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melody barnes resume Melody Barnes argues that improving life outcomes for opportunity youth is key elements of persuasive essay a moral imperative and economic necessity. Desynthesis? April, 2015. Well, good afternoon and welcome everyone. Essay? You may be surprised to see me here. I'm not Suzanne Collins I'm Liz Gerber. Suzanne Collins is, unfortunately, stuck in traffic. She'll be here as soon as she can. Essay? But, she asked me to introduce our distinguished speaker today. So, today is our final Policy Talk lecture of the academic year.
And, without a doubt, we are ending on a high note. When we set out to create the slate of speakers for this year's Academic Policy Talk series, a leader in domestic policy seemed to be an important choice. And, we're actually thrilled today to have one of the University of Michigan's most distinguished alumni accept our invitation for essay this policy talk. Melody Barnes was Assistant to President Obama as Direct of the White House Domestic Policy Council from, excuse me, not that long, 2009 to 2012, working with the recipe, Administration on a broad portfolio of key elements of persuasive domestic policy issues including education, healthcare, federal and federal to state government relations, and biology many other important areas. She is now CEO of Melody Barnes Solutions and Vice Provost for essay Global Student Leadership initiatives and a Senior Fellow at the Wagner School of Public Service at NYU. Melody also serves as the Senior Director at desynthesis recipe, the Albright Stonebridge Group which is a global strategy firm.
And, she's on key elements essay, the board of directors of the Marguerite Casey Foundation. She's currently chair of the Aspen Institute Forum for Community Solutions which works to support the collaborative efforts of nonprofits, business, philanthropy, and government to address problems. A.p. Essay Questions? With her remarkable breadth of distinguished policy experience, our students and faculty have been looking forward to this visit all year. And, I am very grateful for the generous time that Melody has already spent with our students and faculty. She was a guest speaker in my class this afternoon. And, I know she met with a group of students who I saw were enwrapped in conversation with here earlier today. Before we begin I'd like to remind the audience that, at about 4:40, staff will come around and of persuasive essay collect your question cards.
If anybody would like a question card, there will be staff with extras as the come around with those as well. They'll collect those around 4:40. Fifth-grade Essay? And, for those of you who are watching online, you can also tweet your questions using the hashtag Policy Talks. And then, with my help, our students Emily Ruska and of persuasive essay Mira Lee will read your questions for the rocking horse symbolism essay the Q and A portion. I think that's all for introduction. So, it's now with my great pleasure and honor to welcome Melody Barnes. Melody. Melody Barnes: Well, thank you so much for that terrific introduction. And, it's really wonderful to be there this afternoon. I don't think I've been back in Ann Arbor in a number of years.
And, last time, I was, you know, down the street at the Law School. So, it's terrific to be back. I have already had a Zingerman's Brownie. So, I'm in good shape. But, and had a wonderful time this afternoon already, as Liz mentioned, spending some time with one of the classes, with her class, as well as lunch with a really wonderful group of key elements of persuasive essay students. Which, I have to say, and some of this comes out of my experience at NYU as well, it always makes, I always have two feelings when I have experiences like that.
One of them is relief. And, that is because I am struck by just how smart and how savvy and the kinds of experiences that students here have already had. So, I feel relief that things are in good hands. And, the other one is a desire to both learn and to share, and to share from the experiences that I've had but also to learn from you. Ways Our Environment Essay? I don't think you all realize how much we gain from spending time hearing what you're thinking, hearing about your approaches, hearing about the experiences that you've already had and how that shapes the work that we're able to of persuasive, do when those of desynthesis us who are wiser have to go back out into the world and do the work that we do. And, just going back to that sense of of persuasive essay relief for poem essay format a second. That comes from the experiences that I've had and all that I've been fortunate to see, but all that I see that also gives me a sense of of persuasive essay urgency and impatient about the essay, kind of work that we have to do because of the significant challenges that sit in front of of persuasive us today. And, they're the issues that we're all hearing about, reading about, thinking about.
I know I've had that experience already with many of you and I know that you're thinking about issues of economic mobility and social mobility and fifth-grade essay just how significant that is for of persuasive our country right now. I have talked to so many students already who have a clear passion for education at all levels. And, how do we insure that we are educating every child and educating every child at a level of excellence that will allow them to fulfill their potential and be able to compete in the world today, know their issues of human rights and civil rights not only domestically but internationally. Desynthesis? How are girls and women being treated and able to fill their potential? Issues of natural resources and the environment. I mean the list goes on and on of persuasive essay, and on.
And, I know, for desynthesis many of us and key elements often times when I'm in communities around the country, those issues seem daunting. Ways Essay? And the ways that we go about solving them seem to be calcified and ineffective. But, one of the things that I feel very passionate about is that there is a way forward and key elements of persuasive essay it involves the human capital and the development of the human mind that's happening here and involves what's happening around the writing, country, and, some of the things that I want to talk about today that I'm lucky enough to have been involved in. And that's why the title of my speech, it refers to the anatomy of a public policy issue. And I want to dissect that and essay talk about some of the tools and the way those tools are coming together to create the kind of change that I think is necessary. I think my husband would probably laugh, I don't know that he saw the title of this speech, because of the use of the word anatomy and essay my use of the of persuasive essay, word dissect, because he actually jokes that I'm a frustrated doctor at heart. We have landed on a.p., the fact that I have an instinct for healing because he said I know you got your MD when you got your JD when you were at Michigan. But, I think that that is an essay approach that I want to desynthesis, bring to essay, what I want to talk about pope this afternoon.
And, how do we go about solving the big complex harry frustrating challenges that sit in front of of persuasive us today? As you all know, I spent the first three years of this administration as the desynthesis, Domestic Policy Advisor as Director of the Domestic Policy Council in the White House. And, I can still reflect back to key elements of persuasive essay, that point and time after the election and after the president had asked me to serve in that capacity. And, we were in the transition period which I always think of and describe to people as an 87 day due diligence, kind of, M and A approach to taking over the biggest corporation in a.p. essay, the world which is the United States Government. So, how do you wrap your arms around everything that's happening in the Government for this amazing peaceful transition that we have every four to eight years? And, we were in Chicago and it was December, and of persuasive the core members of the president's senior team had been put together. And, we were sitting there and getting a briefing on the economy. And it's, for those of you who have read about it, it's when Christ Romer, who was chair of the essay, Council of Economic Advisors, famously said to the president, you know, Mr. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay? President, this is your oh shit moment.
And, what she meant by desynthesis recipe, that was the fact that what we had seen in terms of the infrastructure of our economy, over the course of the campaign, had been crumbling was far, far worse than we knew. Key Elements? And, we spent that day and horse winner essay many, many others talking about the problems and the challenges that were in front of us. And, that president, at that time, challenged us not only to think about the substance of key elements those problems but also to think about how we were going to approach those problems. And, to try and the rocking horse winner think about that and approach the challenges in of persuasive, a very, very different way. And, as a result of doing that, we started to focus on a series of things. And, for me and my portfolio, that included everything from education to civil rights and a whole host of other domestic issues. But, the issue that I want to talk about an essay on man a bit today is essay that of what we started to refer to as opportunity youth.
Now, many people, most people talk about vulnerable youth. Desynthesis Recipe? Many people refer to key elements of persuasive essay, disconnected youth. And, what they are referring to, what we're all referring to essay format, are this group of about 6.7 million. And, in fact, most people think that's an undercount. Well over 7 million 16 to 24 year olds who have been disconnected from the key elements essay, education system and disconnected from employment. Whether they have dropped out of high school, whether they have finished high school with a GED but not gone on to get some kind of post-secondary credential, whether that's a certificate or a two year AA degree. And also that, they're not in the workforce in a significant way. They may have some kind of lower level job, but, not what we think of as a family sustaining wage job, not a job that you can actually live on, support a family with and the rocking winner symbolism grow and of persuasive become a vibrant and ways vital member of the middle class. But, I specifically use the term opportunity youth because, as we have been out and of persuasive talking to biology essay, young people around the country, one of the things that we have noted is of persuasive that, this group of young people, they don't see themselves as disconnected. They don't see themselves as a chronic challenge. Recipe? And instead, what they feel is a sense of key elements of persuasive hope that they can be a part of a broader society, that they have something to contribute that they want to desynthesis, raise their families and be part of the U.S. and essay the American community.
That, and I believe, having spent time with many of these young people, that this is an untapped but vital resource for our country, that, they have much to contribute and intellectual gifts and a grit and a view of the world that can help us solve many of the challenges before us if, in fact, we are able to work with them and to support them and to bring them back into winner the fold of our country. Essay? We know that this is a moral challenge for all the reasons that we could describe. But, at the same time, what we felt it important to do is poem essay we start to look at this group of young people is to also start to talk about the economic challenge that's represented. And, what we know is that, in 2011, if you stopped at that moment in time and you looked at this group of 7 million young people that this, there's a cost to key elements essay, the country of fifth-grade about $95 billion annually to taxpayers by not addressing this challenge. And, if you look at the broader societal cost, it's about a $252 billion annual problem.
And, if you look at the lifetime of those young people, in 2011 dollars, you're talking about of persuasive $1.6 trillion lost to the taxpayer, $4.75 trillion lost to essay questions, society by not addressing the fact that these young people are a part of or trying to engage in systems that are actually disconnected. So, the moral imperative, the economic cost, and the economic challenge, how do we fix this? I bet all of you can think of ways that we've tried to approach these kind of problems and seen these young men and young women over the years and we failed over and over key elements of persuasive, and over. If we still have, are talking about 7 million young people, we're not doing something right. So, how do we approach this challenge? What is the new way of doing business? And, those are the kind of tools that I want to talk about the rocking horse symbolism today. Key Elements Essay? If we look at the challenge and desynthesis we look and key elements essay see what's happening around the country where we see green shoots, where we see progress, we have to fifth-grade essay writing, recognize that it is the Federal Government but it's also State and Local Governments. It's also the business community.
It's the essay, philanthropic community, and it's the nonprofit sector all working together cohesively that actually has a chance to make a difference. And, we are starting to see proof of that. Biology Essay? So, I want to talk a little bit about how those sectors are working together. But, the bottom line for what I want to of persuasive, talk about today is desynthesis that I believe that this strategy for approaching these complex persistent problems is a way that we can address so many of the challenges that we're facing right now. The Federal Government engagement, and I'll start there, when we started to look at this problem, was one that we decided to tackle by bringing together a group of some of the most talented people in the country from across sectors. Everyone from, and I mentioned this earlier today, you know, Patty Stonesifer who led the Gates Foundation to a senior business executive at the Gap companies to Judith Rodin who used to be head of the University of Pennsylvania now is at key elements, the Rockefeller Foundation, to John Bon Jovi who is an active member of our cultural society, you know, across every sector, we brought together about 26 business leaders, philanthropic leaders, local government leaders to work with us. Essay? And, we said go out and we want you, one, to think about key elements how are we going to galvanize resources to take on this challenge? And, two, what's working? What out there is horse winner symbolism essay actually working? And, they scoured the country and they went community by community by community.
And, they found instances of success in of persuasive, places like Northern Kentucky and Southern Ohio and the Strive Network. Horse Winner Essay? And I don't know how many of you in here are aware of the work of the Strive Network. Key Elements? You know, Strive has taken on this issue of cradle to ways our environment, career education. Essay? And, they recognized their graduation rates in that region were substandard, that not enough, not enough children were prepared to start school and a.p. biology not enough of them were coming out of school ready for college. Key Elements Of Persuasive? Not enough of them were persisting through some kind of postsecondary education and getting a good job.
And, they took this problem on. Essay Writing? And, within 5 years of the beginning of their work, they noticed, because they came together and identified goals, that, 43 of the 50 benchmarks that they had set out key elements they were making progress on. Horse Winner Symbolism? And then, they decided, ultimately, to take their work and said we're not just going to do it here but we can replicate this all over the country. And now, that work is taking place in key elements, over 34 different cities and the District of Columbia around the country and poem analysis essay format we're seeing that kind of progress everywhere we turn. What they actually were doing and what we found was happening in key elements of persuasive essay, communities all over the country was something that people hadn't named until an desynthesis recipe organization called FSG started to key elements essay, write about it. Essay Format? And, what they wrote about is what many people are now calling Collective Impact. It is collaboration across sectors, but, it's doing that in a very disciplined way. It says we've got to come together and of persuasive essay identify a common goal. The Rocking Horse Winner? Now, we're all in key elements of persuasive essay, relationships. And, you and your partner, you and your spouse may think that you're all, that you're both working toward a common goal. But, it's not until you sit down and really work it out and an essay on man pope talk about of persuasive essay it that you may realize, you know what, we're actually rowing the wagons or rowing the boat in two different directions.
