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Brute Forcing Passwords with ncrack, hydra and medusa. Ready to test a number of password brute forcing tools? Password's are often the weakest link in any system. Testing for hbs essay word limit, weak passwords is an important part of security vulnerability assessments. I am going to focus on tools that allow remote service brute forcing. These are typically Internet facing services that are accessible from creative programs california, anywhere in the world. Hbs Essay Word? Another type of password brute forcing is attacks against the password hash , using tools such as Hashcat a powerful tool that is able to crack encrypted password hashes on a local system.
The three tools I will assess are Hydra, Medusa and Ncrack (from nmap.org). Installation of all three tools was straight forward on angel's espaÃ±ol Ubuntu Linux. Use the word, standard method to compile an application from source. The New Mfa Creative Writing? Then I grabbed a list of 500 passwords from hbs essay word, skullsecurity.org. Of course you can find password lists with many thousands or even millions of passwords. You will need to angel's lyrics espaÃ±ol, chose what is the most appropriate for your password testing as factors such as target type and rate of testing will be major factors.
The following tests were performed against a Linux Virtual Machine running on Virtualbox. Speed will vary depending on whether the target is local, the hbs essay word limit, latency of the connection and even the processing power of the target system. Creative? Heavy brute forcing can impact a targets CPU potentially causing a denial of service condition. Take care if testing production systems. The first series of tests was against SSH. Word Limit? I set the root account with the password toor . I added toor to the end of the 500 password list at number 499. Successfully found the password with Hydra! Successfully found the password with Ncrack! Success again with Medusa, however it took over certificate california 10 times as long with the default settings of each tool.
Lets try and speed things up a bit. cranking up Medusa speed to use 5 concurrent logins fails with the following error: Trying Ncrack at a faster rate was a bit faster but not much. Is Hydra any faster? Here I added the option for 32 threads. No change really. Perhaps the limiting factor for Hydra and Ncrack is the hbs essay word limit, speed of the new mfa creative writing response from the VirtualBox machine. Hbs Essay Limit? Either way it appears the default speed is pretty good for creative certificate programs, both tools. Hbs Essay Limit? Now to try hitting the FTP server on the same host (vsftpd). Attempting to push it faster. Same result. Limiting factor is likely the VM. Oops, did we crash the sexism in heart, FTP service?
Now testing with Medusa. Medusa also appears to be struggling. Hbs Essay Limit? Lets go back and check again with ncrack to the new school mfa creative admissions, ensure the service is still ok. ncrack for the win! ncrack has the ability to word limit, also brute force RDP accounts. So lets now hit a Windows box with Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol enabled. Protocol support varies for the different tools: There is much more that could be tested for a more comprehensive review. Other protocols, different targets, latency and Further tweaking of the thesis, scan speeds and hbs essay word, threads. While ncrack has limited protocol support compared to Hydra and Medusa the only conclusion for this little test; when it comes to speed, reliability and the ability to hit RDP services ncrack wins!!
17 Responses to Brute Forcing Passwords with ncrack, hydra and medusa. A Cruel Thesis Lyrics EspaÃ±ol? which ftp server did you test ? as it returns 500 OOPS: priv_sock_get_cmd, seems it drops some connections. Hbs Essay Word Limit? vsftpd on VirtualBox. Default (apt-get install). what does 500 OOPS: priv_sock_get_cmd mean anyway? I am guessing but I suspect the socket is critical essay, not available due to the resource being busy and the error is not handled very well. Update: Latest version of Hydra has fixed these timing issues. Nice one. I really enjoyed it. Where in hbs essay word limit the directory can i put the ncrack and the username and password and sexism of darkness essay, command to limit, run in expository essay the terminal..please help. ncrack does really get the job done. i have it and love it. Hbs Essay Limit? hi i am having problem #8216;make#8217;ing ncrack i get the following errors at the end.
As i am new to linux, i don#8217;t understand the error? make: Entering directory `/home/Dave/ncrack-0.4ALPHA/ncrack-0.4ALPHA/modules#8217; g++ -c -I.. -I../nsock/include -I../nbase -I../opensshlib -DHAVE_CONFIG_H ncrack_ssh.cc -o ncrack_ssh.o. In file included from ../ncrack.h:159:0, /usr/include/stdio.h:246:8: error: declaration of mfa creative admissions C function ‘char* asnprintf(char*, size_t*, const char*, #8230;)’ conflicts with. Word Limit? ../nbase/nbase.h:253:16: error: previous declaration ‘int asnprintf(char**, size_t, const char*, #8230;)’ here. Makefile:16: recipe for target `ncrack_ssh.o#8217; failed. make: *** [ncrack_ssh.o] Error 1. make: Leaving directory `/home/Dave/ncrack-0.4ALPHA/ncrack-0.4ALPHA/modules#8217; Makefile:70: recipe for target `modules_build#8217; failed. make: *** [modules_build] Error 2. If you use Ubuntu, you should install libss-dev in order to research, compile ncrack. Hbs Essay Limit? Try using this command: sudo apt-get install libssl-dev. i am having a problem on #8216;make install#8217; of medusa plz help.
Making install in a rose for emily essay src. make: Entering directory `/home/user/Desktop/medusa/medusa-2.1.1/src#8217; Making install in modsrc. make: Entering directory `/home/user/Desktop/medusa/medusa-2.1.1/src/modsrc#8217; make: Entering directory `/home/user/Desktop/medusa/medusa-2.1.1/src/modsrc#8217; make: Nothing to be done for `install-exec-am#8217;. test -z #8220;/usr/local/lib/medusa/modules#8221; || /bin/mkdir -p #8220;/usr/local/lib/medusa/modules#8221; /usr/bin/install -c cvs.mod http://ftp.mod imap.mod mysql.mod nntp.mod pcanywhere.mod pop3.mod rexec.mod rlogin.mod rsh.mod smtp.mod smtp-vrfy.mod snmp.mod telnet.mod vmauthd.mod wrapper.mod #8216;/usr/local/lib/medusa/modules#8217; /usr/bin/install: cannot create regular file `/usr/local/lib/medusa/modules/cvs.mod#8217;: Permission denied. /usr/bin/install: cannot create regular file `/usr/local/lib/medusa/modules/ftp.mod#8217;: Permission denied. /usr/bin/install: cannot create regular file `/usr/local/lib/medusa/modules/vmauthd.mod#8217;: Permission denied. /usr/bin/install: cannot create regular file `/usr/local/lib/medusa/modules/wrapper.mod#8217;: Permission denied. make: *** [install-modulesPROGRAMS] Error 1. make: Leaving directory `/home/user/Desktop/medusa/medusa-2.1.1/src/modsrc#8217; make: *** [install-am] Error 2#8243; Even i changed the permission of that directory, but its not working. dictionary attack !== bruteforce attack. THAT#8217;S CALLED DICTIONARY ATTACK. A dictionary attack is hbs essay word limit, a type of brute force, just different from a keyspace brute force. can somone teach me how to get password of a twitter account ive looked up many tuts but keep hitting dead ends.
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Processes For Effective Supply Chain Integration Commerce. Many business organisations globally are currently faced with how best to hbs essay manage their business processes for effective supply chain integration. In this regard,the rapid developments in e-business technologies and the performance measures developed by Kaplan and Norton balanced scorecard(BSC) is facilitating management of of the operational linkages which links the expository various systems,procedures and routines of word limit buying and selling organisations comprising suppliers,manufacturers,wholesalers,customers in an ever more affordable and revolutionary way. The objective of a cruel espaÃ±ol this essay is to evaluate the adoption of hbs essay inter-organisational information systems(IOIS) in managing the for emily critical supply chain management processes in combination with the BSC performance measures. It is found that using IOIS to aid in hbs essay word limit, the management of supply chain systems reaps a good number of associated benefits that is ap psychology research paper ideas useful to the management of supply chain systems when aligned with each of the perspectives of the BSC. Many sectors of the global economy today are increasingly adopting supply chain management(SCM) for enhanced performance of their business processes and to solve problems that may arise from strong competition in inter-organisational purchaser-suppliers relationships(Saad,JonesJames,2002) .The major challenge currently facing many of these business organisations is in managing an effective system of supply chain integration relating to the operational linking of autonomous businesses with the following multi-dimensional goals and objectives:
The methods in which supply chain management is carried out hbs essay limit, has changed over the last decade. Thesis Lyrics. From face to face management,manual tracking systems and paper dominated to the adoption of new tools and techniques such as e-purchasing,electronic marketplace and hbs essay word, the wide use of the internet in particular(Lanciom,SchauSmith,2003).These techniques today emphasis the need for businesses globally to be agile and responsive to meet the demands of competition(GhiassiSpera,2003).The key to this competition is information management. In particular,information âa‚¬A“is the substance from which managerial decisions are made which is of vital importance in in heart, supply chain management(Forrester,1962). (Chew et al,2008 ) argue that any delay in information transfer,insufficient or altered information is potentially detrimental to the activities necessary for successful implementation of a supply chain system. A characteristic of all supply chains is that they consist of various players from word limit, different business entitites and so information sharing becomes very useful in the management of supply chains(Doolan,Traxler McBride,2006).Information sharing is made possible through communication linking the various organisations within the supply chain so as to meet the angel's lyrics challenges of doing business in an increasingly complex and competitive business environment. In this context the hbs essay limit prime goal of any organisation is to essay have a medium. in place where inputs from various partners or organisations within the supply chain can share and hbs essay word limit, exchange information with each other. This medium is an inter-organisational information system(IOIS) which canbe defined as a set of components related to each other which collects,interprets,process,filter and distribute information to support decisions between various partners(Kim,Cavusgilcolantone,2006 ).The use of IOIS is a rose for emily critical increasingly being adopted in supply chain management by many industry sectors as a result of rapid developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) which comprises electronic data interchange,the internet and the world wide web(WWW),that solve managerial problems within the supply chain networks that are increasingly complex requiring speedy flow of information.(Gunasekaran and Ngai,2004).Almost all industry sectors ranging from hbs essay word limit, airlines,automotive,retailing transport ,health care have been identified for adopting inter-organisational information systems particularly serving as an ordering system through which organisations are interconnected with their customers,suppliers and with the various points of distributions and operating using the internet(Cavaye and ap psychology, Cragg,1995).A large number of research studies point to the potential benefits that are derived through the integration of inter-organisational information systems in managing a supply chain network (Zheng et al,2006).Inorder to measure the management performance of the hbs essay word positive role of inter-information systems in supply chain networks both in the short term and long term a balanced scorecard approach is essay used.The balanced score card primarily serves in assessing and evaluating corporate performance based on four important criteria which includes the financial perspective,the non financial perspectives comprising-the internal business process,the customer perspective and the learning and growth perspective (Protti,2002).The use of the BSC together with inter-organisational information systems is vital for word limit managerial purposes in creative writing certificate programs, better assessing inter-organisational information systems in. the supply chain management process in line with the business goals and objectives of the organisation(Smandek et al,2010).The role of the limit BSC as a management system in the development of strategy,ensures that both at the individual and team level management are on track with the writing programs california application of strategy,setting long term strategic targets or acts as a blueprint in setting up future thresholds or targets, together with the allocation of short and long term resources and providing the necessary feedback of the hbs essay word limit outcome which aids in adopting future management strategies(Protti,2002).The current use of BSC now plays a key role in assessing web services which is central to inter-organisational information systems(Ravarini et al,2005). The role of the balanced scorecard when applied in measuring the performance of inter-organisational information systems in the management of essay supply chain processes serves as a strategic management tool in word limit, ensuring that there is a balance in relation to short and long term set goals and objectives of the organisation in line with both the financial and non-financial measures(customer,business processes and operations,learning and essay, growth) and in relation to those areas that management can find insufficient in achieving their set objectives or the areas that show that the set objectives are attained(Protti,2005).It is of significant importance to fully understand the word objectives of the supply chain management process inorder to illustrate the benefits of implementing an inter-organisational information system by setting out well defined goals in angel's lyrics, relation to hbs essay word limit each of those objectives.(Protti,2005),before preceding with developing a BSC which will act as the blueprint in directing the optimal use of ap psychology interorganisational information systems by those responsible for using and managing the inter-organisational information systems.The potential ways in which inter-organisational systems plays a positive part in managing supply chain networks canbe distingushed into tangible and intangible benefits.The tangible benefits are those whose performance canbe measured using the BSC while the intangible benefits cannot be measured(Milis and Merken,2004).To fully understand the role of an inter-organisational information system in managing the supply chain management process in relation to each of the perspectives of the BSC is hbs essay limit exhaustively discussed in the essay. Discussions:Balanced Scorecard and Interorganisational Information Systems in supply chain management. The write-up below describes how utilizing the IOIS meets with each of the perspectives of the balanced scorecard in managing the supply chain processes.
Learning and growth perspective : An integrated supply chain using IOIS should be managed not only for creative california the purposes of cost reduction but also for innovation and value creation(Bath et al.2003).Thus strategies should be frequently updated to realise and improve the ways the employees use IOIS in supply chain management and how the hbs essay word limit technology of the system can be enhanced through updating or replacing old applications to produce better management results(Smandek et al,2010).For instance adopting smarter systems with intelligent capabilities can enable companies to closely monitor and make modifications on their business processes through automation using self learning software agents .This agents can make corrections through calculations on various scenarios drawing upon inputs from both historical and current state information available(Ghiassi and Spera,2003).IOIS is a learning tool for organisations in improving their employee competencies. For instance as cited by (Lancioni,Smith Oliva,2000),Huffy Services a technical service company,used the internet as a tool to keep in constant contact with its field technicians. In the process the firm learned to use the data collected from the internet to make changes that resulted in more efficient scheduling of of darkness its field personnel and timely response to the needs of its customers. The data captured and hbs essay word limit, stored within the for emily database systems in limit, IOIS such as from customer enquiries or partners problems logged into sexism essay, the system can be retrieved by management for survey purposes so as to make adequate future changes to services or products offered by the company(White,Daniel and word, Mohdzain,2005).This will result in innovations that is beneficial in meeting with long term or future objectives of the organisations. Data related to either ordering or production data is ap psychology ideas not only hbs essay limit shared by each of the partners within a particular supply chain process but it aids in managing the sexism of darkness forecasting and planning of the firms future operations.This canbe implemented within the context of a collaborative approach with each of the various partners contributing in the decision making process with the hbs essay aid of their previous experiences on the business process they were involved in.
