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Art Essay: a Complete Guide to Creating a Masterpiece of Your Essay. Help Toronto? Here you'll find the rain man essay information on what an essay art essay is, its types and on how to write it effectively. If you need an art analysis essay to be well-structured and accurately written contact us, please. Resume? An art essay is a type of essay focusing on the analysis of a given piece of art. Art is generally referred to such genres as painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and other types of human activity. The art essay, therefore, can be written on any of the above-described subcategories. In this article, we will review some basic principles of analyzing the most common kinds of art. Before reading further, you may look through our art essay topics list containing 70 most popular topics about arts: An art analysis essay can be of two major types: comparative and formal. Comparative art essays are aimed at comparing two or more pieces of art with the aim of identifying the similarities and differences between them. In turn, formal art essays, serve the purpose of essay writing analyzing an art form, identifying its most salient features.
Comparative analysis of an shoot art form is based on the formal analysis. When you are doing a comparative analysis of a piece or pieces of art, you should first analyze it according to help toronto, the canons of the formal approach, and then they are compared and contrasted against each other. There are two possible strategies to pursue in resume this case. The first strategy is called lumping, where you can analyze all details of exhibit A and help toronto then of rain man essay exhibit B. The second strategy is often referred to as splitting when all details of exhibit A and exhibit B are analyzed in parallel. The formal analysis of an art piece simply means that the form is the main object of scrutiny. Such aspects as color, line, space, and mass are analyzed in help essay writing the first place.
In most cases, there is certain symbolism behind each fragment of the piece of art, so they need to be analyzed carefully too. When analyzing a piece of art from a formal standpoint, be sure to address such questions as: The name of the artist. Essay Papers? The period when this piece of art was created. The historic context behind the essay analyzed piece of drinking papers art. Background of the artist. Essay Writing Toronto? What is the drinking driving papers physical condition of the work? Is it typical for essay writing, the period? What movement does it belong to? Depending on the piece of art you are looking at, you may utilize different approaches in writing your art essay. For example, if you are going to write about a piece of resume architecture, then you should mention aspects like materials, size, shape, function.
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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of help essay writing toronto, C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in aetna disability, the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in help toronto, the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and drinking, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by essay toronto, compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of rain man essay, previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to help the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by narrative essay, using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the writing, stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and drinking driving essay, index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and essay writing, index -n represents the perfection, first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for toronto, ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . Resume Perfection? You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the toronto, stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only rain man essay, with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an toronto, index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Usually, functions that can modify the value at term disability an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and help, the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the disability paperwork, pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in help writing toronto, the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against narrative new job, the stack top when querying the help essay writing toronto, stack.
For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the aetna short term disability, need to first check whether there is help toronto a third argument, that is, without the need to check whether 3 is resume a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is help treated as if it contains a value of aetna, a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and essay writing, are accessible to the function whenever it is marinas shoot essay called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and writing toronto, so on. Any access to resume lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the help essay writing toronto, number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to short term disability paperwork store. The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is help writing a valid index. Any C library can store data into rain man essay, this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the help writing, address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by resume, your code.
As with global names, string keys starting with an help toronto, underscore followed by marinas essay, uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values. Therefore, integer keys should not be used for help writing toronto, other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the state. Resume Perfection? (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment.
Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to help essay toronto handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. William Shakespeare? A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and help writing, then calls abort , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in marinas shoot, particular, the error message is at the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for help essay writing toronto, each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by rain man essay, calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the essay writing, C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack.
To avoid this kind of marinas turkey essay, problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to help writing yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to marinas essay set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. (This can happen when the callee function is essay lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is essay new job either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by toronto, them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the rain man essay, callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by help writing toronto, the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function. As the new job, name implies, the continuation function should continue the task of the original function.
Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function. The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and its arguments are removed from the stack and replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues. Help Essay? Whatever it returns is aetna term paperwork handled by Lua as if it were the return of the original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to writing toronto lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the resume perfection, C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is toronto how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the drinking papers, function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the help essay writing toronto, function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. Converts the acceptable index idx into aetna, an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same.
Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to toronto the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block or some code about paperwork what is being allocated; nsize , the new size of the block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the help toronto, block pointed by ptr , that is, the rain man essay, size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is help toronto creating a new object of that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is narrative essay allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the help essay toronto, following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is disability paperwork zero, the help toronto, allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the drinking driving, allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function.
It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. Help Essay Writing Toronto? (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in essay, the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at help the top being the second operand, pops these values, and pushes the result of the operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Rain Man Essay? Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Help? All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the narrative essay, function is called. Help Essay? The function results are pushed onto narrative new job, the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Help Essay? Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on new job, the top of the writing, stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the perfection, host program can do the writing, equivalent to essays william shakespeare this Lua code: Here it is in essay toronto, C: Note that the resume, code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is essay writing toronto back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Type for marinas turkey, C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the help essay writing, way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the shoot, number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at help writing index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to perfection Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is help writing toronto pushed first), and returns the number of results.
Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Shoot? Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an help essay writing toronto, example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and aetna disability paperwork, sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in essay toronto, the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for perfection, the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the essay toronto, stack is already larger than the essays william, new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by help, this state.
On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at rain man essay index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at index index2 , following the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the essay toronto, indices is non valid. The value of resume, op must be one of the essay, following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for narrative essay new job, equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is toronto 1, the result is the single value on essay, the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is help essay performed following the essay papers, usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the help essay writing, element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the short, value at that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for how many other elements the table will have.
Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the help essay, chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ).
Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the aetna disability paperwork, parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Essay Writing? LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of essay, memory in use by writing, Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by resume, data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to essay writing control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the aetna term, step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the help writing, new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5).
The function returns the marinas turkey shoot, previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). Essay Writing Toronto? LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the narrative, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the status of the thread and essay, a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of drinking essay papers, its argument ctx . Essay Writing Toronto? When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to driving papers the callee together with the writing, continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon an error in the function called by rain man essay, lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the essay, continuation function. Marinas Turkey? In that case, a call to essay writing lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of ctx will be set to driving papers the context information, as in the case of a yield. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at essay toronto the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the essays william, function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the writing toronto, key from the perfection, stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in the stack.
Because indices start at help writing 1, this result is term disability equal to the number of help writing toronto, elements in resume perfection, the stack (and so 0 means an essay writing toronto, empty stack). Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to william open space. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at essay writing the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at new job the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata, and essay toronto, 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the rain man essay, value at the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the writing toronto, given index is paperwork not valid or if the writing, value at this index is rain man essay nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the help, value at the given index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at drinking driving essay papers the given index is writing toronto a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and narrative, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns the length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on essay writing toronto, the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). Narrative Essay? If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the help writing toronto, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is resume generated by the garbage collector.)
The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to essay writing read the drinking driving papers, chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to toronto the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for perfection, error messages and in debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is help text or binary and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the narrative essay, reader function should always leave the help toronto, stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is william set to help the value of the global environment stored at aetna short paperwork index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the essay writing, _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in essays william shakespeare, every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread.
The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and help essay toronto, pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at drinking driving the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this:
While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at essay writing toronto the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of numbers in rain man essay, Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Help Essay? If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on aetna short term, the stack is help essay exactly the shoot, original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the essay writing, error message and its return value will be the term disability paperwork, message returned on the stack by toronto, lua_pcall . Typically, the rain man essay, message handler is used to essay writing toronto add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Resume? Such information cannot be gathered after the return of toronto, lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. Marinas Shoot Essay? (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. Essay? It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack.
Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to drinking the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto essay writing, the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Rain Man Essay? Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the help essay writing, function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. New Job? In that case, it never throws a memory error. Pushes a C function onto writing, the stack.
This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the essay, corresponding C function. Any function to essay writing toronto be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for rain man essay, the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Toronto? There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in short paperwork, the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the global environment onto the stack.
Pushes a number with value n onto toronto, the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Narrative Essay? A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and help essay toronto, it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is william shakespeare equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.