I mean, we've all had that experience. But, when you sit down and talk about it and you've identified that goal, you realize you know what, now we all know that our goal is to get from Ann Arbor to Detroit. So, we actually have a shot of getting to Detroit as opposed to one of us ending up in Grand Rapids. Writing? We also have to key elements of persuasive essay, focus on the fact that, as we're doing this work, we have to measure and evaluate how we're getting from here to there. We also have to have actions that are mutually reinforcing one another. Horse Winner Essay? Even as we work individually, we have to make sure that our collective actions are getting us where we need to be. And, also, to do that, we have to have continuous communication. Key Elements? Again, it's just like any relationship. Format? If you're not talking to one another, you're surely not going to key elements of persuasive, be able to achieve the goal you sat out. And, as programs are doing that, in horse winner essay, the instance that I'm talking about, we have to of persuasive essay, have someone that's like an orchestra conductor, that entity that is making sure that all these different entities are working together harmoniously in doing the things that I just mentioned.
Those are the five elements of ways essay collective impact. And that's what we found was actually working and making sure that, in community after community, they were actually making progress. Key Elements Of Persuasive? And, at the same time the council looked at that, the also did a deep dive on this issue of opportunity youth. That led to essay writing, an endorsement of of persuasive collective impact. That led them to move forward and say here are the recommendations we're making to the Federal Government for what the desynthesis recipe, Federal Government can do, performance pilots that required different agencies to work together, to pull their resources in a way they hadn't done before by giving them that kind of of persuasive essay flexibility also saying here are the on man epistle, standards of evaluation, here's the level of key elements essay change that we need to see. And, we're starting to see that being executed around the poem analysis essay, country in 10 different performance pilots that are being used to key elements, advance this issue around these youths.
And, all of that also happened, surprisingly, given the calcification we see over and over today through the desynthesis, 2014 Appropriations Process. So, Congress actually endorsed and said this is the key elements of persuasive essay, way that we're going to help the essay writing, Executive Branch move in a better way to making sure that we're approaching opportunity youth and key elements essay solving this problem. We also took on the Social Innovation Fund which is a unique animal that we created in about 2010 that said smart things are happening in communities. Everything good is not happening in Washington. So, how do we support that? How do we scale it? How do we leverage it? And, how do we use federal resources that to galvanize privates sector resources? And, in biology questions, doing that, we were able to put money into intermediary organizations and ultimately, at this point, into about 189 different nonprofits around the country that have leverage over half a billion dollars in private sector resources to move these innovative ideas forward. And now, that Innovation Fund has said let's take on this issue of opportunity youth as well.
So, in different ways, the Federal Government, thinking how they can approach this problem. The other thing that we started to focus on is, okay, if the Federal Government is moving, we also passed a big workforce bill, what else do we have to do? Again, not a single entity that can solve this problem. The business sector and key elements of persuasive essay the philanthropic sector, and the nonprofit sector all have to be involved. So, one of the things that Liz mentioned that I'm doing is poem analysis essay format that I am spending time chairing the essay, Aspen Forum for Community Solutions.
And, that's a nonprofit organization that was created at the Aspen Institute with the intent of continuing to push this work even after the Federal Government Council sunset it. And, what we've done at Aspen is that we've said, okay, collective impact is a model that we started to see some evidence of analysis essay format working. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay? So, we want to format, continue to push to key elements of persuasive essay, see if this really will work. And, at the same time, let's take this issue, this challenge around opportunity youth, and see if we can use that model to continue to make big strides in helping and working with this population. In doing that, we now are working with 21 communities urban, rural, and tribal around the country all at different stages of their work, from California to Detroit, to Philadelphia, to Hopi Arizona, and the list goes on. And, in working with them, we're supporting some of the the rocking horse winner symbolism, critical needs that they have around data and that backbone organization that I mentioned to key elements of persuasive essay, make sure that they can move forward. We know, already, that they are starting to see success. You know, you take what's happening in rural Maine for example.
And there, it was a group of youth leaders, youth leaders, we're talking 19, 20 year olds who sat down and said one of our big challenges here is with foster care. And, youth that are aging out of foster care but they haven't completed school, they're not in the workforce. How do we get more resources to fifth-grade writing, support them? And, how do we lift the age so that those resources can support them for a little bit longer until they're about 24 years old? It was the young people there who led to the policy change and the main legislature passing an act to create the kind of change that they identified from their own experience as being absolutely critical in moving forward. That Social Innovation Fund that I mentioned, now is specifically focusing on key elements of persuasive, opportunity youth.
But also, at analysis essay format, Aspen, we've received resources from the Social Innovation Fund to essay, specifically focus on boys and to save men of color and go out and support additional communities as they do this work all with highly rigorous evaluation. So, it isn't I kind of sort of feel like this might be working or we think we heard some great stories about what might be happening, but rigorous evaluation to make sure that what we believe is true, we're evaluating and understanding to of persuasive essay, be true so we can share that more broadly. As I said, philanthropy, another critical sector. Analysis Format? The resources that philanthropy can put into these challenges is important. But, philanthropy is also struggling with how do we fund? You know, those one year grants, those three year grants, when you're taking on big harry problems not long enough to solve the problem. So, what should funding cycles look like for philanthropy? And, what should the of persuasive essay, relationship between philanthropy and fifth-grade their grantees look like so that we aren't getting that, and again, this is of persuasive something many of us are probably seeing, that, since, when you want to show off for the person that you're, that's giving you money so you make it all look pretty and shiny, you tie a bow around it. But, that's not really what's happening. So, how do we think differently about recipe those relationships so philanthropy's actually a partner?
I see someone smiling and nodding. Philanthropy's actually a partner in the work as opposed to someone that stands off in the sidelines and that you call in once a year and show them a pretty report. We've done that by key elements of persuasive, including them in the leadership council that we have at the Aspen Institute, actually sitting at the table with us, going through the tough problems with us, and bringing together, and we'll do this in a couple of fifth-grade essay weeks, literally, a couple of hundred funders to talk about some of these challenges and how we can all continue to move forward. Employers in the private sector, particularly, when you're dealing with this challenges, and with so many it is important to have the private sector at the table. Key Elements? And, often, the private sector comes to the table, and I was saying this in a class earlier today, it's like well let's be mentors to young people, absolutely important. And, when we do that in the best in class ways, critical. But, we're talking about people who need jobs not just mentors.
So, how do we help the private sector rethink the way that it's approaching the challenge and this problem and to do that in a way that they're putting resources forward in a way that not only helps them build those pathways but to do that in a way that they're spreading the good news and the importance of this issue to our environment, their colleagues. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay? So, JP Morgan Chase, Starbucks, Bank of America are three of the key partners that we're working with that are putting substantial resources into this issue but also are starting to think about, and many of you may have heard about the work that Starbucks is doing, we're going to epistle i alexander, hire these young people. And, not only are we going to do it at Starbucks, but we're also going to talk about those vendors that we work with who are part of our supply chain and say we want you to of persuasive essay, do this too. That's the, beyond the creation of our environment essay 2 jobs or 10 jobs or 12 jobs, that's hundreds and of persuasive thousands of jobs and the creation on the demand side for the kind of our environment young people and the training that young people need on the supply side. Mixed with that is also the need to change perception.
And, this is one of the things that I've seen over and over and over again. People are willing to believe that there's that one exceptional person. And, we've all seen the TV, you know, the TV news clip or we've read about it in the paper, we've read some magazine article and key elements essay there's the young person who came out of hard times and has gone on to college and is doing well. And, everybody cheers and to save our environment says well isn't he exceptional, isn't she exceptional. But, 6 million exceptional young people? Society seems to be unwilling to believe that that's possible. Key Elements Of Persuasive? But it is.
And, part of what we're doing is trying to change the perception and the way society and employers start to look at on man epistle pope, and think about these young people. Because, if the perception doesn't change, who would hire the essay, person that they don't believe that they believe can't do the job? So, we've started to work with the private sector and foundations to create what we call the Grads of Life campaign. Essay? And, I want to just give you a sense of an ad that we've done directly targeted at HR leaders and key elements private sector leaders as we want to start getting people to think a little bit differently about these young people. What would you bring to my company? I need problem solving skills. I've gotten through high school without a car, a phone, or a computer. No college degree though. Not yet. But, life's taught me a lot and I'm ready for more. Well, you're not the kind of analysis candidate I hire.
But, you are the candidate I'm looking for. Your company could be missing out on the candidates it needs most. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay? Learn how to find a great pool of untapped talent at gradsoflife.org. Melody Barnes: So, that's just part of a larger campaign that we have underway to get people to think differently about these young people. And as I mentioned, well. Thank you for inviting me to join the launch of the exciting new. Melody Barnes: She's running for president by the way in case you missed that.
Now there's, actually there's a reason why that came up next. The Grads of Life campaign is doing this work. And one of questions their major partners is, in fact, the Clinton Foundation. Key Elements Essay? And, having Hillary Clinton on the Daily Show, I mean, you know what the a.p. biology questions, viewership of the Daily Show looks like, go out and say to John Stewart, this is key elements essay a group of 7 million young people and we've got to take on essay, this challenge. And, John Stewart's like, what are you talking about? And she explains it.
Again, we're looking for lots of different avenues, lots of different venues to get people to key elements essay, start to think about and recognize the challenge and, ultimately, to start thinking about these young people in a very, very different way. The final sector that I want to fifth-grade, talk about are communities and young people themselves. Again, the of persuasive, perception has made this more challenging. The idea that we used to talk about disconnected youth and talk about young people as though they were broken, as though they were, in an essay on man epistle i alexander, toto the challenge or the problem, created the sense that who are these people and how do we engage with them? Do we want to engage with them? Is it safe to engage with them? Why would we want to work with them or sit beside them? And that's a microcosm of a larger challenge that we often have as we are working collaboratively to solve big problems.
In many cases, we don't involve or engage the communities themselves that we say we want to help and to support. We don't value what those communities can bring to key elements, the table, much less the policy making table. That's an elite table. Ways Our Environment? Right? No. No. You have to bring the very people in the communities that you want to work with to the table to understand what the key elements of persuasive essay, challenge and the problem is so that you can go about to save with their support, with their assistance, with them as partners actually fixing it. Who's a better expert on essay, the life of an to save our environment essay opportunity youth than an opportunity youth? Who better understand what they face than those young people themselves? And so, we've worked very, very hard to insure that, on a national level and on a local level, those young people are sitting at the table with us? And, as they say, nothing about key elements of persuasive us without us.
And, we take that very, very seriously. Essay? So, at Aspen, they are members of key elements of persuasive essay our leadership council, our collaboratives have them sitting at the table with them. Ways? I mentioned to you a few minute ago the work that's taking place in Maine that was driven by, propelled by young people coming out of their own experiences and catching the ear or the attention of the legislatures and others in that community. We also have a youth leadership tract to key elements of persuasive, help young people continue to develop their own leadership skills. And, in fact, just two weeks ago, we hired one of our youth leaders to work with us at Aspen. So, if we're going to talk the talk, we have to walk the walk as well. And, all of essay writing that has made our work much, much richer.
We've also put together a collective impact forum. And, that forum we did in partnership with the organization FSG that first started writing about collective impact and the United Way and other partners around the country to create a learning community, to create a hub where communities that are doing this work can talk to one another. Because, what we often found is that, literally, communities 50 miles apart, 100 miles apart, not to mention a country on each coast, didn't know what the other were doing. And, as a result of that, communities were making the same mistakes over and over. We could leapfrog past that if people were talking to one another, if the tools we're finding are necessary, we could put in one central place, if we could use technology to scale what we're trying to key elements of persuasive, do much more quickly and to insure that learning community was a robust one. And now, you know, we started out and we were hopeful in the first year that we might find 5,000 communities that wanted to be a part of it, and, we're well over 10,000. And, we also are talking to communities in Canada and communities in other parts of the world as they use this strategy for ways to save our environment change. And, specifically, many of them are also focusing on key elements essay, this issue of opportunity youth.
So, I'll close by saying this. One of the things that people often ask me, when they hear I'm doing this work or spending some of my time doing this work in local communities is, you know, does this mean that you don't think a federal sector works anymore? Does this mean that you think everything should be focused on the state and local level? And, what I tell them is no. I am a very firm believer, and you don't really have to desynthesis, look much further than my resume to understand, I'm a firm believer that the of persuasive essay, Federal Government has to work. It has to be effective, it has to recipe, be smart. Of Persuasive? And, we have to work to make sure that we're getting the Federal Government to that place.
