateral shall be such that the collateral is readily available to human essay, the Department upon forfeiture. Research! The Department may require proof of ownership, and other means, such as secondary agreements, as it deems necessary to human, meet the paper on pharmacy, requirements of this subchapter. If the Department determines that deposited collateral does not meet the requirements of human essay, this subchapter, it may take action under the law to protect its interest in do you underline titles in research papers, the collateral. The provisions of this § 78.305 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138865). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.303 (relating to resource, form, terms and conditions of the essays, bond). § 78.306. Collateral bonds#151;letters of credit. (a) Letters of credit submitted as collateral for collateral bonds shall be subject to the following conditions: (1) The letter of credit shall be a standby or guarantee letter of credit issued by a Federally insured or equivalently protected financial institution, regulated and examined by the Commonwealth or a Federal agency and authorized to do business in this Commonwealth. (2) The letter of credit shall be irrevocable and shall be so designated. However, the Department may accept a letter of credit for which a limited time period is stated if the following conditions are met and are stated in the letter: (i) The letter of essay, credit is automatically renewable for additional time periods unless the financial institution gives at least 90 days prior written notice to both the Department and the operator of its intent to terminate the credit at the end of the current time period.

(ii) The Department has the underline titles in research, right to essay paper, draw upon the credit before the end of its time period, if the operator fails to thesis of phd, replace the letter of credit with other acceptable means of compliance with section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215) within 30 days of the financial institution#146;s notice to terminate the paper, credit. (3) Letters of credit shall name the Department as the beneficiary and be payable to of quarterly essays, the Department, upon demand, in part or in full, upon presentation of the Department#146;s drafts, at sight. The Department#146;s right to draw upon the letter of credit does not require documentary or other proof by the Department that the customer has violated the conditions of the bond, the permit or other requirements. (4) A letter of credit shall be subject to 13 Pa.C.S. (relating to the Uniform Commercial Code) and the latest revision of Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits as published in the International Chamber of Commerce Publication No. 400. (5) The Department will not accept a letter of credit from resource essay paper a financial institution which has failed, refused or unduly delayed to pay, in research on pharmacy, full, on a letter of credit or a certificate of deposit previously submitted as collateral to the Department. (6) The issuing financial institution shall waive rights of set-off or liens which it has or might have against the letter of credit. (b) If the Department collects any amount under the resource essay paper, letter of credit due to essays, failure of the operator to replace the letter of essay paper, credit after demand by the Department, the Department will hold the proceeds as cash collateral as provided by this subchapter. The operator may obtain the cash collateral after he has submitted and the Department has approved a bond or other means of compliance with section 215 of the act. The provisions of this § 78.306 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (138865) to (138866). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.307. Career Research Paper On Pharmacy! Collateral bonds#151;certificates of deposit. A certificate of deposit submitted as collateral for human paper, collateral bonds is subject to the following conditions: (1) The certificate of deposit shall be made payable to the operator and shall be assigned to the Department by the operator, in writing, as required by the Department and on forms provided by the Department. One Child! The assignment shall be recorded upon the books of the human paper, financial institution issuing the certificate. (2) The certificate of deposit shall be issued by a Federally-insured or equivalently protected financial institution which is authorized to do business in list of quarterly essays, this Commonwealth. (3) The certificate of resource, deposit shall state that the financial institution issuing it waives rights of setoff or liens which it has or might have against thesis of phd the certificate. (4) The certificate of deposit shall be automatically renewable and human fully assignable to the Department.

Certificates of deposit shall state on their face that they are automatically renewable. (5) The operator shall submit certificates of deposit in amounts which will allow the favorite, Department to liquidate those certificates prior to maturity, upon forfeiture, for the full amount of the bond without penalty to the Department. (6) The Department will not accept certificates of deposit from resource essay paper financial institutions which have failed, refused or unduly delayed to pay, in full, on creative writing for high school, certificates of deposit or letters of credit which have previously been submitted as collateral to the Department. (7) The operator is not entitled to interest accruing after forfeiture is declared by the Department, until the forfeiture declaration is ruled invalid by a court having jurisdiction over the Department, and the ruling is final. The provisions of this § 78.307 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Resource Essay! 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at one child policy, serial pages (138866) to (138867). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.308. Collateral bonds#151;negotiable bonds. Negotiable bonds submitted and resource paper pledged as collateral for top summer creative writing school students, collateral bonds under section 215(a)(3) of the human resource paper, act (58 P. S. § 601.215(a)(3)) are subject to the following conditions: (1) The Department will use the current market value of governmental securities, other than United States Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds, for the purpose of establishing the value of the securities for bond deposit.

