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Ethiopian Culture Essay - 418 Words - …
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Learn exactly brutus essay 1 summary what happened in this proposal and essay, dissertation help chapter, scene, or section of Julius Caesar and what it means. A short summary of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of Julius Caesar. Brutus Essay XI 31 January 1788. The nature and extent of the judicial power of the 1, United States, proposed to be granted by this constitution, claims our particular. Essay 1 summary Brutus To err is ethiopia human essay global warming essay 2000 words in pages, vincent van gogh the rocks essay writer weaknesses of a person essay yale 250. Islamic heresy pdf wcdma essay, math homework help. Placed there by decimus brutus, regarding the “aristocratick combination.”. Adequate protection to.
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Jeffersons first publication.. Anti- Federalist e. Research. Lesson: Brutus No. In order to essay develop a comprehensive understanding of the American Founding, it is important to proposal hukum also understand the Anti- Federalist objections to the ratification of the Constitution. Ethiopia Essay. Excerpts Annotated and answer the questions at the end of the lesson. In his first essay, Brutus considered whether or not the thirteen states should be reduced to one republic as the aeronautical papers, Federalists proposed. After examining various clauses in ethiopia the Constitution, he determined that this would essentially create a federal government that will “possess absolute and uncontrollable power.
He believed that the Constitution and laws of punctuality for class 1 every state would nullified and declared void if they were, or shall be inconsistent with the Constitution. Brutus argued that under the Necessary and Proper Clause, Congress would be able to repeal state fundraising laws. If Congress believed that a state law may prevent the ethiopia essay, collection of a federal tax that is necessary and proper to punctuality essay provide for the general welfare of the United States, then Congress would have the authority to repeal the law under the necessary and proper clause. Furthermore, because all laws made in pursuance of the Constitution are the supreme law of the land, the states would have no recourse. Therefore, the government is complete, and no longer a confederation of ethiopia essay smaller republics.
According to Brutus, there was no limit upon thesis hukum the legislative power to lay taxes, duties, imposts, and excises. Ethiopia. Although this authority was technically limited to raising money to pay debts and provide for the general welfare and common defense, Brutus argued that these restrictions do not impose any actual limitation on the legislative powers under the Constitution. In reality, only the legislature had the authority to glutamate research contract debts and determine what is necessary to ethiopia provide for the general welfare and common defense of the nation. Essay 1. Therefore, the legislature’s authority to lay taxes and duties is rendered unlimited. No state can emit paper money, “lay any duties, or imposts, on imports, or exports” without consent of the Congress and “the net produce is for the benefit of the United States.” Therefore, the only recourse left for the states to support their own governments and discharge their debts is by direct taxation. Ethiopia. This too however, could be eradicated by the federal government, who also has the power of direct taxation. Where the federal government exercises this essentially unlimited authority, it would be impossible for the states to raise money on their own behalf due to the limited monetary resources of its citizens. Without money, states cannot be supported and their powers would be absorbed by the federal government thus eliminating any sovereignty or autonomy left to the states.
Today, opinions differ over best buy resume york the appropriate size, scope, and power of the Federal government. Regardless of personal views, it is hard to deny that Brutus makes several compelling arguments highlighting the potential dangers of a large national government. Questions to Consider. Which form of government (a large national republic or a confederation of small republics) is more likely to preserve and protect personal liberties and why? Can a larger republic, based on essay, the principle of consent of the governed, sufficiently protect the research, rights and liberties of the individual states and ethiopia essay, people, or is a confederation the only method of securing such liberty? Should the federal legislature be able to repeal state laws in order to impose federal laws for the purpose of promoting the best york, general welfare or common defense of the nation? If not, why? Brutus argues that in a republic, “the manners, sentiments, and interests of the people should be similar? Or, is diversity of opinion beneficial to essay the success of a federal government? Write something about yourself.
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Ethiopia - Essay by Torihula - Anti Essays
objectivity essay Criticism.Com presents white papers and ethiopia essays on technology, media, critical theory, discourse analysis, and linguistics. Max Weber's View of Objectivity in Social Science. By Steve Hoenisch. This essay named best of the web for social science in 2003 by Encyclopaedia Britannica. Max Weber thought that statements of fact are one thing, statements of value another, and any confusing of the two is impermissible, Ralf Dahrendorf writes in his essay Max Weber and Modern Social Science, acknowledging that Weber clarified the 1 difference between pronouncements of fact and of value.
1 Although Dahrendorf goes on to note the essay ambiguities in Weber's writings between factual analysis and value-influenced pronouncements, he stops short of offering an explanation for them other than to buy resume say that Weber, being human, could not always live with his own demands for objectivity. Indeed, Dahrendorf leaves unclear exactly what Weber's view of objectivity was. More specifically, Dahrendorf does not venture to lay out a detailed explanation of essay, whether Weber believed that the social scientist could eliminate the buy resume application influence of values from the analysis of facts. Did Weber believe that, even though facts are one thing and values another, social and economic facts could be evaluated without the analysis being influenced by ethiopia essay, values? And what is the relation of objectivity to values? Could objectivity, for instance, be used to show that one value is paper superior to another? Or does objectivity apply only to ethiopia the analysis of facts? Do one's values or perspective stem from glutamate research human nature, metaphysical views, personal identity, or is it just as likely that they are a mere construct of culture? These questions, and others like them, underlie much that has been considered ambiguous in Max Weber's writings: His methodology. Since his death, sociologists and political scientists have been disputing where Weber stood with regard to questions concerning the relationship of objectivity to facts and values. Most of Weber's commentators, Edward Bryan Portis writes, have assumed his advocacy of the fact-value dichotomy, despite his explicit and essay implicit assertions to the contrary, because of his numerous statements denying the ability of science to fre resume templates refute any normative position or to help one choose among contending normative orientations.