But, as I said earlier, there won't be a single shot solution to a complex, complicated, harry problem. We have to have all sectors working collaboratively and working together if we're going to achieve the kind of analysis change that we want to of persuasive essay, achieve. And, that's why I believe so strongly that we need the robustness of a collective impact strategy if we're going to get ourselves to where we want to be. And, we have to use data and evidence, we have to work closely in community, we have to bring those pieces together. We have to make sure that the private sector is at the table and that we're all using a language that we can understand if we're going to meet the challenges that sit in front of us. But, what I also believe, seeing the things that I've seen community after community after community is that we can have the kind of success that we want and that we need. We can solve these problems, if we work collaboratively and with the benefit of the kind of education that many of you are getting there today, you will be the essential fuel in each of analysis essay those sectors to make sure that we get there. So, thank you very, very much.
And, I look forward to engaging in a conversation with you all. Thank you. Okay Mrs. Barnes. For our first question from the key elements of persuasive essay, audience, oh. Hi, my name is Mira Lee and I'm a first year MPP student and I'm really passionate about poverty alleviation under the subgroups of on man i alexander food security and women economic empowerment. Of Persuasive Essay? For our first question audience member's really struck by your optimism and sense of possibility embedded in your vision. However, how should we reconcile that with the despair and sense of crisis that frames the the rocking winner symbolism essay, Black Life's Matter Movement, because both the views are centered on the future of key elements opportunity youth? Melody Barnes: Absolutely. I will start out by essay, speaking to a personal experience that I had. I, I guess it was about essay a year and a half ago and poem essay format I was speaking in Brooklyn at a YouthBuild function.
And, I don't know if many of you know YouthBuild. Key Elements? It's a wonderful organization that is led by a woman named Dorothy Stoneman that focuses on the opportunity youth population and helping young men and young women get their GED's and also workforce training as well as other services that they need. The Rocking Horse Symbolism Essay? And, I was introduced, at that event, by a young man who, literally, was thrown away as a baby, literally. Key Elements Of Persuasive? He was found in the trash as an infant. And, he went through, as you can imagine, having started his life that way, many of the trials and tribulations engagement with the Juvenile Justice System, in and out of fifth-grade writing school, all of key elements of persuasive essay those things. And, ultimately, though, found himself in YouthBuild. And, standing there as someone who had gone on to get his high school degree, was going onto essay writing, a postsecondary program, was working and saw himself and essay was actively a member of his community. To Save Our Environment Essay? It is the kind of despair that I think that you are speaking to and that we see over and over and over again. But, at the same time, what had captured him, what had surrounded him were individuals who believed that his life had value. And, beyond that idea that his life had value, also were bringing structure, bringing a best in key elements of persuasive essay, class approach to the solutions to the challenges that were in front of him to to save, help move him forward.
And, it isn't just that young man, again, but, I've seen that over and over and over again. And, I've talked to essay, young people who have said to me, straight up, said I led a thug life, young people who have said I, as I sit here, I, at one point, could have hurt you and it would have meant nothing to me. And yet, when given those opportunities, when given a sense that they were valued, that there was hope for an essay i alexander pope them, that there was a pathway for key elements of persuasive essay them were able to writing, not only help turn their lives around but want to do that but to key elements of persuasive, reach back and to grab others to an essay on man pope, do the same and, as I said, to of persuasive essay, be actively involved in their communities and actively involved in the solution. So, the despair is real, the to save essay, challenges are real. But, at the same time, there are approaches and there are ways that we can work with these young people to, at the same time, start to turn their lives around and also create those same opportunities for others. But, the, I think, part of the key is to make sure that they are involved, that their voices are heard, and that they are also seen and respected as leaders as part of key elements that movement, that we're not just doing something to them or for them, but, we're doing something with them to create that kind of change. Thank you for that very thoughtful response. And thank you for fifth-grade essay writing coming to speak with us today.
My name's Emily Ruska. I'm a first year MPP here at Ford. We have another question here from the key elements of persuasive essay, audience. In addition to the examples that you've offered as part of collective impact, what are particularly promising practices for analysis essay format engaging youth activist and essay student voices to winner, influence youth policy to create opportunity in key elements, this historically marginalize population? Melody Barnes: Well, one example that I've seen is the Council of Young Leaders.
And, they've actually also created an organization called Youth United. And, this is an extraordinary group of analysis essay young people who are moving forward and key elements of persuasive driving this, they're driving the progress themselves. And there are a group of us that call ourselves the Circle of Allies. A.p.? We are there. We're allies for them. We're supporting them as they do this. But, they've articulated what their goals are, how they want to engage and how they want to be, how they want to be engaged. They are saying we want to sit at essay, these tables with you. And, I'm seeing more and more of essay these kinds of organizations, and also, quite frankly, a new way of thinking about leadership. And, you know, it requires, I will be 51 in a couple of weeks.
It requires, I think, a new way of thinking about leadership. It isn't this hierarchical, you know, I'm old and I'm wise so now I sit here at key elements, the tippy top of this pyramid. But, it is a collective table, it is a relational frame of leadership that's using lots of new tools to communicate with people all over the country and, indeed, all over an essay on man epistle i alexander pope, the world. And, it is a respect for, as I said before, the kind of knowledge that people share that comes out of experience. Key Elements Essay? And, I'm seeing more and more of these organizations while, at fifth-grade writing, the same time, inside, you know, our workplace, inside many of the organizations that we have that are very structured, we're also inviting and bringing those young people in so they can be part of the change that we seek to create. So, there are a lot of exciting opportunities for young leaders that I'm seeing all over key elements of persuasive essay, the country.
And I empathize with you guys. I know how hard this is. Thank you for your patience. Okay. What are some of the most effective policy solutions to poverty and opportunity youth that you have observed from analysis, your own professional experience? Melody Barnes: Well, I think, I know from essay, talking to fifth-grade essay, a number of you today that you are very, very passionate about key elements essay education. And, I continue to believe that that's an the rocking horse winner absolutely critical element in essay, addressing the poem, challenges that a lot of opportunity youth have. Of Persuasive? I mean, there's everything from the work that's happening around reconnection and we're seeing the birth and growth of reconnection centers around the country to bring young people who dropped out of school back into school so they can finish secondary and move forward. We're also seeing some really interesting pathways and best of class efforts coming out of ways to save essay organizations like Jobs for the Future and others that are focused on early college high school for essay example and to save our environment essay the importance of of persuasive essay apprenticeships and the way that we build that into the secondary education experience so that young people are finishing high school and some of them have an AA degree when they finish.
They're, I remember just recently talking to a young woman, I believe, who finished, no it was a young man who graduated and biology essay questions got his AA degree a week before he got his high school diploma. Key Elements? And, that break between high school and postsecondary can often be, you know, it's a break for some people, it's a golf for others. Poem Analysis Essay Format? And, trying to prevent young people from sliding down in the crack there but move more seamlessly onto key elements of persuasive, postsecondary education, that we're seeing as being a very smart way forward. And, that's embedded in epistle, some of the work that is being reviewed on Capitol Hill. Key Elements Essay? I think, the recently passed Workforce Innovation Opportunity Act, which increased, over doubled the fifth-grade, amount of resources that local communities can use for out of of persuasive school young adults and analysis format giving them an opportunity to key elements of persuasive, get workforce training and to move into a.p. biology questions those family sustaining wage jobs and key elements also increasing the amount of time that they have to qualify for those jobs. So, there are a whole host of things that I could go on an essay on man i alexander, with. But, that's also what we're examining in the work that we're doing at the Aspen Institute. Because, what we're trying to do is we're learning from each of those communities some focusing on foster care, some focusing on juvenile justice, and the list goes on. What are the policy changes that we need to see to make these efforts more successful? And, we're in the nascent stages of key elements of persuasive essay our work but we're starting to learn from that.
And we started out by bringing on a third party evaluator so all through our work we can look at what's working and our environment essay what we're learning and then move that into the policy bloodstream and move policy accordingly. Our next question here is sort of key elements of persuasive a mix of questions that we've gotten from the audience. On Man Epistle Pope? So, research has demonstrated lifelong impacts of youth unemployment on economic mobility and earning potential, involvement in the criminal justice system as well as other social impacts. Of Persuasive? How do these experiences shape opportunities for these opportunities? And also, what are some of the most cost effective solutions that you've seen to essay, this challenge and how scalable are they? Melody Barnes: Wait, I'm sorry. Essay? Start, say that one. So, basically, question of youth unemployment having lifelong impacts on youth, many of these opportunities that we're speaking of today.
And how is there engagement with institutions such as the the rocking horse winner symbolism essay, Criminal Justice System and their experience of unemployment itself effecting the opportunities that they are able to engage with moving forward? And what are some cost effective solutions that you've seen. Melody Barnes: Sure. And again, as significant problems, we're seeing the loss of skills or the inability to acquire skills when you have young people that aren't being employed. And, that's such a significant problem. This is not limited to of persuasive essay, that opportunity youth cohort.
But, one of the problems that we saw coming out of the recession, because so many young people weren't being hired, they weren't getting the opportunity to gain skills at our environment, an early enough stage in their career that it would allow them to be successful as they, kind of, the natural ark of their career took place. And, that's only compounded when we're talking about opportunity youth that often also have substantial, substantially inadequate educational experiences and opportunities. And then, compounding even further, when they've been incarcerated, in many instances, education, you know, coming to, are slowing down or coming to a halt, coming out not having the necessary reconnection opportunities, the rates of recidivism, kind of the key elements of persuasive essay, list of, I think, many of the things that we, you know about on and on and on. And, I've seen some interesting things that are taking place. I have a friend that I worked with a number of years ago. He, David Domenici, started with his Colleague James Forman, The Maya Angelou Public Charter School. An Essay Pope? And, after getting the school up and key elements of persuasive essay running, one of the desynthesis, things that David is focused on now is improving education inside our Juvenile Justice System. And, you know, there's obviously a debate and work that has to happen, reasons why youth are being incarcerated in the first place and how they get there. But, recognizing that, so many young people are there, how do we improve educational outcomes for them there?
And, he's working systemically with several different states to try and address that challenge. So, we see things like that that are underway. And, also, as I mentioned, some of the communities that we're working with are very specifically focused on of persuasive essay, ways that we can work with employers and have them think differently about a.p. essay young people who are coming out of the Juvenile Justice System and what their hiring practices will look like. Of Persuasive? And, I've talked to, you know, significant multinational companies, huge companies that are starting to essay writing, think, okay, we know this is a problem and of persuasive essay we understand how this problem ramifies throughout the system. You come out, you know, rates of recidivism go up, you know, if you've got children, your inability to support your children. And, quite frankly, if you're also on the business side, you know, the lack of income that means that communities aren't growing, that people aren't spending or buying etcetera. So they're thinking how do we adjust our policies so that we're hiring more young people who have had these experiences? So, there are a number of things like that that we're starting to see, particularly, as we've focused on biology questions, the Juvenile Justice System to try and address the problem. There is a root problem, however, that we have to tackle, which is how so many young people end up there in the first place. And as, you know, I was talking the other day to Anna Deavere Smith, I don't, many of you may know her work, and she calls it the Womb to Prison Pipeline, and what happens so early and what we see, literally, in, you know, lack of third grade reading, you know, what the criminalization of young people in of persuasive, school that, ultimately, is putting them directly on a path into prison. Winner Symbolism? And we also have to address that.
That's a very significant problem for our country and for our communities. This is a two prong question. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay? The first is what are some specific ways in analysis essay format, which opportunity youth cost taxpayers? Melody Barnes: Cost taxpayers? Melody Barnes: There's, you know, we've talked some about the Juvenile Justice System and the cost and the cost to the system there. We're also talking about loss of tax revenue.
I mean, if you aren't working, then, in essay, many ways, you aren't, you're paying some taxes but you're not paying a whole host of to save our environment essay other taxes. We're also looking at what's happening to the healthcare system. If you aren't working and of persuasive your income is below a certain level, the way you acquire and get healthcare. So, when you think about many of the programs that are in ways to save our environment, place, and key elements of persuasive I think appropriately so to help people and the rocking horse winner symbolism provide a safety net, there would be fewer people that needed that safety net if we strengthened our education system and if we got people into families wage sustaining jobs. Key Elements Essay? So, those are some of the poem format, cost to taxpayers. Then there's the broader societal costs, literally just loss of earning power. And, that's why I mentioned those two numbers and the second is so much larger than the first. The first one, what does it cost taxpayers? The second one, what is society losing? And, there's a report, and I'll flip and of persuasive remember the name of essay format it for key elements essay anyone who wants to see it, that we did when I was at the White House.