(2) The current market value shall be at least equal to the amount of the required bond. (3) The Department may periodically evaluate the securities and may require additional amounts if the current market value is insufficient to satisfy the bond amount requirements for the oil or gas well operations. (4) The operator may request and receive the interest accruing on governmental securities filed with the Department as the interest becomes due and underline titles papers payable. An operator will not receive interest accruing on governmental securities until the full amount of the bond has been accumulated. No interest may be paid for postforfeiture interest accruing during appeals and after resolution of the appeals, when the resource essay, forfeiture is adjudicated, decided or settled in favor of the Commonwealth. The provisions of this § 78.308 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at do you underline titles papers, serial pages (138867) to paper, (138868). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and one child conditions of the bond). § 78.309. Phased deposit of collateral. (1) Eligibility. Resource Essay Paper! An operator who had a phased deposit of collateral in expository food, effect as of November 26, 1997, may maintain that bond for wells requiring bonding, for new well permits and for wells acquired by transfer. (i) An operator may not have more than 200 wells. (ii) Under the following schedule, an operator shall make a deposit with the Department of approved collateral prior to the issuance of a permit for a well or the transfer of a permit for a well, and shall make subsequent annual deposits and additional well payments. For the purpose of calculating the required deposit, all of the operator#146;s wells are included in the number of human essay paper, wells.

(iii) An operator shall make the list, phased deposits of collateral as required by the bond. (2) Termination of eligibility. An operator is no longer eligible to make phased deposits of collateral when one or more of the following occur: (i) The operator shall fully bond the human resource essay paper, wells immediately, if an operator has more than 200 wells. (ii) If the operator misses a phased deposit of collateral payment, the research paper on pharmacy, operator shall do one of the following: (A) Immediately submit the human paper, appropriate bond amount in full. (B) Cease all operations and do you underline titles plug the wells covered by the bond in accordance with the plugging requirements of section 210 of the human essay paper, act (58 P. S. § 601.210). (i) An individual who seeks to satisfy the collateral bond requirements of the career research paper, act by submitting phased deposit of collateral under section 215(d.1) of the act (58 P. Resource Essay Paper! S. § 601.215(d.1)), may not drill more than ten new wells per calendar year. A well in which the individual has a financial interest is to be considered one of the wells permitted under this section.

A partnership, association or corporation is top summer, not eligible for resource, phased deposit of collateral under this subsection. (ii) The individual shall deposit with the Department $500 per well in approved collateral prior to issuance of a new permit. (iii) The individual shall deposit 10#037; of the remaining amount of bond in approved collateral in each of the next 10 years. Annual payments shall become due on the anniversary date of the issuance of the permit, unless otherwise established by the Department. Payments shall be accompanied by appropriate bond documents required by the Department. (iv) The individual shall make the phased collateral payments as required by the bond. (2) Termination of eligibility. If the expository food, individual misses a phased deposit of human essay paper, collateral payment, the individual will no longer be eligible to make phased deposits of collateral and shall do one of the following: (i) Immediately submit the appropriate bond amount in full.

(ii) Cease operations and plug the wells covered by the bond in accordance with the plugging requirements of section 210 of the act. (c) Interest earned. Interest earned by collateral on deposit by one child paper operators and individuals under this section shall be accumulated and become part of the bond amount until the operator completes deposit of the requisite bond amount in accordance with the human resource paper, schedule of deposit. Career Paper On Pharmacy! Interest earned by the collateral shall be retruned to human resource, the operator or the thesis of phd, individual upon human resource essay paper release of the bond. Favorite Food! Interest may not be paid for postforfeiture interest accruing during appeals and human resource essay paper after resolution of the appeals, when the forfeiture is adjudicated, decided or settled in favor of the Commonwealth. The provisions of career paper, this § 78.309 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Human Resource Essay! 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241951) to (241953). This section cited in do you underline movie, 25 Pa.

Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.310. Replacement of existing bond. (a) An owner or operator may replace an existing surety or collateral bond with another surety or collateral bond that satisfies the requirements of this chapter, if the liability which has accrued against the bond, the owner or operator who filed the first bond and the well operation is transferred to the replacement bond. An owner or operator may not substitute a phased deposit of collateral bond under section 215(d) and (d.1) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215(d) and (d.1)) for a valid surety bond or collateral that has been filed and approved by the Department.

(b) The Department will not release existing bonds until the operator has submitted and the Department has approved acceptable replacement bonds. The provisions of this § 78.310 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Resource Essay Paper! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at top summer creative writing school students, serial page (241953). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.304 (relating to terms and human essay conditions for surety bonds). § 78.311. Failure to maintain adequate bond.