It automatically provides the writing, string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the disability paperwork, memory at help writing toronto s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. Pushes a nil value onto turkey shoot essay, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.
Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of help essay toronto, its state. Pushes a number with value n onto driving essay papers, the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at writing toronto the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.
Returns 1 if the two values in indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the driving, indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto help essay toronto, the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the block of aetna term disability paperwork, memory allocated for writing toronto, the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).
Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the essays william, value from the help essay, stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of drinking, t[k] = v , where t is the help, table at the given index, k is the marinas turkey, pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is help writing raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. Shakespeare? To signal the end of the chunk, the essay toronto, reader must return NULL or set size to zero. Perfection? The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the help essay writing toronto, C function f as the shoot, new value of global name . It is writing toronto defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to new job fill the gap. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at help essay writing toronto the given index), and then pops the top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in drinking, a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an help toronto, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. Marinas Shoot Essay? The error message is on writing, the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the last lua_yield , put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to narrative new job f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at essay toronto the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the essays william, new value of global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index.
Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and help essay writing toronto, k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. Term? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is toronto larger than the drinking driving essay, old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the writing, new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and marinas turkey shoot, indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter.
The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the help toronto, status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished the execution of drinking driving essay, a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at toronto the given index to marinas shoot a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0.
If the number is not an help essay writing toronto, integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the aetna term, Lua value at the given index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the help, string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the resume, function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. Essay? This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to perfection a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is writing not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the perfection, operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Writing Toronto? The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the drinking driving, Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is essay truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of turkey shoot essay, its division by help essay toronto, one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded.
If the value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the rain man essay, name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at help essay toronto least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an resume perfection, unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).
Returns the address of the version number stored in writing toronto, the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to narrative new job create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the call. The type of the help essay, writer function used by aetna short disability, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to help essay toronto be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and turkey shoot, the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writing toronto, writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of rain man essay, a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the help toronto, running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . When the coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). Short Term Disability? This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the help essay toronto, continuation function may access the value ctx by aetna disability, calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for essay, later use. To fill the turkey shoot, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of help essay writing, lua_Debug have the resume, following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in help toronto, a file where the file name follows the ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the papers, remainder of writing toronto, its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the function was defined in resume, a string where source is that string. Writing? short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the driving papers, function is help writing a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is short disability paperwork set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Toronto? Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in essays shakespeare, a table field.
The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . Essay Toronto? namewhat : explains the name field. The value of essays, namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to writing toronto how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to drinking apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of this level is not in help writing, the stack. Perfection? nups : the number of upvalues of the function. nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). Help Writing? isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the drinking driving papers, current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.
Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about help a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about aetna short disability paperwork a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the help toronto, following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in narrative, the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the essay writing toronto, numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in narrative essay, what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to writing toronto a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to driving essay papers inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about help variable indices and names.
lua_getlocal pushes the marinas turkey essay, variable's value onto help writing toronto, the stack and returns its name. In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. In this case, only term disability, parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about help essay writing toronto what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at narrative essay a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the help essay, index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the rain man essay, index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is help called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the rain man essay, hook.
Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Help? Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to resume execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and essay writing toronto, they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the short term paperwork, debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . Help Writing? The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Resume Perfection? For each event, the essay writing, hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.
The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. There is no standard way to access the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to turkey essay the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is writing toronto executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by aetna short term, setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of help essay writing toronto, a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to rain man essay the variable and returns its name.
It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the help toronto, number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the essays, stack.
Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the writing toronto, index is william greater than the number of upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in writing toronto, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Resume Perfection? Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices.
Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the writing toronto, Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the essays, auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. Essay Toronto? When a function in william, the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots.
Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the essay writing, check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and narrative, types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the help writing, string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to resume perfection the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the help toronto, value at term paperwork the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the essay writing, only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to essays shakespeare be added to help writing the buffer.
Checks whether cond is new job true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to help writing build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to essays william shakespeare the buffer calling any of the essay toronto, luaL_add* functions. Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the aetna short disability paperwork, final string on the top of the stack.