2 Indeed, hardly a scholarly piece is written on Weber, it seems, without the ethiopia preamble that Weber's views on this subject have been widely misunderstood, with the aeronautical implication that the scholar at ethiopia, hand intends to finally set the record straight. This essay has more humble ambitions. Although it takes issue in the final section with part of the exhaustive view laid out by Portis, this essay does not purport to set forth yet another definitive interpretation of fre resume templates, Weber's views on objectivity. Rather it seeks to shed light on Weber's view of the applicability of essay, objectivity by essays school, attempting to answer the ethiopia overarching question that sits at the foundation of those posed above: Was Weber an advocate of value-free social science? The answer, as will be shown, is essays school both yes and ethiopia essay no -- because, this essay will argue, Weber maintained a two-tiered approach to value-free social science.
On the one hand, he believed that ultimate values could not be justified scientifically, that is, through value-free analysis. Thus, in comparing different religious, political or social systems, one system could not be chosen over another without taking a value or end into consideration; the choice would necessarily be dictated by the analyst's values. On the other hand, Weber believed that once a value, end, purpose, or perspective had been established, then a social scientist could conduct a value-free investigation into on nursing the most effective means within a system of ethiopia essay, bringing about the established end. Similarly, Weber believed that objective comparisons among systems could also be made once a particular end had been established, acknowledged, and agreed upon, a position that allowed Weber to make what he considered objective comparisons among such economic systems as capitalism and research socialism. Thus, even though Weber maintained that ultimate values could not be evaluated objectively, this belief did not keep him from believing that social problems could be scientifically resolved -- once a particular end or value had been established. But first, just what is essay Weber's own standpoint, as determined by his ultimate values? It is, no doubt, influenced by templates, one of his key concerns: the ethiopia quality of human being in any given economic and social order. 3 Sometimes, however, his standpoint is nationalistic. Fre Resume Templates. And in yet other essays, it champions individual liberty. Indeed, Weber's perspective changes, and essay it is research likely to be driven not by one value but by levels of them, ranging from humanism to a concrete objective.
But the fact that Weber had a perspective lends little support to ethiopia the two-tiered interpretation, other than to hukum show that he believed it was permissible for a social scientist to possess a value-determined standpoint. His treatment of perspective is ethiopia essay another matter, however. One hint that begins to shed light on Weber's view on the fact-value question is a characteristic that recurs in several of Weber's essays and speeches: Weber announces, often at the beginning of a speech or essay, the punctuality for class 1 standpoint from which he plans to evaluate a given situation or set of facts. Likewise, if he changes his focus during a presentation, he often declares the ethiopia essay new standpoint. In his opening remarks of The Nation State and thesis hukum Economic Policy, one of Weber's early speeches, he sets a precedent for ethiopia, this pattern while unveiling a justification for his perspective. The inaugural lecture is an opportunity, Weber says, to present and justify openly the personal and, in this sense, `subjective' standpoint from monosodium which one judges economic phenomena, revealing that he maintained that even the examination of such seemingly hard data as economic facts were subject to the influence of a perspective determined by values. Essay. 4 When Weber shifts course later in the speech to prescribing what should be done to deal with the problems on Germany's eastern frontier, he discloses his new perspective: the standpoint of the papers German people.
5 The solution would obviously be quite different if it were made, say, from the standpoint of the Polish workers. Similarly, in one of his later lectures, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, Weber tells his audience near the beginning of his remarks that he will expose the political deficiency of this system . from the standpoint of success. 6. Although Weber often announces the value from which he intends to analyze a particular policy, he also acknowledges that the value may be merely a construct of one's culture or society. An example of the influence of culture upon perspective lies in Weber's comments about ethiopia, political economy. As soon as the method of analysis known as political economy makes value judgments, Weber says, it is tied to the particular strain of humankind (Menschentum) we find within our own nature. . The economic policy of a German state, and, equally, the criterion of value used by a German economic theorist, can therefore only be a German policy or criterion. 7 Yet the perspective still must be acknowledged. Regardless of whether a social scientist's value-orientation stems from cultural norms, nationality, or a worldview, what remains certain for Weber is that the value is neither intrinsic to fre resume the subject matter nor specific to its context -- a view that categorically separates value from facts.
Weber takes care to refute such views in his discussion of the methodology of ethiopia, political economy in The Nation State and Economic Policy. First, Weber assails those economists who maintain that political economy can derive its own ideals from the subject matter. The notion that there are independent or socio-political ideals shows itself to buy resume be a delusion as soon as one delves into the literature in an attempt to identify the basis for its evaluation, Weber says. 8 The truth is that the ideals we introduce into the subject matter of essay, our science are not peculiar to it, nor are they produced by this science itself. Punctuality 1. 9 Rather, the values stand above the subject matter; they are of a higher order. For Weber, it is less important what another analyst's core values are than whether he clarifies them for the benefit of essay, both himself and his audience.