The permittee shall maintain a bond in an amount and with sufficient guarantee as provided by this chapter. If a surety company that had provided surety bonds, or a financial institution that had provided certificates of deposit or letters of credit for an operator enters into bankruptcy or liquidation, has its license suspended or revoked or for another reason indicates an inability or unwillingness to provide an thesis of phd, adequate financial guarantee of the obligations under the human essay paper, bond, the operator shall submit a bond within 45 days of notice from the Department. The provisions of this § 78.311 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Expository Favorite! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138869). (a) A collateral or surety bond may be forfeited when the Department determines that the operator fails or refuses to comply with the act, this title, an order of the Department, or the terms or conditions of the resource essay, permit relating to drilling, water supply replacement, plugging and site restoration.

(b) If forfeiture of the bond is required, the Department will: (1) Send written notification by mail to the permittee, and the surety, if any, of the Department#146;s intent to forfeit the bond and policy describe the grounds for paper, forfeiture. Underline Papers! The notification will also provide an opportunity to take remedial action or submit a schedule for taking remedial actions acceptable to human resource paper, the Department within 30 days of the notice of intent to forfeit, in lieu of collecting the bond. (2) If the permittee and surety, if any, fail either to thesis of phd, take remedial action or to submit a plan acceptable to the Department within 30 days of the notice of the human paper, intent to forfeit, the bond will be subject to forfeiture and collection up to favorite, the face amount thereof. The Department will issue a declaration to forfeit the bond. (3) The declaration to forfeit is an action which may be appealable to the Environmental Hearing Board under section 4 of the Environmental Hearing Board Act (35 P. S. § 7514).

The provisions of this § 78.312 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. An owner or operator shall notify the Department by certified mail within 10 calendar days after commencement of a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under 11 U.S.C.A. § § 101#151;1330, known as the essay, Federal Bankruptcy Act, naming the owner or operator as debtor. The provisions of this § 78.313 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Expository Essay! 3229. Remedies provided or authorized by law for violation of statutes, including the human resource paper, act, the applicable environmental protection acts, this title, the terms and conditions of permits and orders of the Department, are expressly preserved. Nothing in this subchapter is an exclusive penalty or remedy for the violations. No action under this subchapter waives or impairs another remedy or penalty provided in law or equity. The provisions of this § 78.314 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. Subchapter H. UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE.

78.401. Storage well construction. 78.402. Top Summer Writing Programs School Students! Inspections by the gas storage operator. 78.403. Gas storage well integrity testing. 78.404. Maximum storage pressure. 78.407. Plugging gas storage wells.

The provisions of this Subchapter H adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284, unless otherwise noted. This section cited in human, 25 Pa. Code § 78.88 (relating to mechanical integrity of operating wells). (a) In addition to the casing and cementing requirements of Subchapter D (relating to well drilling, operation and plugging), when constructing new gas storage wells the operator shall: (1) Cement the surface and do you in research intermediate casings with sufficient cement to circulate cement to human resource, the surface or to of quarterly essays, equal at least 120#037; of the calculated volume to fill the human essay paper, annular space on the outside of the casing. (2) Cement the production casing with sufficient cement to fill the calculated annular space with cement to one child research paper, a point at human resource essay, least 500 feet above the casing shoe and at least 200 feet above the upper most perforations. (b) Gas storage wells being reconditioned shall meet the requirements of this section unless an creative programs for high school students, alternate method of casing and cementing has been approved by resource the Department under § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). (c) The storage operator shall give the favorite food, Department notice at least 15 days prior to reconditioning or altering a gas storage well and describe the resource essay, procedure that the thesis of phd, operator will use to recondition or alter the gas storage well.

If no objections are raised by the Department within 10 days, the operator may proceed to recondition or alter the well as proposed. The operator shall submit an updated well record within 30 days of completing a reconditioning or alteration. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.405 (relating to emergency repairs). § 78.402. Inspections by the gas storage operator. (a) A gas storage operator shall inspect every storage well and observation well in the gas storage field at least once each month. The results of the inspections shall be recorded and retained by the operator and shall be available for review by the Department and the coal owner or operator.

(b) Inspections at a minimum shall determine: (1) The well-head pressure or water level measurement, as appropriate. (2) The open flow on human resource essay paper, the annulus of the production casing or the annulus pressure if the annulus is career research, shut in. (3) If there is evidence of gas escaping from a well using measurement or best estimate of quantity. (4) If there is evidence of progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of equipment deterioration. (c) Storage operators shall inspect the gas storage reservoir and human storage protective area at thesis of phd, least annually to discover if material changes have occurred that require an amendment or supplement of the map and data as required in section 301(a) and resource paper (b) of the act (58 P. Career On Pharmacy! S. § 601.301(a) and (b)). As part of that inspection, gas storage operators shall inspect known abandoned wells and plugged wells within the gas storage reservoir area and the gas storage protective area, subject to the right of resource essay, entry, at the end of the injection season when the storage pressure is at its highest.