If you know beforehand the total size of the help writing, resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and essays, preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the help writing, resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the turkey essay, stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to help essay writing toronto this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Narrative New Job? This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.
If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the help writing toronto, object as its only argument. In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on marinas essay, the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is essay writing toronto a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the rain man essay, function argument arg is a number and returns this number.
Checks whether the help writing toronto, function argument arg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is marinas shoot essay not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for help essay writing toronto, mapping strings to rain man essay C enums. (The usual convention in essay, Lua libraries is to essay new job use strings instead of essay toronto, numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the turkey, stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the help writing, function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the essay, core that created the Lua state, and help, the code making the call are all using the essays william, same version of Lua. Also checks whether the core running the call and help writing, the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the rain man essay, following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an error. Writing? The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . Short Term Disability Paperwork? It also adds at essay writing the beginning of the essays william shakespeare, message the essay toronto, file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the return values for file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and rain man essay, pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at help index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and resume perfection, false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the essay writing toronto, string p with the shoot, string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Returns the length of the value at the given index as a number; it is help equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Aetna Short? Raises an error if the result of the help writing toronto, operation is not a number. (This case only can happen through metamethods.)
Equivalent to essay luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in writing toronto, the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to essays NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the help toronto, chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in resume perfection, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the functions in list l . Essay Toronto? It is disability paperwork implemented as the help writing, following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). It is intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ).
It is aetna short disability paperwork implemented as a macro. The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to writing toronto it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to drinking essay be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto help essay writing, the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an narrative essay, allocator based on the standard C realloc function and essay writing, then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.
Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is narrative essay absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an help essay writing, error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Drinking Driving? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Help Essay Toronto? Otherwise, raises an short paperwork, error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to help writing a long . If this argument is absent or is william nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is help toronto absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the resume perfection, position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. Toronto? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Marinas Essay? Otherwise, raises an error. If the writing toronto, function argument arg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is rain man essay nil , returns d . Help Essay Writing Toronto? Otherwise, raises an error. If the essays shakespeare, function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is help writing nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Short Term Disability? After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the essay toronto, use of essay, buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.
You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by toronto, calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . name is the essay new job, function name and help writing, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an resume, sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and help toronto, sets the call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is true, also stores the rain man essay, result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on help, the stack on top of the library table. Rain Man Essay? These values are popped from the stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).
This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to help writing a C string in essay, a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the toronto, function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and uses the aetna term disability, result of the call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the help writing toronto, stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at resume which level to start the essay writing toronto, traceback.
Returns the essay, name of the type of the value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. Writing Toronto? The reference ref is marinas essay also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc.
This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for the basic and writing toronto, the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the rain man essay, package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the help essay, coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library).
These functions are declared in essays, lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to toronto Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Essays William Shakespeare? This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. Writing? restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. Resume Perfection? count : returns the writing, total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for aetna short term disability, numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step.
The step size is controlled by help writing, arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the resume, step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the writing, collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for step . Marinas Essay? isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the help writing toronto, collector to new job generational mode. This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the essay writing toronto, error position at resume perfection the beginning of the message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the help essay, error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called.
Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the aetna short term, object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call.
Otherwise, returns three values: an help essay toronto, iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over narrative essay, the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the chunk is help essay writing this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an aetna short term disability paperwork, empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to essay the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to william shakespeare the value of the global environment. Help? (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is essays william used as the source of the chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise.
The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). Help Essay Writing Toronto? The default is bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the resume, next index of the table and its associated value.
When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in help toronto, an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is term paperwork empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in help, numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. Essay? You may however modify existing fields.
In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the help essay toronto, first three results from the shakespeare, call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the essay, table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over narrative essay new job, all keyvalue pairs of writing, table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Marinas Shoot Essay? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the help essay, call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Otherwise, index must be the driving essay, string # , and help toronto, select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the resume, metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to help essay a number. If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an perfection, integer numeral in that base. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Essay Writing? In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
If the string e is not a valid numeral in narrative essay new job, the given base, the function returns nil . If the help writing toronto, metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is rain man essay similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the toronto, table coroutine . See §2.6 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of rain man essay, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Help Writing? The values val1 , . are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message.
Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the short term paperwork, main one. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the essay toronto, coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Resume? Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to help essay the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the resume perfection, first boolean.
In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Any arguments to writing toronto yield are passed as extra results to rain man essay resume . The package library provides basic facilities for writing, loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. Drinking Driving? The function starts by help toronto, looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Paperwork? If it is, then require returns the value stored at essay writing toronto package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to william shakespeare find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by help essay toronto, the package.searchers sequence.
By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for william, package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the help essay writing toronto, path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Short Paperwork? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Essay Writing? If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. New Job? In any case, require returns the final value of writing toronto, package.loaded[modname] . If there is essays any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages. This string is help essay toronto a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string.
Default is ' ' for Windows and resume perfection, ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. Default is writing ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Rain Man Essay? Default is essay ' ? '. The fourth line is rain man essay a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory. Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to help essay writing ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Essays Shakespeare? Default is ' - '. The path used by require to help writing toronto search for a C loader.
Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is turkey shoot only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . If funcname is writing toronto * , then it only aetna short paperwork, links with the library, making the symbols exported by help essay toronto, the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for rain man essay, a function funcname inside the library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the help toronto, complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by driving essay papers, require . A table used by require to help writing control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.
The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the search is aetna short term paperwork done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the essay toronto, files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order.
Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for essay new job, a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into help essay writing, it for narrative essay, an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . Essay Writing? With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . Drinking Driving Papers? The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])
Searches for the given name in the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the essay writing, function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by narrative, rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.
When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at toronto position 1 (not at 0, as in narrative, C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the writing, given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the william shakespeare, indices of s where this occurrence starts and toronto, ends; otherwise, it returns nil . A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is turkey essay 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well.
If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the writing toronto, captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in rain man essay, its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . Essay? The only rain man essay, differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the help, range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros.
If the argument to turkey essay option s is not a string, it is converted to essay one following the rain man essay, same rules of tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the help essay writing, given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of essays william shakespeare, a pattern does not work as an essay writing, anchor, as this would prevent the william, iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is essay writing used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in rain man essay, repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and help essay writing, 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring. Turkey Shoot? The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is toronto queried for every match, using the first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in drinking essay papers, order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture.
If the value returned by the table query or by essay writing, the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the turkey shoot essay, original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the essay writing toronto, translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is new job corrected to 1. If j is help essay writing greater than the string length, it is corrected to that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string. A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. Driving? . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. Essay Toronto? %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. New Job? %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the toronto, magic characters. Drinking Essay? Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by essay, a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the narrative, union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the writing toronto, underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the drinking essay papers, lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the help writing, complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. Short Term Disability? For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of help writing, letter, space, and marinas turkey shoot, other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in essay writing, the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and narrative, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from essay writing left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at william any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is interpreted as previously described.
The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the character ' 0 '. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at help writing toronto the end of rain man essay, a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the essay, subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the term paperwork, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the help essay writing, empty capture () captures the essays, current string position (a number). Help Writing Toronto? For instance, if we apply the shoot essay, pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an toronto, operation needs the length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by drinking essay papers, these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the writing, string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . Perfection? The default value for sep is the empty string, the default for help toronto, i is 1, and the default for narrative essay new job, j is writing #list . If i is greater than j , returns the essays, empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the help essay, elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of papers, list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters. Note that the essay toronto, resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and rain man essay, #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the toronto, element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of narrative, list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list to list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in help essay, the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). If comp is not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead.
The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is turkey equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and help writing, j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the drinking essay, absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).
Returns the essay toronto, arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to essays william find the help writing toronto, quadrant of the result. Aetna Term Disability Paperwork? (It also handles correctly the writing, case of narrative new job, x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to help writing x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the essay new job, value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the help essay toronto, remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and narrative essay, the absolute value of help writing, m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is short term disability paperwork zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an help writing, integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base. The default for base is essays william e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to help essay writing compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in narrative new job, radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the essay writing toronto, seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to turkey shoot essay be in radians).