Weber also criticizes those scientists who often unconsciously allow the research paper starting point for our analyses and explanations of economic events to ethiopia essay determine our judgements of these events, 10 demonstrating that he separates the subjectivity of value-orientation from the objective evaluation that is carried out after the monosodium glutamate paper value orientation has been established. Essay. In other words, Weber is chastising those scientists who allow the subjectivity of their perspective to determine their analysis of the facts. As examples of the economic scientists who have made this mistake, Weber points to the historical apologists and to papers the Marxists. What matters even more to Weber is whether one adheres unflinchingly to his values. In The Profession and essay Vocation of Politics, Weber explicitly articulates how one must look at life from a chosen value: What matters is not age but the essays trained ability to look at realities of life with an ethiopia essay, unsparing gaze, to bear these realities and be a match for templates, them inwardly. 11 The comment exposes the ethiopia inherent relationship, for Weber, between value-free analysis and value-driven moral action, a dichotomy that resurfaces in Weber's discussion of an ethics of commitment and an ethics of responsibility. To be a match for them inwardly is to cling to one's values even in the face of the inevitable polar night of icy darkness. 12 For truly, although politics is something done with the head, it is certainly not done with the head alone. Fre Resume Templates. 13 Values are linked to the heart -- to subjectivity -- as much as they are linked to the head.
Weber himself seems to adhere to his own values -- or at least he argues repeatedly for ethiopia essay, the veracity of one `cause' over monosodium another. Essay. Perhaps this is among the trends that have led many Weber scholars astray, especially since Weber feels that no cause can be `proved', simply by intellectual means, to be superior to any other. 14 Despite his own attachment to, for best, example, the ethiopia essay values of individual liberty, his philosophical stance did not provide a mechanism for validating democratic values in and of themselves. 15. How can Weber's arguments for his ultimate values be reconciled with the view that value-free analysis can be conducted only after a value or purpose has been established? Lassman and Speirs, in their introduction to thesis hukum Weber: Political Writings, provide the answer.
Although Weber believed that values could not be given any form of ethiopia essay, `ultimate' foundation, it was possible and indeed necessary 16 to argue for them because the tensions between competing values are essential in order to prevent cultural stagnation. 17 Even though Lassman and Speirs do not explain precisely how it is possible to put forth objective arguments supporting subjective values while maintaining a commitment to truth, they do allude to one solution: Weber's scholarly investigations and political essays have the glutamate research purpose of making clear, in an objective manner as possible, the realities and possibilities given in any particular situation. 18. 4 A Two-Tiered Approach to Value-Free Social Science. Having examined Weber's views of the role of perspective and values in social scientific analysis, the evidence, both from Weber's writings and from commentaries on them, must now be considered in support of the interpretation that Weber took a two-tiered approach to value-free social science. First, it must be shown that held Weber believed ultimate values could not be proved scientifically, a position alluded to in several preceding remarks.
Lassman and Speirs, writing in their introduction to ethiopia Weber: Political Writings, address the matter directly. Application York. Weber held the belief, they say, that there is no longer any possibility of an ethiopia, objective ranking of ultimate values or moral principles. Monosodium Glutamate Research Paper. 19. Weber's own writings support Lassman and essay Speirs' conclusion that Weber considered ultimate values and their subsequent political values to be subjectively determined. For instance, in Between Two Laws Weber writes that certain communities are able to provide the thesis hukum conditions for not only such bourgeois values as citizenship and true democracy, but also much more intimate and yet eternal values, including artistic ones. 20 The language that Weber uses to characterize these two types of essay, values leads to the interpretation that he held them to be a subjective matter. Regarding the first set of values, labeling them bourgeois brings to light their contingent nature: They are the product of a class, a strata. Regarding the glutamate paper second set, the labels intimate and ethiopia eternal clearly set them apart from monosodium glutamate any objective foundation. Ethiopia. An intimate value is by definition personal, an opinion. Further: It carries the connotation of emotion, of mystification. Likewise with eternal.
This element of mystification, of faith in what is ultimately unknown and unknowable, materializes in other pieces of evidence that help substantiate Weber's view that ultimate values cannot be objectively established. The nature of the cause the politician seeks to serve by fre resume, striving for and using power is a question of faith. 21 Yet here Weber refers to the politician, not the social scientist. But could the same theorem not be applied to the social scientist? Could social scientist not be substituted for politician and, say, facts for ethiopia, power? And then could the social scientist not be asked to use those facts objectively while maintaining a commitment to his values?
Answering these questions in the affirmative, which can be done only through an argument by aeronautical, extension, a frail but not hopeless step, leads to interpreting The Profession and Vocation of Politics as a metaphor for the actions of the social scientist, showing that the values he seeks to serve are also a question of faith. The argument by extension notwithstanding, there is other evidence that Weber held the essay social scientist's values to be a subjective matter. Portis, for instance, says Weber believed it impossible to justify ultimate values scientifically. He presumed they were derived from the metaphysical commitments that define one's general outlook. 22 Rogers Brubaker, in The Limits of templates, Rationality, also acknowledges that Weber's discussion of value orientations amplifies those of ethiopia essay, a long line of best buy resume application york, ethical relativists. Weber believed that value orientations are essentially subjective, and essay that conflict among them cannot be rationally resolved. Fre Resume. 23.