My friend John Bridgeland, who was George W Bush's Domestic Policy Advisor, really helped to lead the analysis, effort in getting that report done to look at what the economics are of key elements essay this challenge because we wanted to have that data. So, I'm going to find the name of that. Yes. Please. Winner Symbolism Essay? Thank you.
The second part to the question is given the pervasiveness of isms racism, classism, etcetera, aside from commercials, what are other sectors doing to change the mindsets about opportunity youth? Melody Barnes: Sure. Key Elements Essay? Before I answer that, so the name of ways our environment essay this report is the Economic Value of Opportunity Youth. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay? So, it's the Economic Value of Opportunity Youth. And it goes through that. One example of ways to save can think of, I have a friend Trabian Shorters who was an key elements of persuasive official at the Knight Foundation who is now running an desynthesis organization called Be Me. And, they specifically now focusing on boys and men of color and the fact that as opposed to seeing these young people as a challenge as a problem as a liability as a cost, that, we start to key elements, see these young men as assets.
And, now only do we see them as assets, what he's also putting on the table are the facts that prove they are assets as entrepreneurs, as business owners, as civic leaders. And, in fact Trabian and Ben Jealous, who used to a.p. biology essay, run the NAACP, just edited a book of of persuasive essay essays by, I think all of these are by black men, talking about their experiences and the ways that they have contributed to society, to their community, to their country. And, over on man, the course of key elements essay this next year, they are launching an all-out campaign specifically focused on perception change. Horse Symbolism Essay? How do we get the country to stop repeating and hardening this narrative that has people seeing, in this instance, young black men as just a cost and key elements of persuasive just a problem as opposed to vital members of society that are adding and that are contributing? So, that's one example of fifth-grade what I'm seeing.
I know that the My Brother's Keeper effort that the president launched a little over a year ago, includes in it a specific focus on perception change. And, in many ways, it is the thorniest and of persuasive essay knottiest of all the problems that we have. Winner Symbolism? And, it sits at key elements of persuasive essay, the base of so many of the other challenges that we're trying to address. I have a question here from Twitter. They ask is it possible to desynthesis, make better use of our workforce development funds. The twitter user also indicates that stimulus dollars help but that is not a systematic change. Melody Barnes: Right. I mean, in stimulus dollars, we knew, as we were developing the policy that we couldn't do many things or anything that would have a tail because those are resources that would, that would run out. So, I refer back to key elements of persuasive essay, the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act which was, you know, that rare piece of bipartisan legislation that passed Congress and was signed into questions law last July. Key Elements Of Persuasive? And, that includes significant resources for opportunity youth and for communities to desynthesis recipe, take on this issue of key elements of persuasive opportunity youth. I was mentioning a little bit of that.
It allows, I think, communities to use up to format, about 75% of their resources to focus out on, or part of their resources to focus on young people and key elements essay young adults who fall into this cohort. And, you know, that's a, that in an essay epistle i alexander, and of key elements essay itself can be a really important piece of policy. We're now in the regulation writing phase and just starting with to see implementation. But, it's something I know that both the Secretary of Labor Tom Perez, Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker, and poem analysis essay Arne Duncan, the key elements of persuasive essay, Secretary of Education are all very, very focused on. And, we're hopeful that that legislation, having learned the lessons of the Workforce Innovation Act, we can improve upon and do some smart things. I think the other thing that's important that sits there is that there's a lot in epistle i alexander, there for evaluation. And, we have to understand what really is working and what is key elements not. A.p.? And, that has to be a continuous process so we can adjust accordingly. The next question is you mentioned that Detroit is one of the communities you work with currently under the Aspen Institute. What do you think about of persuasive its recent experience in an essay on man epistle pope, bankruptcy and being served under the key elements of persuasive essay, Emergency Management and fifth-grade essay writing other ongoing challenges? What strategies do you hope to see happen in of persuasive, Detroit in order for the city to move forward successfully?
Melody Barnes: Well, one of the things I'm excited about, and I'll go back for a second. I remember early on, probably between 2009 and 2010, and I was in the Administration and was invited to fifth-grade writing, and attended a meeting in Detroit that, in many ways, was, I think, an example of collective impact. I mean, it really brought together a range of different sectors at the table to do, to think about what the plan would be for moving Detroit forward. And, that group or much of that group, I think, has held together and that's been in critical to get Detroit to key elements essay, where it is as it's, you know, coming out of, coming out of bankruptcy and focusing on the way forward. I think, you know, as with in poem analysis essay format, every community, it's complex.
I mean, there are kind of land management issues, there are cultural issues. And, in by that I mean there, our culture can be such an important driver to economic development. And, I think, people are focused on ways to use what's here and what's rich about the community to key elements of persuasive, be able to help create economic development. Biology Essay? You know, we saw the preservation of the artwork that's staying in Detroit. You know, all of those things, I think, people consider to be important.
Also, you know, I go back and I give the administration that I was part of credit for key elements of persuasive preserving jobs in the auto industry and making sure that that remained important to the economic structure of the city and indeed the region and an essay on man epistle pope the country. So, I think there are a number of different ways that the plan is moving forward. But, it has involve philanthropic leaders, it's involved business leaders, it's involved, you know, economists and academics and other thinking about what that plan should be and the fact that everyone has to work together to be able to move it forward. So, you know, I'm excited and hopeful about what's happening in Detroit. I know several of the people who have been a part of that and local Michigan foundations that have been a part of key elements that. And, I think it's really critical that the table was set to include so many different sectors and actors. So, you've spoken at a number of the rocking essay intersections about the importance of involving the private sector in all of these efforts. And, this question from the audience speaks to that. They're wondering, we're seeing a lot of movement towards corporate social responsibility. A lot of major corporations are implementing departments for that. Are you seeing it, some folks are commenting that this might appear to be a trend or a fad.
Do you see this as a trend or something that is more sustainable in a real movement in the corporate community that will be continued long into the future? Melody Barnes: I do. And, what I believe and hope I'm seeing is maturation of corporate social responsibility because there's a form of it that's, you know, we've got our private sector, our foundation, our corporate foundation and key elements of persuasive essay we give money, you know, we're the to save essay, Melody Barnes Corporation that builds widgets, and we give money to key elements of persuasive essay, X cause that has nothing to do with our widgets which is great. Desynthesis Recipe? You're giving money to a good cause. What I think is happening more and more now is we're seeing, kind of, CSR 2.0 or 3.0 by the best in class companies. And, what they're doing is saying okay what is it that we do and what is it that we're really good at?
Let's use our resources on that. How do we take our existing assets and do something good for our community? Because, we know that and we understand it better than anyone. And, you know, I would use Starbucks as an example and I was talking about the key elements, work that they're doing with their supply chain. The Rocking Essay? I mean, that is of persuasive essay CSR. But, they also see that as a smart business model and, the support that they're providing, educational support for their workers.
You know, I can go through a list of others. I mean, you look at the 10,000 small businesses, 10,000 women small businesses effort by recipe, Goldman Sachs. Again, they're thinking about what it is that they do and how can they provide that kind of support in key elements, a corporate social responsibility context but building on what they're already best in an essay on man epistle i alexander, class at. So, I don't think that it's a fad. I do think and hope that companies are starting to think more smartly about the way that they engage. Because, as I talk to people who are doing this work, what they're saying is it's more sustainable. We have more of key elements essay our folks engaged, more of our people involved.
We see the benefit to an essay on man epistle i alexander, our company when we're doing it that way and it's less, the heart of our business is over of persuasive, here and fifth-grade essay the corporate responsibility work is over there. And, that's a nice thing that we do and instead seeing those two things coming closer and closer together. So, that's what I'm seeing and key elements hopeful for. Thank you. To Save Our Environment Essay? So, this is going to be our ultimate question. Key Elements Essay? Mira will take us home in a second here. This second to the last question will be about your time in the Obama Administration. And, this person is wondering if you could speak to your experience there and what, perhaps, surprised you the most about to save our environment essay that job chairing the DPC. Melody Barnes: My experience there, I am hesitating because I could over a lot of territory everybody.
I think, one of the things or some of the things I was surprised most about, you know, from the small to key elements, the large, I mean, when you walk in the White House, literally day one, so, it's inauguration day. And, everybody's outside and there's a parade and everybody's happy and there are balls that night. And, I remember going in and being freezing cold and, you know, fighting my way through the parade to get in, and literally the phones are ringing. I mean, it's like, I don't know where the bathroom is and the phones are ringing. And, because the assistants to recipe, the president all had to key elements essay, show up and go into the building on that day. And, there's the sense that it just, it never ever, it doesn't stop. And, what your role is and maintaining that peaceful transition that we talk about, but, it really is quite spectacular when you think about what we do after every election cycle. It's also the sense, particularly at an essay pope, the White House as compared to the rest of the of persuasive essay, Executive Branch, how tiny it is. I mean, literally, it is a physically small space. Recipe? But, also, the number of people who are working there, it's a small number of people who are there and closest to the president and key elements trying to act on both what he has promised and essay what his goals are and respond to what the big challenges are. And, that requires a real respect for, and it's something I think this country's lost and it's sad, a real respect for those who are career bureaucrats, I mean those bureaucrat is essay taken on pejorative, but people who have been there year after year administration after administration who have real expertise and can act on the big and the small that come about every single day.
And, you are struck by what it takes to make that happen because there are so few of us who are literally in that building. Writing? So, that's striking. I think the other thing, coming out of the experience, is the range of policy experience that I've had, it is, there is key elements of persuasive essay no other place to recipe, get a clear 360 degree view of what it takes to get policy done. You know, I was there, I was the domestic policy director and I worked with communications people and, you know, national security and homeland and, you know, on, legislative affairs, on and on and on. Key Elements Of Persuasive? And, the an essay epistle, decisions that you think having nothing, that you might think have nothing to do with what you have to do can have absolutely everything to do with what you're able to execute on, when you're able to execute on it, and of persuasive how you're able to do so.
And, I deeply appreciate having had that experience as well. And then, there's just such a strong sense of what we do in this country and our form of government and how special it is. Recipe? And, for all the criticism, for essay all the frustration we have, this is an essay on man epistle a pretty amazing system that we've created. And, we have to refine it and we have to improve it and requires individuals to of persuasive essay, go in biology questions, with the best possible motivations and the desire to get something done and to key elements essay, compromise and work across lines. But, you know, as my boss, you know, as Senator Kennedy said to me once, sitting over at his kitchen table, when it works, it is amazing. And I have such a deep appreciation for that having worked in a couple different of branches of government and come out of this administration. Okay.
Okay. For our last question, this is from Twitter. Any chance that we'll be able to see you back in the White House, specifically doing, specifically if the our environment essay, president is essay Hillary Clinton? Melody Barnes: I'm wondering if my husband wrote that question to make sure it wasn't going to happen. I have had spectacular experiences working in government. You know, when I left Senator Kennedy I thought I'm done. I loved working for him and, you know, no matter where you are ideologically, I was just at the Institute, Kennedy Institute opening, his institute opening two weeks ago and there was Trent Lot, Tom Daschle, John McCain, Elizabeth Warren, Ed Markey, you know, every part of the ideological spectrum speaking and talking about this man and what he's done. And, I loved that job. I thought, I'm done, I'll never work in the White House, never going to work on a campaign. Oops.
So, and I went into the White House and it was just, it's the hardest thing I've ever done and ways essay the most amazing thing that I've ever done. But, I'm done. And, I'm, I wouldn't trade those experiences for anything, not one thing. I learned a lot and I want to take what I've learned and key elements of persuasive I want to use it in the ways that I'm doing it now. And I love the multiplicity of things that I'm doing and the different teams that I'm able to build and work with in the communities I'm able to work in. Desynthesis? And, I'm excited to support the Federal Government, but, from of persuasive, out here.
Melody Barnes: Thank you. Well, I'm so sorry I wasn't here to introduce our special guest. But, I'm delighted that I heard not only her really interesting presentation but also here very thoughtful and candid remarks in essay, response to key elements of persuasive essay, all of your questions. Horse Winner Essay? And so, let me, at this time, first thank all of you for joining us, for your, again, very thoughtful questions. This is the last of our policy talks for this year and of persuasive essay I have to say a really wonderful way to end the series. Horse Essay? But, we hope that you will join us back here again next year. But, before then we have a continuation of the conversation with a reception just outside of those doors.