As such better decision can be made for future adoption of strategies necessary for effective and efficient management of the demands of a collective supply chain where each supplier are interlinked..to one another and their overall inputs is necessary to determine the performance of the system(Akkermans,Bogerd and frame, Doremalen,2004) Internal Business Processes and Operations perspectives: The performance of each of the suppliers within a supply chain network is a key determinant in achieving the objectives of the supply chain. Word. An appropriate supplier measurement system is particularly beneficial to companies in terms of for emily critical essay better quality of products ,achieving just in time production and in the process it considerably decreases the order to delivery time of items and hbs essay word, the level of inventory in stock .All these benefits are possible through the information flow within an a cruel thesis espaÃ±ol inter-organisational information systems (Doolen,Traxler and McBride,2005). Through the word limit communication channels of IOIS systems such as the internet difficulty in managing production scheduling is reduced as scheduling information can be shared speedily between vendors,firms and customers within the supply chain system.(Rahman,2003). The IOIS enables the linking of order entries to manufacturing planning systems that speeds up the availability of demand requirements(Ghiassi Spera,2003).Furthermore,orders placed or any updates in expository essay, the order configurations and situations such as changes in demand level can quickly be responded to using information available to word limit management of the SCM and in the process reducing stock-outs(Gunasekan,Lai Cheng,2008).The inter-organisational information systems can be used to exchange vital information regarding production planning for instance Williamson,Harrison and Jordan(2004) provide the example in the motor industry where data collected from online ordering process is directly fed continuously in real time to the manufacturing plant which management can then use the data to make decisions on what levels of production need to be achieved at a given time based on paper ideas customer demands and in the process suppliers of the raw materials or those engaged in component parts manufacture also receive this information from the manufacturing plant in order that they can also match their own side of the tasks to the needs of the limit manufacturing plant The balanced scorecard is key in checking at all times that the inter-organisational information systems implemented is providing increased value to the organisation in accordance with the overall supply chain objectives(Smandek et al,2010).For instance questions such as whether or not the inter-organisational information systems is for emily critical quickly making available information on items such as monitoring the inventory stock online at a given period .In so doing data on the stock levels is readily used by management to ensure that inventory stocks within the supply chain are maintained at acceptable levels in relation to the need for them in the system.Inorder to practically understand how the system works, Conspectus (2003) technically cites the example of Londis implementation of inter-organisational information systems in hbs essay limit, which the sexism essay suppliers operating within the system could have direct access to particular product information through direct access to Londis stock database to get updates on the stock levels,returns,falling sales volume and handling costs.Through real time access to this information one of the BSC core objectives of operational efficiency is hbs essay word limit met with the subsequent windfall benefits of process cost reductions attained and also resulting in better volume of sales which is within the financial criteria.Managers using reporting system which can provide aid in evaluating the quantity of finished goods in stock ,the inventory levels, and raw materials at manufacturing and at various depots in storage locations(Williamson,Harrison and a rose for emily critical, Jordan,2004).Orders are also made available to the market on time to meet the demands of customers.(Ghiassi Spera,2003).Using the internet customer management processes is word limit facilitated with a 24 hour access to the services offered by companies with regard to expository essay frame any issues they may face.(Rahman,2003).For instance Waste Management Inc. makes use of the internet as a tool customers can request product update information through its website email system. This resulted in greater satisfaction by its customers(Lancioni,Smith Oliva,2000).The system can be expanded by management more easily by increasing the number of suppliers in the supply chain process .Thus providing greater level of word limit flexibility in terms of ap psychology paper quickly responding and managing any unforeseen changes n production operations that requires additional suppliers to the system such as increase customer demand. Another major area of crucial importance is distribution in any supply chain management process due to hbs essay word limit its vulnerabilities. If for instance goods are delayed due to breakdown in writing programs, transportation vehicles,information can immediately be made available to management to take the necessary steps to deal with the hbs essay word situation and also the transportation vehicles can be tracked to understand their performance issue(lanciom et al,2000).//The outcome is an improvement in for emily critical essay, operational efficency and the data collected can also used for future decision making processes. Inter-organisational information systems when used in the supply chain management processes helps in the production of enhanced products which is a supply chain management objective that can meet customer expectations or even exceed it in terms of the product quality.For instance in the case study of stealth B-1 bomber manufacture Agyres(1999) research studies found that collaboration among the various partners within the hbs essay supply chain process in the design and production stages of the the stealth aircraft, produced an air craft with state-of-the-art technology. A Rose For Emily Essay. The success was attributed to the inputs from the various partners made possible by the use of inter-organisational information systems in which the information collected from each of hbs essay word limit them with regards to innovative ideas and guidelines on how the aircraft should be built was analysed resulting in a well designed and innovatively built aircraft . One of the paper ideas most fundamental reasons for firms adopting an inter-organisational information system apart from cost reduction and performance benefits in their supply chain operations is to provide better quality of customer service.
In order for these firms to meet the current challenges of word customers who are becoming increasingly more sophisticated in the range and creative writing certificate programs california, quality of the services they require, needs careful management of the customer service operations consisting of sales and hbs essay word, support processes in the face of increased market competition (White,Daniel and Mohdzain,2005).Through the internet customers have availability for 24 hour service and support. The interactive nature of the internet between the customer and the firm in the SCM processes enables the prompt management of any issues for resolutions from customer resulting in excellent customer-firm relationship. The outcome is increase in customer satisfaction levels and such customers are more likely to become loyal to the firm and purchase the products agin (Rahman,2003).Additionally,the possibility of responding to customers emergency demands for good or services is facilitated ensuring that the firms can more quickly satisfy the needs of their customers. Thus,order processing is carried out faster resulting in almost half reduction in order to delivery cycle time that is carried out certificate programs, within the supply chain and word limit, the inter-organisational information system can be used for management purposes to a rose for emily essay monitor the performance of the hbs essay order process and customer enquiries resulting inoperational excellence(Williamson,Harrison,Jordan,2004).The IOIS enables companies to implement and manage mass customisation during sales which canbe attributed to their products leading in the market.For instance Dell Computer Corporation which leads in internet based mass customisation has been most profitable PC computer company since 1999.this is a cruel angel's espaÃ±ol carried out by the customers building their own computers online based on their personal needs and specification(Ghiassi Spera,2003).Dell also ensures that delivery of the product is made available to the customer within 5days thereby achieving operational excellence in the process. The current rise in word, competition amongst businesses today now places more emphasis on cost control so that firms can reap the benefits of better returns on capital investments,in which the full application of ap psychology paper ideas ICT is crucial to meet these demands.ICT is intrinsically central to any inter-organisational information system and hbs essay word, would therefore serve in meeting these goal in the supply chain management process with the school mfa creative writing admissions BSC as the performance management measuring tool, so that the positive impact can aid in managing the supply chain system.which is part of the word limit entire business process.(Milis Merken,2004;Protti,2002).
The adoption of inter-organisational information systems is the equivalence in economic terms to major infrastructural projects like roads,business schools. Just like these other investments the a rose critical essay nature is word limit usually long term characterised by significantly high investments .The usefulness of inter-organisational information systems which is IT centric is difficult to predict if the level of investments will be beneficial in the overall supply chain management process. A possible solution is to creative writing certificate programs california bring out the value or importance of organisational informations systems to the supply chain management process so as to encourage the right expenditure for these systems,so as to aid in hbs essay word, facilitating the management of the supply chain process (Protti,2005). A characteristic of supply chain systems is the likelihood that it comprises of partners operating from various locations world wide. The challenge will be how to manage the a cruel angel's espaÃ±ol process of negotiations with partners operating from different locations across the hbs essay word limit globe .An inter-organisational system having multimedia facilities can facilitate these negotiations to be carried out in real time without involving the necessity for employees of the various organisations to displace themselves .This has an advantage in reducing cost related to transactions in moving employees for negotiations (Porter,2001). Through IOIS management can create new revenue sources through e-market place,e-commerce and the possibility of business-to-business exchanges and e-hubs.Through this the potentials of sexism in heart essay market liquidity and transaction costs reduction are achieved(Baatz,1999. The use of inter organisational informations systems is rapidly being adopted by an increasing number of organisations supply chain management processes and is linked to word better economic performance by these organisations(Williams,1997).There are several ways that this can be achieved.For instance through inter-organisational information systems companies can cut down cost by reducing the number of programs manual tasks carried out by staff through automation of such processes which is a key characteristic function of all inter-organisational information systems.The automated entry of data will result in the occurrence of less errors recorded and as such a higher degree of information accuracy can be derived through which management can use for proper decision making processes on supply chain management. Hbs Essay. Also the organisation will not need to employ staff for manual data entry processes which will reduce the overall labour costs resulting to financial benefits for the organisation.A Morgon/Stanley(2000) report for instance puts the cost of manual processing of purchase orders in the range of 125$ to $175.But through online purchasing of items the a cruel lyrics cost drops drastically to between $10 to $15 per order. The technical architecture of IOIS in supply chain management is very crucial in meeting very high levels of customer demands. High volumes of information on transactions can be processed in real time using any platforms. The effect is the revenue growth for the organisation and higher profits are achieved.(Ghiassi Spera,2003).
It is of prime importance to most business entities to continuously strive in having very effective and efficient supply chain management processes to manage the hbs essay word various functions within their supply chain networks that includes activities such as purchasing,warehousing,materials management, and distribution of sexism in heart goods (Williamson,Harrison and Jordan,2004). The principal goal or outcome these companies expect from these processes in word, utilizing inter-organisational information systems is to check that it is aligned to their financial objectives of cost control.The adoption of a rose critical essay technology to manage these processes in particular is to reap advantages of effective and efficient supply chain management processes to hbs essay attain the sexism in heart essay financial goals of the firm in order to maximise profits. Furthermore, this will serve the word organisation in the production of higher quality of products which is attractive to customers in the market resulting in larger sales volumes /(Chaffey,2002). The use of inter-organisational information systems whose performance is managed in accordance with the views of balanced score card is a strategic tool in the management of the supply chain process. Financially it reduces the cost of production and the new school admissions, distribution by enabling effective management of word limit organisational resources.
Higher levels of efficiency at the operational levels are met and customers are better served using the system in faster and more innovative ways as the essay managers have faster access to information which helps them in making changes at their operational level and responding more quickly to these challenges.There is hbs essay limit better management of customer activities as data captured is used in providing better customer services and helping in designing products that meets with customer expectations.The role of inter-organisational information systems when managed on the basis of the balanced score card strongly aids in the management of the supply chain management processes by meeting with the the new objectives or goals of hbs essay word managing a complex supply chain network consisting of several partners. Article name: Processes For Effective Supply Chain Integration Commerce essay, research paper, dissertation.
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War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought. It then attempts to show that Aquinas’s thinking on war is rooted in his understanding of the virtues by providing a brief overview of how the cardinal virtues (prudence, justice, fortitude, temperance) and theological virtues (faith, hope, and charity) are connected to just war considerations. KEY WORDS: Thomas Aquinas, just war, cardinal virtues, theological virtues, virtue ethics Introduction In recent years there has been much scholarly debate regarding war and the moral basis for using military force in order to uphold international law, protect human rights, and combat the threat of terrorism around the hbs essay limit, world. We will write a custom essay sample. on War and the Virtues in ap psychology research paper ideas, Aquinas’s Ethical Thought or any similar. topic specifically for you. Surprisingly, though, the hbs essay word limit, recent scholarship on war contains relatively little discussion of just war principles from the lyrics, perspective of virtue ethics, and the few scholars who mention virtue tend to focus on one or two particular virtues rather than offering a systematic account of how the virtues are connected. 1 For traditional just war theorists like St. Augustine and St. Limit! Thomas Aquinas, however, a comprehensive understanding of the cardinal and theological virtues provides the ethical foundation that is necessary for considering questions about the justice or injustice of war.
In particular, I would argue that Aquinas’s insights into war and virtuous human action remain remarkably relevant to contemporary debates about the just use of military force. 2 For Aquinas, war, like every human endeavor, must be animated and duly ordered by the cardinal and theological virtues if it is to be regarded as just and conducive to the common good. In his question ‘On War’ in the new writing, the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas outlines the hbs essay, core principles of a cruel thesis lyrics espaÃ±ol, just war theory: for a war Correspondence address: University of Dallas, 1808 E. Northgate Dr. Apt. Word! C, Irving, TX 75062. E-mail: [emailprotected] edu 1502-7570 Print/1502-7589 Online/10/030245A17 # 2010 Taylor Francis http://www. informaworld. com DOI: 10. 1080/15027570.
2010. 510865 246 R. R. Gorman to be just it must be waged by a legitimate authority for a just cause and with a right intention. 3 In order to understand these principles more fully, Aquinas’s brief remarks on war should be read in their proper context, thatis, in relation to the virtues that direct human beings to the new school their proper end. Page 2 War and word limit, the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought Essay. For Aquinas, prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance, as well as faith, hope, and charity are the essential virtues of a well-ordered life, and a correct understanding of these virtues provides a durable ethical framework forthinking about just war questions.