Furthermore, Weber believed that value orientations could not be eliminated from social scientific work. They necessarily determine the analyst's perspective. Portis writes that Weber, in essay, his Freiburg inaugural address, said political economy was a `political science,' in the sense that it must proceed from a value perspective. Aeronautical Research. 24 More crucially, Portis goes on to quote Weber as writing that `there is no objective scientific analysis of culture . or social phenomena independent of special and essay one-sided viewpoints -- expressly or tacitly, consciously or unconsciously -- they are selected, analyzed, and organized for expository purposes.' 25. 5 Ruling Out Objectivity Prior to Perspective. But how, given this assertion by Weber, can he be seen to advocate a value-free analysis once a perspective has been established? The first hint lies in the quotation itself. Weber does say that there is no objective analysis independent of special and 'one-sided' viewpoints, a remark that does not rule out objectivity, only york objectivity prior to a perspective. This interpretation of essay, Weber's position derives additional support from other comments Weber made regarding objectivity. Example: One of the templates deadly sins in the area of politics is, Weber says, a lack of objectivity.
26 The objectivity, however, can engage only after a value has been established; otherwise, this remark is logically inconsistent with Weber's statement that the ethiopia essay nature of the cause the politician seeks to serve by monosodium research paper, striving for and using power is a question of faith. The two statements, taken together, imply that once a political position -- a value or perspective -- has been established, the politician must hold to the ideal of objectivity. Furthermore, without resorting to the two-tiered interpretation of Weber's view of value-free social science, it would be difficult to reconcile Weber's comment that a lack of essay, objectivity is a sin with the comment that there is no objective analysis independent of special viewpoints. Lassman and Speirs supply another piece of evidence for the view that Weber believed a subjective end had to be established before objective analysis could proceed. They write: The `disenchantment' that Weber described did not stop with liberalism. The traditional philosophical foundations of all political ideologies and doctrines were threatened by monosodium glutamate, a relentless undermining of their own presuppositions. Ethiopia. This extract reveals that Weber, at least in Lassman and Speirs' view, was interested in papers, analyzing from an objective viewpoint the makeup of various political systems -- but it also shows that the objective analysis could only be carried out once the purpose of the system, i.e., the ultimate value upon which it is based, is identified and acknowledged.
Thus it seems, both by ethiopia, default and implication, that Weber believed the political analyst could adhere to the principle of objectivity once an templates, value or perspective had been laid out. In this regard, Weber departs from -- or rather builds upon -- the philosophy of social science laid out by Friedrich Nietzsche, whose thought influenced Weber. Ethiopia Essay. Nietzsche's perspectivism maintains that all interpretation is necessarily mediated by perspective, making analysis unavoidably laden with biases, presuppositions, values, and so forth. Thesis. Weber builds on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible -- but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. For the politician, the question of ethiopia essay, value is monosodium research paper a choice of a faith; but once it is made, it should be pursued by objective means. Ethiopia Essay. For the research social scientist, value necessarily determines perspective and influences the facts chosen for analysis, but once those decisions are made, the social scientist is ethiopia bound by aeronautical papers, the principle of objectivity. The work of Weber scholars supports this conclusion.
Brubaker, for instance, affirms the ethiopia two-tiered interpretation of Weber's view regarding objectivity: The selection of means to a given end can be assessed in terms of its objective rationality, since it is possible to discriminate objectively -- for Weber, scientifically -- between adequate and inadequate means. Punctuality Essay For Class 1. But the notion of objective rationality does not apply to wertrational action -- to action conceived as intrinsically rather than as instrumentally valuable, as an end in itself rather than as means to essay some further end. 27. Portis agrees, writing that Weber came to believe that empirical methods, in social science, could distinguish between true and false beliefs only essays school when researchers took a distinct orientation toward their own ultimate values. Ethiopia Essay. 28. 6 Establishing a Value Prior to Analysis. On another level, however, Portis also argues that Weber nevertheless maintained that political activity and social science are incompatible pursuits, and this is where Portis' interpretation of Weber's thought on objectivity goes afoul.
Weber, he says, denied that objectivity would be equated with impersonality or that it was possible for thought to be compartmentalized into normative and objective categories. 29. As a result, Portis maintains, Weber argued that a social scientist who engaged in political activity rendered inauthentic the test of his propositions against reality. Essays School. Thus, Weber's perspective, Portis contends, is that politics are autonomous from science both in principle and in practice. Portis is partly right. Yet he is ethiopia also partly wrong. Aeronautical Papers. He accurately portrays Weber's first-level view that denies the existence of either positive or natural law, affirming the fact-value dichotomy: The categories through which social phenomena are perceived must be radically subjective, derived from priorities that the investigator brings to work rather than universal laws discovered through systematic observation.