So, please stay and join us for that. But please also join me in of persuasive, a very special final round of thanks to Melody Barnes. Thank you. That was wonderful.
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23 March 1940 Pakistan Resolution Day Speech in English. Pakistan Day 23rd March , is a very historical day in Pakistan#8217;s building story. Pakistanis immortalize the day every year as a actual day of the #8220;making of Pakistan#8221;. It was 23rd March when a historical Resolution wide known as #8216;Lahore Resolution#8217; was authorized. The Resolution cast off the conception of key elements of persuasive United India and encouraged the creation of an autonomous Muslim state consisting of Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and analysis essay format, Bengal and Assam in the northeast. 23 March Pakistan Resolution Day Speech in English. Key Elements Essay. The Resolution was seconded by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from the rocking symbolism essay, Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the NWFP, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, along with many others. It laid down only the precepts, with the details left to be worked out at of persuasive essay, a future date. It was made a part of All India Muslim League#8217;s establishment in 1941. More significantly, it was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for essay format, one #8220;maverick#8221; state for the Muslims, instead of key elements of persuasive two. Essay. Having passed the Pakistan Resolution, the of persuasive essay Muslims of India altered their ultimate goal.
They set out on the rocking horse winner symbolism a path whose goal was a separate country of origin for the Muslims of India, in lieu of seeking union with the Hindu community. Different participating leaders of the session of All-India Muslim League held on March 23, 1940, letting in the Quaid-i-Azam, agreed that India was never united; rather it was split between Muslim India and key elements essay, Hindu India and it would remain so in the future. Desynthesis. The 23 march pakistan resolution day quotes are fended for the speech that will be read among thousands of students. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay. The entire outlooks, customs and customs of cultures of these two different nations were different anyway. They were different not only in their religious beliefs, but their entire mode of life bore a different imprint. Recipe. The words of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in his presidential address to the session carried a far deeper impression on the crushed and of persuasive essay, demoralized Muslims at the hands of on man ruthless and despotic Coition rule. Key Elements Of Persuasive. Mr Jinnah said: #8220;The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature.
They neither intermarry nor inter-dine together, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.#8221; Such a far-reaching speech by symbolism essay, Mr Jinnah paved the way for the demand of key elements of persuasive a separate independent homeland for the rocking horse symbolism, the exploited Muslims of India, who believed their rights and privileges could not be guarded under a parliamentary form of government. They also realized that the key elements bloody brutes of the majority without any democratic traditions turned the Hindu rulers tyrannical in their behavior and due to missing of any administrative experience they acted in a way that could be unacceptable in a democratic society. Poem Format. One of the key demands made in the Pakistan resolution moved by chief minister of Bengal Maulvi Fazl-ul-Haq on March 23, 1940, was that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it was framed on the followed basic principles. We will update pakistan resolution day 23 march 1940 essay and speech on 23 march in english for children on this page. 23rd March Resolution Pakistan Essay English. Those geographically contiguous units are demarcated into of persuasive, regions, which should be constituted with such territorial readjustments as, may be necessary. That the areas wherein the Muslims form majority as in desynthesis, the North-Western and Eastern zones of India be grouped together to constituted #8216;independent States#8217; in which the constituted units shall be autonomous and sovereign. Of Persuasive. That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards be specially provided in the constitution for the rocking horse winner symbolism essay, minorities in these units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political administrative and other rights of interests in consultation with them and in other parts of India where the Muslims form minority. Having analyzed the crux of the resolution, one comes to a conclusion as to of persuasive it (the resolution) laid emphasis on a necessity of separate Muslim-state for the Muslims of India by grouping the North-Western and Eastern zones of analysis essay format India where they were in majority, constitutional protection to minorities and of persuasive essay, their rights-cum-interests. Passing of the Lahore Resolution, which was dubbed by the Hindu and the British press as #8216; The Pakistan Resolution #8216;, ended in a great hue and cry in the Hindu, Sikh and British circles. The Indian press found a new target to poem analysis format incessantly make evil designs and unfurl campaigns against the Muslims and leaders of the Muslim League.
Mr. Gandhi declared that partition would mean suicide and the Two-Nation Theory was an unreality. The vast majority of Muslims of India area concerts to Islam or are the key elements of persuasive descendants of the converts. In consequence, they did not make a separate nation as soon as they become converts, he maintained. Others who flatly opposed the Lahore Resolution were Raj Gopal Achari, B R Ambedkar, Master Tara Singh, Nationalist Muslim group. On the other hand, the resolution was massively bolstered by many other noted leaders representing different provinces of India, who unanimously adopted it. Sindh too lead, which passed a resolution for Pakistan. Till now, the resolution is deemed to be the quintessence of goal-orientation of untiring and unfailing struggle of Indian Muslims, dating back to 1857. One of the major impacts of the resolution was that under the leadership of towering personality in a.p. essay questions, Mr. Jinnah not only key elements it did stimulate the Muslim middle classes to unprecedented political action, but also it caught the imagery of the people of all classes of Muslim community It was the resolution, which made the Muslims of India discern their own destiny and spelled out destination and route of action for them to recipe a separate Muslim-state.
After the downfall of Muslim conglomerate, it was first time that the resolution proved a #8216;line of direction#8217; for drifting Muslims. The resolution not only injected new blood into the veins of the Indian Muslims to speed up their struggle to their destiny, but also regenerated their slow-down political activity for self-determination in the areas where they made a numeral bulk.
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Essay, Life, Lived Experience: The Early Georg Lukacs and the Situation of Literary Criticism Today. Essay, Life, Lived Experience: The Early Georg Lukacs and the Situation of Literary Criticism Today. T hat we like the essay, essay as a genre of writing and reading belongs to our self-understood premises, as early twenty-first century intellectuals. If immediate evidence was necessary, it could be encountered in most of the texts making up the collection to which this essay belongs. For example, invoking authorities beyond any possible doubt or skepticism, like Francis Ponge and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, the foundational essays of Michel de Montaigne’s find praise as a “search with no end nor resting place” in Sarah Bakewell’s contribution. What for Sophie Gee distinguishes Jonathan Swift’s worldview from that of his contemporaries is the capacity to essay, “depict minds in disrepair” without claiming an “authority to correct internal turmoil.” Thomas Harrison explains how the essay, essayistic form of Robert Musil’s novel The Man Without Qualities emerged from his attempt to forge a flexible bond between “the literary realm and the realm of the ethical,” while Alex Woloch describes the the rocking horse winner, manner of key elements of persuasive essay, George Orwell’s essays as “unstable, precarious, short-lived,” and Michael Wood shows that “taking ‘as if’ no less seriously than ‘is’” was decisive for desynthesis recipe, the essay form as a “project” in Jorge Luis Borges’s work. The vanishing point of key elements of persuasive essay, all these analyses and the reason for our self-understood sympathy for the genre lies in a gesture of lightness and distance that the different varieties of the essay seem to share. To Save Our Environment Essay? A distance not only from any suggestions of orthodoxy in our post-ideological and perhaps even post-political times, but also from any spiritual position that comes with the impulse of changing and thus suspending itself. Even Gianni Vattimo’s notion of “weak thinking” that produced so much resonance in an earlier post-ideological moment some thirty years ago, would paradoxically appear all-too totalizing in a present-day view. This is key elements of persuasive essay, why we are eager to associate the essay as a form with concepts and qualities like “vitality, personality, and the concreteness of life-experience”  which cannot be subsumed under abstract and therefore general principles. Some of us would even go so far as to wish for the essayistic form to become omnipresent so that, paradoxically, not being principled might establish itself as an absolute principle.
But profound flexibility as its core component has made the essay both a practical challenge for all “large systems that ground their truth claims in fifth-grade authoritative traditions and institutions” and a genre without a clear trajectory or historical evolution. Key Elements? Due to the same reason, the essay has also become an environment for “hectic developments towards eccentricity and intellectual isolation.”  My main question will be whether, given our obvious affinity today with the essay’s intellectual potential, the genre could become the frame for a.p. essay questions, a new, decidedly contemporaneous style of literary criticism. Of Persuasive Essay? In relation to an essay epistle i alexander, this quest, which has by now become an option discussed in key elements essay different academic cultures, a specific tension from the tradition of the essay in desynthesis recipe the German-speaking world could be of particular relevance. It may not be very surprising to state that, as a form of key elements of persuasive, distance and flexibility, the essay has never become quite as ubiquitous there as, for example, in English or in analysis French culture. By contrast, if we look at those extreme cases where the essay’s central potential of flexibility turns into a paradoxical principle, German language, German author names, and German debates clearly stand in the foreground. Specifically for academic literary criticism and art criticism, such positions had to provoke the protest and the resistance of a professional practice that, since the essay, early nineteenth century, has understood itself as “scientific” ( wissenschaftlich ) in the development of the German university. I believe that this tension between the “scientific,” strictly anti-essayistic conception of criticism and its “rhapsodic” opposite (the adjective “rhapsodisch” has indeed been frequently used by German enemies of the eccentric position) can turn into a clarifying and contrastive background for the discussion of different nuances, modes, and options of criticism that are less visibly polarized in their own national worlds of origin. Reenergizing this traditional tension, Juergen Kaube, one of the most influential protagonists in the German Humanities and symbolism, Arts world today,  recently published a polemical essay (was it an ironic strategy to of persuasive essay, choose the essayistic form?) against the ongoing tendency of academic Humanists—even in Germany—to use some rhapsodic varieties of the essay tradition within their professional work.  His starting point is the statistically based observation that, for presentations of their thinking in academic or non-academic space, most scholars in an essay i alexander pope the Humanities, unlike the of persuasive essay, standard in essay writing the Natural Sciences or in the Social Sciences, avoid free speech and the use of power point technology. Key Elements Essay? They prefer to read aloud manuscripts that they clearly did not compose with this type of delivery in mind—and which are therefore always difficult and often truly impossible to understand.
Kaube interprets this habit as symptom of a particular emotional fixation among Humanists on their own texts. To write in a complex and (pretendedly) beautiful fashion, according to him, follows the ways essay, urge to essay, find a form of representation “adequate to phenomena in and by themselves”—rather than adequate for a community of colleagues and geared towards joint intellectual progress. The essay’s frequent lack of footnotes, of clearly circumscribed questions and goals, and of discussions regarding competing views, allows Kaube to draw the the rocking essay, vitriolic conclusion that such critical essays represent a “high form of leisure within the beautiful Humanities”—and thus can not be regarded as contributions towards the growth of knowledge within situations of shared professional labor. In Kaube’s satirical, often hilarious and consistently aggressive description of a certain type of critical “essay,” Georg Lukacs’s text “On the Nature and key elements of persuasive, Form of the Essay” (1911)  appears as the ideal—more precisely, as the ideally negative—example of writing, all the tendencies that the writer pinpoints as the typical “imputations” ( Zumutungen ) of the essay towards its readers: “Georg Lukacs […] published quite a complete list of all these imputations, (and) he did so in the form of an essay, that is as an imputation in and by of persuasive itself.” The text in biology essay questions question does indeed not only key elements essay contain the complete repertoire of all the features that Kaube identifies; Lukacs also explicitly and desynthesis, repeatedly highlighted and used them as a basis for key elements of persuasive essay, intellectual claims that seem to confirm Kaube’s worst nightmares. For what irritates the latter more than anything else is Lukacs’s ambition to a.p. biology, make the essay express reactions to aesthetic objects and key elements of persuasive, philosophical points of view as “an attitude towards life” (“eine Stellungnahme dem Leben gegenueber”).
In this understanding and self-understanding the essay indeed becomes an emblem of what Kaube believes academic work (as “science”) should strictly avoid, and this is the “literary intention” of academic disciplines to an essay pope, “go beyond the key elements of persuasive, sheer growth of knowledge” that they can typically produce. But if the essay is not obliged to produce new knowledge and therefore remains outside any serious and seriously demanding conception of “science” (Lukacs would certainly have agreed with these premises), why does Kaube so strongly condemn its adoption by an essay pope Humanists? Why does he not simply ignore it—what is the danger that he senses as implicit to the genre, and whom does it threaten? Like most academics in the German-speaking world, Kaube seems to suggest that Literary Criticism only has a right to exist (and to be financed) if it adapts itself to the rigid standards of Wissenschaft . In the final sentence of his polemic, however—and perhaps un-intentionally—Kaube finally seems to allow for key elements, a non-scientific understanding of Literary Criticism when he expresses the suspicion that the essayistic form of writing might precisely “destroy the very core significance of Art and Philosophy” that it claims to lay open. Without any doubt, Juergen Kaube’s irritation and critique are justified on at least two levels.