4 Why Virtue? The Thomistic virtue-centered approach to understanding moral human actions has been jettisoned by most modern scholars, so why should just war theorists be concerned with a seemingly antiquated conception of the virtues? I would suggest that today, instead of a coherent ethical foundation for considering complex moral issues like war, we are left with fragments of a tradition that do not provide satisfactory answers to many of the most pressing questions. In contemporary ethical discourse there are numerous ideologies that offer different perspectives on the problem of war, including pacifism, legalism, progressivism, realism, pragmatism, and consequentialism. These rival theories each grasp important elements of the truth about human action, but they fail to provide as comprehensive and integral an understanding of the moral complexities of war as is found in Aquinas’s ethical thought. Pacifists, for example, rightly affirm the inherent dignity of the human person and recognize the research ideas, tragic consequences of violence, especially on the innocent victims of war.
Certainly, these are commendable intuitions which ought to be taken seriously by anyone who is concerned with the morality of hbs essay word limit, war. While pacifists come in many varieties, ncluding what may be termed ‘just war pacifists’, almost all reject the notion that any real good can ever come of programs, military violence. 5 Traditional just war thinkers like Aquinas, on the other hand, realize that it is precisely out of concern for human dignity and the desire for well-ordered peace that armed force must sometimes be used to protect the innocent and hbs essay, punish the critical, wicked, and that is why the just war tradition seeks to prevent war whenever possible, to mitigate the destructive violence of war when it is hbs essay word limit, being waged, and to establish more stable conditions for a cruel thesis lyrics, lasting peace at the conclusion of war. Many contemporary scholars and word, ethicists view the principles of just war theory through a legalistic lens, arguing that the ever-growing body of international rules and conventions must be rigorously adhered to in all decisions regarding the use of armed force. According to this legalist paradigm, war can only sexism in heart be justified in extreme cases of word, self-defense or with the explicit authorization of the United Nations Security Council. While upholding international law is a significant part of sexism in heart of darkness essay, modern just war theory, the word, positivist mentality that often pervades international law-making institutions does not necessarily comport well with the Thomistic natural law tradition. For Aquinas, all human laws, including the law of nations, are War and frame, the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 247 fallible and are only just insofar as they are in accord with the natural law (cf.
ST, I-II, q. Limit! 95). But if the natural law is a rose for emily critical essay, abandoned as the archetype for positive laws, as it is by most contemporary international law scholars, then the hbs essay word, essential moral foundation for law is essay, lacking. Moreover, it is worth noting that Aquinas’s short question ‘On War’ is not located in his treatise on law, but rather in his treatise on word the virtues. The issue of war, for St. Thomas, is not simply a legal matter; it is also an ethical problem rooted in humankind’s fallen nature. In Heart Essay! Hence, just war thinkers should be concerned with exploring when and how armed force might justly and hbs essay, prudently be used to promote peace and the common good, not merely creating a rigid legal framework that in effect condemns all use of military force prima facie. A few prominent contemporary just war thinkers have voiced dissatisfaction with legalistic approaches to thinking about war; for example, O’Donovan argues that the legalistic ‘checklist’ mentality of some just war theorists does not sufficiently address the complex moral considerations that are involved in decisions regarding the writing certificate programs california, use of military force. Limit! Some of the creative certificate programs, more intriguing just war scholarship in recent years is based on the moral commitment to hbs essay defend and promote the a rose critical, basic human rights of hbs essay, all people.
8 The human rights approach to just war theory recognizes the creative writing, value of human freedom and the importance of supporting just political regimes that respect the rights of the governed. Arguably, however, human rights, rightly understood, cannot be divorced from a proper understanding of the human person and the virtues of a well-ordered human life. According to word limit Aquinas, freedom in itself is school writing, not the greatest good for limit, humans; rather, freedom is valuable inasmuch as it is a prerequisite for living a good life in accordance with virtue. But if freedom is understood as complete autonomy to live and the new, act howsoever one pleases, then it can have corrosive effects on the well-being both of individuals and of society. Unchecked liberty quickly degenerates into license and contempt for authority. While Aquinas never speaks directly of subjective rights, he does discuss the principle of hbs essay word limit, right, or what is due to each person. Right (ius) is the object of justice’, he says, meaning that justice is research ideas, chiefly concerned with rendering to hbs essay word each person what is right and good for them (ST, II-II, q. 57, a. 1). Ap Psychology Research Paper Ideas! According to Thomistic ethics, just war thinkers should be centrally concerned with understanding what is owed to each human being as a person endowed with reason and freewill, made in the image of God. Progressivism is a prevalent worldview that undergirds many of the modern accounts of just war theory. The idea of progress championed by philosophers like Kant and Hegel is taken for granted by many current thinkers who believe that we have reached, or soon will reach, ‘the end of hbs essay limit, history’.
9 Some progressives believe that empowering international institutions to regulate the sexism in heart essay, use of armed force will usher in a new world order in which the hbs essay word limit, specter of war will be forever abolished. Other progressives argue that powerful democratic nations, like the United States, have an obligation to spread the universal values of liberal democracy across the mfa creative, globe. 0 Though the hbs essay, Kantian dream of ‘perpetual peace’ has heretofore proved elusive, there are plenty of scholars and policy-makers who believe that if we can remake the world in the image 248 R. R. Gorman and likeness of the liberal, democratic state then, at sexism of darkness, last, Kant’s vision will come to fruition. 11 Aquinas’s philosophy, on word limit the other hand, offers a more sober assessment of the for emily essay, possibility of human progress, arguing that real human flourishing is not the byproduct of hbs essay, inevitable forces of history, but the result of individuals freely choosing to act in accordance with virtue. Progress is not guaranteed, and, given the vicious tendencies of human nature, it is unlikely that the lofty ideals of modern progressives will be completely realized. At the other end of the spectrum from cosmopolitan moral idealism is international political realism.
Generally speaking, realists maintain that international relations is an arena where cold, hard necessity and power politics, rather than morality and virtue, are the operative principles that guide political leaders and military strategists in their decisions regarding war. The realpolitik position has ancient philosophic roots, for instance, in Thucydides’s formulation of the principle that ‘might makes right’ or Thrasymachus’ claim that ‘justice is simply the advantage of the stronger’,12 as well as early-modern precedents, such as Machiavelli’s assertion that rulers must of necessity act immorally on occasion or Hobbes’s notion of the state of nature as a ‘war of every man against every man’ in which nothing is unjust. 3 For the realist thinker, moral virtue is regarded as an unnecessary hindrance to achieving desirable political aims, such as advancing one’s political, economic, and military power, except if it can be used instrumentally. Ap Psychology Research Ideas! Just war theory, by word limit, its very definition, is incompatible with hard-line realism since it sets moral limitations and guidelines on the use of armed force. However, it could be argued that Aquinas is a moral realist, or Christian realist, in a rose for emily critical essay, the sense that he favors a realistic assessment of concrete circumstances surrounding moral action as opposed to idealized or abstract notions of what constitutes right action. 4 Closely related to the realist conception of international affairs are the word limit, pragmatic and consequentialist approaches to ap psychology research international relations. Pragmatists are generally skeptical of theoretical, moral, or religious claims about what is good or true, and instead focus on practical concerns about what is useful in order to achieve a given objective; thus, a pragmatic approach to foreign policy will focus primarily on achieving tangible results rather than adhering to moral doctrines. While some ragmatists are more willing than others to consider moral principles as part of the hbs essay limit, overall assessment of critical, whether a given action is expedient, most view moral and religious values as instrumental at best. 15 Similarly, consequentialist thinkers maintain that what determines the hbs essay, goodness or badness of human actions is not adherence to angel's thesis lyrics espaÃ±ol ethical principles, but whether the action chosen has advantageous results.
The classic dictum of consequentialism is ‘the end justifies the means’, which implies that immoral means may be used in hbs essay word, order to attain a desirable outcome. While most just war theorists would reject this conclusion, some do accept a modified rule-consequentialism, arguing that ethical rules should limit a nation’s conduct in war except in cases of ‘supreme emergency’ when following the creative writing programs california, normal rules would have disastrous consequences. 16 The Thomistic understanding of a just war is word limit, not completely at odds with War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 249 pragmatic or consequentialist concerns; in in heart essay, fact, the virtue of prudence, rightly understood, is a key component of Aquinas’s ethical theory, and he argues that the hbs essay, consequences of in heart essay, actions do matter. 7 However, for Aquinas, moral considerations must never be neglected, even in wartime when it may be necessary to word limit choose between the creative writing, lesser of evils. I would hold, based on this overview, that most of the current approaches to international justice do not provide a satisfactory moral foundation for thinking about just war questions. However, Thomas Aquinas’s ethical thought offers a compelling supplement to modern just war accounts. For Aquinas, the moral basis for hbs essay limit, war is a rose essay, firmly rooted in an understanding of the central importance of virtuous human action in leading to the attainment of the human good. By cultivating and hbs essay limit, freely choosing a life of virtue, one becomes a fully mature human being, capable of leading a complete and happy life. But virtue is not only essential for in heart of darkness, individuals to live well; it is also incumbent upon communities to promote virtue and to pursue policies that are in accordance with virtue in order to advance the common good. And so we shall now examine Aquinas’s discussion of just war principles and try to hbs essay word situate his understanding of a just war in the context of his ethical theory of the virtues. Aquinas’s Question on War.
Aquinas considers the question ‘On War’ in Part II-II of the Summa Theologiae, where he offers a systematic account of the specific virtues which are necessary for expository essay frame, human flourishing and happiness, i. Word! e. the theological and cardinal virtues. Unexpectedly, he treats the a rose critical essay, issue of war in connection with the theological virtue of charity: why would the question on war appear in this section of the Summa? Some commentators suggest that Aquinas regarded war as a sin against charity; hence, he included war in the category of vices opposed to peace, which is one of the fruits of hbs essay limit, charity. 8 According to this interpretation, war is always a sin because it is necessarily opposed to charity and programs, peace. However, closer textual analysis does not support this view, because Aquinas indicates that waging war is hbs essay limit, not always a sin and is not always contrary to peace, rightly understood. 19 Moreover, by treating war in the context of the new mfa creative, charity, Aquinas seems to imply that a just war can even serve the cause of the highest virtue. Responsible leaders, acting out of charity, have an obligation to protect the hbs essay, innocent people who are committed to their care and to punish those who inflict harm on the new mfa creative writing the innocent. 20 Article 1 of Question 40 begins with the consideration: ‘Whether it is hbs essay word, always a sin to in heart wage war? ’ Some critics of war suggest that Aquinas’s phrasing of the question implies a ‘presumption against war’; however, upon closer inspection, that does not appear to be a completely accurate assessment of St.
Thomas’s position. 1 Rather, Aquinas begins by offering arguments that condemn all warfare before giving his own response to hbs essay word limit the question in which he argues that a war can be just. The first argument against war comes from the Gospel: ‘It would seem that to wage war would always be a sin’, because Jesus warns that ‘all who take up the sword will perish by it’ 250 R. R. Gorman (Mt. 26:52). For Emily Critical! In his response to this objection, Aquinas distinguishes between private violence and the public use of force to achieve a just end. To fight against hbs essay word limit, your neighbor because you have a private disagreement is indeed unjust, but for a public person to command the use of the sword ‘through zeal for justice and by the authority, so to speak, of for emily critical essay, God, is not to take the sword, but to use it as commissioned by another, wherefore it does not deserve punishment’ (ad 1). The use of armed force, if approved by limit, the proper public authorities, is not necessarily blameworthy; rather, it can and should serve the cause of mfa creative, justice. The second objection points out another apparent contradiction between the Gospel message and the use of hbs essay, force. In Heart Of Darkness! Aquinas quotes Jesus’ statement from the Sermon on the Mount, ‘Do not resist evil’ (Mt.
5:39). This famous ‘turn the other cheek’ passage is sometimes cited by pacifists as evidence that violence is hbs essay word, incompatible with Christian teachings. 22 But this precept, like several of Christ’s teachings in the Sermon on the Mount, is not intended to serve as the basis for a responsible foreign policy; rather, it is a radical statement to inspire spiritual conversion of the heart. In his response, Aquinas says that precepts such as this should be kept ‘in readiness of spirit’; ‘Nevertheless,’ he states, ‘it is sometimes necessary for a man to act otherwise for the common good, or for the good of those whom he is fighting’ (ad 2). Leaders in positions of authority are responsible for ap psychology paper ideas, protecting the civilians under their care, and if they were simply to word limit look the other way while innocent people were being slaughtered or brutally oppressed, that would be an example of negligence, not virtue. The third objection contends that war is ap psychology research ideas, contrary to peace, and peace is an word act of virtue, ergo war must always be a sin. In his response, Aquinas stresses the importance of creative writing certificate programs, understanding what peace really means. ‘Those who wage a just war intend peace,’ Aquinas writes, ‘thus, a just war is not contrary to peace, unless an evil peace which the Lord did not come to the earth to bring’ (ad 3; cp. Mt. 10:34).
Allowing evil to word thrive in an attempt to prevent any sort of armed conflict is not the same thing as real peace, and creative programs, such appeasement is hbs essay limit, not an act of essay frame, virtue. Genuine peace, however, is an act of virtue, and, as such, it does not come about hbs essay word spontaneously. It requires people of good will to work, and sometimes to expository fight, for justice in a spirit of charity. In the Sed contra, Aquinas offers another counter-argument to the pacifist objections by appealing to the authority of word limit, St. Augustine. Augustine points out that in the Gospel when a group of soldiers ask what they must do to creative writing california be saved, they are simply told to act justly and to be content with their pay (Augustine, Epist. Limit! ad Marcellinum, cxxxviii; cf. Lk. 3:14).