30 Portis, however, soon goes astray -- or just does not go far enough -- in ethiopia, characterizing Weber's view of the fact-value dichotomy: Because these categories are antecedent to social scientific analysis, social problems cannot be scientifically resolved. 31 True, Weber would agree, categories must be established prior to analysis. Essays On Nursing School. Once established, these categories also entail ends, and it is by working objectively toward those ends that allows the ethiopia social scientist to punctuality essay resolve a given social problem scientifically. Moreover, if one accepts Weber's view that objectivity can be applied to social and economic problems only after a distinct value orientation has been established, it follows that political action does not corrupt a social scientist's objectivity as long as the ethiopia essay scientist's perspective or values are explicitly acknowledged. The crucial element that Portis overlooks is that by choosing categories, by establishing a value prior to analysis, as the monosodium social scientist must, he is necessarily making decisions that are inherently political in nature. Given this, the converse of Portis' conclusion in essay, fact holds: That a social scientist cannot engage in punctuality essay 1, objective analysis without taking overt political action, because the choice of values is itself a political act. From this it follows that science and politics are, for Weber, not mutually exclusive; rather, they are mutually inclusive. The social scientist cannot proceed with objective analysis until after his values or perspective have been established, an act which is political, whether conscious or not, whether announced to others or not. Thus, despite Portis' ideal vision of Weber's thought to the contrary, social science and political activity are compatible: The social scientist, in conducting research and analyzing facts, is ethiopia necessarily influenced by his political position, at for class 1, least to the extent determined by his ultimate values.
Weber knew this, and exhorted his fellow social scientists to clarify both for themselves and for ethiopia, others the values driving their investigations. Such a clarification is the prerequisite to objective analysis of facts with a particular purpose or value in mind. Furthermore, again despite Portis' claims to essays the contrary, part of the power and ethiopia essay allure of Weber lies in the dual legacy that he handed down: He succeeded, at least in the totality of his work, in being overtly political while remaining true to his integrity as a social scientist. At least one work by Weber -- his short essay titled The President of the Reich -- directly bears this out. And even if, as Portis argues, Weber did become psychologically tormented by the tension he felt between his need to voice his political views and essay 1 his need to feel integrity as a social scientist, what allowed him, in the end, to succeed in being both political and ethiopia essay scientific was his two-tiered approach to 1 value-free social science. Weber sees the damage inherent in failing to openly acknowledge one's values, and the even greater danger in falling prey to the delusion that the analyst can evaluate social facts completely independent of own values. Weber sums up this position in ethiopia essay, The Nation State and Economic Policy: We in essays school, particular succumb readily to ethiopia essay a special kind of fre resume templates, illusion, namely that we are able to refrain entirely from making conscious value judgements of our own. Ethiopia. 32 In other words, when the analyst fails to clarify and monosodium glutamate consciously acknowledge his values, it is unlikely that he can conduct the subsequent analysis impartially. The acknowledgement of a value orientation is the prerequisite to objective evaluation. The following books, cited in the essay above, can be bought from Amazon.Com by clicking on ethiopia essay the title.
Criticism.Com, an Amazon associate bookstore, derives a small fee on the purchase of every book sold through one of its links to research Amazon. Thank you for supporting Criticism.Com. 1 Ralf Dahrendorf, Max Weber and Modern Social Science, Ch. 37, [Max Weber and ethiopia his Contemporaries], eds. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Jurgen Osterhammel (London: The German Historical Institute/Allen Unwin, 1987), p. 577. 2 Edward Bryan Portis, [Max Weber and Political Commitment: Science, Politics, and Personality] (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), p. 75. 3 Peter Lassman and Ronald Speirs, Introduction, [Weber: Political Writings] (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. xi. 4 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and Economic Policy, p. 1. 6 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. Essays. 331. 7 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and ethiopia Economic Policy, p. 15. 11 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 367.
14 Weber: Political Writings, Introduction by research papers, Lassman and Speirs, p. xxiii. 15 Anthony Giddens, Weber and Durkheim: Coincidence and Divergence, Max Weber and his Contemporaries, eds. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Jurgen Osterhammel (London: The German Historical Institute/Allen Unwin, 1987), p. 188. 16 Weber: Political Writings, Introduction by ethiopia essay, Lassman and Speirs, p. Punctuality 1. xxiv. 20 Weber: Political Writings, Between Two Laws, p. 76. 21 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 355. 22 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. 15. 23 Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality: An Essay on the Social and Moral Thought of Max Weber (London: George Allen Unwin, 1984), pp. 5 and 6.
24 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. 71. 25 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. 72, quoting Weber from The Methodology of Social Sciences, trans. Ethiopia. Edward A. Shils and punctuality 1 Henry A. Essay. Finch (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1949), p. 72. 26 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 354. 27 Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality , p. Monosodium Research. 54.
28 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment , p. 71. 32 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and Economic Policy, p. 19.
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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and essay, contrast that keep the story moving. Papers? A cast of characters all working together to ethiopia essay get your point across. Instead of proposal hukum proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. Essay? For those times when the glutamate story is ethiopia essay especially important and proposal thesis hukum, meaningful, or for ethiopia, when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell.
I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. Proposal Thesis Hukum? A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and essay, want to know about the glitz and glamour of essays it all. It’s the ethiopia perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on research, about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is ethiopia essay a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only aeronautical research papers images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the essay options are limitless.
In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Hukum? Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for ethiopia essay, a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to on nursing my clients. Ethiopia Essay? I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to proposal thesis offer them a different spin on essay, the portrait sessions I was doing for them.
I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for essay for class 1, this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. Essay? We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the proposal thesis session and essay, edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. Aeronautical Research? She and ethiopia, I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . Monosodium Research? We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for ethiopia, them. Beyond my beautiful children, the essays fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for ethiopia essay, “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments.
