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Calf Farming in Pakistan #8211; Smeda Report. Pre-Feasibility Study CALF FATTENING FARM (FEEDLOT SYSTEM) Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority Government of Pakistan www. smeda. Essays. org. pk HEAD OFFICE 6th Floor LDA Plaza Egerton Road, Lahore Tel 111 111 456, Fax 6304926-7 Website www. smeda. Fun Creative Writing Ideas. org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE PUNJAB 8 th Floor, LDA Plaza, Lahore, Tel: (042) 111-111-456 Fax: (042)6304926-7 [emailprotected] org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE SINDH 5TH Floor, Bahria Complex II, M. T. Greatest American. Khan Road, Karachi. Tel: (021) 111-111-456 Fax: (021) 5610572 [emailprotected] org. Quoting In Research Papers. pk REGIONAL OFFICE NWFP Ground Floor State Life Building The Mall, Peshawar. Revision Prepared by Issue Date Revised In Issued by PREF-24 3 SMEDA-Punjab March 2002 March 2009 Library Officer 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMEDA The Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) was established with the objective to provide fresh impetus to the economy through the launch of an aggressive SME support program. Since its inception in greatest american essays, October 1998, SMEDA had adopted a sectoral SME development approach. A few priority sectors were selected on the criterion of SME presence.

In depth research was conducted and comprehensive development plans were formulated after identification of impediments and essay on pedagogy retardants. The all-encompassing sectoral development strategy involved recommending changes in essays, the regulatory environment by taking into is an thesis statement in essay consideration other important aspects including finance, marketing, technology and american essays human resource development. Ideas. SMEDA has so far successfully formulated strategies for american, sectors including, fruits and vegetables, marble and granite, gems and jewelry, marine fisheries, leather and footwear, textiles, surgical instruments, transport and dairy. Whereas the task of the bible papers, SME development at a broader scale still requires more coverage and enhanced reach in greatest american essays, terms of is an example of a in essay, SMEDA’s areas of operation. Greatest. Along with the essay on pedagogy, sectoral focus a broad spectrum of business development services is also offered to the SMEs by SMEDA. American. These services include identification of viable business opportunities for potential SME investors. In order to facilitate these investors, SMEDA provides business guidance through its help desk services as well as development of project specific documents. These documents consist of quoting in research, information required to american essays make well-researched investment decisions. Pre-feasibility studies and business plan development are some of the misunderstanding, services provided to enhance the capacity of individual SMEs to exploit viable business opportunities in a better way. This document is in the continuation of this effort to enable potential investors to make well-informed investment decisions. American Essays. For more information on services offered by on pedagogy SMEDA, please contact our website: www. smeda. org. pk.

2 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT The objective of the pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurs to facilitate investment and provide an overview about american essays, dairy and livestock farming. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document covers various aspects of writing, dairy and livestock concept development, start-up, production, finance and business management. The document also provides sectoral information, brief on greatest american, government policies and international scenario, which have some bearing on the project itself. This particular pre-feasibility is a terrible misunderstanding essay, regarding “Calf Fattening Farm” which comes under “Livestock and Agriculture” sector. American. Before studying the whole document one must consider following critical aspects, which form the basis of any investment decision. 4 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3 CRUCIAL FACTORS #038; STEPS IN DECISION MAKING FOR INVESTMENT Calf fattening is all-inclusive activity, related to meet animal’s care, housing, medication, feeding and management. It is defined as all those aspects and activities relating to raising of calves for meat purpose.

Before making the quoting the bible papers, decision, whether to invest in greatest american, the livestock farming or not, one should carefully analyze the associated risk factors. A SWOT analysis can help in analyzing these factors, which can play important role in making the decision. 3. 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Strengths Back bone and main stay of fun creative ideas, economy. Provides raw material for american essays, food #038; Leather industry. Concentrated production. Favorable breeding backgrounds.

Relatively cheap farmland. High domestic consumption Low cost living standard. Full family involvement, devoted #038; hardworking Sector. Major source of food, i. e. Meat. Source of Farmyard Manure (FYM). Sizeable foreign exchanges earning through exports. Thesis For Recycling. Ample human resource employment sector. Stationed, permanently located secured loaning sector. Weaknesses High production costs.

Low levels of bulk feed production. Poor management level in quite a few cases. No or low application of research work and pedigree record keeping. American Essays. Animals are kept for social rather than commercial reasons. Misunderstanding. There is no registered beef breed in Pakistan. Low or lack of interaction with farmers. Poor information about greatest, each other. Lack of extension services. Lack of education and initiative in papers, farmer, traditional approach due to lack of greatest american essays, skills and management. Unorganized sector, unaware of basic farm management practices.

Remote area, lack of farm to market approach #038; transportation. Non-availability of communication services. Lack of of a thesis statement, farm/ market infra structures #038; marketing information. Greatest American Essays. Management of misunderstanding, livestock farm is a challenging job. Essays. Nutrition is still a problem hampering the livestock productivity in general and meat production in particular 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3. 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. 4 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Opportunities Govt. of Pakistan #038; Sate Bank of Pakistan priority sector. Vast range of area of operation, more needs and quoting the bible in research papers scope of development. Value added dairy products are in demand. Meat and meat products needs are much higher than supply.

Commercially viable sector with great credit potential and absorption capacity. Vast range of area of operation, more needs and scope of development. Value added meat products are in demand. If the government lifts the price fixing taboo, then there are bright chances for the flourishing of meat market. American Essays. Customers are ready to 500 word on leadership pay prices for the good quality meat. Massive migration of labour to cities can be checked / stopped. Corporate financing will become a niche in lending market. Greatest. Progressive meat retailing firms can promote the sale of processed and quality meat cuts to consumers, which is packed and labeled at a price, including the cost of processing, packaging and essay on leadership quality. Development of greatest american essays, slaughtering and processing operations can help in obtaining maximum value. Improving the control of external parasites may enhance the value of hide or skin.

Threats Rising trend of cost of production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Implementation of WTO will result in open #038; competitive commodity pricing. What Is An Of A Thesis. Due to fear of default, banker community has reluctance for lending loans. Greatest American. High risks of diseases in live stock. Animals are subject to serious diseases that may lead to mortality. The formal meat market not growing due to essay on leadership the government regulation of price fixing as Municipal Corporation fixes the meat prices in american essays, the urban markets. The fixed prices are not likely to be viable for selling the quality meat. Butcher market not ready to papers pay the premium prices for the fattened animal. Defective and unorganized markets. Imbalance between prices of inputs #038; outputs.

Rising trend of greatest american, cost of production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Is An Example Of A Thesis In Essay. Lack of media projection, non-recognition of problems and monopoly of multinationals. Lack of community organizations and american out dated farm practices. Lack of quoting in research, coordination towards common causes #038; goals. Lack of awareness about economics, demand #038; supply in market.

Low saving, low holding capacity #038; increasing level of poverty. Non-availability of american, subsidy #038; tax holidays. 6 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4 4. Thesis For Recycling. 1 PROJECT PROFILE Opportunity Rationale Livestock production is an integral part of Pakistan#8217;s agriculture sector and plays a vital role in national economy. At present, livestock is contributing about 52% to the agricultural sector and 10. 9% to the GDP. Pakistan is geographically located close to the Middle East and american essays South-East Asia. Both of these regions are deficient in livestock products and depend upon import from other countries. The livestock industry in most of the developed world is highly subsidized. With reduction of on pedagogy, subsidies in the wake of WTO, the local livestock sector should have better opportunities to compete. Livestock registered a strong growth of 4. 30% over the last year’s impressive growth of 7. 5% due to increase in greatest, the livestock and of a thesis statement in essay poultry products. The role of livestock in rural economy may be assessed by greatest american the fact that 30 to 35 million of the total rural population is engaged in livestock farming, having 2 to 3 cattle/buffalo and essay on pedagogy 5 to 6 sheep/goats per family deriving 30% to 40% of income from it.

During year 2007-08, the total red meat production was 1. 55 and 0. 58 million tons for beef and essays mutton, respectively. The per writing, capita consumption indicates a growing demand of meat in essays, the years to a terrible essay come. Calves for fattening may come from the dairy herd. Essays. Table 4-1: Population of livestock (million)1 Species Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goats 2005-06 29. 6 27. 3 26. 5 53. 8 2006-07 30. 7 28. 2 26.

8 55. 2007-08 31. 8 29. 0 27. Essay On Pedagogy. 1 56. 7 Table 4-2: Production of Livestock Products2 Product Milk (million tones) Beef (000,tones) Mutton(000,tones) 2005-06 31. 20 1,444 554 2006-07 32. 22 1,493 565 2007-08 34. 06 1,549 578 Livestock production is greatest american essays, growing rapidly as a result of the increasing demand for animal products. In a Food #038; Agriculture Organization (FAO) study: Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution, it is suggested that global meat production and consumption will rise from 233 million tones (2000) to a terrible essay 300 million tones (2020), and milk from 568 to 700 million tones over greatest american, the same period.

Egg production will also increase by 30% 3. These 1 Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2007-08 2 Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2007-08 3 The Livestock to fun creative writing ideas 2020 study used base figures for 1993 and these have been recalculated for the year 2000 based on greatest american, FAO STAT data. 7 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) predictions show a massive increase in animal protein demand, needed to quoting the bible in research papers satisfy the growth in the human population. The overall growth in the live stock population can be seen from the greatest american essays, following table: Table 4-3 Livestock (Population Growth) 4 Fiscal Year 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Buffaloes 23. 24. Ideas. 0 24. 8 25. 5 26. 3 27.

3 28. 2 29. 0 Cattle 22. 4 22. 8 23. Essays. 3 23. 8 24. A Terrible Misunderstanding Essay. 2 29. 6 30. 7 31. 8 Goats 49. 1 50. 9 52. 8 54. 7 56. 7 53. 8 55. 2 56. 7 (Numbers in Millions) Sheep 24. 2 24. 4 24. 6 24. 7 24. 9 26. 5 26. 8 27. 1 Poultry 292. 4 330. 0 346. 1 352. 6 372. 0 433. 8 443. Greatest. 2 510. 1 Calf fattening enterprise is an agro-based project.

The calves, preferably males, 8-9 months of age are fed on concentrated feed and fodder produced from the is an example of a thesis, agricultural land. Balanced feed is american essays, given to papers calves for greatest essays, a period of 120 days to get higher weight gain. Live weight of these calves is between 80-90 kg. If these calves are fed properly on the formulated fattening feed, their weight can be raised up to 180-200 kg during the fattening period. The daily weight gain of in research, fattened calves varies between 600-800 grams depending on the quality of american essays, feed given to them. There is a shortage of beef in the country. This shortage is being observed through meat-less days. If the calf fattening projects are carried out in the country then the domestic demand of beef could be fulfilled. As the fattened animals have higher meat contents (55%) as compared to grazing animals (48%). 4. Market Entry Timing Since beef demand is increasing day by day, therefore, the demand of fattened calves is also higher. The demand increases especially before occasions like Eid-ul-Fitr and Eidul-Azha.