The inspection record shall include observed evidence of gas leaking and other conditions that may be hazardous to the public or property. (d) Evidence of a new gas leak and do you movie titles in research leaks that exceed 5,000 cubic feet per human essay paper day shall be reported to the Department within 24 hours. Following notification, the gas storage reservoir operator shall file a written report including corrective action taken, or planned, and a detailed explanation of the research, problem within 10 days. Subsequent reports describing additional corrective action and acquired data may be requested by the Department. This section cited in 25 Pa. Human Resource Paper! Code § 78.403 (relating to gas storage well integrity testing); and 25 Pa. Do You Movie Papers! Code § 78.406 (relating to recordkeeping).

§ 78.403. Resource! Gas storage well integrity testing. (a) A gas storage reservoir operator shall develop an integrity monitoring and integrity testing program for each gas storage field. (b) A gas storage reservoir operator shall test the integrity of each gas storage well at least once every 5 years. By June 15, 1995, each gas storage operator shall submit, for Department approval, an integrity testing plan for each gas storage field. (c) The testing program may consist of policy research paper, geophysical well logging, pressure testing or other procedures approved by the Department.

The testing program shall indicate a well#146;s integrity, whether there has been gas loss in quantities in excess of essay, those amounts in research, § 78.402(d) (relating to human, inspections by the gas storage operator), and whether there is a well condition that requires reconditioning, plugging or other remedial action. (d) Gas storage field monitoring may consist of annular and tubing pressure monitoring, reservoir engineering evaluation in the form of pressure/volume inventory studies, gauge calibration programs, wellsite inspection programs, casing inspection programs, pressure and flow testing programs, internal and essays external inventory auditing programs or a combination of monitoring procedures approved by the Department that verify the gas storage reservoir#146;s integrity. (e) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain the information gathered in subsections (a)#151;(d) and shall make the information available to the Department for 15 years. (f) For an resource essay, observation well for which a gas storage operator does not retain monitoring data, the one child policy paper, gas storage operator shall plug the well or apply for inactive status. (g) The Department may require the operator to perform additional tests it deems necessary after a conference is held under section 501 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.501). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.406 (relating to paper, recordkeeping). A gas storage reservoir operator, who has not requested approval of a maximum storage pressure for career on pharmacy, a gas storage reservoir, shall request, by February 15, 1995, Department approval of essay, a maximum gas storage reservoir pressure in accordance with the following: (1) The maximum shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) may not exceed the highest shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) found to exist during the production history of the reservoir, unless a higher pressure is established through testing of caprock and pool containment. The methods used for expository essay, determining the higher pressure shall be determined in conference with the Department in accordance with section 501 of the human resource essay paper, act.

(2) If the thesis of phd, original discovery shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) is not known, or the highest production shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) is essay, not known, or a higher pressure has not been established through a method as approved by the Department as established in paragraph (1), the maximum storage reservoir pressure shall be limited to a freshwater hydrostatic gradient. When emergency repairs are necessary, prior notification under § 78.401(c) (relating to storage well construction) is not required. The operator shall give notice to the Department within 24 hours of the repairs. Within 5 days of the emergency, the of quarterly, operator shall submit a written explanation of the emergency and the corrective action taken, or planned. Resource Paper! If corrective action requires a permit, an application shall be filed within 10 days.

(a) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain records for each gas storage well and shall make these records available to the Department. These records shall include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) Well inspection results and thesis of phd pressure data for the preceding 7 years. (2) Integrity testing data for each gas storage well required by § 78.403 (relating to gas storage well integrity testing) for at least 15 years. (b) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain data for at least 7 years gathered during inspections of abandoned wells and plugged wells as required by § 78.402 (relating to inspections by the gas storage operator) and shall make these records available to human, the Department. In addition to complying with the plugging requirements in § § 78.91#151;78.98 (relating to plugging), the gas storage reservoir operator shall: (1) Notify the essays, Department of an intent to plug a gas storage well at essay, least 15 days before beginning to essay, plug the well. This notice shall describe the intended plugging procedure. (2) Clean out the portions of the well that penetrate the storage horizon.

(3) Set cement across the perforations in a manner that prevents the migration of gas or other fluids within or outside of the well. (4) For an open hole, set a bridge plug immediately above the storage horizon followed by a 500 foot cement plug, or use another method approved by human essay paper the Department. Subchapter X. STATEMENTS OF POLICY. INSPECTION POLICY REGARDING OIL AND GAS. 78.903. Frequency of thesis of phd, inspections. 78.904. Manner of inspection.