Thus, the Gospel itself does not forbid all military service; rather, it counsels soldiers to practice the virtue of justice. Based on the Sed contra and Aquinas’s responses to the anti-war objections, he is clearly not arguing from ‘a presumption against war. If there is creative programs california, a presumption of any sort implied in his discussion of war, it would more aptly be termed ‘a presumption in favor of justice and rightlyordered peace. ’23 Aquinas then offers his own response to the question of whether war is word, ever lawful, enumerating the core principles of his just war theory. Expository! He famously War and word limit, the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 251 writes: ‘In order for a war to be just, three things are required. First, the authority of the prince (auctoritas principis) by whose command the war is to be waged . The New Writing Admissions! . . Second, a just cause (causa iusta) is required, namely that those who are going to hbs essay be attacked, deserve to be attacked on of darkness account of word, some fault . . . Third, it is necessary that the belligerents have a right intention (intentio bellantium recta), so that they intend either the the new school, advancement of good, or the avoidance of hbs essay, evil’ (q.
40, a. Sexism! 1). These three criteria serve as the foundation for word limit, Thomistic just war theory, so they warrant closer examination. Legitimate authority A Aquinas’s starting point for reflecting on just war principles is to consider who has the proper authority to respond to an act of injustice and to mfa creative admissions protect the common good. Aquinas writes, ‘as the care of the republic is committed to hbs essay word those who are in authority, it is their responsibility to sexism in heart essay protect the public good of the city, kingdom, or province subject to them’ (q. 40, a. 1).
Just as responsible public authorities may use force to protect their community against word, internal disturbances, so too they may rightfully use force to protect against external threats from hostile nations or international malefactors. Aquinas cites Augustine’s claim that ‘the order of nature, accommodated to peace among men, demands that the ap psychology research paper, authority to commence and hbs essay word limit, counsel war belongs in essay, the hands of the supreme ruler’ (q. 40, a. ; cf. Augustine, Contra Faustum, xxii, 74). In other words, decisions pertaining to war and peace rightfully belong to the highest temporal authorities who are entrusted with securing the hbs essay word, common good. Today, the question of who has the ultimate responsibility to uphold the common good, and essay, hence the authority to wage war, is a complex matter that is hbs essay limit, beyond the scope of this article, but I will provisionally suggest that the Thomistic legitimate authority principle requires a properly constituted governmental body that exercises sovereign rule over a given population and is competent to make and enforce laws for the common good of its people. Just cause A Aquinas’s second step in sexism of darkness essay, thinking about the hbs essay word limit, moral requirements for a just war is to consider whether or not there is a just cause for waging war. Angel's Lyrics EspaÃ±ol! He does not explicitly delineate what constitutes a just cause, saying only that those who are going to be attacked should deserve it because of some fault.
His subsequent quote from Augustine helps somewhat to clear up this ambiguity: ‘A just war is described as one that avenges injustices: if a nation or city must be punished for limit, neglecting to vindicate wrongs done by its subjects or to return what it has unjustly seized’ (q. Expository! 0, a. 1; cf. Hbs Essay Word Limit! Augustine, Quaest. in Heptat. , VI, 10). In other words, if an injustice is programs california, committed, then the perpetrators, or the government that harbors them, can rightfully be forced to make amends for what has been unjustly taken and the guilty party can also be punished for their acts of injustice. Aquinas, again quoting Augustine, says that such punishments should be administered with a ‘kindly severity’, suggesting that those who are accustomed to lawlessness and vice may have to be forcibly stripped of limit, their evil ways for their own good. 4 Such punishment should have as its aims the moral rehabilitation and spiritual conversion of the wrongdoer, insofar as that is possible, as well as the expository frame, safety and welfare of those who would be endangered by further vicious acts carried out with impunity. Aquinas’s discussion of just cause leaves much unsaid, but 252 R. R. Word Limit! Gorman it is noteworthy that he does not rule out punitive justifications for going to war. Right intention A Aquinas’s third criterion states that those going to war must have a right intention.
Here again Aquinas does not give many specifics as to what exactly constitutes a recta intentio, stating simply that belligerents should intend to promote the good or to avoid evil. St. Thomas maintains that the intention to do good or avoid evil is an essential part of any moral action. Nevertheless, good intentions alone are not sufficient to guarantee the moral quality of actions; concrete moral actions must also be accord with practical reason, or prudence, that is to say, they must be based on a reasonable estimation of the good or bad consequences that are likely to result from them. Aquinas elaborates by citing St. Augustine: ‘According to research the true worship of word limit, God, those wars are peaceful that are motivated not by cupidity or cruelty, but by a desire for securing peace, or punishing evil-doers, or uplifting the good. ’25 In their discussions of creative certificate, war and peace, both Augustine and Aquinas are primarily concerned with the right-ordering of the word limit, human soul, because if one’s soul is at peace, duly ordered by the cardinal and theological virtues, then one’s actions will, in turn, serve the common good. Therefore, Augustine claims that war itself is not necessarily blameworthy; rather, it is the vices that war often unleashes, such as ‘the passion for inflicting harm, the cruel thirst for vengeance, an for emily critical essay insatiable and implacable spirit, the savageness of revolt, and the lust for domination’, which should be condemned (q. 40, a. Hbs Essay Limit! 1; cf. Augustine, Contra Faustum, XXII, 74). A Cruel Lyrics! If, however, war is undertaken with a rightly ordered desire to do good, then it can be regarded as just and virtuous. Aquinas’s concept of a just war is integrally connected to his understanding of what is good for a human being and for human society, which is to say his just war theory is inseparable from his ethical theory of the virtues.
And so we shall now offer a brief overview of Aquinas’s understanding of the hbs essay word, cardinal and theological virtues, in order to show how these virtues provide the moral underpinning for Thomistic just war theory. A Cruel Angel's Thesis! 26 Aquinas on the Cardinal Virtues. Aquinas regarded prudence as first and foremost of the limit, cardinal virtues, or, the virtues that are essential for living a well-ordered and a rose for emily essay, happy life. The virtues of prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance are called ‘cardinal’ (from the Latin cardo, or hinge) or ‘principal’ (from the Latin root princip, which means first in rank or foundational) because ‘the whole moral life in a sense turns and is based on these virtues’ (Aquinas 2005: 244). Prudence is preeminent among the cardinal virtues because it perfects what is most distinctively human, the rational capacity to choose actions that lead to genuine human flourishing.
Following Aristotle’s definition, St. Thomas says that prudence is ‘right reason applied to action’ (ST, II-II, q. 47, a. Hbs Essay Word Limit! 2; cf. Aristotle 2002: 1140b21A22), meaning that it combines intellectual understanding of speculative principles with practical knowledge of how to apply those principles in concrete moral actions. Aquinas argues that prudence is in heart, connected to the moral virtues, such. War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 253 that no action is genuinely virtuous unless it is prudent, and, conversely, there is no true prudence without the moral virtues. While prudence is chiefly concerned with choosing the right means to achieve a good end, that does not imply that the ‘end always justifies the means’. For St. Thomas, both the end that is sought and the means used to hbs essay word achieve the end must be in accord with the expository essay, moral virtues, or, to use just-war terminology, a nation may only use proportionate force in pursuit of just ends. Prudence is required whenever a moral decision is hbs essay limit, made, and it is especially important for political and essay, military leaders who must make complicated ethical decisions in times of war, taking into limit, account all the dangers of action or inaction and trying to find the best course of action given the circumstances.
In sum, prudence enables those who are entrusted with the responsibility to for emily critical protect and defend the common good to choose actions that are simultaneously moral, rational, and appropriate to the circumstances. 7 Just war theorists generally propose three ‘prudential criteria’ that should be evaluated when considering whether or not the resort to armed force is hbs essay word limit, justified. Angel's Thesis Lyrics EspaÃ±ol! Based on the Thomistic understanding of prudence, one could formulate the prudential jus ad bellum principles as follows. 1) Proportionality: war should only hbs essay be undertaken if the good that is likely to be achieved is proportionally greater than the harm that will likely result from the proposed military action. While it is impossible to know exactly what the consequences will be, the responsible authorities must make a prudent judgment regarding the probable outcomes of going to war.
2) Last resort or no precipitate resort to force:28 war should not be undertaken until reasonable attempts have been made to rectify the the new school mfa creative admissions, injustice by non-violent means; this requires prudent statesmen to strike an appropriate balance between the extremes of precipitous military action and negligent inaction. 3) Reasonable hope of success: the proposed military action must be reasonably expected to achieve its aims. Prudence does not hope for the impossible, so it would not advocate going to war if the proposed military objectives are unattainable. Since justice and prudence are inextricably linked in the Thomistic account of the virtues, it follows that a war that is manifestly imprudent cannot be truly just. Hbs Essay Word Limit! The next virtue to consider is justice, which Aquinas defines as ‘the constant and perpetual will to render to each person his right [ius suum], or what is due’ (ST, II-II, q. 58, a. 1). Justice for Aquinas is founded on the principle of right (ius) and in programs california, particular natural right (ius naturale).
Natural right is distinct from both positive right (ius positivum) and the right of hbs essay word, nations (ius gentium), since the latter are based on human agreements or conventions that may or may not be in accord with natural right. Furthermore, Aquinas maintains that ‘justice is preeminent among all the moral virtues’ for two reasons: first, because its subject is the rational appetite, or will, as opposed to frame the other moral virtues which pertain to the sensitive appetite; second, because the object of justice is the common good, which is more excellent than the good of any particular individual (ST, II-II, q. 8, a. Hbs Essay Limit! 12). Aquinas maintains that killing or other acts of violence can be just if such actions are necessary in essay frame, order to preserve the hbs essay word, good of the whole community. In his question ‘Whether it is Licit to Kill Sinners,’ the research ideas, Angelic Doctor makes 254 R. R. Gorman the following striking claim: ‘Now each individual person is compared to the whole community as a part to the whole. And so if a man be dangerous and word, corruptive to the community on account of some sin, it is praiseworthy and advantageous that he be killed in order to safeguard the common good’ (q. 4, a. 2). To be sure, Aquinas qualifies this statement, saying that not every sin merits the a cruel thesis lyrics, penalty of hbs essay word, death, and a cruel angel's espaÃ±ol, the wicked should be allowed to live if killing them would inordinately endanger innocent people. Moreover, he maintains that certain kinds of violence, such as deliberately killing innocent people, can never be justified.
In his discussion of private self-defense, Aquinas further observes that it is possible to hbs essay kill someone without intending to commit murder. Here St. Thomas outlines the principle of ‘double effect’, which later commentators would argue is a key component for thinking about the jus in bello criteria of discrimination and proportionality. 29 St. Thomas explains the principle as follows: ‘Nothing prohibits a single act from having two effects, only one of which is intended, while the other is beside the intention . . . Accordingly, the sexism in heart essay, act of self-defense can have two effects, one is the saving of one’s life, the other is the slaying of the aggressor’ (q.
4, a. Hbs Essay! 7). While Aquinas is expository, speaking of personal self-defense against limit, an aggressor, the principle he outlines is also applicable in the conduct of war: a military action might have as its primary intention to defend innocent lives, yet an unintended result may be that some innocent people are killed. A Rose! Such an hbs essay word action is not necessarily a violation of the prohibition against murder, provided the action is ‘in proportion to the end’ and ‘due care’ is taken to avoid harming non-combatants (cf. q. 64, a. 7 and a. 8). The intention not to harm any innocent person is the crucial element that must be in place for an act of violence to be regarded as just. In Heart Essay! The third cardinal virtue is fortitude, which makes a person resolved to follow the dictates of reason when confronted with a fearful situation.
Fortitude, or courage, enables one to hold firm to what is good even in the face of great evils, especially a violent death. Hence, Aquinas claims that the virtue of fortitude is limit, most clearly displayed when a person bravely goes into battle in ap psychology, defense of justice and the common good. Fortitude makes use of and tempers a person’s irascible passions, especially fear and hbs essay word, daring, so that they are amenable to reason and creative certificate california, duly ordered to good and word limit, noble ends. The brave person neither succumbs to inordinate fear nor acts out of fearlessness, since both are opposed to the right order of reason. While it is natural to fear the loss of research paper ideas, something that one loves, especially one’s own life, reason dictates that a person should be willing to face certain evils, even death, for the sake of a greater good.
The brave person acts confidently, but is neither overly ambitious nor presumptuous regarding what he or she is able to accomplish (cf. Hbs Essay Word! q. 128, a. A Cruel Angel's EspaÃ±ol! 1 and q. 130, a. Word Limit! 1); in other words, the brave person acts with a right intention and a reasonable hope that he or she can successfully obtain the difficult good that needs to be protected. Fortitude is an essential component of a well-ordered life, both for an individual and a community. A virtuous person must steadfastly obey reason, in spite of the irascible passions, and social life requires that members of the community be willing to sacrifice individual goods for ap psychology, the sake of the common good. War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 255 The final cardinal virtue, temperance, also ensures that the basic human desires and passions are regulated by hbs essay word limit, reason and aim at promoting the good. In a general sense, temperance is synonymous with moderation, which is a crucial element of every virtue.
Virtue, as Aristotle (2002: 1107a) teaches, is a habit of choosing rightly, consisting in a mean between extremes of the new school, excess and deficiency. A temperate or moderate person is apt to choose the rational mean since he or she is not overly swayed by hbs essay limit, passions. Expository Frame! Moreover, temperance properly orders and balances the natural human desires for hbs essay word, self-preservation, procreation, living in society, and a rose essay, knowing the truth (cf. ST, I-II, q. 94, a. Hbs Essay Limit! 2). Temperance allows a person to enjoy these natural goods as one ought, recognizing that it may be necessary to abstain from lower pleasures for the sake of higher goods. Although Aquinas does not specifically mention war in his treatise on temperance, nonetheless, it should be regarded as an important virtue for political and military leaders, as well as for men and women serving in the armed forces. Expository Frame! In deciding whether or not there is a just cause for hbs essay limit, waging war, the responsible authorities ought to exercise the a cruel espaÃ±ol, virtue of moderation rather than acting out of an excessive desire for hbs essay word, honor, or power, or wealth, or vengeance. Moreover, soldiers should act temperately, not succumbing to a rose for emily critical the libido dominandi, and military operations should be conducted moderately, that is to say, the amount of force used ought to be proportional to the intended objective.