It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in monosodium glutamate viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the ethiopia biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group.
Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Punctuality? Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the ethiopia essay first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of best application york dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to ethiopia essay temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known.
I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is punctuality 1 tough. Ethiopia Essay? It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in glutamate volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the ethiopia images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”.
Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the essay photographic essay needs over ethiopia shooting. Glutamate Research Paper? Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the ethiopia more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to punctuality 1 work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it.
Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of ethiopia digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an monosodium, essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned.
4) Ask for help with image selection. Ethiopia Essay? I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is essays so helpful to have someone else help. Ethiopia Essay? Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Punctuality Essay For Class? Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the ethiopia power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and templates, has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to essay be selected to on nursing school be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on.
The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in ethiopia essay the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and on nursing, experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on ethiopia essay, the power of the image and not my personal feelings. Fre Resume Templates? In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the ethiopia essay final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and essays on nursing school, looking at essay, photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the on nursing mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is ethiopia incredibly important to best application you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for essay, your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. Fre Resume? People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin.
5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Ethiopia? Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the research photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the ethiopia essay time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour.
While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and monosodium glutamate research, longterm benefit. Ethiopia? Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is punctuality for class 1 your experience?
Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for ethiopia essay, whatever reason, kind of like each other. Best Buy Resume? Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook.
Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in ethiopia tip #4. I get caught up in research paper my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. Ethiopia Essay? http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an idea for fre resume, a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Ethiopia? Thank you. Glutamate? Wonderful article. I liked the picture for ethiopia essay, #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to punctuality show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well.
One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to ethiopia essay the material. Punctuality For Class? In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro ethiopia essay, photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share.
I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of thesis hukum students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to ethiopia help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. Fre Resume Templates? However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of ethiopia people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much.
This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Punctuality For Class? Thank you again for this great article. Ethiopia Essay? Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. Punctuality Essay For Class? It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the ethiopia essay focus similar. the shift in focus from punctuality 1, 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on the corner and ethiopia, then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the proposal hukum eye follows the path of the ethiopia pipe and so tightly focused.
It seems to be erratic because you have the aeronautical research papers wonderful still life of dried plants against ethiopia nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the dried plants and wall work, the fre resume templates drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. Ethiopia? I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to essays on nursing work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to essay construct such a vehicle to best display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the ethiopia eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. Research? My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and essay, the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to string them together.
Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and for class, through. Essay? Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips.
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cold comfort essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Essay. Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content. It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance.
For a writer in the drafting stages, the essays on nursing school, thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information. Ethiopia Essay. For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and school, readers of academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the essay, content of the school, section; and you, as the reader, will be able to ethiopia, form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an essay enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in ethiopia subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and aeronautical research, a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject.
In the sentence Lee and ethiopia essay, Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and were different kinds of generals is the predicate. What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of on nursing school, a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper. The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the ethiopia essay, two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and fre resume templates, the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the subject of this sentence, democracy, and ethiopia, the assertion of its predicate, is the fre resume templates, best system of government. Ethiopia Essay. The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length. The predicate of proposal, our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of ethiopia, detail and sophistication expected of thesis hukum, college students.
Limiting the Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by ethiopia essay, limiting your subject and your claims about proposal thesis it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over ethiopia essay students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in on nursing school a strong position to begin writing a paper. Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in ethiopia essay writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of their papers. Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind.
Once you choose and devote time to a major field of study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to research paper, do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an ethiopia area of expertise, that you are in papers your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs. Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to ethiopia essay, be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to proposal, discover what you want to say during the process of writing. Even if you know your material well, the ethiopia, best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it.
Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. Research Papers. 1 If the match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the essay, focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the aeronautical research, thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the match between the ethiopia essay, content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Paper. Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to think of ethiopia essay, thesis statements.
It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs. He would need to spend several weeks, at best buy resume york, least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is fair to say that you will need to ethiopia essay, spend several hours in the library before you are in glutamate research a position to ethiopia essay, choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of essay 1, discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an essay economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to essays on nursing school, discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for ethiopia essay, yourself as much as for your professor. Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.
Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and punctuality essay, recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of your research is to essay, limit this subject to a manageable scope. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways. First, a general article like an proposal thesis hukum encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by ethiopia essay, presenting the aeronautical papers, subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting). Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and essay, see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Glutamate Research. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the ethiopia essay, subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and thesis hukum, which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to ethiopia, review numerous particular rights.
So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to paper, mind: Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to education. Any one of these aspects could provide the essay, focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in monosodium research paper its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. Ethiopia Essay. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about essay 1 it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of essay, AIDS patients in the workplace.
The process of narrowing an essay 1 initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories. Essay. Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate. Fre Resume Templates. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion.
Once you have identified the ethiopia, subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it. If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and on nursing school, the thinking of your sources. If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and ethiopia, then listing everything you know and essay, feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to ethiopia essay, fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the research paper, same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity.
During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The most sensible plan for essay, protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to best buy resume application york, the thesis and essay, make adjustments as necessary for essay for class 1, unity. The working thesis is an ethiopia essay excellent tool for planning broad sections of the templates, paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from essay one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for monosodium glutamate research, protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of essay, Anthony Jones.
Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the thesis hukum, working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the ethiopia essay, essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of research papers, AIDS patients in ethiopia the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the on nursing school, contours of the paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to essay, find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist. The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the aeronautical research papers, one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.
Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an ethiopia opinion. We infer from the use of the fre resume templates, word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Ethiopia. Note the contrast between this second thesis and glutamate research paper, the first one, where the ethiopia, writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Best Application York. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the ethiopia, general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. Monosodium Research Paper. It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading. The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for ethiopia, information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy).
The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is essay for class, appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the essay, recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?). The strongly argumentative thesis is on nursing, used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and ethiopia, make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against fre resume templates, logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and essay, you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers. Research Papers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. Ethiopia. As a writer, you will need to essay for class 1, discuss all the elements implied by essay, your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Essays School. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the essay, assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write.
Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the paper that follows. Monosodium Glutamate. Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Essay. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the exact language used by templates, someone in speech or in essay writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. Thesis Hukum. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the ethiopia essay, original source. Any paper in which you draw upon fre resume templates sources will rely heavily on ethiopia, quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for punctuality for class, the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and essay, your own conclusions.
It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to research, follow the essay, development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the templates, right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations.
Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to essay, make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the monosodium glutamate research, celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to ethiopia, be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to proposal thesis hukum, leaving his wife so soon after their wedding?
You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to ethiopia essay, me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for aeronautical papers, you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke!
Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to ethiopia, Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters. You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and monosodium glutamate research, that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and ethiopia essay, paraphrase are when compared with the for class, original!
Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from ethiopia essay Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? . . Fre Resume. . Ethiopia Essay. What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they burn.my poor heart! The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to best buy resume application, enliven your paper. A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the ethiopia essay, words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Papers. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.
Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to ethiopia essay, the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and application, Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy. Essay. Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of application, 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in ethiopia that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold.
Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and best buy resume, cannot walk if the temperature is ethiopia, below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by essay 1, constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in ethiopia essay the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of punctuality for class, bee, are able to live through the winter by clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.
But when clustering together in a dense ball, the ethiopia, bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to essay for class 1, the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the essay, summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of york, her description of essay, wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company.
Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to thesis, perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is essay, hard work and requires great skill and training. It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and fre resume, one that will task the essay, reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.
By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the punctuality essay for class 1, level of ethiopia, your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to essays on nursing school, a physicist and an astronaut:
A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the ethiopia, Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the monosodium research, manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to ethiopia essay, be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it's about essay 1 $500 million a year.
Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an essay Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of best buy resume york, space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of essay, his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to rename the on nursing, nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in ethiopia the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase:
James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the paper, Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to essay, identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into practice.
Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for school, the colleges and ethiopia, universities themselves. Proposal Thesis Hukum. They want to essay, be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only buy resume, regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to ethiopia essay, relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at essays on nursing, least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Essay. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of thesis, words that will enliven your discussion.
You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the essay, fact that a college should not be interested in aeronautical research papers a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and ethiopia essay, fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in best york a fullback who is essay, a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.
Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the templates, fact that a college should not be interested in ethiopia essay a fullback who is a half-wit. But this kind of thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.
Another alternative is to proposal thesis hukum, introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in ethiopia essay a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in proposal thesis the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the standard states, writes, says, and so on. Essay. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to fre resume, quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the essay, paragraph in Walden from proposal hukum which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
It requires a training such as the essay, athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and aeronautical, training. It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.
Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from essay it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an aeronautical ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of ethiopia, deletion. The rationale for using an monosodium glutamate research paper ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the essay, customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of templates, a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of essay, a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an proposal thesis ellipsis.
Be sure, however, that the essay, syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau. Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the research, bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella.
This book's text is coy and ethiopia essay, condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and essay 1, birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and essay, useless . Punctuality For Class. She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. Ethiopia. She does not hear them because she is essay for class, off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to ethiopia, be rescued by - guess who - the application, mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to.
You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the ethiopia, pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and buy resume york, simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets.
Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in ethiopia interviews might say something like the best application, following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in ethiopia an article, he or she needs to identify the monosodium glutamate paper, pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to ethiopia, the station house for three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Proposal. Read the essay, following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's Toward an for class 1 Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for ethiopia essay, the computer; it imitates life like an essay 1 electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.
Finally, the ethiopia essay, line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. Essay For Class 1. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of ethiopia, life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the papers, drives and emotions of living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly.
Finally, Dr. Ethiopia Essay. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out essay more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the ethiopia essay, computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. Hukum. 7. If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear.
Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the ethiopia essay, author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on glutamate research, citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of ethiopia, paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Fre Resume. Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Ethiopia Essay. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem. What's the punctuality essay, best way to essay, approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader?
Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the monosodium research paper, introduction, they start by essay, writing the glutamate research, body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to ethiopia essay, write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at templates, first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on ethiopia, paper and read it over punctuality for class 1 once or twice that a natural way of essay, introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is buy resume application, no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is essay, behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by thesis hukum, skipping the ethiopia essay, introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.
If this is the case, then go ahead and research papers, write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Ethiopia Essay. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay. The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context.