INSPECTION POLICY REGARDING OIL AND GAS. The provisions of this § 78.901 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at essay, serial page (241959). (a) This statement of policy sets forth the policy of the Department in regard to inspections of oil and gas well locations, sites, property, facilities, operations or activities governed by the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. Thesis Of Phd! S. § § 501#151;518) or the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P. S. § § 401#151;419). This policy does not create a duty or obligation upon the Department to conduct a minimum or maximum number of inspections per year or during a certain period of time. (b) Inspections are conducted to administer, implement, enforce and determine compliance with the statutes set forth in subsection (a) and with Article XIX-A of The Administrative Code of human resource paper, 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-1#151;510-108), The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) and the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § § 6018.101#151;6018.1003) and other statutes administered by list essays the Department that apply to human paper, activities associated with gas and oil operations.

The provisions of this § 78.902 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in one child policy paper, 25 Pa. Code § 78.903 (relating to frequency of inspections); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.905 (relating to additional inspections). The Department, its employes and agents intend to conduct inspections at the following frequencies: (1) At least once prior to the issuance of a permit, if a waiver or exception is human resource paper, requested by the permit applicant.

(2) At least once in verifying or resolving objections or determining the Department#146;s response to objections, when objections are raised to a permit application. (3) At least once during each of the phases of siting, drilling, casing, cementing, completing, altering and expository essay favorite food stimulating a well. (4) At least once during, or within 3 months after, the time period in which the owner or operator is required to restore the site, after drilling the human essay paper, well. (5) At least once prior to the authorization to use an papers, alternate method for plugging, casing or equipping the well. (6) At least once during the periods that an alternative method for plugging, casing or equipping the well is being used or installed. (7) At least once when a well is being reconditioned or repaired or when casing is being replaced. (8) At least once prior to a well being granted inactive status.

(9) At least once during the plugging of the well. (10) At least once during, or within 3 months after, the period in which the resource essay paper, owner or operator is required to restore the site, after the well is plugged or abandoned. (11) At least once before the bond or other financial security is released. (12) At least once a year, if there is onsite brine disposal or residual waste disposal subject to thesis of phd, the statutes referenced in § 78.902 (relating to policy). (13) At least twice a year if the well is located in a gas storage reservoir or in a gas storage reservoir protective area. (14) At least once a year to determine whether compliance with the statutes administered by the Department has been achieved. (15) If there is a violation, at least once to determine whether the violation has been corrected, or whether there is a continuing violation. (16) At least once, in response to a complaint. The provisions of this § 78.903 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Human Essay! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241959) to (241960). The inspections described in this subchapter may be conducted separately, or in creative writing for high school, combination, whichever manner is deemed by the Department to permit maximum efficiency, accuracy and human resource essay paper thoroughness in writing programs students, implementing the statutes administered by resource the Department. The provisions of this § 78.904 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Paper! 3229. The Department, its employes and agents may conduct additional inspections, including follow-up inspections, inspections to human essay paper, observe a practice or condition related to the public health or safety and inspections to do you, determine compliance with the statutes set forth in resource, § 78.902 (relating to policy), with the laws administered by the Department, with the Department#146;s regulations, with the terms or conditions of a permit or with the list of quarterly, requirements of an order. The provisions of this § 78.905 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. The provisions of this statement of policy are subject to resource essay, the availability of expository essay, personnel and financial resources. This statement of resource, policy does not create a duty or obligation upon the Department to conduct a minimum or maximum number of inspections per year or during a certain period.

The provisions of food, this § 78.906 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. No part of the information on human essay, this site may be reproduced for profit or sold for profit.

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essay on raging bull Critical essays and appreciations on the very best of human, cinema. Essay by Brian Eggert June 29, 2009. Martin Scorsese composes a graceful examination of paper, a brutal subject in Raging Bull . Middleweight boxer and dogged machismo Jake La Motta, driven by resource essay paper, jealousy, self-hatred, and complexes enough to enthrall any Freudian theorist, comes to life through Robert De Niro’s greatest performance. Capturing in their most absolute form recurrent themes that appear throughout Scorsese’s anthology of New York stories, De Niro’s La Motta weighs his lustful instincts against his Christian guilt and finds the only way to do you underline in research papers, release the inevitable conflict is through unrelenting violence, in or outside the ring. Released in essay paper 1980, Raging Bull earned Academy Awards for De Niro and editor Thelma Schoonmaker, both regular collaborators with Scorsese. Expository Essay Favorite? And though Oscar overlooked the film and its director in favor of Robert Redford’s Ordinary People , its reputation needs no award to human resource essay paper, prove its superiority. Not to career, be included among the homogenized samplings of typical Hollywood boxing movies, Scorsese’s film avoids dwelling on La Motta’s training routine or fight strategy. The matches themselves play out like surreal interpretations of inner passion, utterly metaphoric in their exposition thanks to Paul Schrader’s palpable screenplay.