Temperance implies that one desires what is right, and it requires that one’s desires be in due proportion A principles which are especially needful if one intends to undertake a just war. Aquinas on the Theological Virtues Few modern scholars dealing with the ethics of word, war and peace pay much attention to the theological dimensions of just war theory. For St. Thomas, however, the theological virtues are an creative writing certificate programs essential part of hbs essay, his ethical theory, and, as mentioned above, his just war theory is expounded in his treatise on charity. Aquinas argues that the theological virtues are required in order to lead human beings to their ultimate end. Happiness, he explains, is twofold: that which is accessible to humans according to natural principles, such as the angel's thesis lyrics, cardinal virtues, and supernatural happiness, or beatitude, which requires God’s assistance (I-II, q. 62, a. 1). The theological virtues A faith, hope, and charity A transcend the cardinal virtues, inasmuch as their purpose is to lead human beings to their supernatural end, namely, union with God. Hbs Essay Word Limit! Aquinas by no means diminishes the importance of the natural virtues for leading a decent, well-ordered, and content life, but he does suggest that even the most virtuous person cannot, simply by unassisted human effort, obtain perfect happiness. Consequently, any conception of morality that does not recognize God as the a cruel lyrics, origin and end, the arche and hbs essay word limit, telos, of all human acts is incomplete from the a cruel espaÃ±ol, Thomistic perspective.
And so, modern efforts to secularize just war theory by basing it strictly on humanitarian principles or values that have no reference to God would be regarded as insufficient because they fail to comprehend the transcendent basis for human morality. 30 256 R. R. Gorman According to Aquinas, the first theological virtue is faith, since ‘it is by faith that the intellect apprehends the object of hope and love [i. e. God]’ (q. 63, a. 4). A person does not desire or love something unless it is first apprehended as good, and faith is what enables the human intellect to recognize divinely revealed truth as good. The knowledge that faith offers is not the same as scientific knowledge since the latter is based on what can be seen and measured, whereas faith regards what is unseen. The act of faith, Aquinas says, is ‘to believe’, which means ‘to think with assent’ (II-II, q. 2, a. 1); therefore, faith requires not only an intellect that is amenable to hbs essay divine truth, but also the will to accept that truth. Since true faith requires free assent of the will, a person cannot be forced to believe something against his or her will, and true faith is neither irrational nor violent in nature, so it cannot be spread by irrational or violent means. 1 Accordingly, Aquinas states that non-Christians should not be compelled by violence to accept the Christian faith. Nevertheless, he does say that if unbelievers openly attack the Christian faith through blasphemy or persecution, then it may be permissible for Christians to defend their faith. St.
Thomas writes, ‘It is for this reason that Christ’s faithful often wage war with infidels, not indeed for the purpose of forcing them to believe, but in order to ap psychology paper ideas prevent them from hindering the faith of Christ’ (q. 10, a. 8). For Aquinas, violence should never be used solely for the purpose of spreading the faith or forcing people to hbs essay convert. Hope, according to St. Thomas, is ‘the expectation of a future good that is difficult but possible to attain’ (I-II, q. 40, a. 1). Hope can either be regarded as a natural irascible power of the soul, or it can be understood as one of the theological virtues. Taken in the first sense, hope prompts a person to take action for the sake of some good; for example, hope causes soldiers to fight more bravely in war (q. Expository Frame! 40, a. 8, ad 3). But natural hope is not a virtue, strictly speaking, because it is not necessarily ordered to the good: a person can hope for lots of things like wealth, power, or honor, which may or may not be truly good. Supernatural hope, on the other hand, is a virtue since it seeks to attain the highest human good, namely, eternal happiness. This kind of hope serves to moderate the passion of fear because death is not the greatest evil to be feared when one has hope of eternal life.
Hope is an important element in just war theory as well. 32 As mentioned above, one of the commonly accepted prudential criteria for going to war is that there should be a reasonable hope of success. Hbs Essay Word Limit! Indeed, responsible leaders ought to be realistic about what they can and cannot achieve by means of force and not get overconfident or presumptuous about expository their power. Furthermore, people should not place too much hope in human power or institutions because, ultimately, no amount of human effort can guarantee salvation. For Aquinas, charity is the capstone virtue of the ethical life since it perfects and completes all of the other virtues: ‘Charity is the mother and root of the virtues, inasmuch as it is the form of hbs essay word, them all’ (I-II, q. Lyrics EspaÃ±ol! 62, a. 4). There is no perfect virtue without charity since it directs all acts of virtue to the ultimate and principal good for word limit, humans A union with God. Charity resides in the intellective appetite, or will, but it is neither natural to espaÃ±ol humans, nor can any person attain it by his or her own natural powers; rather, it is a War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 257 gratuitous gift that is infused into the human soul. The object of hbs essay word limit, charity is, first of all, to love God, and sexism, then to love one’s neighbors as oneself. Christ’s command to ‘love your enemies’ means that one should love all human beings as persons created in the image of God, but Aquinas adds that to word love our enemies because they are our enemies is perverse and contrary to charity (IIII, q. 5, a. 8). Ap Psychology! Rightly ordered charity makes us love what is good and reprove what is evil. Moreover, charity requires an active commitment to serving others and a willingness to sacrifice for the sake of the common good.
Peace is one of the primary effects of charity. The true meaning of peace, according to both St. Augustine and St. Thomas, is the tranquility of order (tranquillitas ordinis), which implies well-ordered concord among nations, as well as the interior peace of a rightly ordered soul. In other words, peace depends upon virtue: ‘true peace is only in good men and about good things. The peace of he wicked is not a true peace but a semblance thereof’ (q. 29, a. 2, ad 3). Word Limit! It is by means of acting virtuously that one can attain the goal of peace. ‘All things desire peace,’ Aquinas says, and ‘even those who seek war and dissention desire nothing but peace . . . Hence all wars are waged that men may find more perfect peace than that which they had heretofore’ (ad 2). Thus, war is not necessarily contrary to peace, and, as noted above, Aquinas even seems to thesis indicate in his question ‘On War’ that charity will sometimes impel a nation to undertake a just war in order to hbs essay word defend the innocent and to punish the expository, wicked.
For St. Thomas, a just war should always be animated by a spirit of charity and should have as its goal the building of a more stable and lasting peace. Concluding Remarks Aquinas’s reflections on war and limit, the virtues continue to provide a robust moral framework for the new school admissions, thinking about just war questions. What Aquinas’s question ‘On War’ offers is not a detailed checklist of rules that governments must rigorously adhere to before deciding to wage war, nor is it a strategic blueprint for how to go about waging a just war; instead, St. Thomas provides a remarkably incisive and concise moral analysis of the problem of war. When read in its proper context, that is, in relation to the theological and cardinal virtues, it is evident that Aquinas’s discussion of war is in word, harmony with his understanding of human nature and the human good. The motivating principle of every virtuous human action, including military action, should be a rightly ordered desire for the good. Repairing to Aquinas’s virtue ethics approach, I think, can prove to be a fruitful endeavor for just war theorists and military practitioners alike. Notes 1 The Journal of Military Ethics devoted a special issue (Vol. 6, No. , 2007) to the theme of ‘Virtue Ethics and Military Ethics’.
This represents a step in the right direction, though much work remains to be done showing how a comprehensive understanding of the virtues helps to illuminate just war discussions. 258 R. R. Gorman 2 Johnson (2001: 41A51) and Reichberg (2007: ch. 5) are among the few scholars who apply the Thomistic understanding of just war principles in contemporary debates. Writing Certificate California! 3 Summa Theologiae (ST), Secunda-secundae (II-II), question (q. ) 40, article (a. ) 1. Subsequent references to Aquinas’s Summa will employ standard abbreviations (e. g. ST, II-II, q. Hbs Essay! 40, a. 1). Quotations from the mfa creative writing, text will generally follow the translation by the Fathers of the hbs essay, English Dominican Province (1948); however, I have also consulted the Latin Editiones Paulinae (1962) and in some cases made minor changes to the translation. 4 Aquinas’s question ‘On War’ offers only a rose critical a brief sketch of just war principles, occupying less than four pages in a work that totals well over word 2,000 pages. To comprehend fully the ethical foundation for Aquinas’s thinking about war, therefore, would require a detailed analysis of relevant passages throughout the Summa.
In my dissertation, War and the Virtues: The Moral Basis of Thomistic Just War Theory, I attempt to begin such an analysis by examining key passages in the Prima-secunda (I-II) and Secunda-secundae (II-II) which have implications for just war questions (Gorman 2010). My aim in this article is less ambitions; I simply hope to expository essay give a very brief overview of the principal virtues for hbs essay word, Aquinas and to show how his insights are relevant to just war discussions. Essay! 5 Paci? st arguments range from absolute paci? sm (every act of violence is wrong and condemnable), to personal paci? m (a personal commitment to hbs essay word do no violence), to practical paci? sm (recognition that violence might in theory be justi? ed, but in actuality is the new admissions, rarely, if ever, justi? ed), to just war paci? sm. Regarding the latter, Fiala writes, ‘just war paci? sm maintains that modern wars are not fought according to the standards of just war theory because, for example, they make use of aerial bombardment and other means that do not adequately discriminate between combatants and noncombatants. ’ For a cogent discussion of the different types of paci? m, see Fiala (2008: 161A176). Word Limit! 6 By critiquing legalism, I do not mean to suggest that law is unimportant in Thomistic ethics. Indeed, Aquinas argues in ST, I-II, q. 90 that law and grace are the two extrinsic principles that lead human beings to the good. Law is thus an important means by a rose for emily essay, which God instructs us as to our proper end. Hbs Essay Word! Aquinas writes that law is ‘a rule and measure of frame, human acts’ (a. 1), and he de? nes law as ‘an ordinance of hbs essay word limit, reason for the common good, made by expository, him who has the care of the community, and promulgated’ (a.
4). In particular the eternal law, which humans participate in through the natural law, as well as the divine law, which is revealed in hbs essay limit, Sacred Scripture, provide essential guidance for creative california, moral action. Law and virtue are therefore inextricably linked; though they work in different ways A law being an external standard of right action, and virtue being an hbs essay word internal habit inclining one to right action A the two principles should be harmoniously ordered, so that together they direct human beings to their proper end. 7 For a critique of the school admissions, overly legalistic approach to just war theory, see O’Donovan, The Just War Revisited (2003: 14). He writes: ‘Modern textbooks, which like to outdo Thomas in the length of hbs essay limit, their lists, present as many as seven criteria for just war arranged under the two broad headings of just resort to war and just conduct of war . . Expository Essay Frame! . Such attempts to reclaim the tradition have a disconcertingly legalist feel to them, ticking off the hbs essay word limit, principles, as it were, one by sexism in heart of darkness, one. But the train of hbs essay word, thought involved in exploring judgment in angel's lyrics, armed combat is not reducible to a list.
Thomas’s sixteenth century admirers did not follow his cataloguing habit, and were wiser not to do so. Word! ’ I wish to af? m O’Donovan’s point that judgments about the sexism essay, justice of war involve complex moral deliberations that cannot be reduced to a list of in? exible rules; however, I think O’Donovan misses the mark in accusing Aquinas of such a method. Aquinas’s listing of limit, just war principles in his question ‘On War’ should be read in context A that is, in relation to the principles of moral action outlined throughout the second part of the critical essay, Summa Theologiae. 8 Orend has written a couple of noteworthy books arguing from a Kantian view of justice and hbs essay word, human rights: War and International Justice (2000) and The Morality of War (2006). Orend makes valuable contributions to the current just war debates, particularly in developing the jus post bellum criteria. However, I would argue that the traditional, Christian view that all human beings are created by God with reason and free-will, and thus inherently possess transcendent dignity as well as certain natural rights that ought to be respected, offers a more satisfying moral foundation for human action than the Kantian view of man as an autonomous being whose rights derive from a humanitarian sense of duty.
In ‘Idea for a cruel angel's espaÃ±ol, a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Intent’ Kant ( 1963: 18A19) maintains that ‘All wars are so many attempts to establish new relations among states, and . Word! . . to a rose critical create new political bodies . Word! . . until, ? nally, through the best possible civic constitution and common agreement and ap psychology, legislation in external affairs, a state is word limit, created which can maintain itself after the fashion of an War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 259 automaton’.
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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on word limit Your Resume. A Cruel EspaÃ±ol! The competitive climate of the hbs essay limit job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of mfa creative writing candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hbs essay hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the creative writing certificate california position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is hbs essay word limit utilized by [the majority] of companies today to paper obtain the hbs essay word right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to certificate simply list a string of phrases. Word Limit! Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from paper ideas Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to word detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. For Emily Critical Essay! If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in hbs essay limit your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of ideas job duties and how those specific skills played an important part.
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There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and word discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the ap psychology ideas level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. Word Limit! The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for a rose for emily critical feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects.
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Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO. For more information on hbs essay limit, Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO see AR 600-20, “Army Command Policy,” DA PAM 600-25, “US Army NCO Professional Development Guide” and FM 6-22 (22-100), Army Leadership. For more information on inspections see FM 22-5, Drill and Ceremonies. and AR 1-201, “Army Inspection Policy.” Need essay sample on Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the a cruel thesis lyrics espaÃ±ol NCO ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for hbs essay only $12.90/page. ASSUMING A LEADERSHIP POSITION. 2-1. Assuming a leadership position is one of the most important leadership situations you’ll face as an NCO. Everything discussed in FM 6-22 (22-100) about what you must BE, KNOW and DO is relevant to your success of assuming a leadership position.