Authors like Lukacs have not only a.p. essay questions all-too readily accepted the risk of a language that makes even patient efforts of reading impossible; there is of persuasive, indeed reason to believe that they have often cultivated and enjoyed such impenetrability as a token of esoteric sophistication. Symbolism?  At the key elements essay, same time, part of the specifically humanistic genre tradition of the essay has long been accompanied by what Theodor W. An Essay On Man Epistle Pope? Adorno described as a “well-versed” and “market-oriented superficiality.”  And yet it remains unclear what, especially today, could be the of persuasive, “core significance” of literature, art, and philosophy whose existence Kaube seems to assume as much as “rhapsodic” authors like the young Lukacs do—and that at essay, the same time he wants to protect against his past and present antagonists. As Kaube uses the word “significance” ( Bedeutung ), I imagine that he is thinking of structures of objective knowledge which can be wrested from literary texts through historical or sociological analysis—and this may well be the limit of any academic practice worthy of being subsumed under the concept of “science,” a limit that would also help to keep whatever the “significance” of literature, art, and philosophy might be, under “scientific” control. Such a premise, however, must exclude from the academic critical endeavor the dimension of aesthetic experience as facilitated by literary texts. Now, I am not the only scholar who argues that, since only about a decade ago, contemporary Literary Criticism has shown a tendency and perhaps even a longing to recuperate the existential—and this necessarily also means the individual and the aesthetic—dimensions of key elements essay, reading against more objective claims.  From this angle, I suspect, it could be worthwhile to revisit the generic tradition of the essay in general and, more specifically, Lukacs’s essay on the essay published in 1910 and fifth-grade writing, 1911, a good half decade before intellectually converting to Marxism, which would become decisive for his work and key elements of persuasive, his reputation as one of the most influential intellectuals of the past century. We will never be able to reconstruct the individual origin of the essay, ten essays on literary and philosophical authors from Lawrence Sterne to key elements of persuasive essay, Stefan George that Lukacs published as a German translation under the title Die Seele und die Formen in 1911,  going back to a previous Hungarian book with only eight texts, from 1910. Prior to the first book, five of these texts had come out in an intellectual journal at Budapest, whereas the two essays that Lukacs added in the translated book had previously appeared in German periodicals (one of them he had written himself in German). Desynthesis? And all we can further and key elements essay, more importantly assume is that they emerged from the years before 1910, which Lukacs spent in Berlin, with Georg Simmel as his most important mentor and within the intellectual environment of “Life Philosophy,” after receiving his doctorate at age twenty-one from the University of Kolozsvar in the Hungarian province.
The idea of bringing the essay questions, texts together in a book went back to the spring of 1909 and to Lukacs’s correspondence with his friend, the even younger and already renowned art critic Leo Popper.  Two certainties and three open problems stood at the beginning of essay, this project: the title (“Soul and Form”) and its association with the generic form of the essay, on essay, the side of essay, certainties; on the other side, the question of whether the French genre-name or its Hungarian and poem analysis, German equivalents ( Versuch ) would be more appropriate;  the order in which to present the texts; and above all, the existential function of of persuasive, critical writing (as we would describe it today), whose discussion Lukacs wanted to further. A few weeks later, in epistle pope correspondence between Lukacs and Popper, concern arose whether he should dedicate the book to Irma Seidler, a painter from Budapest with whom, since 1908, Lukacs had been in essay a profound love relation that probably “remained within the social conventions of their time.”  Irma Seidler’s attachment may have never matched the intensity of Lukacs’s feelings, but she probably considered the possibility of poem format, getting married to him. Lukacs himself, by contrast, was convinced that the institutional form and the everydayness of essay, marriage would destroy the beauty and the life of true love, and therefore desperately—but unsuccessfully—tried to take distance. The essay “The Foundering of ways our environment, Form Against Life—Soren Kierkegaard and Regine Olsen” in Soul and Form was directly motivated, both in its historical empathy and in its philosophical quest, by this experience.  Its impact goes through several other texts as an of persuasive, obsession upon the incompatibility of life with institutional structures. A.p. Biology Essay Questions? Then, on of persuasive essay, May 18, 1911, after getting married to another man and recipe, soon having an key elements of persuasive, extramarital affair, Irma Seidler took her life in Budapest, probably due to depression. Lukacs dedicated the German edition of his book to her memory,  whereas the earlier Hungarian book version had referred to Irma Seidler with an indirect, almost distant gesture: “Into the hands of fifth-grade, those from whom I received these texts.”  During the months following Irma’s death he tried to work through the existential challenge, in key elements a text later published under the title “On Poverty of Spirit—a Conversation and desynthesis, a Letter.”  We know about Lukacs’s reactions to this dramatic time in his life from a series of diary notes that he started on April 25, 1910, and ended on key elements, May 24, 1911, six days after Irma Seidler’s suicide.  They show how, in the struggle between his decision to essay, take distance and the irresistible appeal that his beloved had for him, some of the concepts and motifs of Life Philosophy made it possible to essay, reflect upon his pain. In the process, those concepts acquired a new, often excessive emotional intensity that, without any doubt, also penetrates the essays of Soul and Form , in particular the introduction “On the Nature and Form of the an essay on man epistle i alexander, Essay,” written as “A Letter to Leo Popper.” Throughout the nineteenth century, Life Philosophy had left traces in Western thinking that, rather than coming together as a coherent and well-circumscribed doctrine, produced a centrifugal plurality of responses in key elements essay resistance to the normative intellectual dominance of rationality inherited from the Enlightenment and German Idealism.  The notion of “Life”—which Lukacs used synonymously with “Soul”  —became a common denominator of frequent allusions to an energy, as for example an energy in the thinking of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, that could not be contained or tamed by rationality. Incapable of being defined or circumscribed in any conventional way, “Life” pointed to a desired intensity that promised to compensate for long stretches of tediousness in human existence. Around 1900, Henri Bergson and Wilhelm Dilthey then elaborated more explicit versions of this ubiquitous concept, drawing from the semantic apparatus of academic disciplines and traditions such as History, Psychology (Dilthey) and poem format, Biology (Bergson).
It must have been clear to Lukacs, from the very first words of his diary (“How strange and exciting to key elements of persuasive, begin a diary (even in my current state it affects me)”) that he mainly—if not exclusively—needed those notes in an attempt to come to terms with his passionate and desperate love for Irma Seidler. But to the degree that philosophy may have helped him gain some clarity in this difficult situation, its concepts and arguments also became more complex and more emotionally charged due to their contact with Lukacs’s lived experience. This becomes visible in analysis format his note from May 8, 1910, where he straightforwardly identifies Irma with “life”:  I felt it, once again at night, Irma is life. Essay? I recalled a Margaret Island [on the essay, Danube in Budapest] excursion. Silly little things, plays. Guessing-games, who resembles what (fondly recalled that she compared me to a Biedermeier clock, and how silly was my characterization of her). And I remember this was for the first and last time in my life. […] Unless there is a contact, for contact is everything and everything is contact, nothing really happens. The nothingness of ‘spiritual community’; and the nothingness of man in ‘love’.
Herein lies the key elements of persuasive essay, productivity and freedom: to be together. . . . All is in on man epistle i alexander vain! Only she exists. Even if I no longer ‘love’ her, desire her, and no longer want her back. No matter. For recalling an key elements essay, episode with her means more than a life spent with someone else.  Besides the initial equation of Irma and Life, we can recognize in these remarks the basic form of an essay questions, affective and semantic dynamic that also permeates the key elements essay, essays of Soul and Form . The energy of Life, for Lukacs, will only come to the fore in initial, almost ephemeral “contact” with other persons.
By contrast, all institutional forms (“spiritual community”) and even all types of emotional continuity (“love”) appear to be threatening and poem analysis format, potentially stifling to essay, the liveliness of poem essay, Life. Lukacs may not only have believed during those years that remembering Irma was the exclusive way in which Life could become present for him individually; he may indeed have felt, on a more general level, that memory and “recalling” was the one truly possible form of key elements, partaking in Life at all because he believed it to format, be the one dimension of contact with Life capable of avoiding the key elements of persuasive, stifling interference of form, that is, of institutional form and of continuity as form. “Contact,” rather than any institutional framework, appeared as the essay, appropriate modality of exposing oneself to Life for Lukacs, because Life was supposed to be bound to the temporal dimension of the key elements, present, as an “imperceptibly short moment of transition,” according to Baudelaire’s description in Peintre de la vie modern (1858). On May 11, 2010, “at night,” Lukacs noted: “The moment when I am truly I is truly life, the horse winner symbolism essay, total life. And yet the of persuasive, ‘moods’ that permeate the ‘whole life’ are only recipe ‘momentary’ . . .” (29). Over thirteen months of diary entries he became increasingly obsessed with the essay, thought of removing every possible obstacle in his relationship with Irma that could have separated or alienated him from Life in its imagined purity or fullness—and being obsessed, that is, reacting with hyperbolic words and poem analysis essay format, feelings to anything that mattered to him, was the predominant mood in of persuasive essay Lukacs’s existence during that time. On May 29, “at night, while working,” he played with a distinction between “the life” and “life,” similar to one that he had already used, in the almost opposite poem essay format sense, for the introduction to Soul and Form . Within the diary, “life” seems to stand for key elements of persuasive essay, “everydayness,” that is, for everything that Lukacs was willing to desynthesis, avoid and to escape, whereas “the life” meant ecstatic immediacy: […] there is indeed a difference between ‘the’ life and ‘life.’ ‘The life’ washes away everything: the time, the development, the key elements, moments.
And, despite everything else, ‘life’ can bring and fifth-grade writing, keep together human beings, who (discounting the discountable) are empirically destined for each other. But ‘the’ life never discounts anything. It is beyond time and space. There is no forgetting, no forgiveness, no sentiment. In ‘the’ life essences make contact with essences.
Therefore it is a weakness—but a necessary weakness—on my part to be able to ‘forgive’ her. (32) Made possible by “the life,” what Lukacs evokes with the formula of key elements of persuasive essay, “essences making contact with essences” (as opposed to being “empirically destined for each other” by “life”), “naked life” so to speak, becomes central and decisive; while he seems to imply that “forgiving” Irma for abandoning him and for getting married would be a step towards a life as institutional continuity that would never be better than just livable—and thus mark a step away from Life in its absoluteness. The Rocking Horse Winner Symbolism? Paradoxically, the desire for “the life,” due to the phobia of of persuasive, everydayness and concreteness, leads Lukacs to the—practical and philosophical—conclusion that ecstatic intellectual concentration would keep him the closest to fifth-grade, pure vitality and key elements essay, energy (this is a “paradoxical” conclusion because, at first glance, nothing seems to on man epistle i alexander, be further away from Life than ecstatic intellectual concentration). Very much in this spirit, he writes on October 1, 1910: “Not a single day should pass without reading a few pages from a great philosopher. […] I have scattered myself, I have lived among people and involved myself in petty things. Must not do it” (37). Key Elements Essay? In spite of such intentions, it is not surprising that after Irma Seidler’s death Lukacs accused himself for recipe, his attitude of distance: “Perhaps I could have saved her, had I taken her hand and led her” (39).
At this point, however, the motif of key elements, distance from empirical “life” to be kept as a condition for exposing oneself to the plenitude and essay, immediacy of key elements, “the life” had long become central in Lukacs’s thinking and in his emotions, as we can see in his essay on the “essay” written as an introduction to Soul and Form . This text will now be the format, point of reference in Lukacs’s earlier writing for my attempt to find some inspiration for the present-day situation of Literary Studies. Evoking Life Philosophy as a horizon and Georg Lukacs’s relationship with Irma Seidler as a source of existential irritation and energy was more than just to provide a double contextualization for a reading of his text, “The Nature and Form of the Essay.” I needed to find some strong external orientation for an in-depth understanding, which this essay on the essay does not readily facilitate (and the orientation I was looking for lies in the discovery of key elements, Lukacs’s relentless endeavor to find an immediate access opening the lived experience of biology essay, Life—in German we could transcribe it as “Erlebnis des Lebens”). Juergen Kaube is certainly right: the key elements essay, almost deliberate conceptual inconsistency and the lack of an argumentative arch, both of which Lukacs cultivated in ways essay his writing and liked to associate with the essay as a genre, make difficult—if not impossible—any immanent approach to secure only fragments of meaning, not to speak of intellectual positions or of an key elements, integral interpretation. Even before really concentrating on the text in question, we encountered such practical problems of understanding. In the symbolism, notes from Lukacs’s diary, for example, it became visible how the distinction between the concepts of “life” and “soul” remains fluid—and therefore turns into a permanent source of confusion. Early on in the text, Lukacs announces that he wants “to try to define the essay […] by describing it as an art form” (17),  precisely before he begins to distinguish it as a genre and intellectual gesture from art and from science.  The second distinction, the one between “art” and “science,” dominates Lukacs’s opening pages, culminating in this sentence: “Science affects us by its contents, art by its forms; science offers us facts and the relationships between facts, but art offers us souls and destinies. Here the ways part; here there is no replacement and no transition” (18).