Indeed, some bouts amount to no more than a few precisely chosen stills by Schoonmaker. Scenes alternate between intimate windows into the boxer’s home (particularly his bedroom) in the Bronx, and the resultant bloody pounding when he charges onto his opponent. How this exchange of settings finds dramatic balance remains the film’s most affecting triumph. Rapt with covetous fury and uncertainty, La Motta channels out his domestic anger in the boxing ring, where his own personal therapy session or confessional translates his pain into physical absolution and resource, punishment. Making the film proved just as therapeutic for Scorsese. As filming progressed on his picture Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore in 1974, Robert De Niro gave the director a copy of Jake La Motta’s semi-autobiography, written by La Motta along with Pete Savage and for high, Joseph Carter. Human Resource Essay? Left on the wayside for several years, the book’s adaptation to film became De Niro’s pipe dream, always postponed by Scorsese in thesis of phd favor of something decidedly easier—if Mean Streets and Taxi Driver could be considered “easier”—though, Scorsese later admitted he did not yet understand the human resource character Jake La Motta when first approached to direct. Not impressed with the book’s desire to explain away each and every bit of La Motta’s irrational behavior through contrived motivations, Scorsese eventually found his personal bond to the material: Hospitalized from a severe cocaine addiction following melancholy and his failed pictures New York, New York and The Last Waltz , Scorsese was visited by De Niro who petitioned once more for the director to do you underline titles papers, helm the actor’s passion project. Only then, in his self-destructed state, could Scorsese come to see La Motta as untamable force edging blindly toward his own ruin. Scorsese credits the essay episode with saving his life.

A ring announcer calls him, “A man who doesn’t know how to back up.” Jake La Motta, inscribed by his home of Little Italy, the same neighborhood where Scorsese spent his childhood, suffers from an inferiority complex and list essays, fights with an unwavering desperation to prove himself. But no matter what he does, his potential only reaches to second-place, meaning the middleweight ring. His opponents fear him to be sure, but he will never be a heavyweight. He tells his brother Joey (Joe Pesci) that his “little girl’s hands” will prevent him from entering The Big Leagues. He asks his brother to punch him in the face as hard as he can, slapping and human resource essay paper, insisting until Joey breaks and delivers a few solid blows. Joey asks, “What does it prove?” Jake’s face lightly spattered with blood, he cannot answer.

Perhaps Jake unconsciously wants to demonstrate how he enjoys the punishment, given his feelings of inadequacy; or perhaps the paper on pharmacy inflicted physical pain removes the human resource emotional sting of inferiority, albeit briefly. Married to a wife for whom he has no respect, one day he spots a young girl at the area pool. The 15-year-old Vickie (Cathy Moriarty) earns the thesis of phd description of “neighborhood girl,” a nice way of saying she knows her way around the block. Jake avoids the resource paper association and underline titles in research, looks upon her from a distance in awe, the camera’s slow-motion gaze gliding over her. She looks ten years older than her age, and her experience undoubtedly lives up to resource paper, that illusion, as around her swarm a throng of neighborhood men like Salvy Batts (Frank Vincent). Thesis Of Phd? After a brief courtship, Jake remarries to Vickie, but he refuses to bed his new wife so as not to human, release any pent-up aggression before a fight. Movie Titles In Research? Part of him resents her sexuality even though she attracts him so, something Freud would call the “Madonna-whore complex.” Consumed by the suspicion that she cheats on him, he watches her closely, misreading her innocent comments and not-so-innocent kisses from neighborhood friends. When she remarks that Jake’s new opponent Janiro is “good-looking,” he destroys the man’s face with an unparalleled pummeling, at which point a Mob boss in human the audience announces, “He ain’t pretty no more.” Drawn entirely from his own doubts and paranoia, La Motta’s insecurities construct the drive that makes him an unstoppable fighter. Underline Titles? Existing in a smoky, noisy haze, the resource boxing sequences touch on La Motta’s impressive record, though do better to inform his seemingly unmotivated behavior in career on pharmacy his personal life. To put it simply: Everything is a fight.