2-2. When assuming a leadership position, there are some things to creative writing, think about and learn as you establish your goals in the organization. Figure 2-1 will assist you in achieving your goals. · Determine what your organization expects of you. · Determine who your immediate leader is and what they expect of you.
· Determine the level of competence and the strengths and weaknesses of your soldiers. · Identify the key people outside of your organization whose willing support you need to accomplish the mission. Figure 2-1. Tasks to Assume a Leadership Position. 2-3.
You should also talk to your leaders, peers and key people such as the chaplain and the sergeant major. Seek clear answers to the questions in Figure 2-2. · What is the organization’s mission? · How does this mission fit in with the hbs essay limit mission of the next higher organization? · What are the certificate california standards the organization must meet? · What resources are available to help the organization accomplish the mission? · What is the current state of morale?
· Who reports directly to hbs essay, you? · What are the strengths and weaknesses of creative writing programs your key subordinates and the unit? · Who are the key people outside the organization who support mission accomplishment? (What are their strengths and weaknesses?) · When and what do you talk to your soldiers about? Figure 2-2. Word Limit! Questions When Assuming a Leadership Position. 2-4. Be sure to the new school, ask these questions at the right time, of the limit right person and in the best way. The answers to these questions and others you may have will help you to correctly assess the situation and select the right leadership style.
DUTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITY. 2-5. As a noncommissioned officer, you have duties, responsibilities and authority. Do you know the meaning of duties, responsibilities and authority? 2-6. A duty is something you must do by virtue of your position and is a legal or moral obligation. For example, it is the supply sergeant’s duty to issue equipment and school keep records of the unit’s supplies. It is the first sergeant’s duty to hold formations, instruct platoon sergeants and hbs essay assist the commander in supervising unit operations. It is the ideas duty of the squad/section/team leader to account for his soldiers and ensure that they receive necessary instructions and are properly trained to perform their jobs.
2-7. A noncommissioned officer’s duties are numerous and must be taken seriously. An NCO’s duty includes taking care of soldiers, which is your priority. Corporals and sergeants do this by developing a genuine concern for their soldiers’ well-being. Leaders must know and understand their soldiers well enough to hbs essay word, train them as individuals and a cruel angel's lyrics teams to operate proficiently. Word Limit! This will give them confidence in their ability to perform well under the difficult and demanding conditions of battle. Individual training is the principle duty and responsibility of a rose for emily NCOs.
No one in the Army has more to do with training soldiers than NCOs. Well trained soldiers will likely succeed and survive on the battlefield. Well trained soldiers properly do the tasks their NCOs give them. A good leader executes the boss’s decisions with energy and enthusiasm; looking at their leader, soldiers will believe the leader thinks it’s absolutely the word limit best possible solution. “We don’t need ‘leaders’ who stay warm on cold days… while their men freeze on the grenade ranges. If they get cold, the leader ought to get just as cold. And when he marches back to the barracks with them after that kind of day, they know he is one of them.” Drill Sergeant Karl Baccene. 2-8. There may be situations you must think carefully about research what you’re told to do.
For example, duty requires that you refuse to obey illegal orders. This is not a privilege you can claim, but a duty you must perform. You have no choice but to do what’s ethically and word limit legally correct. Of Darkness Essay! Making the right choice and acting on it when faced with an ethical question can be difficult. Sometimes, it means standing your ground and telling your supervisor you think their wrong. If you think an order is illegal, first be sure that you understand both the word details of the order and its original intent. Seek clarification from the person who gave the order. This takes moral courage, but the question will be straightforward: Did you really mean for me to… steal the creative writing certificate california part… submit a false report… shoot the prisoners? “Moral courage, to me, is much more demanding than physical courage.” SMA Leon L. Van Autreve.
2-9. If the question is complex and time permits, seek advice from legal assistance. However, if you must decide immediately, as in hbs essay the heat of sexism of darkness combat, make the best judgment possible based on hbs essay, the Army values and attributes, your experience and a rose for emily essay your previous study and reflection. You take a risk when you disobey what you perceive to word limit, be an a rose for emily essay, illegal order. Talk to your superiors, particularly those who have done what you aspire to do or what you think you’ll be called on to do; providing counsel of this sort is an important part of leadership. Obviously, you need to make time to do this before you’re faced with a tough call. This could possibly be the most difficult decision you’ll ever make, but that’s what leaders do.
2-10. Hbs Essay Word Limit! Noncommissioned officers have three types of duties: specified duties, directed duties and implied duties. 2-11. Specified duties are those related to jobs and positions. Directives such as Army regulations, Department of the Army (DA) general orders, the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), soldier’s manuals, Army Training and creative writing certificate Evaluation Program (ARTEP) publications and MOS job descriptions specify the duties. For example, AR 600-20 says that NCOs must ensure that their soldiers get proper individual training and word limit maintain personal appearance and cleanliness. 2-12. Directed duties are not specified as part of a job position or MOS or other directive. Frame! A superior gives them orally or in writing. Directed duties include being in charge of quarters (CQ) or serving as sergeant of the guard, staff duty officer, company training NCO and NBC NCO, where these duties are not found in the unit’s organization charts.
2-13. Limit! Implied duties often support specified duties, but in some cases they may not be related to creative certificate california, the MOS job position. Word! These duties may not be written but implied in the instructions. They’re duties that improve the quality of the job and help keep the unit functioning at creative certificate programs california, an optimum level. In most cases, these duties depend on individual initiative. They improve the work environment and motivate soldiers to perform because they want to, not because they have to. For example, while not specifically directed to do so, you hold in-ranks inspections daily to ensure your soldiers’ appearance and equipment are up to standards. 2-14. Hbs Essay Limit! Responsibility is being accountable for what you do or fail to do. NCOs are responsible to fulfill not only their individual duties, but also to ensure their teams and units are successful.
Any duty, because of the position you hold in the unit, includes a responsibility to execute that duty. As an NCO, you are accountable for your personal conduct and that of your soldiers. Also, each soldier is for emily critical, individually responsible for his own personal conduct and hbs essay word that responsibility cannot be delegated. A soldier is accountable for his actions to fellow soldiers, leaders, unit and the US Army. 2-15. As a leader you must ensure that your soldiers clearly understand their responsibilities as members of the team and as representative of the critical essay Army. Commanders set overall policies and standards, but all leaders must provide the guidance, resources, assistance and supervision necessary for soldiers to perform their duties. Mission accomplishment demands that officers and NCOs work together to advise, assist and learn from each other.
Responsibilities fall into two categories: command and individual. 2-16. Command responsibility refers to collective or organizational accountability and includes how well the hbs essay limit unit performs their missions. For example, a company commander is responsible for all the tasks and missions assigned to creative writing california, the company; his superiors hold him accountable for completing them. Commanders give military leaders the word responsibility for what their sections, units, or organizations do or fail to do. NCOs are therefore responsible to angel's thesis lyrics espaÃ±ol, fulfill not only their individual duties, but also to ensure that their team and unit are successful. The amount of responsibility delegated to you depends on hbs essay word limit, your mission, the position you hold and your own willingness to accept responsibility. 2-17.
One point you need to get straight is that although a list of duties can be drawn up describing what is expected of you, it will not tell you how to do your job. For example, one of an a rose for emily essay, NCO’s duties is to enforce standards of military appearance. This means you are responsible for correcting soldiers who wear the uniform improperly and for hbs essay word teaching them the correct standards of appearance. It also means that you should inspect for proper and serviceability, clothing and equipment of your soldiers. A Cruel Angel's Thesis Lyrics EspaÃ±ol! Remember that you must set the hbs essay limit example first and your soldiers will follow in your footsteps. “Rank is ideas, a badge of responsibility…” DA Pam 360-1 (1957)
2-18. Individual responsibility as a noncommissioned officer means you are accountable for your personal conduct. Soldiers in word the Army have their own responsibilities. For example, if you write a check at the commissary, it is your responsibility to have sufficient funds in writing certificate the bank account to cover the check. Individual responsibility cannot be delegated; it belongs to hbs essay, the soldier that wrote the check.
Soldiers are accountable for their actions, to their fellow soldiers, to their leaders, to their unit and to the United States Army. As a leader you must ensure that your soldiers understand clearly their responsibilities as members of the team and as representatives of the Army. “A leader does not ‘choose’ the best or most opportune time in which to lead. A good leader takes the challenge whenever and wherever it presents itself and does the best he or she can.” SMA Richard A. Kidd. 2-19. As a noncommissioned officer, you must know what authority you have and where it comes from. You are also expected to use good judgment when exercising your authority. 2-20.
Authority is defined as the ap psychology research paper ideas right to direct soldiers to do certain things. Authority is the hbs essay word limit legitimate power of leaders to direct soldiers or to the new writing admissions, take action within the scope of their position. Military authority begins with the Constitution, which divides it between Congress and the President. The President, as commander in chief, commands the armed forces, including the hbs essay word Army. The authority from the Commander-in-Chief extends through the chain of command, with the assistance of the NCO support channel, to the squad, section or team leader who then directs and supervises the actions of individual soldiers. When you say, “PFC Lee, you and sexism of darkness essay PFC Johnson start filling sandbags; SPC Garcia and SPC Smith will provide security from that hill,” you are turning into action the orders of the entire chain of command. 2-21. In the Army there are two basic types of authority: command authority and general military authority. 2-22. Hbs Essay Limit! Command authority is the authority leaders have over soldiers by virtue of rank or assignment.
Command authority originates with the President and may be supplemented by law or regulation. In Heart Of Darkness Essay! Even though it is word, called “command” authority, it is not limited to officers – you have command authority inherent in your leadership position as a tank commander or team leader, for example. Noncommissioned officers’ command authority is inherent with the job by virtue of position to direct or control soldiers. “It takes guts for an NCO to use inherent authority and responsibility in training, maintaining, leading, and caring for soldiers.” SMA Glen E. Morrell. 2-23.
Leading soldiers includes the authority to organize, direct and control your assigned soldiers so that they accomplish assigned missions. It also includes authority to use assigned equipment and resources to accomplish your missions. Remember that this only applies to soldiers and the new mfa creative facilities in your unit. For example, if the platoon sergeant of first platoon goes on leave and a squad leader is put in charge, that squad leader has command authority over hbs essay word, only first platoon, until he is relieved from the ap psychology paper responsibility. The soldiers in first platoon will obey the squad leader’s orders due to his position. However, the squad leader does not have command authority over another platoon. “As a leader… you are not given authority, status and position as a personal reward to enjoy in comfort. You are given them so that you may be of greater service to your subordinates, your unit and your country.”
FM 22-100, Army Leadership (1983) 2-24. General military authority is authority extended to all soldiers to take action and act in the absence of word limit a unit leader or other designated authority. It originates in oaths of office, law, rank structure, traditions and regulations. School Mfa Creative Writing! This broad-based authority also allows leaders to take appropriate corrective actions whenever a member of any armed service, anywhere, commits an act involving a breach of good order or discipline. Hbs Essay Word Limit! For example, if you see soldiers in critical a brawl, you have the general military authority (and the obligation) to stop the fight. This authority applies even if none of the word limit soldiers are in your unit. 2-25.
General military authority exists whether you are on duty or not, in uniform or in civilian attire and paper ideas regardless of location. For example, you are off duty, in civilian clothes and in the PX and you see a soldier in uniform with his headgear raised up and trousers unbloused. You stop the word soldier immediately, identify yourself and ensure the soldier understands and makes the necessary corrections. If he refuses, saying you don’t have the authority to tell him what to do because he’s not in your NCO support channel, the soldier is wrong.. 2-26. Expository Essay! You as an NCO have both general military authority and the duty to enforce standards as outlined in AR 670-1. Your authority to enforce those regulations is specified in AR 600-20 and limit if you neglect your duty, you can be held accountable. If the soldier refuses to obey you, what can you do? For starters, you can explain that you have authority regardless of your location, your unit, or whether you are in uniform or civilian attire. You may decide to settle for the soldier’s name and unit. If so, a phone call to his first sergeant should be more than enough to ensure that such an incident does not recur.
“Speak with your own voice.” CSM Clifford R. West. 2-27. Delegation of a cruel thesis lyrics authority. Just as Congress and the President cannot participate in hbs essay limit every aspect of the armed forces operations, most leaders cannot handle every action directly. To meet the organization’s goals, officers delegate authority to NCOs in the NCO Support Channel who, in turn, may further delegate that authority. Unless restricted by law, regulation, or a superior, leaders may delegate any or all of their authority to their subordinate leaders. However, such delegation must fall within the research leader’s scope of authority. Leaders cannot delegate authority they do not have and subordinate leaders may not assume authority that superiors do not have, cannot delegate, or have retained. The task or duty to be performed limits the authority of the leader to whom it is word, assigned.
2-28. Both command and general military authority originate in school mfa creative the Constitution and Congress has further defined them in law. More explicit sources are Army Regulations, the limit Manual for Courts Martial (MCM) and the chain of command/NCO support channel. 2-29. You don’t need to read or remember all Army Regulations (ARs) but study those that pertain to your job. Essay Frame! If necessary, ask other NCOs to help you find out hbs essay limit what regulations pertain to a cruel, you, where they can be found and how to interpret them. Start with AR 600-20. It covers enlisted soldiers’ and noncommissioned officers’ authority and responsibilities. 2-30. The Manual for Courts Martial (MCM, 2002) describes legal aspects of the authority of the noncommissioned officer.
It states in part that, “All commissioned officers, warrant officers and noncommissioned officers are authorized to stop quarrels, frays and disorders among persons subject to the code….” Severe penalties are imposed for violations such as disrespect, insubordination, or assault. No one expects you to be an expert on word limit, military law, but as a noncommissioned officer you should know the definition of these words and be able to explain them to your soldiers. Your legal clerk can be a good source of information. Authority of the NCO is part of the equation in military discipline. 2-31. Your authority also stems from the combination of the chain of command and the NCO support channel.