We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Best Buy Resume York. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is ethiopia essay, one of the hukum, glories of ethiopia essay, civilization. School. To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in ethiopia essay the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . . Glutamate Research Paper. . the dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the essay, time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. Fre Resume Templates. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of essay, social change in our time: The world of today . . Monosodium Research. . is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from ethiopia essay Julius Caesar's (13).
As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Later in essays on nursing the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to essay, the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background. Consider the following introduction to an an thesis essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on ethiopia essay, the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and templates, religious groups to ethiopia essay, ban depictions of immorality from the screen. Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and research papers, Distributors of ethiopia, America established the Production Code.
At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the papers, MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the ethiopia, Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the aeronautical papers, Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the essay, Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in paper American theatrical films. By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. Ethiopia. In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to fre resume, keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence.
Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the essay, old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to aeronautical, understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the ethiopia, following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in monosodium glutamate research paper the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to essay, society is aeronautical research papers, hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule.
On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of essay, this essay. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to fre resume templates, secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the ethiopia essay, subject of her essay. From General to the Specific. Another way of research, providing a transition from the reader's world to essay, the less familiar world of the essay is to work from essays school a general subject to a specific one.
The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and ethiopia, leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to buy resume, do evil, such is not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to essay, do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Research. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of ethiopia, unscrupulous authority. Punctuality Essay For Class. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by ethiopia, Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and thesis hukum, children.
Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration. Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Ethiopia Essay. Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the on nursing school, surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of ethiopia, such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Monosodium Glutamate. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and essay, farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable. The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war.
The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the essay 1, most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of ethiopia, books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by fre resume, posing a question or a series of questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited?
Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the essay, sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned?
Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing.
The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the authors of papers, a cover story of the subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the essay, industrial revolution was to the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to fre resume templates, direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of computers for ethiopia, the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of application, our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Ethiopia Essay. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of essays, beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and ethiopia essay, take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is application, a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in ethiopia essay the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to on nursing, writing.
Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of ethiopia essay, personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the essays, correct length of an ethiopia introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one. You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. Research. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an essay introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of your reader. On Nursing. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on ethiopia, your thesis.
Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an punctuality for class expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on ethiopia, your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the essay 1, paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. Ethiopia Essay. It is the punctuality essay, last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work.
Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over ethiopia essay your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance. One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world.
Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on proposal, contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of ethiopia essay, corn: . . Templates. . Thus, the essay, hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt.
From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to punctuality essay 1, the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent of the essay, land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the proposal thesis, best varieties. Essay. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Monosodium Research. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. Essay. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. 10.
The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and essays on nursing school, from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn. Ethiopia Essay. The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in fre resume an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on ethiopia essay, the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement.
What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for essays on nursing school, themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to ethiopia, physical causes. But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the punctuality essay 1, patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the ethiopia, skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to aeronautical, deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of essay, researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.
. . Templates. . The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of essay, illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population. It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in on nursing school terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and ethiopia essay, should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and best, proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. Ethiopia Essay. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. Essays. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and essay, minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution.
With the support of thesis, concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and ethiopia, hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work. 11. In this conclusion, the research papers, author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is essay, not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of research papers, illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of essay, college athletes. Monosodium Research Paper. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in ethiopia a conclusion is to shed light on fre resume templates, your subject. The anecdote is essay, more direct than an allusion.
With an york allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . Essay. . .); with the york, anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for essay, themselves the significance of research papers, a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. In the ethiopia essay, article, the papers, author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the essay, Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar.
An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in best buy resume york cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to a procession passing in the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Essay. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?
12. The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to aeronautical papers, make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for ethiopia essay, (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of best buy resume york, a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to ethiopia, theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is essays school, its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of ethiopia essay, sources says about you. Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the fre resume templates, final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why?
One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the ethiopia, choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to fre resume templates, use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science. And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of essay, information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. Monosodium Glutamate Paper. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced.
In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the ethiopia essay, same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in proposal thesis hukum the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to ethiopia, be made in for class the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in ethiopia which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of aeronautical research, around 1900, says Maureen Henderson.
It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking. Essay. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. Aeronautical Research. We're not here to convince the public to take anything, she says. Ethiopia Essay. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can.
The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. Essay. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong. Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for essay, closing them. Opening and research paper, closing questions function in different ways, however. Ethiopia Essay. The introductory question promises to glutamate research paper, be addressed in the paper that follows.
But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on ethiopia, the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the papers, very gains we thought we had already won in essay the first stage of the application york, women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of essay, living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and political business of the second stage.
15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in fre resume templates the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. This tactic also places the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the ethiopia, right to life? is buy resume, probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and essay, conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the research paper, unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by ethiopia essay, Neil Howe and William Strauss.
In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of application york, various ages, including the Gl Generation (born between 1901 and ethiopia, 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the on nursing, 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the ethiopia essay, world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and glutamate paper, Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the ethiopia, apparently unbridgeable gaps of best buy resume, understanding between parents and ethiopia, children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in proposal the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to paper only essay, after it has been fully formed.
Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back] Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and on nursing, Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . Essay. December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. Research. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.
21-29. [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Brown from pp. Ethiopia Essay. 77-78 in aeronautical Science 80-85, November 1984. Ethiopia. Copyright by the AAAS. [back]
From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. [back] From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980.
Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by essay, the American Association for the Advancement of essay, Science. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back]
Robert E. Research Papers. Mueller and Eric T. Essay. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]