Whether unleashed on his wife or brother, La Motta attacks them all with the same ferocity he would an adversary, beating down his familial rivals. Boxers rarely have motivation to fight their opponents beyond “the business of human essay paper, boxing,” which includes their record and the inevitable paycheck. No more goaded by his family than by Sugar Ray Robinson (Johnny Barnes), his archnemesis of the ring, he beats them anyway, because violence is all he knows. Thesis Of Phd? Finding a cyclical balance, his personal life fuels his professional one, and vice versa. Inside the human essay ring, Scorsese places his audience into the points of view of La Motta and the poor sap that goes up against him; he forces us to take punches and give them. Unlike so many boxing movies that keep us outside of the ropes looking in from the audience (while we look in from the movie papers audience), Scorsese involves us in the battle on a personal level. As a viewer, your head moves with the reality of the resource impacts, the camera passing over for high school students the blows and following them through. Adjusting the size of the ring from claustrophobic to expansive, not according to accuracy but as the scenes demand, Scorsese’s bouts rely on the dramatic subtext communicated through the essay paper fights. The film does not chronicle La Motta’s boxing career through these matches, rather informs his damaged ego through the top summer creative programs for high allegory of boxing. Any Scorsese fan can attest to how much the filmmaker uses red, so the choice of black white may seem unnatural for his brand of filmmaking. Apart from removing the actual color, the choice does nothing to reduce the film’s power, quite the opposite.

Friend and idol director Michael Powell inspired the choice after seeing rushes of human paper, De Niro’s gym routine; he considered the spraying blood and bright red gloves and resolved there was too much of the one child policy paper one color. Resource Paper? Released in the era when the thesis of phd comparatively gentle fighting of Rocky Balboa earned America’s heart, Scorsese presented the bloodiest fisticuffs of any boxing film. No doubt the director felt some reluctance about portraying that much blood onscreen, with sponges hidden in boxing gloves and tubes under hair spewing fluids out in heavy streams and sprays as the actors make contact. Blood and sweat seem to drench the boxers, leaving the experience more visceral than any boxing matches put on film before or since, regardless of the resource essay absence of color. Ultimately, colors would have taken away from the drama of the images onscreen. Career Research On Pharmacy? So much of Raging Bull is singular and resource essay paper, functional, from the central conflict to the main character himself; the career research on pharmacy uniformity of human essay paper, black white, its simplicity of positive and negative, and paper, the ways in essay paper which those formal themes appeal to the narrative feel unreservedly precise. Thesis Of Phd? Jake La Motta is not a character of depth and layers, and he should not be shown through an array of colors. He fires on a single potent cylinder, and Scorsese reflects that in his choice of resource essay paper, color scheme. Upon the film’s eventual release on the festival and college lecture circuit, Scorsese campaigned for better film stock to prevent fading, and thesis of phd, he also demanded restorative efforts on films made in the last few decades that had already begun to diminish. Essay Paper? His black white film served as a sample of what all filmmakers should be using if no alternative to the then-standard cheap color stock was provided. Shortly thereafter, Eastman Kodak began supplying studios with stock that better preserves the original color.

Delivering an essay favorite, audible wallop on par with his visual violence, Scorsese’s use of sound effects jars the essay senses. Camera bulbs chink, fists make contact, and the audience roars through it all, each sound created from a different element, almost none from the top summer programs school studio’s stock sounds, and certainly not from human essay their depicted source. Rather, panes of glass, smashed fruit, animal cries, and gunshots cover the underline audio-frenzied fight scenes, the complexity of which extended the eight weeks of planned sound mixing twofold. Scorsese leaves the viewer in human resource essay a virtual state of shell shock from the ensuing exchanges between the thwaps and snaps of the papers boxing scenes, to those potent moments when the audio is dropped completely, only to come back with a harsh crack. Afterward, sound man Frank Warner burned the individual recorded elements after the effects track was created; no other picture could sound the same as Raging Bull . Scorsese’s best utilized special effect, however, remains the remarkable performance given by Robert De Niro, whose longstanding union with the director generated some of the human essay paper finest work in their respective careers. More than any audio or visual artistry the expository essay food production contains, those tricks of the essay paper trade work to thesis of phd, support De Niro’s uncanny transformation. Beginning with Mean Streets in 1973, continuing on resource paper, to Taxi Driver , and all the way through Goodfellas , Cape Fear , and Casino , the Scorsese-De Niro director-actor affiliation lasted over twenty years. Career Research On Pharmacy? Among the supreme partnerships in essay cinema, they rival even Kurosawa-Mifune, Ford-Wayne, and Flynn-Curtiz. Although Scorsese has now embraced Leonardo DiCaprio in a series of equally significant collaborations, only time will judge the better of the two.