Orders and policies that pass through the chain of command or the NCO support channel automatically provide the authority necessary to get the job done. With such broad authority given to research paper ideas, all commissioned officers and noncommissioned officers, the responsibility to limit, use mature, sound judgment is critical. The chain of command backs up the NCO support channel by legally punishing those who challenge the NCO’s authority. But it does so only if the noncommissioned officer’s actions and orders are sound, intelligent and based on expository frame, proper authority. To be a good leader, you should learn what types of word authority you have and where it comes from. Creative Writing! Whenever in doubt, ask.
Once you’re confident that you know the extent of your authority, use sound judgment in applying it. Then you will be a leader respected by both your soldiers and superiors. INSPECTIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 2-32. Hbs Essay Word! Why do we have inspections? From long experience, the Army has found that some soldiers, if allowed to, will become careless and lax in the performance of minor barrack duties in their unit.
They become accustomed to creative california, conditions in their immediate surroundings and overlook minor deficiencies. Word Limit! Should a soldier fall below the Army standard of certificate programs california performance, you can be assured that someone will notice those deficiencies immediately. 2-33. Your superiors will order inspections to see that soldiers have all the equipment and clothing issued to them and that it is word, serviceable. Inspections serve this practical purpose; they are not harassment. You will probably agree that inspections often correct small problems before they become big problems. Sharp appearance, efficient performance and excellent maintenance are important considerations that affect you directly. They are the earmarks of a good organization and one you should be a proud member of.
First line leaders should inspect their soldiers daily and should regularly check soldiers’ rooms in the barracks. First line leaders should also make arrangements with soldiers who live in quarters (on or off post) to ensure the soldier maintains a healthy and safe environment for himself and his family. TYPES OF INSPECTIONS. 2-34. There are two categories of inspections for determining the status of individual soldiers and their equipment: in-ranks and in-quarters. An in-ranks inspection is of personnel and equipment in a unit formation.
The leader examines each soldier individually, noticing their general appearance and essay frame the condition of their clothing and equipment. Hbs Essay Word Limit! When inspecting crew-served weapons and vehicles, the personnel are normally positioned to research ideas, the rear of the hbs essay word formation with the operators standing by their vehicle or weapon. Leaders may conduct an in-quarters (barracks) inspection to school writing, include personal appearance, individual weapons, field equipment, displays, maintenance and sanitary conditions. Organizations will have inspection programs that help determine the word status and mission readiness of the unit and its components. These include Command Inspections, Staff Inspections and Inspector General Inspections. · The training, instruction, or correction given to a soldier to ap psychology research ideas, correct deficiencies must be directly related to the deficiency. · Orient the corrective action to improving the soldier’s performance in their problem area. · You may take corrective measures after normal duty hours. Such measures assume the limit nature of the training or instruction, not punishment. · Corrective training should continue only until the training deficiency is overcome. · All levels of school admissions command should take care to ensure that training and instruction are not used in an oppressive manner to evade the procedural safeguards in imposing nonjudical punishment.
· Do not make notes in soldiers’ official records of hbs essay word limit deficiencies satisfactorily corrected by means of training and instruction. Figure 2-3. On-the-Spot Corrections Guidelines. 2-35. On-the-Spot Corrections.
One of the most effective administrative corrective measures is on-the-spot correction. Use this tool for making the quickest and often most effective corrections to deficiencies in training or standards. Generally there is one of two reasons a soldier requires an on-the-spot correction. Either the soldier you are correcting does not know what the standard is or does not care what the standard is. If the soldier was aware of the standard but chose not to adhere to it, this may indicate a larger problem that his chain of command should address. Certificate! In such a situation you might follow up an on-the-spot correction with a call to the soldier’s first sergeant. Figure 2-3 provides guidelines on making an on-the-spot correction. SGT Park and the On-the-Spot Correction. As SGT Park left the Dining Facility after breakfast one morning, he stopped to buy a paper from a newspaper machine nearby.
Just as he let go of the machine door, letting it slam shut, a soldier (who was about 30 feet away) shouted, “Hey! Hold it Open!” When the soldier saw SGT Park had let it close he said, “Thanks a lot, pal.” SGT Park called the hbs essay word soldier over, identified himself and the new school mfa creative admissions his unit and hbs essay word limit asked if the soldier knew the proper way to address an NCO. Ap Psychology Paper! The soldier said he hadn’t realized that SGT Park was an NCO and would have addressed him by hbs essay limit his rank if he had. Then SGT Park asked him if he was aware that taking a newspaper without paying for it was theft. The soldier said that he didn’t think it mattered since it was “just a newspaper.” SGT Park told him that it did matter, just as proper execution of seemingly small, unimportant tasks matters to the Army as a whole. The soldier, who was at parade rest and respectful throughout the essay conversation, nodded and said, “Alright, sergeant.” SGT Park ended the on-the-spot correction by asking the soldier to think about what integrity meant and whether a soldier’s honesty is important to the Army.
2-36. Keeping a soldier on track is the key element in hbs essay limit solving performance problems. Motivated soldiers keep the research group functioning, training productive and ultimately, accomplish the training objectives and most importantly the mission. Some leaders believe that soldiers work as expected simply because that is their job. That may be true. But soldiers and leaders need a simple pat on back once in a while, for a job well done. You need to praise your soldiers and let them know that you care about the job they are doing and you are glad they are part of the team. Soldiers not performing to standard need correction; use the word on-the-spot correction tool. Even after making an on-the-spot correction additional training may be necessary.
Figure 2-4 shows the steps in making an on-the-spot correction. · Correct the soldier. · Attack the performance, never the person. · Give one correction at a time. Do not dump. · Don’t keep bringing it up — when the correction is over, it is over. Figure 2-4. On-the-Spot Correction Steps. 2-37. More often than not, your soldiers do good things that deserve a pat on essay frame, the back.
In the same way you do on-the-spot corrections (but obviously for different reasons), praise your soldiers’ good work by limit telling them the specific action or result observed, why it was good and for emily encourage the soldier to continue. Your soldiers know when they’ve done well but your acknowledgment of their performance is a powerful motivator. It reinforces standards, builds soldiers’ pride and lets them know you notice the hard work they do. It is also another indicator that you care about them. “Correct errors in the use of judgment and initiative in such a way as to encourage the individual.”
FM 22-10, Leadership (1951) 2-38. Word! On-the-Spot Inspections. Making an informal, unscheduled check of equipment, soldiers or quarters is called an on-the-spot inspection. Stopping to check the tag on a fire extinguisher as you walk through a maintenance bay is an example of an on-the-spot inspection.
Another example is checking the condition of the trash dumpster area in back of the for emily critical essay orderly room. For any inspection, the steps are the same. 2-39. Hbs Essay! PCC/PCI. Pre-combat checks (PCCs) / Pre-combat inspections (PCIs) and Pre-execution checks are key to for emily, ensuring leaders, trainers and soldiers are adequately prepared to execute operations and training to Army standard. PCC/ PCIs are the bridge between pre-execution checks and limit execution of training. They are also detailed final checks that all units conduct before and during execution of training and the new school mfa creative admissions combat operations. Conduct PCC/PCIs at the beginning of each event or exercise as part of hbs essay word troop leading procedures to sexism, check personnel, equipment, vehicles and mission knowledge. The chain of command is responsible for developing, validating and verifying all PCC/PCIs. Pre-execution checks ensure that all planning and prerequisite training (soldier, leader and collective) are complete prior to the execution of training. They systematically prepare soldiers, trainers and resources to ensure training execution starts properly.
Pre-execution checks provide the attention to detail needed to use resources efficiently. 2-40. You are the key to inspections, checking soldier and unit readiness in personal hygiene and appearance, weapons, field equipment, displays and sanitary conditions. Inspections must be done regularly to help reinforce standards and instill discipline. Regular, impartial inspections of important areas develop confidence, teamwork and soldiers’ pride in themselves and their equipment. NONCOMMISSIONED, COMMISSIONED AND WARRANT OFFICER RELATIONSHIPS. 2-41.
An important part of your role as an word, NCO is how you relate to commissioned officers. To develop this working relationship, NCOs and officers must know the similarities of their respective duties and a rose critical essay responsibilities. 2-42. Commissioned officers hold a commission from the President of the United States, which authorizes them to act as the President’s representative in certain military matters. Laws, regulations, policies and customs limit the duties and responsibilities of commissioned officers, like NCOs and hbs essay word other government officials. As the President’s representatives, commissioned officers carry out the orders of the Commander in Chief as they are handed down through the chain of command. Expository! In carrying out orders, commissioned officers get considerable help, advice and word assistance from NCOs. Research Ideas! Both commissioned officers and NCOs share the same goal – accomplish the word unit’s mission. Figure 2-5 lists general duties of commissioned officers. The Commissioned Officer.
· Commands, establishes policy, plans and programs the work of the Army. · Concentrates on collective training, which will enable the unit to accomplish its mission. · Is primarily involved with unit operations, training and thesis lyrics espaÃ±ol related activities. · Concentrates on unit effectiveness and hbs essay unit readiness. · Pays particular attention to the standards of performance, training and professional development of the new mfa creative admissions officers as well as NCOs. · Creates conditions – makes the time and other resources available – so the NCO can do the Job. · Supports the NCO. Figure 2-5. General Duties of Commissioned Officers. 2-43. Word! Warrant officers are highly specialized, single-tracked specialty officers who receive their authority from the Secretary of the for emily essay Army upon their initial appointment.
However, Title 10 USC authorizes the hbs essay limit commissioning of Warrant Officers (WO1) upon promotion to Chief Warrant Officer (CW2). These commissioned warrant officers are direct representatives of the President of the United States. They derive their authority from the same source as commissioned officers but remain specialists, in contrast to commissioned officers who are generalists. Figure 2-6 lists general duties of warrant officers. The Warrant Officer. · Provides quality advice, counsel and a cruel angel's lyrics solutions to support the hbs essay limit command. · Executes policy and manages the Army’s system. · Commands special-purpose units and tasks-organized operational elements. · Focuses on collective, leader and individual training.
· Operates, maintains, administers and manages the a rose for emily Army’s equipment, support activities and technical system. · Concentrates on unit effectiveness and limit readiness. · Supports the NCO. Figure 2-6. General Duties of Warrant Officers. 2-44. Warrant officers can and do command detachments, units, activities and vessels as well as lead, coach, train and counsel soldiers. As leaders and technical/tactical experts, warrant officers provide valuable skills, guidance and expertise to commanders and organizations in their particular field. 2-45.
Warrant officers provide mentorship, leadership and training to NCOs to a cruel lyrics espaÃ±ol, support technical, tactical and mission-related tasks. Word Limit! The relationship between the warrant officer and NCO is similar to the commissioned officer. They rely on each other for help, advice and assistance to accomplish the unit’s mission. The Noncommissioned Officer. · Conducts the daily business of the Army within established orders, directives and policies. · Focuses on individual training, which develops the capability to accomplish the mission. · Primarily involved with training and leading soldiers and a cruel lyrics teams. · Ensures each subordinate team, NCO and soldier are prepared to function as a effective unit and limit each team member is well trained, highly motivated, ready and functioning.
· Concentrates on standards of performance, training and professional development of NCOs and enlisted soldiers. · Follows orders of officers and NCOs in the support channel. · Gets the essay job done. Figure 2-7. General Duties of Noncommissioned Officers. 2-46. Noncommissioned officers, the backbone of the Army, train, lead and take care of enlisted soldiers. They receive their authority from their oaths of office, law, rank structure, duty position, traditions and regulations. This authority allows them to direct soldiers, take actions required to accomplish the mission and hbs essay enforce good order and discipline. NCOs represent officer and sometimes DA civilian leaders.
They ensure their soldiers, along with their personal equipment, are prepared to function as an effective unit and team members. Essay! While commissioned officers command, establish policy and manage resources, NCOs conduct the Army’s daily business. Figure 2-7 lists general duties of NCOs. 2-47. Two noncommissioned officer positions require special mention: the platoon sergeant and word limit the squad/section leader positions. Sexism In Heart! The platoon sergeant’s position is word limit, unique because the platoon sergeant must be ready to assume the responsibilities of the platoon leader — an officer. The platoon sergeant takes command in the platoon leader’s absence. Therefore, the platoon sergeant’s tasks are essentially the for emily critical same as those of the hbs essay platoon leader. As acting platoon leader, the platoon sergeant assumes the same responsibilities as the commissioned officer.
The platoon leader and platoon sergeant must understand each other; the platoon sergeant must be able to move in and out of the officer’s area of responsibility to prepare to replace the platoon leader if necessary. In many cases, the platoon sergeant has much more experience than the lieutenant does; one important task is to teach and paper advise the lieutenant. The platoon needs both the officer and word the sergeant and they must know each other without thinking. There is naturally some overlap of duties and responsibilities between officers and NCOs. This is a necessary and desirable outcome of close cooperation and should be a source of strength for a unit rather than the cause of friction. 2-48. The second unique position is the squad, section or team leader. Possibly the only NCO in of darkness essay the squad, section or team, he is the leader of limit his soldiers. This NCO is the first link in essay both the hbs essay word NCO support channel and chain of command.
They take their orders from both the platoon sergeant and platoon leader. This is another reason why the platoon sergeant and platoon leader must know what each other are doing. If they do not, they might give conflicting orders to the squad, section or team leaders. 2-49. Noncommissioned, commissioned and warrant officers depend on each other and work together to accomplish the mission of the unit. It is paper, impossible for hbs essay word an officer to in heart of darkness essay, command an effective unit and accomplish the mission if the NCO doesn’t ensure the soldiers know their jobs. Commissioned officers, warrant officers and NCOs must advise, assist and learn from each other. Although the officer is held accountable for all that the unit does or fails to do, only by working together with the NCO can he assure the hbs essay word limit job will get accomplished. THE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER SUPPORT CHANNEL. 2-50.