That’s why the the bible in research papers, animals in essays, such occasions are sold at statement in essay, a bit higher prices as compared to other days. Greatest American Essays. The proposed business can be started before these occasions or any time through out the year. At the commencement of the statement for recycling, proposed business, it is important that the american, entrepreneur must have good knowledge of the production and writing have contacts with the livestock breeders and farmers. The ability to greatest american essays work with people/ animals and efficient use of resources are important aspects in modern and fun creative ideas commercial calf fattening farm. American. 4. 3 Proposed Business Legal Status The proposed legal structure of the business entity is either sole proprietorship or partnership.

Although selection totally depends upon the choice of the entrepreneur but this financial feasibility is based on Sole Proprietorship. 4 Pakistan Livestock Census, Statistics Division, Ministry of Economic Affairs #038; Statistics, GoP. 8 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4. 4 Proposed Capacity. Writing Ideas. The pre-feasibility suggests producing 450 calves a year in 3 production cycles, each of american essays, 4 months. This size of a farm justifies the recurring costs of this project. Misunderstanding. 4. 5 Project Investment The total cost of the project is Rs. 4, 933,113 out of which capital cost of the project is Rs. 4,439,944 for purchasing the american essays, animals and constructing the building and fun creative the rest is american essays, used to meet the working capital requirement. Table 4-4 Project Costs Description Land Building and Civil Works Plant and Machinery Furniture/ Fixture #038; Equipment Pre-operational Expenses Vehicles Total Fixed Cost Working Capital Total Amount (in Rs. 506,944 2,374,000 379,000 100,000 292,500 787,500 4,439,944 493,168 4,933,112 The proposed pre-feasibility is based on the assumption of 50% debt and 50% equity. However this composition of debt and thesis for recycling equity can be changed as per the requirement of the investor.

Table 4-5 Project Financing Debt Equity Total Project Investment Table 4-6 Project Economics Viability IRR (%) NPV @20% (Rs) Pay Back Period (year) 4. 6 Proposed Location Project 55. 71% 27,540,982 4. American Essays. 10 50% 50% 2,466,556 2,466,556 4,933,112 The development of urban or peri-urban commercial calf fattening farms is omething new in livestock production. Metropolitan cities like Lahore, Karachi, Multan, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, etc are the essay on pedagogy, major markets of meat. Hence, farms established in peri urban areas of these cities fulfill the daily need of these cities. The other locations 9 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) may be around the bigger cities e. Greatest American. g. Sialkot, Jhang, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Sahiwal, Okara etc. 4. 7 Key Success Factors/Practical Tips for Success. Fun Creative Writing Ideas. The livestock production research institutes and universities have conducted many studies to ascertain the beef production potential of indigenous livestock under the feedlot fattening regimes.

Weight, growth and efficiency are major factors influencing the economical meat production. The carcass yield depends upon several factors such as breed, age, sex and greatest degree of finishing. Ideas. The studies suggest substantial live weight gain and essays carcass yield from the buffalo and example in essay different indigenous breeds of cow calves. There are still some issues, which hinder the greatest essays, development of beef production. The thrust in calf fattening farm is on the increased use of capital and management. Successful farming harnesses all available resources into on pedagogy productive and profitable unit.

Calf fattening is highly complex as it includes farm management, feeding, housing, disease control and hygienic production of milk on farm. The judicial use of means and resources to greatest achieve clearly defined goals is the key success factor i. e. the art of maximization and optimal utilization of resources and means for maximizing productivity and profits. Feeding meat animals on nutritious compound feed along with green fodder can be adopted. Other farm management practices include comfortable and quoting the bible in research ventilated barns, drinking water and feed according to american the requirements. Fun Creative Ideas. Timely vaccination against Rinderpest, Black Quarter and Foot #038; Mouth Disease. The prevention of greatest essays, internal and what in essay external parasites will also improve the over all performance of essays, herd. The absence of calf weaning program is a shortcoming to the development of 500 word essay, beef industry. Too many young male calves are slaughtered quite young due to high cost of milk required to feed them. Those left are generally underfed and stunted thus unable to achieve the normal growth.

A suitable plan could provide animals of 100-150 kgs of essays, weight, which could be raised to the desired market demand. An efficient program aim at moving the calves from liquid to dry feed as quickly as possible if calf fattening is integrated with dairy farming. High quality calf starter feed with digestibility, palatability and composition should be fed free of choice from the third day of birth. Quality of diet is the key to a successful early weaning system. Weaning could be started once the consumption reaches 800 grams a day, which would provide healthy and thrifty calves. What Is An Thesis. The changing of american essays, this system by small farmers and peri-urban dairy farm entrepreneurs will be a long and difficult process to which some incentives are essential. A Terrible Misunderstanding Essay. Another option is to buy feeder calves from the cattle markets. Attention must be given to the selection of animals. Once the calves are purchased and placed in pens, farmers would face many technical problems affecting the success of their operation. It will be worthwhile to get technical assistance from the livestock professionals and greatest american essays experts. It is advisable to thesis for recycling purchase fattening rations initially from the greatest american, public or private sector feed mills.

Once the experience is gained and practices are established, feed processing equipment, such as the grinder-mixers can be installed as per capacity of the a terrible, farm. 10 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5 5. 1 SECTOR #038; INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Major Players Though livestock production is fragmented and most units in Punjab are small with 10 percent holding around 10 to 20 buffalo cows, and essays only five percent over 20 heads each. What Is An Example Of A Statement In Essay. Such units are often run by american essays capable and business-oriented farmers who are open to change and eager to adopt improved production practices. They would respond positively to incentives and workable production programs. In mid 90’s the US Feed Grain Council introduced commercial meat production. A number of farmers from Punjab and Sindh participated in the program.

They produced many ‘lots’ of essay on pedagogy, fattened animals but felt difficulty in selling the american essays, animals at proper price. Under prevailing conditions, producers cannot raise animals to 250-300 kg unless they are sold at a premium price. Efficient feeding/management can bring down the cost of production, but not enough to compete with the meat coming from end of career or from light weight, poor quality animals. A positive measure could be to terminate the ceiling price policy and fun creative writing ideas create integrated production-distribution projects. 5. Greatest. 2 Hubs of Calf Fattening Farming Karachi is on leadership, a big market for good quality meat. American Essays. The Karachi market is expanding, as daily requirement of 500 word essay, meat is american essays, about 1,000 metric tons. Meat farming integrated with dairy business if done on scientific basis is quoting in research papers, very profitable. American Essays. There are more than 100 markets only in Sindh dealing with livestock without any facility or supervision.

The major markets are Tharparkar, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar, Dadu and Badin. All this will facilitate farmers in rearing their livestock in a more healthy way. The countries can also be grouped by the percentage of the a terrible misunderstanding essay, beef herd in the total cattle herd, a situation that is reflected in essays, the typical farms: ? ? ? Milk Countries: with the beef herd as ; 25 percent of the total are Poland, Pakistan, Hungary, Czech Republic and Germany. Mix Countries: with a share between 25 and thesis 75 percent of the beef herd of the greatest american essays, total are Austria, France, Ireland and Spain. Essay. Beef Countries: with ; 75 percent of the greatest essays, beef herd of the total are U. S. On Leadership. , Brazil, Australia, Argentina and Uruguay.

MARKET INFORMATION Sector Characteristics 6 6. 1. Greatest Essays. Currently, meat sector in Pakistan is statement, working on an informal basis from animal raising to meat selling. Greatest American Essays. Animal traders purchase animals from the rural areas and sell them to the animal markets in 500 word on leadership, the urban areas. Butchers purchase these animals from animal markets and slaughter them in the slaughterhouses. Butchers act as meat traders and dominate the meat market both in rural and urban areas. The animals sold in these markets are generally diseased and culled animals. Butchers/traders prefer to buy these cheap animals. Greatest Essays. 11 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System)

The current red meat production system is of a thesis statement in essay, both traditional and greatest essays inefficient. Beef mostly comes from the end of career, or emergency slaughtered animals. A lot of baby buffaloes and a terrible misunderstanding calves are slaughtered when these are only greatest 1-2 weeks old. Few calves are raised to 60-80kg but on extremely poor and unbalanced diets. Lack of commercial, on-farm livestock feeding could be blamed for example statement in essay, existing price ceiling, which is fixed too low to greatest american essays recover the production cost. Traditional and unhygienic slaughtering techniques are major constraints, which are not acceptable to those who believe in health and hygiene. Papers. The livestock resources hold potential for increasing the production of meat.

It is estimated that about 6-7 million buffalo/cattle male calves if raised on balanced diet could double the production. Sheep and goats can also be raised for quality meat production. The meat industry as a whole, from livestock farming to marketing of meat is in a poor state at greatest american essays, the moment. General crop farming has progressed from the #8216;subsistence level farming#8217; to fun creative ideas #8216;commercial farming#8217;, at least in greatest essays, major crops in the country because of research, extension focus and #8216;market pull factors#8217;. Whereas the livestock farming has remained least commercialized and survives under subsistence farming conditions. Beef yield has remained low due to the following constraints: ? ? Despite immense potential, breeding has not been done for increasing productivity. Feeding methods are primitive with hardly any feed management. Despite abundant fodder production, there is always a shortage between seasons. This shortage is met by #8220;bhoosa#8221; (wheat straw) which has very low nutritional value.

Quality feed concentrates from existing by-products is not being used efficiently. Large-scale livestock farming has not been practiced due to 500 word on leadership the total manual procedures adopted in feeding and herd management. Reliability of manual labour is severe especially in view of greatest american essays, illiteracy and poor farmer education on the subject. Market Potential ? 6. The Bible Papers. 2 In Pakistan, the beef industry is an important segment of livestock production. The increasing population and the rising consumer buying power have together contributed to an increase in demand resulting in relatively favorable prices for beef.

Worldwide consumption of meat during 1983 for developed world was 74 kg compared to 14 kg for developing countries and 11 kg for Pakistan. The data for essays, 1993 indicates 76kg, 21 kg and quoting in research 16kg for the three, respectively. The challenge for Pakistan now is to greatest american achieve 47 kg per capita consumption by 2020. According to statistics there is a gap in demand and supply of beef in on leadership, the market. This gap is met through meatless days and through poultry meat. 12 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 6-1: Market Value of Dairy #038; Livestock in Pakistan (Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 2003-04) 6. 3 Target Customers The pre-feasibility suggests selling the animals in the urban market.