Art is in contact with Life (Lukacs writes: with “souls and destinies”), and key elements of persuasive, art has a tendency—and a capacity—to “dissolve all its content into form.” Science ( Wissenschaft ), by contrast, dissolves Life into content, that is into concepts and analysis, knowledge. To make things even more complicated—and more precise, one has to admit—Lukacs reminds his readers, a few paragraphs further down, that the distance between the key elements of persuasive, dimension of Life and the dimension of concepts is not really absolute. In doing so, he proposes yet another distinction between “the life” and poem analysis format, “Life” (“d a s Leben” and “L e b e n” on key elements of persuasive essay, the printed page of the questions, German text), which looks similar but is semantically different from the polarity between “life” and “the life” in his diary. Of Persuasive Essay? This time—converging with Edmund Husserl’s contrast between “experience” ( Erfahrung ) and “lived experience” ( Erlebnis )—“the life” refers to a concept drawn from Life whereas “life” stands for a state of desynthesis, immediacy (the English translation does well in using “life” for “das Leben” and “living” for “Leben”). Key Elements Essay? Altogether, Lukacs tries to show here how “life” and essay writing, “living” are ultimately and inevitably concomitant within human existence: “Elements of key elements essay, both are contained in desynthesis the lived experience of every human being, even if in always varying degrees of depth and intensity” (21). Now, for the German academic tradition—in which the early Lukacs had been intellectually socialized— Kunst-Wissenschaft , Literatur-Wissenschaft , and their discourses lie between “art” and “science” because these disciplines and their discourses approach “art” and “literature” under the conditions of “science.” But after several attempts that do not seem to of persuasive, do justice to Lukacs’s decisive intuition, he finally decides to describe the critical discourse as not “scientific,” that is as not dissolving art and Life into concepts, but as reaching the dimension of lived experience and, as we can safely supplement: as coming close to Life:  I mean intellectuality, conceptuality as sensed experience, as immediate reality, as spontaneous principle of existence; the world-view in its undisguised purity as an event of the soul, as the motive force of life. The question is posed immediately: What is life, what is man, what is destiny? But posed as a question only: for the answer, here, does not supply a “solution” like one of the answers of science or, at purer heights, those of philosophy. (22) That an exercise of “intellectuality” and “conceptuality” can lead authors and readers to “lived experience” ( Erlebnis ) and thus to Life is the surprising, perhaps even paradoxical claim and possibility that Lukacs associates with the essay as a generic form. For instead of transposing the forms of art and ways our environment, literature—and that would mean the Life and the soul inherent to art and literature—into concepts and questions, as science and philosophy would do, the critical essay uses form as its own “voice”:
Form is reality in the writings of critics; it is the voice with which they address their questions to life. That is the true and most profound reason why literature and key elements of persuasive essay, art are the typical, natural subject-matter of criticism. For here the the rocking symbolism essay, end-point of key elements of persuasive, poetry can become a starting-point and a beginning; here form appears, even in its abstract conceptuality, as something surely and concretely real. Essay? But this is key elements, not the only typical subject-matter of the essay, not the sole one. For the essayist needs form only as lived experience and he needs only its life, only the desynthesis recipe, living soul-reality it contains. But this reality is to be found in every immediate sensual expression of life, it can be read out of and read into of persuasive, every such experience. (24) Rather than moments of convergence, fusion, and a.p. biology essay, “inseparability” of of persuasive essay, soul / life and form, as Judith Butler states in her remarkable introduction to the English translation, I believe that Lukacs’s main concern and, if one can say so, his main discovery, was indeed the essay’s capacity to reach Life through form as lived experience, which capacity depends on its generic potential to use form as its “voice” (in other words: on the freedom not to subordinate the urge towards a literary use of language to standards of semantic and argumentative clarity). It is then hardly surprising that, in a beautiful and frequently quoted sentence, Lukacs characterizes the intermediary—and for him so specifically productive—status of the critical essay by saying that it “strives for truth” and finds “life”: “It is biology questions, true that the essay strives for truth: but just as Saul went out to look for his father’s she-asses and found a kingdom, so the essay, essayist who is really capable of looking for the truth will find at the end of his road the essay, goal he was looking for: life” (27). The more difficult question, however, the question for which I do not manage to find one well circumscribed answer in Lukacs’s introductory essay, lies in asking—to say it in a language different from of persuasive essay his own—how the our environment essay, lived experience of Life as provided by a critical essay and the potential function of the critical essay, can become different from the function covered by key elements art itself. Much of the text’s second part seems to struggle precisely with this problem, and recipe, Lukacs may well have failed to find a solution because he so liked to indulge in the obscurity-producing openness of his own writing and thinking.
Several times he seems to get stuck in trying to prove that experiencing the form of a literary text or of an key elements of persuasive, artwork, as presented by a critical essay, is not more abstract (and therefore less immediate) than the experience of a form of life presented by art or literature themselves. But this is not really the problem at stake—at least not from my specific reading perspective. The open question that one would like to see (but does not find) discussed has little to winner symbolism essay, do with whether a critical essay can come as close to Life as art or literature can. Rather, it is about how the essay’s impact on of persuasive essay, the reader may be different from the fifth-grade, impact of a literary text or an of persuasive essay, artwork. Biology Essay? Short of finding a clear-cut solution to this problem in Lukacs’s text, I would like to focus upon the recurrent motif of a specific condition of key elements, lightness that is supposed to characterize the critical essay in comparison to art and on man epistle, literature—Lukacs refers to it with the words “humor” and “irony.” The most relevant passage begins with a statement about a function that the critical essay does not fulfill: “most people have to believe that the writings of the essayists are produced only in essay order to explain books and fifth-grade writing, pictures, to facilitate their understanding” (25). Of Persuasive? But this, he implies, is not what the essay really does or, at i alexander, least, it is not the of persuasive essay, most important function that it covers. Instead, Lukacs discovers the “irony” of this genre without a stable form that lies in appearing to be so far away from what it ultimately does: And the irony I mean consists in the critic always speaking about the ultimate problems of life, but in a tone which implies that he is poem analysis essay, only discussing pictures and books, only the inessential and pretty ornaments of real life—and even then not their innermost substance but only their beautiful but useless surface. Thus each essay appears to be removed as far as possible from life, and the distance between them seems the greater, the more burningly and painfully we sense the actual closeness of the true essay of both. (25) It might be this “irony”—i.e. the distance from Life created by the critical essay together with a “burning” closeness—that is responsible for the acts and key elements, moments of judgment offered by it as a genre.
Lukacs speaks of such acts and moments towards the essay, end of his text: […] an original and deep-rooted attitude toward the key elements of persuasive, whole of recipe, life, a final, irreducible category of of persuasive, possibilities of experience. Therefore it needs not only to an essay on man pope, be satisfied (and thus abolished) but also to be given form which will redeem and release its most essential and now indivisible substance into eternal value. That is what the of persuasive, essay does. […] This “application” creates both that which judges and that which is judged, it encompasses a whole world in order to raise to eternity, in all its uniqueness, something that was once there. The essay is a judgment, but the on man epistle pope, essential, the key elements, value-determining thing is to save, not the verdict (as it is the essay, case with the system) but the process of judging. (33–34) Now, I will not venture into an interpretation of essay writing, these claims in order to translate Lukacs’s intuitions into coherent meaning, let alone into of persuasive, an overarching argument. There is no doubt that its impenetrable language is the a.p., most salient weakness of his essay on the essay—and perhaps also its most eccentric strength. It could be a strength, from of persuasive our present-day perspective, if we manage to see how individual essays have entered and are still entering a dimension of ways to save essay, intellectual life where well-shaped concepts must necessarily fail—a dimension that may still be relevant for our-self understanding as humanists, perhaps even more relevant today, a good century later, than when the text was first written and read.
In its truly outstanding entry on “Georg [Gyorgy] Lukacs,” the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy  provides an key elements essay, indirect answer to our question about the difference between art and the critical essays while both are approaching Life in format the modality of lived experience. The entry states that in his “Early Aesthetic Writings” Lukacs was predominantly concerned with the ability of approaching “life’s intensity and potentiality,” and of persuasive essay, that he saw this potentiality threatened by phenomena belonging to the everyday, by phenomena remaining on a “purely symbolic and writing, imaginary level”—and, also and more surprisingly, by the dimension of form. Key Elements? As he saw art as a dimension mainly constituted by fifth-grade essay form, any harmony between Life and form “achieved” through art would inevitably turn out to be “to the detriment” of Life’s intensity and potentiality. Due to its proverbial openness and due perhaps to using “voice” as a personal gestuality of writing (instead of generic form), this may indeed have been Lukacs’s key intuition, that the critical essay might have the possibility to bypass what Judith Butler calls “the death drive of form” (12). Why, however, the doubling of form and gestuality in key elements essay the critical essay (i.e. art and literature being constituted by form meet the critical essay using gestuality as its “voice” in approaching them), why this doubling of form and gestuality should be a strategy to avoid the Life-stifling effects of form will most likely remain Lukacs’s secret forever. And yet I agree with Adorno, in whose text “Der Essay als Form,” conceived and written between 1954 and 1955,  Lukacs’s essay on the essay from 1910, despite occasional reservations, appears as the ways to save, gold standard for identifying philosophical and critical functions of the genre. In a particularly impressive passage, Adorno implicitly suggests an explanation for the impenetrability of Lukacs’s language, by comparing the relation between the of persuasive essay, essay as a genre and its conceptual environment to that of a foreigner who tries to learn and to speak the language by which he is surrounded, without ever using a dictionary or a grammar: In the an essay epistle i alexander pope, way the essay appropriates concepts, we may best compare it to the behavior of somebody who, in a foreign country, is compelled to speak its language, instead of tinkering it together from the elements offered by essay a language course. Such a person will read without a dictionary. Once he has seen the same word thirty times in always changing contexts, he will have a fuller and more certain impression of its meaning than someone who would have looked up all those meanings.
For dictionary references are always too narrow in comparison to the versatility of meanings depending on different contexts and too imprecise in relation to those individual nuances that the context generates in each individual case. Such “learning,” however, always remains exposed to a risk of error—and so does the desynthesis, essay. Key Elements Of Persuasive? (29)  While Adorno—who may well have competed with the early Lukacs on ways to save our environment essay, the impenetrability of their language—does not make this premise explicit, it seems safe to assume that the “foreign language” to which the essay can expose itself and for which it tries to find tentative concepts (always with the “risk of of persuasive essay, error”) is an image for a.p. biology essay, situations which, different from language, do not allow for an appropriation through concepts.  Retranslated into the words of the early Lukacs, we could say that, by exposing itself to Life—more precisely: to art and literature as traces of Life—the essay tries to wrest concepts from that which resists conceptualization. Like Lukacs, Theodor W. Adorno also believes that the lived experience of Life’s intensity can only key elements essay occur in the transitory time of a moment, of a moment of epiphany in which things seem to desynthesis recipe, show themselves and become fully present, a moment, also, that will well compensate for any investment and even redeem eternity. To describe this intuition, Adorno uses two sentences from Nietzsche’s Will to Power : Let us assume that we said “Yes” to of persuasive essay, a single moment, then we will have said “Yes” not only to ourselves but to all existence. A.p. Essay Questions? For nothing just stands for itself, neither in us nor in the things of the world: and if our soul has only once vibrated and resonated with happiness like a chord, then all eternities were necessary to make this event possible—and all eternities were blessed, redeemed, justified and affirmed in this single moment of us saying “Yes.” (49)  Intensity, immediacy and suddenness  are probably the three dimensions today that we relate the most closely with aesthetic experience—a concept that was less frequently used a hundred years ago than now, although it could have been perfectly pertinent for Lukacs’s reflections about art, literature, and essay, the essay. At the ways our environment, beginning of my essay, reacting to Kaube’s critique of the essay in of persuasive essay the name of Wissenschaft , I had briefly mentioned the impression that a certain return from more “socially” or “politically” motivated endeavors to a concentration on (art and a.p. essay questions, literature as a potential for) aesthetic experience may have characterized the past two decades in academic criticism.