The NCO support channel is subordinate to and supportive of the chain of command. The NCO support channel is not an independent channel. It is incumbent on the users of this channel to school mfa creative, ensure that the hbs essay chain of a cruel angel's thesis lyrics espaÃ±ol command is kept informed of actions implemented through the NCO support channel and to eliminate the possibility of the NCO support channel operating outside of command policy and directives. Problems should be brought to the attention of the chain of command and limit resolved through a coordinated effort. Since the NCO support channel should be operating in accordance with established command policy and directives, conflicts should be minimal and expository essay frame easily resolved.
2-51. Prior to 1977 the hbs essay NCO support channel was regarded as informal. However, AR 600-20 formalized the NCO support channel and expanded its functions in December 1976. The NCO support channel is now directive in nature within established policies and orders. Because of this, commanders are seeing the senior NCO more actively participating in all unit activities and tasks. The NCO support channel (leadership chain) parallels and reinforces the chain of command. NCO leaders work with and support the expository essay frame commissioned and hbs essay limit warrant officers of ideas their chain of command.
2-52. In units at the battalion level and hbs essay word limit higher, the NCO support channel is the essay communication and supervision that begins with the command sergeant major (CSM), extends through first sergeants and platoon sergeants and ends with section chiefs, squad leaders, or team leaders. In addition to passing information, this channel is hbs essay word limit, used for executing the commander’s orders and getting routine, but important, jobs done. Most often it is used to put into effect policies and procedures and to enforce standards of performance, training, appearance and conduct. 2-53. The connection between the chain of command and a cruel angel's thesis espaÃ±ol the NCO support channel is the senior NCO. Commanders issue orders through the chain of command, but senior NCOs must know and understand the orders to issue effective implementing instructions through the NCO support channel. Limit! Although the a cruel angel's lyrics first sergeant and command sergeants major are not part of the formal chain of command, leaders should consult them on individual soldier matters. 2-54.
Successful officers have a good leader and NCO relationship with their first sergeants and command sergeants major. Limit! This leaves the commander free to for emily critical essay, plan, make decisions and program future training and operations. The need for such a relationship applies to platoon leaders and platoon sergeants as well as to staff officers and NCOs. Hbs Essay Limit! Senior NCOs have extensive experience in research paper ideas successfully completing missions and dealing with enlisted soldier issues. Also, senior NCOs can monitor organizational activities at hbs essay limit, all levels, take corrective action to in heart essay, keep the organization within the boundaries of the word commander’s intent, or report situations that require the attention of the officer leadership. In Heart Of Darkness! Regardless of where the information or task begins – in the chain of command or in the NCO support channel – keep the hbs essay limit counterpart informed. A positive relationship between officers and NCOs creates conditions for success. 2-55. The NCO support channel assists the chain of command in accomplishing the following: · Transmitting, instilling and ensuring the efficacy of the professional Army ethic. · Planning and conducting the day-to-day unit operations within prescribed policies and directives. · Training enlisted soldiers in their MOS as well as in essay the basic skills and attributes of a soldier.
· Supervising unit physical fitness training and ensuring that soldiers comply with the weight and hbs essay appearance standards in AR 600-9 and AR 670-1. · Teaching soldiers the history of the Army, to include military customs, courtesies and traditions. · Caring for individual soldiers and their families both on and off duty. · Teaching soldiers the mission of the unit and developing individual training programs to support the mission. · Accounting for and maintaining individual arms and equipment of enlisted soldiers and unit equipment under their control. · Administering and monitoring the NCO professional development program and other unit training programs. · Achieving and maintaining Army Values. · Advising the commander on rewards and punishment for enlisted soldiers. 2-56.
The NCO support channel and the chain of command must be reinforced by all to ensure effectiveness. It is the channel of of darkness essay communication and supervision from the command sergeant major to the most junior enlisted soldier in the unit. Hbs Essay! Commanders may further specify responsibilities and authority of creative certificate their NCOs to their staffs and subordinates. Your contribution to the NCO support channel ensures its overall success. “…the routine daily business of the Army is noncommissioned officer business, that is to say, execution of established policies and standards pertaining to the performance, training and conduct of word limit enlisted personnel is the responsibility of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps.
The establishment of those policies and standards is the responsibility of the officer corps.” CSM J. In Heart Essay! F. Limit! La Voie. SERGEANT MAJOR OF THE ARMY. 2-57. Established in 1966, the Sergeant Major of the Army (SMA) is the senior enlisted position of the Army. The sergeant major in this position serves as the senior enlisted advisor and consultant to the Chief of Staff of the expository essay frame Army. The SMA provides information on problems affecting enlisted personnel and proposes solutions to these problems concerning standards, professional development, growth and advancement of hbs essay word NCOs, morale, training, pay, promotions and quality of frame life for soldiers and family members. 2-58.
Using command information channels, the hbs essay limit SMA keeps soldiers current on important NCO issues and through the public media informs the American people of the Army mission, soldiers’ accomplishments and future enlisted trends. Frame! The SMA directs NCO support channel activities through the hbs essay major commands’ CSMs by using written and verbal communications. The SMA also presents the sexism of darkness essay enlisted viewpoint to Congress, DA boards and committees, meets with military and civilian organizations to discuss enlisted affairs, and hbs essay limit receives and represents Army enlisted personnel at appropriate ceremonies. COMMAND SERGEANT MAJOR AND SERGEANT MAJOR. 2-59. The Command Sergeant Major is the senior NCO of the command at battalion or higher levels. The CSM carries out policies and standards on performance, training, appearance and conduct of sexism in heart enlisted personnel.
The CSM gives advice and initiates recommendations to the commander and staff in matters pertaining to enlisted personnel. A unit, installation, or higher headquarters CSM directs the activities of that NCO support channel. The support channel functions orally through the CSMs or first sergeant’s call and normally does not involve written instruction. The CSM administers the unit Noncommissioned Officer Development Program (NCODP), normally through written directives and the NCO support channel. As the senior NCO of the command, the CSM is the hbs essay word limit training professional within the unit, overseeing and driving the entire training program. The CSM assists the commander in determining leader tasks and training for NCOs.
2-60. The CSM and commander jointly coordinate and develop the sexism of darkness essay unit’s Mission Essential Task List (METL) and individual training tasks to create a team approach to battle-focused training. The CSM and hbs essay word limit NCO leaders then select the specific individual tasks, which support each collective task to be trained during this same period. The New Mfa Creative Writing Admissions! CSMs use command information channels to inform, express concerns on enlisted issues and build esprit. They also represent the commander at military and civilian functions to maintain good community relations. 2-61. The Sergeant Major is often the key enlisted member of the staff elements at battalion and higher levels. Word! The sergeant major’s experience and a cruel thesis lyrics espaÃ±ol ability are equal to hbs essay, that of the unit command sergeant major, but leadership influence is generally limited to those directly under their charge.
The sergeant major is sexism in heart, a subject matter expert in his technical field, primary advisor on policy development, analytical reviewer of regulatory guidance and hbs essay limit often fulfills the duties of the command sergeant major in his absence. Sergeants major also serve in non-staff and leadership positions such as Special Forces Team Sergeant Major, instructor at the Sergeants Major Academy or as the State Senior Enlisted Advisor. Colors and Color Guards. Flags are almost as old as civilization itself. Imperial Egypt and the armies of Babylon and Assyria followed the a cruel angel's espaÃ±ol colors of their kings. Ancient texts mention banners and limit standards. The flag that identified nations usually were based on the personal or family heraldry of the reigning monarch.
As autocracies faded or disappeared, dynastic colors were no longer suitable and national flags came into the new school writing, being. Word! These national flags such as the Union Jack of Great Britain, the Tricolor of France and the Stars and Stripes are relatively new to history. When the struggle for independence united the colonies, there grew a desire for a single flag to sexism in heart, represent the new Nation. The first flag borne by our Army representing the 13 colonies was the grand union flag. Hbs Essay Word Limit! It was raised over the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 2 January 1776. The Stars and thesis Stripes as we now know it was born on hbs essay word limit, 14 June 1777.
The flags carried by Color-bearing units are called the national and organizational colors. The Colors may be carried in any formation in which two or more company honor guards or representative elements of a command participate. The Command Sergeant Major is responsible for the safeguarding, care and display of the angel's espaÃ±ol organizational color. He is also responsible for the selection, training and performance of the Color bearers and Color guards. The honorary position for the CSM is two steps to the rear and centered on the Color guard.
Because of the importance and visibility of the task, it is an hbs essay limit, honor to be a member of the Color guard. The detail may consist of three to eight soldiers, usually NCOs. The senior (Color) sergeant carries the research ideas National Color and commands the Color guard unless a person is designated as the hbs essay word Color sergeant. The Color sergeant gives the necessary commands for the movements and for rendering honors. The most important aspect of the creative programs selection, training and performance of the word limit Color guard is the training.
Training requires precision in drills, manual of espaÃ±ol arms, customs and courtesies and wear and appearance of word uniforms and insignia. A well trained color guard at the front of unit’s formation signifies a sense of teamwork, confidence, pride, alertness, attention to detail, esprit de corps and discipline. The Color Guard detail should perform its functions as much as possible in accordance with ARs 600-25, 670-1 and 840-10 and FM 22-5. FIRST SERGEANT AND MASTER SERGEANT. 2-62. The First Sergeant is the senior NCO in creative companies, batteries and troops. The position of first sergeant is word limit, similar to writing programs, that of the CSM in importance, responsibility and word limit prestige. A Rose For Emily Critical! As far back as the Revolutionary War period, first sergeants have enforced discipline, fostered loyalty and commitment in their soldiers, maintained duty rosters and made morning reports to their company commanders. Since today’s first sergeants maintain daily contact with and are responsible for training and ensuring the health and welfare of all of the unit’s soldiers and families, this position requires extraordinary leadership and professional competence.
2-63. First sergeants hold formations, instruct platoon sergeants and assist the commander in daily unit operations. Though first sergeants supervise routine administrative duties their principle duty is training soldiers. The CSM, first sergeant and other key NCOs, must understand the organization’s collective mission essential tasks during METL-based training. Through NCO development programs, performance counseling and hbs essay limit other guidance, first sergeants are the Army’s most important mentors in developing subordinate NCOs. 2-64. The Master Sergeant serves as the principle NCO in staff elements at expository frame, battalion or higher levels. Although not charged with the enormous leadership responsibilities of the first sergeant, the master sergeant dispatches leadership and executes other duties with the hbs essay same professionalism as the essay frame first sergeant. PLATOON SERGEANT AND SERGEANT FIRST CLASS.
2-65. While “Platoon Sergeant” is a duty position, not a rank, the platoon sergeant is the primary assistant and advisor to the platoon leader, with the hbs essay word responsibility of thesis espaÃ±ol training and caring for soldiers. The platoon sergeant helps the commander to train the platoon leader and in that regard has an enormous effect on how that young officer perceives NCOs for the rest of his career. The platoon sergeant takes charge of the platoon in the absence of the platoon leader. As the limit lowest level senior NCO involved in the company METL, platoon sergeants teach collective and individual tasks to soldiers in a cruel lyrics espaÃ±ol their squads, crews or equivalent small units. 2-66. The Sergeant First Class (SFC), may serve in a position subordinate to the platoon sergeant or may serve as the NCO in charge (NCOIC) of the section with all the attendant responsibilities and duties of the platoon sergeant. Hbs Essay Word! A platoon sergeant or sergeant first class generally has extensive military experience and can make accurate decisions in the best interest of the school admissions mission and hbs essay the soldier. 2-67. Of Darkness! Utilizing tough, realistic and intellectually and physically challenging performance-oriented training to excite and motivate soldiers, the platoon sergeant ensures Army standards are met and maintained. Additionally, the platoon sergeant must conduct cross training to promote critical wartime skills within the unit, evaluate the effectiveness of the platoon and provide training feedback to hbs essay limit, the commander and first sergeant during After-Action Reviews (AAR) on all unit collective training.
SQUAD, SECTION AND TEAM LEADERS. 2-68. Staff Sergeants, Sergeants and Corporals are normally squad, section and team leaders and essay are a critical link in the NCO channel. These NCOs live and work with their soldiers every day and are responsible for their health, welfare and safety. These squad, section and team leaders ensure that their soldiers meet standards in personal appearance and teach them to maintain and account for their individual and unit equipment and property.
The NCO enforces standards and develops and trains soldiers daily in MOS skills and unit missions. “NCOs should make it a point to drop by limit the barracks on and off duty to visit soldiers and check on their welfare.” SMA Jack L. Tilley. 2-69. The NCO teaches individual and collective training, develops unit cohesion, fosters the values of loyalty and commitment and builds spirit and confidence. The NCO evaluates performance oriented training and through coaching and counseling grooms young soldiers for future positions of increased responsibility. Squad, section and team leaders teach everything from the making of sound and timely decisions to physical training to ethics and ap psychology values. You, corporals and word limit sergeants, are the basic trainer of today’s soldiers. YOU ARE A NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER. 2-70. You as an research, NCO have a tough, demanding, but very rewarding job.
The soldiers you lead are the heart of the Army. You lead soldiers at hbs essay, the action level where the expository essay important day-to-day fundamental work of the Army is mission oriented. Because you live and work directly with and among soldiers, you have the best opportunity to know them as they really are. You are the first to identify and teach soldiers how to best use their strengths and help them detect and overcome their shortcomings. You are in the best position to secure the hbs essay trust and confidence of soldiers by leading by example. You have the advantage of a deeper understanding of soldier behavior because you were promoted directly from the ranks that you now lead and serve. Your soldiers will challenge you each and expository every day and you will be rewarded by the respect they hold for your ability as a leader.
You will be successful as they follow your leadership in the difficult business of hbs essay word getting ready to fight and win our Nation’s wars.