The buyers could be the corporate buyers e. g. hotels and exporters. The animal mandies of big metropolitan cities can also be considered for selling the animals in bulk. The animals will be sold on live weight basis. The price of fattened calves varies between Rs 85-95 kg depending upon the supply and demand of meat in the market. The feasibility has taken Rs 90 per kg live body weight as the american essays, selling price. The livestock farmer could also seek buy back agreements with the exporters. A Terrible Misunderstanding. Following are some of the target clients for a calffattening farmer: 1. 2. 3. 4. Local people Butchers Contractors Slaughter house owners The cost of production per kg of meat should be lower than its sale price so that farmer could feel it economical. 7 7. 1 7. American Essays. 1. 1 FARM INPUTS Land Land Requirement Around 1 acre of land would be required which cost Rs.

506,944 for a calf-fattening project of 450 animals in a period of one year. Misunderstanding Essay. It is assumed that the american essays, Total Mixed Ration (TMR) will be purchased from market @ Rs. 11 per for recycling, Kg. Greatest Essays. Around 6,000 sq. ft. area would be used for building a shed for the animals to protect them from severity of the weather. 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Table 7-1: Land Requirements Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for Calves Stores (Feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Open land Office block Total Land Requirement 7. 1. 2 Land Lease Area (Sq. ft) 6,000 9,000 120 120 20,760 500 36,500 Sq. ft Lease is a better option for a new investor. Land on lease is available in rural areas for for recycling, a period of 5-15 years. Advance rent for american, a few years will be charged initially. Good agriculture land is available with an annual rent of Rs 8,000-10,000 per acre. But for this pre feasibility study it is assumed that the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) would be purchased from the market. 7. 1. Papers. 3 Suitable Locations Peri urban and rural areas in the neighboring areas of Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, Faisalabad #038; Multan etc. where water, electricity is american, available to quoting irrigate the crops are suitable locations for establishing a calf-fattening farm.

7. 1. Greatest Essays. 4 Herd Mix Some breeds of cattle are known as #8216;dual purpose#8217; because they are suitable for producing milk and example of a statement beef. But modern farming divides cattle into either beef or dairy breeds aiming at high productivity through specialization. British beef breeds include Hereford, Galloway, Beef Shorthorn, Aberdeen Angus and South Devon. A recent trend in the UK has been the introduction of large Continental breeds such as Charolais, Limousin and Simmental. The prevailing breeds in american essays, Western Europe, Poland and Czech Republic are Fleckvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Charolais. In Hungary, Ireland, the U. S. and the Southern Hemisphere, breeds of British origin (mainly Hereford, Angus and their crosses) dominate. Particular cases are Brazil (Nelore, coming from India) and Pakistan where the local buffalo breed is used for both milk and a terrible essay beef production5.

The Calves of different breeds (7-8 months of greatest, age) can be used for 500 word, fattening purpose at american essays, an average body weight of 80-100 kgs for 90-120 days. These breeds may be from example thesis statement in essay, Sahiwal, Lohani, Dajal, Cholistan, Crossbred cattle, buffalo calves or non-descript (belonging to greatest none of essay, particular breed). Experiments carried out on Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara shows that cost of meat production for Cholistani and Crossbred calves is relatively cheaper than Sahiwal, Dajal, Non-descript and buffalo calves fed on the same Total Mixed Ration (TMR). 5 (IFCN Beef Report 2007) 14 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3. Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 2 Animal Markets The feasibility suggests purchasing calves on live weight basis from the greatest, rural areas or animal mandies. 500 Word On Leadership. The animals are being traded across the country in animal mandies round the year. Most of which operate on weekly basis.

The other source of animals could be through making an agreement with a supplier (middlemen/ beoparies). Greatest American Essays. Government and private livestock farms are also the main sources for purchasing meat animals. Animal markets are situated in different places in Punjab, which includes Sheikupura, Okara, Sahiwal, Arifwala, Muridke and Jhelum. Essay. These markets operate on rotational basis in a week, or once a month. There are different contractors available in the markets that would help in locating the greatest american, proper animals. These contractors work on commission basis for supplying calves on live weight basis. Commission rate charged may vary from some %age of the animal price. 7. 3 Animal Housing There is a general trend to keep the fattened calves in semi-confinement in order to control waste production, where these calves are confined and housed over slatted floors. All faeces and quoting the bible papers urine can be collected, thus eliminating the need for using bedding material. At present most of the cattle in feedlots are still kept on essays, concrete floors, or in dry regions, on thesis for recycling, an unpaved area. More efficient growth rates will be achieved if shade is provided.

Solids from american essays, manure are either collected daily and stored, or allowed to dry in the feedlot and removed periodically before spreading on fields. Writing Ideas. Collection of urine is limited to greatest essays feedlots with a slatted floor. Sheds of the animals should be airy with protection of the animals from extreme temperatures and strong winds. The animal housing should be facilitated with drinking water for animals. There should be proper drainage system to keep hygiene at fun creative writing ideas, the farm. Greatest American Essays. It consists of misunderstanding essay, a built up animal shed, a brick soling paddock for animals, one room for storing farm equipment and american one for fun creative writing ideas, compound feed storage.

But the pre-feasibility has taken feeding manger, open paddock and greatest american water trough as the major housing requirement for statement, the calves. Animal sheds should be located with long axis north to greatest american south, to fun creative writing get direct sunlight and yet face away from the direction of prevailing winds, whenever possible. Tree plantation can be carried outside the sheds to provide natural shades and these trees will also act as windbreakers. Dimensions of water troughs will be the same as that of feeding mangers and water will be available round the greatest essays, clock. What Thesis Statement. Generally all the animals feed at the same time in a shed, but not all animals drink water simultaneously. The following figure shows the animal housing layout for calf fattening farm. 15 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 7-1 Animal Housing Layout Water Trough Water Trough. Greatest Essays. Open paddock Open paddock Fodder Manger Gate Gate Table 7-2 Total Infrastructure Cost Sq. ft 6,000 9,000 120 120 500 15,740 Rate/Sq. ft 300 10 300 400 800 Total Cost 1,800,000 90,000 36,000 48,000 400,000 2,374,000 Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for Calves Stores (feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Office block Total Infrastructure Cost 7. Thesis. 4 Farm Machinery The pre-feasibility suggests, hiring tractor for land preparation to grow fodder crops. Only few farm equipment like fodder chopper, water pumps, water troughs, feeding mangers will be purchased. Table 7-3 Farm Equipment Rate 12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 No. 1 1 1 1 1 5 Rs.

12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 379,000 Farm supplies Chopper Water pump Tube Well Weighing Scale Miscellaneous farm utensils Total Machinery Cost 16 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5 7. 5. 1 Feed Ration for Calf Fattening The ration is greatest american, allowance of quoting the bible in research, nutritionally balanced Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in 24 hours to increase animal productivity. Wheat straw6 is also used as dry roughage in TMR. The cost of TMR will be lowered if feed ingredients are mixed on farm. Greatest American. The composition of the rations fed in the finishing operations depends largely on the types of feed produced local availability and on weights and grades of calves to be fattened. Rations can range from 500 word on leadership, high-roughage low energy rations to american essays high-energy rations composed almost entirely of concentrates.

Examples of ingredients in rations are: ? ? ? Maize and maize silage with Soya bean meal and urea Barley, maize silage, by-products feeding large feed lots (e. g. potato waste, sugarbeet by-products) Maize, sorghum grain, alfalfa, straw, cottonseed hulls and molasses. Some hormone-like growth stimulators, antibiotic feed additives and misunderstanding ionophores (rumen altering factors) are legalized to be included in the feed and are very commonly used. Table 7-4 Average Production Parameters and greatest essays Ranges7 Reasonable Production Parameter Starting weight (kg) Daily gain (kg) Feed Efficiency (kg growth per kg feed DM) Fattening period (days) Final weight (kg) 7. 5. 2 Green Fodder for Calves Range 70-100 0. Thesis For Recycling. 70 1. 0 6 12 90 150 150-200 Average 85 0. 8 9 120 175 Fodder is grown at the land, which is greatest essays, acquired on quoting in research, lease or owned by the entrepreneur. Due to increased demand, improved forage crops such as multi-cut oats, berseem, lucerne, Sorghum- Sudan grass hybrids, mott grass, sorghum, maize and millet have been developed. These have become very popular in irrigated areas such as Kasur, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Sargodha, and american essays Renala Khurd (Punjab), Nowshera, Charsada, Mardan, and Peshawar (North West Frontier Province), and Hyderabad, Sukkur, Larkana and Nawabshah in Sindh for peri-urban dairies. What Example In Essay. Details of fodder cultivars released by Research Institutions in Pakistan are given in greatest, Annex 2. Average forage yields in what is an, Pakistan are extremely low compared to yields obtained on research institutes and from well-managed farms and american fields. These are very low as compared to their potential, with 22. 8 tons per hectare a recent estimate 8. 6 7 A byproduct of what is an example statement, wheat harvesting used as dry roughage for livestock and dairy animals FAO Statistics 8 FAO Statistical Databases 17 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Although improved varieties and technology are available, they have been slow to reach the dairy farms. Recent medium scale on-farm work has indicated that yields can be enhanced two to three fold by using available improved varieties and appropriate agronomic techniques.

In an area where land and irrigation are the major limiting factors to enhancing fodder production, intensification is the only way to meet the needs for forage. Intensive and american essays economical forage production per unit area per season would be the best choice. Also efforts should be made to is an example of a thesis in essay produce and provide sufficient quantities of seed of multicut forage varieties and hybrids like Mott grass to american essays commercial dairy farms. Fun Creative Writing. The fodder yield (except multi cut Mott Grass which yields 100-150 tones/ acre in greatest, 4 to 6 cuttings per year) varies between 10 tons to 40 tons per acre depending upon the fertility of land, quality of seed and application of fertilizer. Table 7-5 Types of Dry #038; Green roughage9 Dry Roughage Wheat Straw Rice Straw Oat Straw Maize/Sorghum Stubble Sugarcane Baggass Cotton Seed Hulls Corn Cobs 7. 5. 3 Green Roughage Summer Fodder Winter Fodder Maize Barseem Sorghum Alfalfa (Lucerne) Millet Oats Mott Grass Rye Grass Sadabahar Sugarcane tops Guar Fodder Production Economics.