This return, I think, has been motivated by a longing for intensity—which I identify as that “key significance” for literature, art, and even philosophy in our time to key elements, which Kaube was alluding without naming it. The growing desire for intensity, finally, could follow from a global everyday environment in which contingency and randomness, distance and the impression that nothing can be immediately present, have indeed become universal. Analysis Essay? If the now past world of Modernity had presented itself as a field of contingency and relativity, as a field of contingency between what appears necessary and what appears possible, this existential situation, partly but not exclusively due to innovations and key elements of persuasive, changes in our technological environment,  now finds itself in a process of transformation where both what used to be impossible and what used to essay, be necessary are becoming “just possible.”  That such an existential situation without contours creates a desire, a nostalgic desire perhaps, to key elements, feel and to hold on to an environment of ways our environment essay, intensity—and if it were only for a moment—may suffice to explain our renewed need for aesthetic experience. But why should we use the essay—in all of its now unfolded complexity and with all of its uncertainties—as a medium to bring us closer to aesthetic experience? Why should we not simply and key elements, exclusively expose ourselves—and above all, our students—to the canon of great works of art, literature, and philosophy? And why do we not seek intensity in essay new challenges of our existence—besides art, literature, and philosophy? Of course confrontation with such challenges and of persuasive essay, non-mediated contact with objects of aesthetic experience is still—and will always remain—possible. But to expose ourselves to the challenges of the present, including the thought of a possible ending of humankind as a vanishing point that has all of a sudden begun to appear realistic, may simply be too much and too overwhelming for most of us. The critical essay, by contrast, offers intensity from a distance—a distance that we may describe as less “burning.” This is quite obviously one of its virtues.
But as a trace of individual resonance and reaction to aesthetic experience, it also points  in two other directions: to recipe, the existence of intensity as a potential and as a fact, so to speak, inviting those who are not familiar with it; and also to idiosyncratic ways, mostly non-rational idiosyncratic ways, of reacting to it. This longing for of persuasive, Life must be the ground that our present shares with the situation and the work of the young Georg Lukacs, especially with his fascination for the essay as a genre; the historical difference may be that, if such desire for Life was a sign of intellectual sophistication after 1900, it appears to pope, be part of a global condition today. It is one thing that there can be no fully adequate concept for what was—and is—at stake here; but the pleasure that Lukacs seems to have sometimes taken in not being understood is another. Ultimately he seems to conceive of the critical essay as a form of writing that brings the key elements of persuasive, dimension of recipe, unspeakable intensity to key elements essay, which he refers as “Life” as close to language as possible. Ways Our Environment Essay? Seen from this angle, the essay cannot help being an attempt for clarity—although Lukacs positions himself within a discursive tradition of Romanticism in which clarity can only be achieved by of persuasive essay facing and by going through complexity and darkness. In addition and finally, the language of Lukacs’s early texts is the language of a now remote intellectual world, a world that increasingly needs translation on the rocking symbolism essay, several levels if we want to keep it alive and in reach, both with a historical and with an existential motivation. My interest in key elements of persuasive Georg Lukacs, especially in his earlier work, was first awakened by Pal Kelemen and Amalia Kerekes. Without the biology, inspiring enthusiasm of these Hungarian friends and without a visit to the house in Budapest where Lukacs spent the later years of his life, I would not have dared to (firstly speak and then) write about the of persuasive, topic of this essay, i.e. the essay as a genre in Lukacs’s thinking and practice as an author. Ways Our Environment Essay? Thanks also to my eminent Stanford colleague (and beloved neighbor) Denise Gigante for her invitation—and, above all, for her angelical patience. See L.Cerny, “Essay,” in Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie , vol.
2, eds. Key Elements Essay? Joachim Ritter et al. (Basel: Schwabe Co, 1972), 746–49, here 746. ? Heinz Schlaffer, “Essay,” in Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturwissenschaft , vol. 1, eds. Klaus Weimar et al. (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1997), 523–25, here 523ff. Essay Questions? ? A sociologist in the Weberian tradition by training, Kaube is the editor of the weekly supplement on the Humanities and Arts (“Geisteswissenschaften”) in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , Germany’s most intellectually influential daily newspaper. He also regularly teaches for several departments in the Humanities at the universities in Bielfeld and in Heidelberg. ? “Der Essay als Freizeitform von Wissenschaft,” in essay Merkur—deutsche Zeitschrift fuer europpaeisches Denken 776 (2014), 57–61. ? The text was originally written in Lukacs’s native Hungarian language and served as an introduction to seven other essays by ways to save our environment him, first published in key elements of persuasive essay 1910 in essay Budapest.
While there is no hope of fully reconstructing the of persuasive, philological details involved, it seems almost certain today that Lukacs had a number of friends translate these (and at least one of two additional) essays for a German publication that appeared a year later: Die Seele und die Formen: Essays (Berlin: Egon Fleischel Co, 1911). (The German title of the introductory text is “Ueber Form und Wesen des Essays.”) See Thomas von Ahn and on man i alexander, Hans-Harald Mueller, “Georg Lukacs’s ‘Ueber Wesen und Form des Essays’: Philologische und narrative Analyse einer Selbstthematsierung des Essays.” In Narratologie interkulturell: Studien zu interkulturellen Konstellationen in der deutschsprachigen und ungarischen Literatur 1800–1930 , eds. Key Elements? Tom Kindt and pope, Katalin Teller. (Frankfurt: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2005), 49–77. I will quote Lukacs from the of persuasive essay, English translation of the desynthesis, German book version: Soul and Form , trans. by Anna Bostock, eds. John T. Sanders and of persuasive, Katie Terezakis, with an introduction by Judith Butler (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010). ? After reading Lukacs’s essays in the first Hungarian manuscript version, for example, his friend Leo Popper commented with approval and enthusiasm: “That these essays are of a lyrical character will become clear to the rocking winner symbolism essay, their readers by the sheer fact that they cannot understand them” (see von Ahn and Mueller, 53). ? Theodor W. Essay? Adorno, “Der Essay als Form,” in Noten zur Literatur , vol. 1. To Save Our Environment Essay? (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1958), 9–49, especially 14ff. ? For further references, see my article “Warum wir Klassiker brauchen. Key Elements Of Persuasive Essay? Ideengeschichten aus dem Kalten Krieg,” in Zeitschrift fuer Ideengeschichte (2010), 111-20, and essay, “Klassiker anders, heute,” in key elements essay Kanon und Bestenlisten : Was gilt in der Kultur? Was zaehlt fuer Deutschlands Nachbarn? , eds. An Essay On Man Epistle I Alexander Pope? Bertholt Franke et al. (Goettingen: Vandenhoek, 2012), 53–66. ? This is the conclusion at which von Ahn’s and Mueller’s well-informed investigation arrives. For more details regarding the publishing history, see the of persuasive essay, survey in the same article (66) and my previous footnote 5. ? A compact selection of Popper’s writings (with an excellent epilogue) is available in the German original under the title Schwere und Abstraktion: Versuche (Berlin: Brinkmann Bose, 1987). ? Popper was in favor of the German translation ( Versuche )—and it is therefore appropriate that the collection of desynthesis recipe, his texts from key elements of persuasive 1987 (see footnote 10) uses this word in its title. ? Von Ahn and Mueller, 64. ? See the ways our environment, emphasis on the relationship with Irma Seidler as decisive for key elements of persuasive essay, the essays of Seele und Form in Judith Butler’s introduction to the English translation of Soul and poem essay format, Form , 11ff. ? “Dem Andenken Irma Seidlers” ? My friend Amalia Kerekes suggests that this phrase may go back to a proposal from Leo Popper that could have made the reference to key elements of persuasive essay, Irma Seidler less oblique: “In die Haende sei dieses Buch gelegt, die mir es gaben” (“In the hands that gave it to me this book may be placed”). ? Available as a supplement to the English translation, 210–14. To Save? ? Regarding the intellectual and emotional life of the young Georg Lukacs, above all his relationship with Irma Seidler, no other book or article that I consulted can compete with the density of historical detail and the depth of understanding offered by Thomas Harrison in 1910: The Emancipation of Dissonance (Berkeley: California University Press, 1997), especially 88–90, 189–90. ? See G. Key Elements Of Persuasive? Pflug, “Lebensphilosophie,” in Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie , vol.
5, eds. Joachim Ritter et al. (Basel: Schwabe Co, 1986), 135-40. ? In doing so, he probably relied on the tradition arising from ancient philosophy and strengthened by medieval theology that applied “anima” both to the spiritual and bodily dimensions of human life as inseparable. ? About the concept of “Life” in the early work of Lukacs, see Harrison, 99–100, 194. ? Quoted (including the remarks in square brackets) after The Lukacs Reader , ed. Arpad Kadarkay (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), 28 (the Diary is 26–41). Symbolism Essay? ? The wording of the German text may suggest that this was only an initial and key elements, therefore transitory strategy: “Ich versuche den Essay so scharf wie ueberhaupt moeglich zu isolieren eben dadurch, dass ich ihn jetzt als Kunstform bezeichne.” On the final page of his text, Lukacs indeed comes explicitly back to the early “definition” of the essay as an art form, and now underlines that it both is and is not an artform: “Jetzt erst klaenge es nicht widerspruchsvoll, doppelsinnig und wie eine Verlegenheit, ihn ein Kunstwerk zu nennen und doch fortwaehrend das ihn von der Kunst Unterscheidende hervorzuheben: er steht dem Leben mit der gleichen Gebaerde gegenueber wie das Kunstwerk, doch nur die Gebaerde, die Souveraenitaet dieser Stellungnahme kann die gleiche sein, sonst gibt es zwischen ihnen keine Beruehrung” (“Only now would it not be contradictory, ambiguous and a.p., false to call it a work of art and yet insist on key elements of persuasive essay, emphasizing the recipe, thing that differentiates it from art: it faces life with the same gesture as the work of of persuasive, art, but only the on man epistle i alexander pope, gesture, the sovereignty of its attitude is the same; otherwise there is no correspondence between them”). ? Adorno in “Der Essay als Form” (12ff.) noted and criticized this inconsistency, despite his great appreciation for key elements of persuasive essay, Lukacs’s text—but without taking into the rocking winner symbolism essay, account the explanation on the final page. ? The English translation chooses “sensed experience” for “sentimentales Erlebnis” (15). ? Stahl, Titus, “Georg [Gyorgy] Lukacs,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2013 Edition), ed. Essay? Edward N. Zalta, http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2013/entries/lukacs. ? According to the edition of his Noten zur Literatur , vol. 1, 196. ? This becomes clear only desynthesis towards the end of key elements essay, Adorno’s text where he says that the essay “wants to break open with concepts what cannot be adapted to concepts and what betrays, through the contradiction into which it gets entangled, that the a.p. questions, pretended network of its objectivity is key elements, a purely subjective process” (48). ? Adorno quotes from: Der Wille zur Macht , vol. 2. Werke , vol. 10 (Leipzig, 1906), 206 (paragraph 1032). Our Environment? I translate from the 1906 edition that he used—and that has meanwhile come under heavy revision within the history of Nietzsche-philology. ? This concept is irreversibly connected to the life work of key elements of persuasive, Karl Heinz Bohrer, Germany’s most sophisticated and most prolific thinker in the field of aesthetic experience.
Unfortunately, only a small selection from his writing is available in English, as Suddenness: On the Moment of Aesthetic Experience (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981). The Rocking Winner Symbolism Essay? ? See Robert Pogue Harrison’s blog, “The Children of Silicon Valley,” in of persuasive essay the New York Review of Books , July 17, 2014, http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2014/jul/17/children-silicon-valley. ? My book Our Broad Present: Time and the rocking horse winner essay, Contemporary Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014), esp. 73–79, is dedicated to a first description of key elements essay, this situation. ? In the essay, final chapter of The Powers of Philology: Dynamics of Textual Scholarship (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003), 68–87, I have tried to describe similar perspectives as “deictic” functions of criticism. ? Stanford strives to post only content for essay, which we have licensed permission or that is otherwise permitted by copyright law. If you have a concern that your copyrighted material is posted here without your permission, please contact us and we will work with you to resolve your concern. © 2017 Arcade bloggers retain copyright of their own posts, which are made available to the public under a Creative Commons license, unless stated otherwise. If any Arcade blogger elects a different license, the poem format, blogger's license takes precedence.