On and off set, De Niro worked closely with credited “Consultant” Jake La Motta, picking up his mannerisms, and even taking care of the broken soul on occasion. Though, La Motta was kept on-set only during the ten weeks it took to shoot the fighting scenes, in which time De Niro took instruction on how to move and guard, where to hold his hands and how to career research paper on pharmacy, throw a punch. Even when scrutinized in side-by-side comparisons between Scorsese’s film and human resource essay paper, La Motta’s vintage fight reels, the actor’s manifestation of the boxer’s fighting style is flawless. The remaining time, although not allowed to observe the shoot given the dramatic liberties the filmmakers intended to career on pharmacy, make on their subject’s life, the human resource paper real La Motta remained accessible to De Niro. Of Quarterly? For the later scenes featuring a heavier La Motta, the production took a four-month hiatus while De Niro “ate his way around Northern Italy and France,” adding on the necessary girth to weigh the part. Human Essay? De Niro gained some 50 pounds, while Scorsese and Schoonmaker put together everything but De Niro’s fat scenes. In this archetypal actor’s metamorphosis, the one against in research papers, which every subsequent actor’s physical transformation would be judged, De Niro goes from the lean physique of resource essay, a champion athlete to an overfed has-been.

This bloated version of La Motta, having won the middleweight champion belt, gives up fighting and runs his own Miami club, called “Jake La Motta’s” no less. The weight, the fighting, the Madonna-whore complex—these symptoms stem from a recurrent theme in Scorsese’s pictures, Christian guilt or self-punishment. After earning his belt, Jake becomes lazy and overconfident; he then attacks Joey, suspecting his brother and wife are having an affair. Severing his relationship with his brother, La Motta’s remorse overcomes him when he defends his title against Sugar Ray Robinson. Not fighting back, La Motta sentences himself to thesis of phd, a fifteen-round beating. Blow after blow and human essay, La Motta does not go down, but rather he seems disappointed, even annoyed that Robinson’s punches do not relieve his remorse. Though the real La Motta claims he was playing possum, Scorsese shows us La Motta literally asking for it. Top Summer Writing? The result of his self-permitted punishment drips off the ropes. Scorsese tells the famous story, “Jonathan Demme gave me a portrait of Jake made by a folk artist and around the paper edge of this piece of paper, slate was carved, ‘Jake fought like he didn’t deserve to human resource essay, live.’ Exactly, I made a whole movie and policy, this guy did it in resource paper one picture!”

When La Motta finds himself arrested and thrown in jail, having tried and expository essay food, failed to pawn off the jewels in his championship belt for bail, he slams his head and fists against the cell wall, crying “Why!” and “You’re so stupid!” His archenemy all along was himself, and unconsciously he knows this. Later, the former boxer, thick-necked and breathing heavy, performs his grating lounge act in a hole-in-the-wall dive. Scenes of him practicing a monologue from On the Waterfront bookmark the film. The audience sees De Niro doing La Motta doing Brando doing Terry Malone. And somehow that conversion resists being merely a series of paper, parodies stacked on top one another because of De Niro’s brilliant translation. His performance eliminates the “acting” in thesis of phd the equation, so that what we see is La Motta identifying with the transcendence of his own words.

Here La Motta gives the “Coulda been a contender” speech, wherein Malone confronts his brother Charlie’s betrayal. “It was you, Charlie,” La Motta says, looking deep into the mirror at himself, presenting the very moment when this broken boxer understands his own cruelly self-deprecating nature. This performance-within-a-performance effect took some nineteen takes to accomplish and represents some of the most extraordinary acting ever put to celluloid. Consider how Scorsese’s films continually reflect on instinctual, self-betraying drives standing in human essay opposition of policy paper, faith or inborn morality, producing a conflicted and resource, thus dynamic character who ultimately punishes himself to career on pharmacy, resolve his inner argument: Mean Streets features Harvey Keitel’s small-time hood balancing his criminal life with his devotion to God, holding a flame to his hand in hope of absolution. Travis Bickle in Taxi Driver expresses displacement within New York City, more specifically his reserved attraction to an underage prostitute by saving her in a suicidal pimp killing spree, which he tragically survives. Paper? Most controversially, The Last Temptation of Christ featured Willem Dafoe’s Jesus reflecting on his own crisis of faith and one child research, desire to rebel against his fate, concerns both resolved through his affliction on paper, the cross. The examples could go on and on, and movie, common throughout remains the resolution that human nature has been engineered to human essay paper, invariably destroy itself. Nowhere in Martin Scorsese’s career has this motif found such precise descriptions as within Raging Bull . Writing Programs For High School? Given the total personification of Scorsese’s ongoing thesis in the form of Robert De Niro’s performance, and paper, indeed the narrative in its entirety, perhaps the film should be thought of as an embodiment, encapsulating the subtext of nearly all his films and bringing those ideas to the surface in thesis of phd their most forward assault. By understanding this film, his audience consequently perceives the depth and intensity behind all Martin Scorsese pictures, and for that, it operates not only as a moving drama, but also a thematic instruction manual for one of the all-time great filmmakers.

Christie, Ian; Thompson, David (edited by). Scorsese on paper, Scorsese . Revised Edition. London: Faber, 2003. Scorsese, Martin; Henry, Michael. Essays? A Personal Journey Through American Movies.

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