The comparative economic feasibility of various forage crops produced under various farming systems is shown in Table 7-7. Table 7-6 Economics of forage production under improved production system per hectare in Pakistan10 Item Maize Sorghum Land preparation 938 974 Seed #038; Sowing 1,200 688 Fertilizer 1,750 1,750 Irrigation 750 750 Land Revenue 1,750 1,750 Harvesting / Transport 1,875 1,750 Total expenditure Yield (Kilos) Price/kg (Rs) 9 10 Forage Crop S. S hybrid Berseem 974 875 2,000 1,250 5,000 2,500 1000 1,100 4,500 6,250 3,500 3,000 13,774 160,000 1. 00 14,825 102,500 1. 50 Lucerne 875 1,250 2,500 750 6,250 3,750 15,635 103,750 1. 0 Oats 750 1,250 2,250 500 1,875 3,000 9,625 115,000 1. 25 8,263 80,000 1. 00 7,662 79,750 1. 00 Livestock #038; Dairy Development Department, Lahore #038; FAO Statistical Databases FAO Statistical Databases 18 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. Statement For Recycling. 5. 4 Daily Fodder Requirement There is no fixed fodder requirement for the animals but a rule of thumb says that an animal needs daily fodder equal to 4. 5% of live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. Greatest American. One third of this DM will come from green fodder and fun creative writing ideas 2/3 rd will be supplemented by TMR in fattening calves to get maximum daily weight gains. According to these estimates, one calf of 80 Kgs body weight will consume 8-10 kgs fodder daily for 120 days (preferred if fed free of greatest, choice i. e. ad libitum). 7. 5. 5 Daily Total Mixed Ration Requirement Since an animal needs daily feed equal to 4. 5% of a terrible misunderstanding essay, its live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. The 2/3 rd of greatest american, this DM will be supplemented by TMR. For an animal of 80 kgs body weight, it will be 8-10 kgs per day (Preferred if fed free of fun creative writing, choice i. e. ad libitum) 7. 5. 6 Total Mixed Ration (TMR) Formula for calves: Calves can also be fed on TMR in feed lot system.

The Crude Protein (CP) value of this ration should be 12-13 % with 65-70 % Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN). These feed ingredients when mixed according to feed formula will provide adequate energy according to energy and protein requirements of animal. Essays. Table 7-7 Details of Raw Material Material Cottonseed cake/ Maize grain Corn gluten meal (20%) Rice Polish Wheat bran Wheat Straw Molasses Urea Salt DCP Total Crude Protein (CP) Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) 7. 5. 7 Mineral Mixture Percentage Input 9% 8% 15% 20% 26% 17% 1% 2% 2% 100% 12. 7% 65% This is used as a feed supplement. It includes a mix of minerals (magnesium, iron, sodium and salts). Mineral mixtures are good source of energy and increase the animal productivity to produce more lean meat. Urea Molasses Blocks can also be used to supplement the thesis, minerals. 19 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5. Greatest American. 8 Wheat Straw (Bhoosa or Turi) Wheat straw is a major, typical, and very popular feed, it is thesis statement for recycling, always chaffed, and is the main or even only major dry roughage used on almost all the farms. Traditional threshing methods break the straw into short pieces. Modern mechanical threshers have been designed to break the greatest american, straw.

In places where it is produced, it is available at essay on pedagogy, Rs. 1. 0 per kilo. In recent years baling units have been installed in central Punjab; bales are transported to major cities, even to essays Gilgit, Skardu, and Chitral. Table 7-8 Daily Feed Requirements for essay on pedagogy, One Fattened Calves in greatest american essays, 120 Days Fattening Days 1 Body Weight (Kgs. Fun Creative Ideas. ) Feed Requirement/ Day Daily Feed Cost (Rs. ) 100 123 147 171 195 4. 5 5. 5 6. 6 7. 7 8. Greatest American. 8 50 61 73 85 97 8,767 30 60 90 120 Total Feed Cost 7. 6 Vaccination #038; Medication Vaccination #038; medication is required to prevent any disease out quoting break in he animal herd. Each new animal will be vaccinated before putting into the farm. Anthelmantics are used to treat the greatest american, animals for internal parasites where as spraying and dipping with some dis infecting solution is used to eradicate external parasites. The total cost will be Rs. 200 per animal. Vaccines are produced at writing ideas, Veterinary Research Institute, Ghazi Road, Lahore. The vaccines are provided to the Government Farms and Hospitals on greatest essays, payment.

Farmers can also obtain these vaccines on payment according to prescribed schedule from the essay, Institute. Technical guidance is also provided to the farmers. Farmers can have their animals vaccinated from the american, field Veterinary Hospitals and Centres. 7. 7 Calf Quarantine A quarantine yard will be made for essay, new animal handling, dipping, weighing, and essays vaccination etc. The newly purchased animals will be dewormed and medicated with proper and necessary vaccinations in this yard. Only the disease free animals will proceed to the feedlot from the quarantine sheds.

Quarantine arrangements will minimize the chances of disease spread in the farm by 500 word on leadership ensuring that the new animals do not carry any disease before they are taken to american the main sheds. This seven-day period will also be helpful in acclimatizing the new animals before they enter the main feedlot sheds. The behavior of the 500 word, animal will be recorded during these seven days and greatest american then its requirement of feed will be calculated accordingly before sending it to the main feedlot. 7. Quoting. 8 Labor Requirement For a calf-fattening farm, manpower is required for american essays, performing different animal husbandry practices at the farm e. g. Thesis. housing, feeding, watering, medication and care of animals etc. One person can handle 25 calves easily for feeding and other management. 20 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Five persons will be required to look after the american, fattening farm. The monthly salary of thesis, each attendant is taken as Rs 6,500. A supervisor cum farm manager can be hired to american essays supervise all the farm activities.

The supervisor with a B. Sc. (Honors) degree in Animal Husbandry (AH) may be hired as a farm manager so that he can handle the quoting the bible in research papers, farm practices, administration #038; account matters at the dairy farm. Table 7-9 Labor Requirements Description Farm Supervisor Attendant Total Labor Cost No. 1 5 6 Salary/month/Person 20,000 6,500 Annual Salary 240,000 390,000 630,000 8. 1 FARM OUTPUT Fattening Period The fattening period is the period during which the animal puts on weight. These animals are called fattened animals. Generally the period is 90-120 days. Following are the desirable size and thickness of fattened animals. Large frame size with no.

1 thickness is greatest american, desirable. 500 Word Essay. Figure 8-1 Frame size and greatest american Thickness Grades of Fattened Animals 8. 2 Meat Composition Like all meat, beef is also very high in protein. It also contains significant quantities of #8216;B#8217; vitamins and what is an of a thesis minerals such as sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Offal, particularly liver, is rich in Vitamin B12, A, C and D, folic acid, iron and riboflavin. The moisture content of lean meat is 75-79 % where as the crude protein content is 18-22 %. There is a 21 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5-6. 5 % mineral content in it. The percentage of lean meat, bone and other tissues of carcasses of different breeds is given as under; Table 8-1 Meat Composition of greatest american essays, Different Breeds11 Parameters Lean meat % Bone % Fat% Other tissues % Dressing % 8. 3 Sahiwal 67. 2 16.

3 12. 7 3. 4 55. 5 Dajal 70. 6 15. 2 10. 3 3. 7 58. Cholistani 66. 7 16. Statement. 8 12. 5 3. 7 56. 5 NonDescript 67. 7 17. Greatest American. 3 11. 7 4. 1 53. 6 Cross Buffalo bred 67. 5 62. Fun Creative Writing. 8 16. 3 17. 6 11. 7 14. Essays. 9 4. 3 4. 6 54. 4 51.

6 Increase in weight gains Average weight gains and feed efficiency values as such of different breeds of calves are given as under: Table 8-2 Values of Different Parameters for Different Breeds Parameters Total weight gain (kgs) Daily weight gain (kgs) Feed efficiency (as such basis) 8. 4 Sale Price Sahiwal 78. 20 0. 85 8. 48 Dajal 84. 00 0. 91 8. 69 Cholistani Nondescript 82. Of A In Essay. 60 82. 60 0. 90 8. 34 0. 90 8. 60 Cross bred 82. 80 0. 90 9. 40 Buffalo 86.

0 0. Greatest American Essays. 84 7. What Is An Of A Thesis In Essay. 63 Selling price is another limiting factor for the determination of the american essays, profitability of this business. Example Of A In Essay. In Pakistan, the greatest essays, beef business is controlled by essay on leadership the informal sector. There are no organized markets for the beef sale and purchase. The meat business is in the hands of a community called butchers or Kassab. Greatest Essays. After feeding animals in a terrible essay, feedlots, only the premium price can make the operations profitable. In this pre feasibility study, the animals will be sold on farm at Rs.

90 per Kg live body weight. Only fetching good price can justify the costs incurred on rearing animal in feed lots. Greatest. The selling price of fattened animal will be higher than the other animals because of its higher meat recovery and good quality. To avoid the risk of price fluctuations, certain buy back agreements with institutional buyers will be a good approach for a terrible, the success of american essays, this business. Linking the project with the live animal export or beef exports will assure good returns on the business. Near the urban market and especially around Eid-ul-Azha, the selling price of beef is Rs.

130-140 per is an thesis statement, kg live body weight. American. 11 Livestock Production Research Institute, Bbahadurnagar, Okara 22 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. Fun Creative Writing Ideas. Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 9 USEFUL TERMINOLOGY -Cake Mass resulting from the processing of seeds, which is rich in protein and is used as a source of feed for livestock, e. g. cottonseed cake? -Calf Young animal of dairy origin between seven and greatest essays 120 days of age. -Compound feed Any ground mixture of essay on pedagogy, ingredients intended for greatest essays, feeding the thesis for recycling, animals. It includes a concentrate mixture accordingly to formula. -Dressing percent Dressing percent is important because it reflects the amount of carcass in relation to the animal’s live weight. Dressing percent is american, calculated by using the in research papers, following formula: Dressing % = Hot Carcass Wt. 100 Live Animal Wt. Dressing percent is affected by the fill, finish, muscling, sex, type, and if the animal is pregnant or not.

Normal Range is 55-67% for young fattened calves. -Fat Thickness The primary estimate of fatness is fat thickness at the 12th rib. It is greatest american essays, used to assess total fat on essay, the carcass. (Average: 0. 5 inches) -Feedstuffs Any substance of nutritive and greatest essays biological value used in production of compound feed. -Home Mixed Feed Feed prepared on farm of the owner. -Live Weight Cattle have a wider range of market weights than other species due to a terrible misunderstanding differences in type and greatest maturity. Ration Amount of balance feed in in research papers, 24 hours -Weaning Calf Young animal of between five and nine months coming from the greatest american essays, cow-calf enterprise and being reared by thesis statement a suckling cow until weaning. The term is american essays, used to indicate a difference of calves from a terrible misunderstanding essay, dairy herds, referred to as ‘dairy calves’. 23 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10 FINAICIAL ANALYSIS 10. 1 Projected Income Statement Const Year Sales COST OF GOODS SOLD Raw Material Payroll (Production Staff) Direct Electricity Total Gross Profit OPERATING EXPENSE Payroll (Admin) Administrative #038; Factory Overheads Depreciation Mortality loss Total Operating Profit NON-OPERATING EXPENSE Financial Charges on Running Finance Land Lease Building Rental Total PROFIT BEFORE TAX Tax PROFIT AFTER TAX 68,649 0 0 68,649 (737,253) 0 (737,253) 72,082 0 0 72,082 412,922 41,292 371,630 75,686 0 0 75,686 1,842,827 460,707 1,382,120 79,470 0 0 79,470 3,597,488 899,372 2,698,116 83,443 0 0 83,443 5,728,090 1,432,022 4,296,067 83,443 0 0 83,443 8,296,919 2,074,230 6,222,689 83,443 0 0 83,443 11,365,923 2,841,481 8,524,442 83,443 0 0 83,443 15,009,792 3,752,448 11,257,344 83,443 0 0 83,443 19,313,068 4,828,267 14,484,801 83,443 0 0 83,443 24,371,366 6,092,841 18,278,524 Year-1 7,858,620 7,635,348 390,000 14,308 8,039,656 (181,036) 240,000 15,717 166,600 36,000 487,567 (668,604) Year-2 10,085,229 8,662,865 409,500 15739 9,088,105 997,124 252,000 20,170 166,600 44,100 512,120 485,004 Year-3 12,678,574 9,774,046 429,975 17313 10,221,334 2,457,239 264,600 25,357 166,600 52,920 538,727 1,918,512 Year-4 15,689,735 10,974,688 451,474 19044 11,445,206 4,244,529 277,830 31,379 166,600 62,512 567,571 3,676,958 Year-5 19,176,343 12,270,959 474,047 20949 12,765,955 6,410,388 291,722 38,353 166,600 72,930 598,855 5,811,533 Year-6 23,203,375 13,669,420 497,750 23044 14,190,213 9,013,161 306,308 46,407 166,600 84,235 632,799 8,380,362 Year-7 27,844,049 15,177,049 522,637 25348 15,725,035 12,119,015 321,623 55,688 166,600 96,487 669,648 11,449,367 Year-8 33,180,826 16,801,269 548,769 27883 17,377,921 15,802,905 337,704 66,362 166,600 109,754 709,670 15,093,235 Year-9 39,306,516 18,549,967 576,208 30671 19,156,846 20,149,670 354,589 78,613 166,600 124,106 753,159 19,396,512 Year-10 46,325,537 20,431,532 605,018 33738 21,070,289 25,255,248 372,319 92,651 166,600 139,620 800,439 24,454,809 10.

2 10. 3 24 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. 4 Projected Balance Sheet. Const Year Year-1 (547,359) 517,827 (29,532) 4,147,444 166,600 3,980,844 263,250 263,250 4,214,562 517,827 517,827 1,952,878 1,952,878 2,466,556 (737,253) 1,729,304 4,214,562 Year-2 14,075 543,718 557,793 4,147,444 333,200 3,814,244 234,000 234,000 4,606,038 543,718 543,718 1,932,060 1,932,060 2,466,556 (365,622) 2,100,934 4,606,038 Year-3 1,585,908 570,904 2,156,812 4,147,444 499,800 3,647,644 204,750 204,750 6,009,207 570,904 570,904 1,910,930 1,910,930 2,466,556 1,016,498 3,483,054 6,009,207 Year-4 4,473,645 599,449 5,073,095 4,147,444 666,400 3,481,044 175,500 175,500 8,729,639 599,449 599,449 1,889,482 1,889,482 2,466,556 3,714,613 6,181,170 8,729,639 Year-5 8,959,240 629,422 9,588,662 4,147,444 833,000 3,314,444 146,250 146,250 13,049,357 629,422 629,422 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 8,010,681 10,477,237 13,049,357 Year-6 15,371,362 660,893 16,032,255 4,147,444 999,600 3,147,844 117,000 117,000 19,297,100 660,893 660,893 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 14,233,370 16,699,927 19,297,100 Year-7 24,085,142 693,938 24,779,079 4,147,444 1,166,200 2,981,244 87,750 87,750 27,848,074 693,938 693,938 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 22,757,813 25,224,369 27,848,074 Year-8 35,531,725 728,634 36,260,359 4,147,444 1,332,800 2,814,644 58,500 58,500 39,133,503 728,634 728,634 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 34,015,156 36,481,713 39,133,503 Year-9 50,205,666 765,066 50,970,732 4,147,444 1,499,400 2,648,044 29,250 29,250 53,648,026 765,066 765,066 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 48,499,958 50,966,514 53,648,026 Year-10 68,673,229 0 68,673,229 4,147,444 1,666,000 2,481,444 0 0 71,154,674 0 0 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 66,778,482 69,245,039 71,154,674 Current Assets Cash Stocks and Inventory Total Gross Fixed Assets Less: Accumulated depreciation Net Fixed Assets Intangible Assets Pre-operational Expenses Total Total Assets Current Liabilities Running Finance Total Long-term liabilities Long-term Loan Total Equity Paid-up Capital Retained Earnings Total Total Liabilities And Equity 0 493,169 493,169 4,147,444 0 4,147,444 292,500 292,500 4,933,113 493,169 493,169 1,973,388 1,973,388 2,466,556 0 2,466,556 4,933,113 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. American. 5 Projected Cash flow Statement Const Year Year-1 (737,253) 166,600 (24,658) (566,061) (20,510) 1,973,388 493,169 2,466,556 4,933,113 4,439,944 24,658 18,702 (547,359) Year-2 371,630 166,600 (25,891) 541,589 (20,818) 25,891 19,845 561,434 Year-3 1,382,120 166,600 (27,186) 1,550,784 (21,130) 27,186 21,049 1,571,833 Year-4 2,698,116 166,600 (28,545) 2,865,421 (21,447) 28,545 22,316 2,887,737 Year-5 4,296,067 166,600 (29,972) 4,461,945 (21,769) 29,972 23,650 4,485,595 Year-6 6,222,689 166,600 (31,471) 6,387,068 0 31,471 25,054 6,412,122 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 Year-10. Operating activities Net profit Depreciation Stocks-RM Cash provided by operations Financing activities Long term debt principal repayment Addition to long term debt Addition to fun creative writing ideas running finance Issuance of greatest essays, share Cash provided by/ (used for) financing activities Total Investing activities Capital expenditure Cash (used for)/ provided by investing activities Net Cash (493,169) (493,169) 8,524,442 11,257,344 14,484,801 18,278,524 166,600 166,600 166,600 166,600 (33,045) (34,697) (36,432) 765,066 8,687,248 11,418,497 14,644,220 19,239,441 0 33,045 26,531 8,713,779 0 34,697 28,086 11,446,583 0 36,432 29,722 14,673,941 0 (765,066) (771,877) 18,467,563 (4,439,944) (4,439,944) 0 0 (547,359) 561,434 1,571,833 2,887,737 4,485,595 6,412,122 8,713,779 11,446,583 14,673,941 18,467,563 26 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 KEY ASSUMPTIONS Table 11-1: Financial Assumptions Project life (years) Debt Equity ratio Interest rate on short term debt Interest rate on long term debt Debt tenure (years) Debt payments per year Table 11-2: Revenue Assumptions Annual Production (calves) Number of what statement in essay, Calves per herd Number of production herds per year Capacity Utilization Live body weight at purchase time (kg) Average daily weight gain Feeding days Selling price (Rs/ kg live body weight) Table 11-3: Expense Assumptions Purchase price (Rs/kg live body weight) Mortality Rate Vaccination/ Medication cost (per calf) Open Space per animal (Sq. Greatest American Essays. ft) Total Mixed Ration requirement (% of live bodyweight) Price of Total Mixed Ration (Rs. Per Kg) Table 11-4: Economy-Related Assumptions Electricity growth rate Wage growth rate Table 11-5: Cashflow Assumptions Raw Material Inventory (Days) 30 10% 5% 80 1% 200 60 4. 5 11 450 150 3 100% 100 0. 8 120 90 10 50:50 14% 18% 10 12 27 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 2 ANNEXURE 1 Table 12-1 Vital Statistics of Cattle #038; Buffaloes Parameters Rectal Temperature Heart Rate Respiratory Rate Table 12-2 Common Diseases of Livestock Infectious Diseases Disease Anthrax Symptoms Fever, grinding of teeth, release of blackish blood from natural openings, which doesn’t clot.

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This is in what example of a statement in essay regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. American. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to quoting the bible in research, in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in essays November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Papers. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her.

The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of greatest essays our work. 3. The resolution never asked for what is an of a thesis, the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the essays divestment process and was to the bible in research, share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for american essays, divestment. 5. Quoting In Research Papers. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the greatest american New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the essay on pedagogy future, I hope you check the. veracity of american statements made before you publish them.

Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia.

When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Is An Example Statement. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. Greatest American Essays. So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at 500 word, the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list.

Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by greatest american, professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. Misunderstanding Essay. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen.

Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from american University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to thesis statement, “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in greatest american essays writing for 500 word on leadership, film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by greatest american essays, “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of essay college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better.

The problem I had when I quit school the american first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is on pedagogy, nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. American. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and essay on pedagogy, sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten.

And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of greatest New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in writing ideas war, revolution and social change. His minor is greatest, political science. A Terrible Essay. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it.

Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the american above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into essay, visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation.

Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by essays, bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to writing, thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the american essays problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college.

Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only what is an example of a been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for american, college and statement, education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the american essays problem is lack of example of a in essay funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the american essays national debate, but that its role is fun creative ideas, too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism.

While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of greatest mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of on pedagogy college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. Greatest American Essays. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. What Is An Example Of A. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to essays, think. This is where Mr. What Thesis Statement In Essay. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the greatest elites to do their jobs.

However, this purpose has been lost in quoting papers a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of greatest essays our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for thesis statement for recycling, students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. American. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. Ideas. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the greatest american future of this country depends on for recycling the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman.

All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to american essays, attend college are used as bait to reel in misunderstanding essay student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to greatest, attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from thesis statement work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to greatest, improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation.

Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and essay on pedagogy, people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and greatest, regress into deep depression. Is An Of A Thesis Statement In Essay. Jobs would flounder because the greatest american people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to ideas, encourage people of american essays every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for 500 word on leadership, his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to greatest american, 1967, and Brown decided in order to fun creative, improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in american essays 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year.

Once students enroll in is an of a thesis college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in american a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. Essay On Pedagogy. The likelihood of greatest students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is thesis for recycling, much greater than the american likelihood of a drop out paying off loans.

Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over ideas, cash for leisure activities. American. Once choosing the decision to thesis statement, attend college, remaining in greatest american essays college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by 500 word on leadership, change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is greatest american, said and done change sustains me. Thesis Statement For Recycling. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by greatest american, knowing this about myself, because college means change.

Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of statement for recycling change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to greatest essays, make noise. Essay. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Essays. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package.

Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in quoting the bible in research my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus.

I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for essays, New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to papers, experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of american essays our being. Essay. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in american essays general; people just don’t care. If they do care and a terrible essay, want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of american essays urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the statement people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to greatest, get involved with. In the for recycling 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in essays Vietnam.

A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the problems really are. Essay On Leadership. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is essays, not an fun creative writing, option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the greatest american essays child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an for recycling, entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to greatest american, go to writing ideas, college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. American. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the quoting the bible in research papers successful adult they were meant to be. What is american, wrong with college?

As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at a terrible misunderstanding essay, Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the greatest american camaraderie between fellow students. Example In Essay. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus.

When the greatest american essays students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. In Research. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of greatest american college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and a terrible, being passionate about them. Of course, without the essays internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible.

The internet has taken so much of what is an example of a thesis this away from american essays current students. In my experience, you only the bible papers have to make a choice on greatest american which websites to thesis statement, read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at greatest american, it; notice its size and color in particular. 500 Word Essay. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is american, how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an the bible, object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to greatest american essays, change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size.

I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and misunderstanding essay, will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is greatest essays, a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at ideas, the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). American. Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan.

By high school, the misunderstanding essay importance of greatest essays getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. Thesis. If they can, you win! Basically, it is essays, like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants.

As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. Fun Creative Writing. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to greatest american, end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of on pedagogy college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to greatest essays, a real college. I don’t take real classes.

I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and essay on pedagogy, 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists.

We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in american essays a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the essay defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. Greatest Essays. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry.

The war, for a terrible, example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and greatest essays, stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out papers, our lives after college. Essays. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school.

Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. 500 Word Essay. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to essays, college, most of us never really had a choice. A Terrible Misunderstanding Essay. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines.

The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and greatest american essays, thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and what is an example thesis, impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Greatest American Essays. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right?

Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to essay, shape up all by themselves when they appear to greatest american, be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling.

Talk to for recycling, Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in greatest more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to on pedagogy, the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of greatest Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and quoting the bible papers, citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is greatest american, highly interesting to our country, and it is the essay duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to greatest american, the condition and pursuits of his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans.

What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in thesis statement for recycling favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and greatest american, the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of is an of a thesis American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture.

In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on greatest essays their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out the bible, of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on greatest what truth is in is an example of a thesis statement essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. Greatest Essays. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in writing being alienated from essays mainstream society. A Terrible. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers.

Nonetheless, this desire for greatest american essays, academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the a terrible misunderstanding United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to essays, a professor’s job, teaching. In Research. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is american essays, easier to ignore worldview-related issues. What Example Thesis Statement In Essay. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and greatest american essays, the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to on leadership, their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of greatest american placidity applies even more.

As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond.

Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the statement occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and greatest, posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

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Comparing and contrasting in combination with logic is the best way to fun creative ideas, put up something worthwhile. How to Write an Effective Business Proposal Letter? There is no denying the greatest essays fact that when it comes to business and its operations, effective communication is the key. This especially holds true when writing a business proposal letter as it helps you to gain the attention of the prospective investors and get them interested in your idea. So, how do you write a business proposal letter while sending proposition that is effective and interesting? Here’s how. Irrespective of what example, whether you are drafting the letter as a hard copy or sending it as an email, make sure that you format it right. The letter should begin with your name and address along with contact details, followed by the date and then the details of the recipient. The salutation should be formal and should comprise of greatest american essays, a suitable title for the recipient. The first paragraph should comprise of the brief account of your idea.

In the second paragraph, spell out as to what your goals are and how you plan to achieve these. You also need to elaborate on how you are different from your competitors. Of A Thesis In Essay! In the concluding paragraph, make a request to the investor to consider your proposal. Sign off with your name and greatest american signature. Ideas! Remember that you can use the same methodology for all business proposal letters including marketing proposal letters. Greatest American! What is the Main Purpose of a Business Proposal Letter? You may draft a business proposal letter not just with the idea of starting a new business but also for the expansion of the current business. The submission of such letters is usually made to prospective investors or higher officials in an organization.

Listed below are the purposes of 500 word essay on leadership, a business proposal letter. However based on greatest the nature of the letter like catering proposal letter, marketing proposal etc, these may vary. To present the business idea to prospective investors To give a clear idea of the goals and objectives To elaborate on the steps that the 500 word essay person intends to take to achieve the specified goals To give a detailed account of how the idea is diverse from the competitors To pique the interest of the investors To give an information about the kind of products and services that will be offered. Business proposal application letters come in handy for business owners as well as new entrepreneurs to present their ideas of establishing a new business or expanding an existing one. It can be used by a person to begin a business in collaboration with an essays, established firm or renowned financial institution.

However, these can also be used for other purposes. Let us take a look at what these are. For making a proposal for the bible papers, the delivery of goods For specifying the terms of a transaction For initiating a deal with a seller While responding to a particular request For specifying the name and details of a proposed product or service For describing the quality and specifications of a product or service. Not sure how to write an effective business proposal letter? Don’t worry. You can easily find a wide range of sample business proposal letters online and download these. These give you a clear idea of the format to be followed and the sections to greatest, be included in the letter. You can also customize these as per your requirement.

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The Best American Essays of the …

Free Essays on Value Of Games And Sports. How American Sports Reveal, Reflect, and Reaffirm Wider American History In the greatest american late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, sports began to widely popularize America; the analysis of sports in the topics of 500 word essay gender, race, and Americanism reflect broader American society. Through the study of American. Soc/Anthro 161-01 Sociology of Sport Spring 2015 Midterm assignment Joel Hernandez The basic definition of Sociology is the study of american societies and how societies work, how people interact in societies, and how society and culture affect each other. I think that we talk a lot about sports in terms of what specifically. The Games Are Back! The games are commonly called street games . Nobody knows who owns the games . Through the years, the statement street games have been passed on from town-to-town, from one province to another, and since then, it has been adopted by many children and has become part of daily play in the neighborhood. Against a backdrop of the growing political, social and cultural significance of sport, critically examine the increasing role of government in the field of sport policy.

?Against a backdrop of the growing political, social and cultural significance of sport , critically examine the increasing role of government in the field of sport policy. You should pay particular reference as to the reasons why governments have got involved and american, the impact of their involvement, blending. In Sports and Its Effect on Youth In America Today Justin Braman Southern Adventist University Sociology and misunderstanding essay, Psychology of Sport Professor Rod Bussey December 10, 2013 The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of violence in american sports . More. only A Steeler Game I harbor a lot of passion for the game of quoting papers football. Essays. It’s more than just a game to me. 500 Word Essay. Some people fish or do crosswords. What I do to relax and have fun in my spare time is watch or read about football.

While engaged in watching or reading about this particular sport , I escape from. Wherever I go I just hear about it but where or when I never really knew. I am sure that most of you heard about the Olympic Games in Russia 2014. Though I am a fan of sports in general I was really excited to know more about this. So I just used Google and I exactly found what I was looking for. American Essays. So. For the fun creative writing ideas Love of the Game NCAA Division I athletics have brought in a lot of greatest american revenue to their mother Universities for many years. Fueled by many endorsements ranging from television contracts to clothing deals, colleges have accumulated enough money to be recognized as a real market economy. Despite. Short Essay – Sport Management 1304HSL Rugby Union as a whole contributes to the economic value of sport positively in many different aspects.

The economic value of sport contributes by business investments and employment in the bible papers the sporting sector. The three sectors of the sporting industry; non-profit. Governance in Intercollegiate Sports. Governance in american essays Intercollegiate Sports LSTD 601 August 25, 2014 Prof. Timothy Finch ABSTRACT Athletics serve to fun creative, provide an american essays educational mission to student athletes, in addition to its athletic mission in regards to sports . As such, conflict exists between the writing education. Sample Essay “The Most Dangerous Game ” Even a “Psycho” Deserves a Second Chance Red lips. Sharp pointed teeth. Murderer. Psycho. These are some of the characteristics that are most remembered about General Zaroff.

He is often seen as the crazy, evil person who deserves to be punished. Little. Sociology of Sport Rick Holland Sociology and Understanding Human Behavior: Groups Phase 5, Individual Project Professor Gaylynn Moore-Collins Colorado Technical University August 13, 2012 According to Ashley Crossman, “Sociology of sports , also referred to as sports sociology, is the study. and mental exercise. Greatest American Essays. No two games are exactly the same. I love the challenge of quoting in research mastering new moves and american, finding new ways to score. Quoting The Bible. Soccer is always changing and it is the greatest american creativity required to keep up with the changing game that makes it beautiful. The poem “Soccer-The Game of Life,” by Anonymous, aptly. Playing Sport Is Better Than Video Games-Speech. you prefer to play sport than video games ? Not everyone agrees but recent and continuous research has shown that more than half of 500 word on leadership Australians prefer to play it because of the physical and mental health benefits and an opportunity to socialise more with new friends.

Playing video games however, hardly uplifts. Sports are an event that has been around in some form or another for many years. Through time, they have gradually evolved into their current state, and will undoubtedly continue to be around for years to come. This is because they always have, and always will be a positive influence on society and. implication of sponsorships and endorsements in american sports The literature that provides the basis for this study is grounded in marketing in a terrible misunderstanding sports . Greatest American Essays. It is proposed that the review of the literature relating to this subject will initially consider marketing efforts in sports , with a more focused look at issues relating. Explain Why Sport Holds Such a Revered Position in Australian Culture. Sport is the preferred pastime for many Australians and is a central figure in Australian pop culture.

Australians have a passion for participating in, have an appetite for watching sport and crave the competition of sport . Although Australia cannot challenge the world superpowers politically it takes. Introduction of Sport in Ancient Greece and Rome. Name Class Professor Introduction of Sport in Ancient Greece and Rome In ancient time around 338 B.C., physical education was influenced by the civilizations of Ancient Greece. All the cities, mainly Athens, put a high value on physical fitness and thesis statement for recycling, sport . The Greeks had an idea of a united mind. Shane CaseyProfessor Waltz-CummingsHumanities 101March 5th, 2013Steroids in sports Over the greatest american essays last few years performance enhancing drugs has become a large issue for a number of reasons. The first and foremost is that athletes that use performance enhancers. Athletes use these drugs to get a step. Classification of is an of a thesis statement Sports Fans Introduction Classification of sports fans is not necessarily divided into documented classes but rather develops from the different character traits individuals develop and greatest american, portray during their interactions in activities relating to the different sports activities. Certain. In many cities, high school sports are being cut in order to save money.

I believe that no sports programs should be cut. Sports are extremely important to the schools and their communities. What Is An Statement. If it weren’t for sports , many kids would be overweight, unhealthy, and not working to their potential in school. ? Sports are an essential and important aspect of American society; they are indispensible when it comes to their impact on a plethora of public arenas, including economics and the mass media. Sport coincides with community values and political agencies, as it attempts to define the morals and american essays, ethics attributed. The Olympics is probably the biggest sports event in the world, along with World Cup. In the Olympics, the best athletes from countries all over the world compete one another in many types of essay on leadership sports . It is held every four years during summertime. Even though the modern Olympics nowadays are held in different. adrenaline pumping game , is a world-renowned sport and is growing popularity faster than several other top sports . Paintball is a very controversial sport because of the safety of the greatest american game . Mothers and 500 word essay on leadership, parents worry about the american safety of their child when it comes to playing a game that deals with a gun.

Fair Play Means Using Sport to a terrible essay, Make a Better World. Fair Play means using Sport to make a better world. To be successful in sport , you need to have the right attitude. Honesty, dignity, fair play, respect, teamwork, commitment and courage are essential to lead a memorable sporting performance. All of these indispensible values can be summed up in the. and provide individuals and society with significant challenges. (Craig Crossley 2013). Figueroa’s Framework is a framework that the sociology of sport is based on. American Essays. There are five levels in which this framework is basis. Those levels include: Cultural, Structural, Institutional, Interpersonal and.

Do Sports and Drugs Mix? Since the essay dawn of time [a ridiculous exaggeration; delete it] it seems that you can’t [do not use contractions in essays: change to greatest essays, cannot] think of sports without some sort of drug scandal creeping into essay the thought as well. It’s [contraction: it is] not just baseball that. Steriods in the game of baseball (Bad vs. Good)

Steroids: A National Molehill “The illegal use of performance enhancing substances poses a serious threat to greatest american essays, the integrity of the game .” (Mitchell 8). 500 Word On Leadership. These were the opening lines of the “Report to the Commissioner of Baseball of an Independent Investigation into the Illegal Use of Steroids and Other. The Failure of the Football Association and Its Policies to Effectively Manage the american essays English National Game. and its Policies to Effectively Manage the English National Game Football is a terrible, England’s number one sport , and greatest essays, is watched by, and quoting in research, important to, millions of people around the country. There are currently many perceived problems within the game , such as the increasing divide between the american essays ‘big four’ clubs. included an extensive focus on sport as part of the civilising process where he says society has gained rationalisation of impulses, a formation of conscience, and control of physical violence. Elias’ work evaluated three ages of man in fun creative writing ideas which sport has evolved, from classic games in essays Athens, through the ‘Middle. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society I’m of two minds about in research papers, Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role in society. On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well.

Sports can build one’s character. Games Wii All Can Enjoy For video game aficionados, especially those in their adult life holding a controller and watching the screen is not always entertainment enough. The future of gaming cannot only rely on improved visual, but a more enveloping experience. Video games can have much more. Why Childern Should Play Sports .! Why playing sports help kids, now and in the future I think all students should play a team sport . Playing a team sport can produce several benefits to the student, family, and american, also the community. Team sports can be very educational and also healthy for children of. Sports Bar Franchise Initial Business Plan Company Description— Sports Bar Franchise would be a place where sports fans can watch their favorite sporting games on lot of 500 word essay big screen TVs, a place to play a game of Madden or another video game , a place to play pool or darts or online games . American Essays. The company.

The Most Dangerous Game Since the earliest time that I can remember one of my favorite short stories to read was “The Most Dangerous Game ” by Richard Connell. To many literary experts this is seen as a man vs man type of short story, my take on it is quoting papers, a little different there is greatest american essays, more then meets the. Are games and sports important as studies? The importance of sports and games is being increasingly recognised in India, from both the educational and social points of view. More and more funds are being allocated for encouraging sports in schools, colleges and universities; in fact, sports have become an essential part of the curricula. Time. Sport, Physical Activity and Antisocial Behaviour in is an of a statement in essay Youth.

Sport , Physical Activity and Antisocial Behaviour in greatest Youth Sport , Physical Activity and Antisocial Behaviour in Youth Leesa Morris, Jo Sallybanks and Katie Willis Australian Institute of writing Criminology Research and Public Policy Series No. 49 © Australian Institute of Criminology 2003 ISSN. Sport Industry Structure in Japan. Industry and Competitive Structure Baseball is the most popular sport in greatest Japan. The people of Japan recognize baseball as part of their culture and 500 word, heritage. Greatest American. Also Japan has the ideas second largest economy in the world so many of the Japanese people have a stable family life and a good amount of disposable. status as a major sport ? Here in the United States of America, there are a lot of major sports we adore, idolize, and watch on television. These such sports include professional football (NFL), professional baseball (MLB), and also professional basketball (NBA) as the top sports here in american the United.

? Why Do Sports Matter? Sports in America have drastically changed in both positive and writing ideas, negative ways throughout the years. People surround sports as a part of their life and greatest, sometimes it’s their main priority. Though you may be a dedicated fan there are people who take it to a terrible misunderstanding, the extreme leading. Professional Sports and greatest essays, the Us Economy. The Impact of statement Professional Sports on the U.S. Economy Do professional sports have a “major league” impact on the US economy? Most professional sports such as the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, the Major League Baseball and the National Hockey League have teams that. Theoretical Perspectives of greatest american Sports. sociology of sports . Sociology of Sports The Functionalist theory looks at society as a whole or also known as the macro level.

They are designed to preserve and maintain stability within our society, as they view society as stable and integrated. The individual perspective is 500 word, that people are socialized. “ Sports ” is a broad term that basically refers to diverse forms of essays physical activities that are competitive in the bible nature. Participation in sports is aimed at utilizing or maintaining, as well as improving one’s physical capabilities, with skills of the game . Moreover, the greatest american essays participating. Importance of Games in essay a Student's Life. to lead them on the path of their future. Greatest American Essays. It is truly considered that through participation in sports and different games , students learn co-operation, teamwork, leadership methods and time management. Ideas. Games also help students by discovering their hidden talents, help them interact with different people.

?E- sport Yin Shiyu (Bob) Dongbei University of Finance and Economics King’s Class 2 2013.04.21 The Index Page2:……………………………………………………………………………………Index Page3:………………………………………….…………………………………Introduction Page4:…………………………………………………………………..E- sport (Description) Page5:…………………………………. Influence of Sports on Teens Many teens face a time in their lives when they have trouble at school or at home and end up turning to the wrong sources for an out. Youths tend to american, find comfort from those who welcome them, but sometimes it ends up being the wrong people and activities. Sports play a big. University of the Rockies Abstract To apply the topic of sports psychology I am going to use a baseball game day. Since baseball is what is an thesis in essay, a very mental game that requires a lot of focus and concentration. I am going to greatest essays, start with the night before a game and end when leaving the 500 word on leadership ballpark. This paper will present. represented all of sports , sportscaster and sports writer Howard Cosell may have made a different claim about sports then he did.

However, Kurt Warner is greatest, only a microcosm of sports . The premise about sport that Cosell ends up making is on leadership, that there shouldn’t be a valid notion that there is greatest american essays, good in sport . Howard. Sports Marketing and Sponsorship Assignment Question 2 Based on the idea of a broad-based international market and popularity of the product I would choose to represent Addidas, and for statement for recycling, Addidas there could be no better event to sponsor that the soccer world cup. Greatest. Although it is generally accepted. ? I never thought I would ever say this, but I am starting to hate football. It has long been the sport I, as many other have enjoyed for years. No matter what event is going on Sunday, people will skip it to watch football. Maybe that is why just about every wedding occurs on Saturday and not Sunday. Don’t Change the Game Even though football is a dangerous sport the NFL and papers, leagues below should not change how the game is american, played, but incorporate ways to make the game safer.

There are ways around completely changing this highly popular sport that so many Americas love to play and love to watch. Professor Dodge October 31, 2013 Sports Have you ever loved something since you were a young kid? What were the sports you enjoyed playing when you were younger? Ever since I was younger I’ve always loved sports , whether it was watching them or playing them. Sports are and have always been something. DEDICATED TO SPORTS Dedicated to Sports Douglas R. Chace Ashford University SOC 318 DEDICATED TO SPORTS Abstract This paper explores the “dedicated to sports ” phenomenon and attempts to answer the question: “Why are some people fanatically interested in playing and watching sports ?” Through. Sports And Gamesan Essential Part Of. ? Sports and in research, games ,an essential part of life I love sports . We should make them an essential part of our life. They play a big role in our life.

Make us active,healthy and american, fit. Ideas. Also help us to lose weight improve our metabolism. Sports and games are very important for us. Sports and games help us. ?IMPORTACE OF GAMES AND SPORTS Have you ever noticed that why people play games and sports ? Of course, many people do not know the actual reasons of essays that. As water and food are necessary for our life same is the what is an of a statement in essay relation of sports and games with our health. Greatest American Essays. People who don’t take interest in such. I began playing sports from little on. They defined me as a child, and still define me as a person to this day. Playing year round sports turned me into a very well rounded athlete.

I was beginning to feel as if sports were innately a part of me. Sports are something I could not live without. There is. comes to sports and rights fees is 500 word, that it's the business of greatest essays entertainment. Example Thesis In Essay. The dollars are going to go where the value is. Greatest American Essays. With Rights fees, networks pay fees to have the is an example rights to a particular broadcast, for greatest american, example march madness, the example of a thesis in essay NFL or the Olympics. American Essays. Rights fees are determined by the value a certain. Sociology of Sport Sociology of Sport What is Sociology of of a Sports ? The field of greatest american Sociology of sports is explained that it is the study of relationships between society and sports and how values and thesis statement, culture influence sports and how sports influence culture and values . This also includes the relationship. My favorite sport is essays, foot ball. Fun Creative Writing. The atmosphere of the game brings people in the mass together.

Football is a game with fast pace, with big gladiator like men who enjoy playing the game . With the game playied in many type of greatest essays weather it makes it even more fun to watch. The atmosphere of going to the. Youth Sports David Logan Axia College University of Phoenix COM 220 Instructor Blaine Howard .

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essay duty first A note on the chief rules of greatest essays practical conduct to be observed by those who accept the Law of Thelema. “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.” [AL I:40] “There is no law beyond Do what thou wilt.” [AL III:60] “. thou hast no right but to do thy will.

Do that, and no other shall say nay. For pure will, unassuaged of purpose, delivered from the lust of result, is on leadership, every way perfect.” [AL I:4244] “Love is the law, love under will.” [AL I:57] “Every man and every woman is a star.” [AL I:3] A. Your duty to yourself. Find yourself to be the centre of your own Universe. “I am the american essays flame that burns in 500 word essay on leadership every heart of man, and in greatest american the core of every star.” [AL II:6]

Explore the Nature and Powers of your own Being. This includes everything which is, or can be, for you: and you must accept everything exactly as it is in itself, as one of the factors which go to make up your True Self. This True Self thus ultimately includes all things soever; its discovery is Initiation (the travelling inwards) and as its Nature is to move continually, it must be understood not as static, but as dynamic, not as a Noun but as a Verb. Develop in due harmony and proportion every faculty which you possess. “Wisdom says: be strong! Then canst thou bear more joy. Be not animal; refine thy rapture! If thou drink, drink by the eight and ninety rules of art: if thou love, exceed by delicacy; and a terrible, if thou do aught joyous, let there be subtlety therein!” [AL II:70] “Be strong, o man! lust, enjoy all things of sense and greatest american essays, rapture: fear not that any God shall deny thee for this.” [AL II:22] Contemplate your own Nature.

Consider every element thereof both separately and in relation to all the rest as to judge accurately the true purpose of the totality of your Being. Find the formula of this purpose, or “True Will,” in an expression as simple as possible. Learn to understand clearly how best to manipulate the energies which you control to obtain the results most favourable to it from fun creative ideas, its relations with the greatest american essays part of the Universe which you do not yet control. Extend the dominion of what is an example of a statement in essay your consciousness, and its control of greatest american essays all forces alien to it, to the utmost. Do this by the ever stronger and more skilful application of your faculties to the finer, clearer, fuller, and quoting in research papers, more accurate perception, the better understanding, and the more wisely ordered government, of that external Universe. Never permit the thought or will of any other Being to interfere with your own. Be constantly vigilant to resent, and on the alert to resist, with unvanquishable ardour and greatest american essays, vehemence of passion unquenchable, every attempt of any other Being to influence you otherwise than by 500 word essay on leadership, contributing new facts to your experience of the Universe, or by assisting you to reach a higher synthesis of Truth by the mode of passionate fusion. Do not repress or restrict any true instinct of greatest american essays your Nature; but devote all in perfection to the sole service of the bible your one True Will. “Be goodly therefore: dress ye all in fine apparel; eat rich foods and drink sweet wines and wines that foam! Also, take your fill and greatest, will of love as ye will, when, where and with whom ye will! But always unto me.” [AL I:51]

“The word of on pedagogy Sin is Restriction. O man! refuse not thy wife, if she will! O lover, if thou wilt, depart! There is greatest american essays, no bond that can unite the divided but love: all else is what is an of a, a curse. Greatest American Essays. Accurséd! Accurséd be it to the æons! Hell.” [AL I:41] “So with thy all; thou hast no right but to do thy will.

Do that, and no other shall say nay. For pure will, unassuaged of quoting the bible in research papers purpose, delivered from the greatest american essays lust of result, is every way perfect.” [AL I:4244] “Ye shall gather goods and misunderstanding essay, store of women and spices; ye shall wear rich jewels; ye shall exceed the nations of the earth in splendour pride; but always in the love of me, and so shall ye come to my joy.” [AL I:61] “Remember all ye that existence is pure joy; that all the sorrows are but as shadows; they pass are done; but there is that which remains.” [AL II:9] “But ye, o my people, rise up awake! Let the rituals be rightly performed with joy beauty!” . “A feast for fire and a feast for water; a feast for life and greatest essays, a greater feast for death!

A feast every day in your hearts in the joy of my rapture! A feast every night unto Nu, and a terrible essay, the pleasure of uttermost delight! Aye! feast! rejoice! there is no dread hereafter. There is the dissolution, and greatest american, eternal ecstasy in the kisses of misunderstanding Nu.” [AL II:3435, 4144] “Now rejoice! now come in our splendour rapture! Come in our passionate peace, write sweet words for the Kings!” [AL II:64] “Thrill with the joy of life death! Ah! thy death shall be lovely: whoso seeth it shall be glad. Thy death shall be the seal of the promise of our agelong love.

Come! lift up thy heart rejoice!” [AL II:66] “Is a God to live in a dog? No! but the highest are of us. They shall rejoice, our chosen: who sorroweth is not of us. Beauty and strength, leaping laughter and american essays, delicious languor, force and fire, are of us.” [AL II:1920] B. Your duty to other individual men and women.

“Love is the law, love under will.” [AL I:57] “Come forth, o children, under the stars, take your fill of love!” [AL I:12] Unite yourself passionately with every other form of quoting the bible in research papers consciousness, thus destroying the sense of separateness from the Whole, and creating a new baseline in the Universe from which to measure it. “As brothers fight ye!” [AL III:59] “If he be a King, thou canst not hurt him.” [AL II:59] To bring out saliently the differences between two points-of-view is useful to both in measuring the position of each in the whole. Combat stimulates the greatest american essays virile or creative energy; and, like love, of which it is one form, excites the essay mind to an orgasm which enables it to transcend its rational dullness.

Abstain from all interferences with other wills. “Beware lest any force another, King against King!” [AL II:24] (The love and war in the previous injunctions are of the nature of sport, where one respects, and american essays, learns from the opponent, but never interferes with him, outside the actual game.) To seek to dominate or influence another is to seek to deform or to destroy him; and he is a necessary part of one’s own Universe, that is, of one’s self. Seek, if you so will, to enlighten another when need arises. This may be done, always with the strict respect for the attitude of the good sportsman, when he is in a terrible misunderstanding essay distress through failure to understand himself clearly, especially when he specifically demands help; for his darkness may hinder one’s perception of his perfection. (Yet also his darkness may serve as a warning, or excite one’s interest.) It is also lawful when his ignorance has lead him to interfere with one’s will. American. All interference is in any case dangerous, and demands the a terrible essay exercise of extreme skill and good judgement, fortified by experience. To influence another is to leave one’s citadel unguarded; and the attempt commonly ends in essays losing one’s own self-supremacy. “Every man and every woman is a star.” [AL I:3] “Mercy let be off; damn them who pity!” [AL III:18] “We have nothing with the outcast and the unfit: let them die in essay on pedagogy their misery.

For they feel not. Compassion is the vice of kings: stamp down the wretched the weak: this is the law of the strong: this is greatest american essays, our law and the joy of the world. Think not, o king, upon that lie: That Thou Must Die: verily thou shalt not die, but live. Now let it be understood: if the body of the King dissolve, he shall remain in quoting papers pure ecstasy for ever. Nuit! Hadit!

Ra-Hoor-Khuit! The Sun, Strength Sight, Light; these are for the servants of the Star the Snake.” [AL II:21] Each being is, exactly as you are, the greatest sole centre of a Universe in no wise identical with, or even assimilable to, your own. The impersonal Universe of “Nature” is essay on pedagogy, only an american essays, abstraction, approximately true, of the factors which it is convenient to a terrible essay regard as common to all. The Universe of another is therefore necessarily unknown to, and unknowable by, you; but it induces currents of energy in yours by essays, determining in part your reactions. Use men and women, therefore, with the absolute respect due to inviolable standards of measurement; verify your own observations by comparison with similar judgements made by them; and, studying the methods which determine their failure or success, acquire for yourself the essay wit and skill required to greatest essays cope with your own problems. Pity, sympathy and like emotions are fundamentally insults to the Godhead of the person exciting them, and therefore also to your own. The distress of a terrible misunderstanding another may be relieved; but always with the positive and noble idea of making manifest the perfection of the Universe. Pity is the source of every mean, ignoble, cowardly vice; and the essential blasphemy against greatest american essays Truth. “To Me do ye reverence! to me come ye through tribulation of ordeal, which is bliss.” AL III:62.

C. On Leadership. Your duty to mankind. Establish the Law of Thelema as the sole basis of greatest essays conduct. The general welfare of the race being necessary in many respects to essay on pedagogy your own, that well-being, like your own, principally a function of the intelligent and essays, wise observance of the Law of Thelema, it is of the very first importance to you that every individual should accept frankly that Law, and the bible in research, strictly govern himself in full accordance therewith. You may regard the establishment of the american Law of Thelema as an essential element of your True Will, since, whatever the ultimate nature of that Will, the statement for recycling evident condition of putting it into execution is freedom from external interference. Governments too often exhibit the most deplorable stupidity, however enlightened may be the men who compose and constitute them, or the greatest american people whose destinies they direct.

It is therefore incumbent on every man and woman to take the proper steps to cause the revisions of all existing statutes on the basis of the Law of Thelema. This Law being a Law of Liberty, the aim of the legislature must be to what example thesis secure the amplest freedom for each individual in the state, eschewing the presumptuous assumption that any given positive ideal is greatest american essays, worthy to be obtained. “The word of Sin is Restriction.” [AL I:41] The essence of crime is that it restricts the ideas freedom of the individual outraged. (Thus, murder restricts his right to live; robbery, his right to enjoy the greatest essays fruits of his labour; coining, his right to quoting the bible papers the guarantee of the state that he shall barter in security; etc.) It is american essays, then the common duty to prevent crime by segregating the criminal, and by the threat of reprisals; also, to on pedagogy teach the criminal that his acts, being analyzed, are contrary to his own True Will. (This may often be accomplished by essays, taking from him the right which he has denied to others; as by outlawing the thief, so that he feels constant anxiety for the safety of his own possessions, removed from the ward of the State.) The rule is quite simple. He who violated any right declares magically that it does not exist; therefore it no longer does so, for him. Crime being a direct spiritual violation of the Law of Thelema, it should not be tolerated in the community. Those who possess the instinct should be segregated in a settlement to build up a state of for recycling their own, so to learn the necessity of themselves imposing and maintaining rules of justice.

All artificial crimes should be abolished. When fantastic restrictions disappear, the greater freedom of the individual will itself teach him to avoid acts which really restrict natural rights. Greatest. Thus real crime will diminish automatically. The administration of the Law should be simplified by a terrible misunderstanding, training men of uprightness and discretion whose will is to fulfill this function in the community to decide all complaints by the abstract principle of the Law of Thelema, and to essays award judgement on the basis of the actual restriction caused by the offense. The ultimate aim is thus to reintegrate Conscience, on misunderstanding true scientific principles, as the warden of conduct, the monitor of the people, and the guarantee of their governors. D. Your duty to all other beings and things. Apply the Law of Thelema to all problems of fitness, use, and development. It is a violation of the Law of Thelema to abuse the natural qualities of american any animal or object by diverting it from misunderstanding essay, its proper function, as determined by consideration of its history and structure. Greatest American. Thus, to train children to perform mental operations, or to practice tasks, for which they are unfitted, is a crime against nature.

Similarly, to build houses of rotten material, to adulterate food, to destroy forests, etc., etc., is to offend. The Law of Thelema is to be applied unflinchingly to decide every question of thesis statement for recycling conduct. The inherent fitness of any thing for any proposed use should be the sole criterion. Apparent, and sometimes even real, conflict between interests will frequently arise. Greatest American Essays. Such cases are to quoting in research papers be decided by the general value of the contending parties in the scale of greatest essays Nature.

Thus, a tree has a right to its life; but a man being more than a tree, he may cut it down for fuel or shelter when need arises. Even so, let him remember that the Law never fails to avenge infraction: as when wanton deforestation has ruined a climate or a soil, or as when the importation of papers rabbits for a cheap supply of food has created a plague. Observe that the violation of the Law of Thelema produces cumulative ills. The drain of the agricultural population to big cities, due chiefly to persuading them to abandon their natural ideals, has not only american essays, made the fun creative writing ideas country less tolerable to the peasant, but debauched the town. And the greatest american error tends to increase in geometrical progression, until a remedy has become almost inconceivable and the whole structure of a terrible misunderstanding society is threatened with ruin. The wise application based on observation and experience of the american Law of Thelema is to in research work in conscious harmony with Evolution. Experiments in creation, involving variation from existing types, are lawful and necessary.

Their value is to american essays be judged by their fertility as bearing witness to their harmony with the course of nature towards perfection.