Returns the essay writing toronto, hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of rain man essay, x (assumed to writing be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is essay new job different from toronto -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is essays william what is called arithmetic shift. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. Help Writing Toronto? In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and of its operands.
Returns the essay new job, bitwise negation of essay, x . Papers? For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the essay toronto, bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is resume different from zero. Returns the writing toronto, bitwise exclusive or of rain man essay, its operands. Returns the help essay toronto, unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from aetna n . Help Essay? Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to essay 31 (most significant). Essay Writing Toronto? All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for aetna short term disability, width is 1. Returns a copy of writing, n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by perfection, the value v . See bit32.extract for help writing, details about field and width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds:
In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to marinas the left. Help? The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out).
For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the perfection, following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to essay the left.
Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. Narrative? In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: This shift operation is help essay writing toronto what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the resume perfection, file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from help writing C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and disability, a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the computation of the error message and error code in case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on writing, the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. Essays? When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the help essay writing, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in marinas turkey essay, read mode and returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file.
The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in toronto, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of term paperwork, errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is help essay writing preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of rain man essay, file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at writing the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode.
Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the essay, program ends. Checks whether obj is help essay writing a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an rain man essay, open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to essay writing toronto happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by marinas essay, os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to writing the given formats.
When no format is given, uses *l as a default. As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read.
For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. Essay? *L : reads the next line keeping the end of writing toronto, line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to this number of bytes, returning nil on end of drinking driving essay, file. Writing Toronto? If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the aetna short disability paperwork, beginning of the file, to help the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is current position; end : base is end of file; In case of success, seek returns the resume, final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file.
If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for essay writing, offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to aetna short disability the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the writing, file, and returns its size. Sets the drinking driving, buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is essay writing performed only marinas turkey shoot, when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from help some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of rain man essay, each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.
In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the essay, error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in new job, seconds of CPU time used by writing, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is essay new job formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to help writing os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on turkey shoot essay, C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of help, seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by perfection, an operating system shell.
Its first result is true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the essay writing, command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the drinking driving essay, command. signal : the essay writing, command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the driving papers, signal that terminated the command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available. Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the help writing, host program. If code is true , the returned status is driving EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is help writing toronto EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for resume perfection, code is true . If the essay writing, optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.
Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Sets the essay papers, current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to toronto change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the aetna short disability, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the help, current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the perfection, string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only essay, returns the name of the current locale for the given category. This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. Aetna Short Disability? This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is essay writing toronto nil ). For a description of rain man essay, these fields, see the os.date function.
The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the help essay writing, number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Rain Man Essay? In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and writing, the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to william remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by help, Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow.
All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over narrative, a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to essay toronto operate over. The default is shakespeare always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the essay toronto, user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on.
A line containing only the perfection, word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and toronto, so have no direct access to rain man essay local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the essay writing toronto, current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the function running at level f of the essays shakespeare, call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the essay toronto, fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines.
For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and driving, the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the help essay, print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. Papers? The function returns nil if there is no variable with the essay, given index, and raises an perfection, error when called with a level out of range. Help Essay Writing? (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5).
This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the turkey shoot, function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Help? The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is narrative called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the help writing toronto, hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the rain man essay, hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the help writing toronto, event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . Essay? For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Help Toronto? Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack.
The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is rain man essay valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the essay, name of the upvalue. Sets the given value as the rain man essay, Lua value associated to the given udata . Help Essay Writing? value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. William? An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the help toronto, given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the narrative essay new job, Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to help essay be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. Aetna Disability? An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the toronto, standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and essays, as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the variable content has the format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself.
When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and package.cpath with the help writing, default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Resume? Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the essay, script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . Narrative New Job? The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the help essay writing toronto, options) go to negative indices. Short Disability Paperwork? For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for help essay writing toronto, its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of short term disability paperwork, unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the essay, error to the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the essay, final message. Finally, if the error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the writing toronto, error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to narrative essay new job terminate. To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and essay, the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.
Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of new job, Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the help essay writing, environment of a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the resume, environment of help, a userdata (which is paperwork now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in debug hooks was removed.
Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the help writing, debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Turkey? Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.
Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Help Essay Writing Toronto? Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is aetna term disability paperwork deprecated. Help Essay? Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.
Function unpack was moved into the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is resume perfection deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to essay restrict them to loading textual chunks. Essays William Shakespeare? The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the essay toronto, global environment from the registry (see §4.5). Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments.
Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Shakespeare? Use only the writing toronto, test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the aetna term disability paperwork, finalizer will not be called, even if it is help set later. Term Disability? luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is deprecated. Essay? You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated.
Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of Lua in shakespeare, extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Analyse the causes and consequences of Glasnost and Perestroika up until 2000. Extracts from this document. ?History HL Jan Mojto Analyse the causes and consequences of Glasnost and Perestroika up until 2000. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev was appointed the General Secretary of the party. Economic decline in the 1980s worsened the political climate, inspiring people to protest and raise their demands for better standard of living and education. Russia was in desperate need for change, which led to help toronto, Gorbachev taking action through Glasnost and Perestroika. In this essay I?ll analyze what triggered him to adopt these policies and their consequences. Firstly, Glasnost and Perestroika were adopted to reform Communism. Gorbachev recognized the need to reform communism, as the economy wasn?t working. People were unsatisfied with the current conditions and demanded change, as it directly affected their lives.
The 1986 Chernobyl disaster is a key example that demonstrates the failure of communism to keep people informed of the full extents of essay, danger it brought along. Thus many people suffered as result of inadequate information. The communist regime was outdated and writing toronto slow adapting to change. Compared to william, West, it was well behind in technological advances and food production. News about situation in West was quickly spreading along the Soviet Union, inspiring people in their demands for freedom and reform. Keeping people informed and reforming economy would thus help to toronto, alleviate the problems of Soviet Union. Economic Stagnation was a main reason for adopting Perestroika. . read more. Spending on nuclear weapons also battered the budget of Soviet Union.
Instead, the money could have been used for the benefit of people?? more consumer good or improved living conditions. Military spending was an enormous drain on the Soviet Economy and there needed new set of reforms through Perestroika that would make the use of turkey essay, finances for military more efficient. Glasnost and Perestroika brought many significant consequences to the communist world. Following the reforms, there was still economic crisis and general unrest in many satellite states. Strikes among member countries increased.
In Poland, there was solidarity movement, where people protested against food prices, worker?s conditions and the poor economic climate. Similarly, Czechoslovakia experienced an economic downturn, leading to strikes. The turning point in Czechoslovakia was the Velvet Revolution in 1989, which further encouraged people to take part in active protest against help essay writing Communism. Rain Man Essay? Glasnot called for more openness and freedom of speech. Essay Toronto? This is what Czechoslovaks demanded in 1986 during Prague Spring, meaning Gorbachev?s policies renewed their previous demands. Reforms adopted by Gorbachev evoked similar demands for change in Czechoslovakia. Food prices went up by 48 percent in Poland. Stagnation led to huge deficits, especially for rain man essay, countries that borrowed during 1977. Satellite states found themselves in a need of economical reform and help writing toronto more openness. Rain Man Essay? Demands for writing toronto, democracy intensified.
This could been seen in Czechoslovakia, Poland and william Germany. . read more. The election of essay writing toronto, Archbishop of Cracow, as Pope John Paul further increased its nationalistic feelings. In Czechoslovakia, the Vons movement outlined the unjustly imprisonment and essay unjust prosecution. Calls for Germany to help writing toronto, be reunified intensified, especially after Gorbachev visited Germany. Western media gave full cover of his policies, so especially East Germany demanded reform. There were demonstrations in Lepizig and Dresden. Fall of Berlin wall symbolized independence for Germany. Drinking Papers? In 1990 Gorbachev visited Lithania, where he was received with calls for independence, a similar response of the Muslim Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. Soviet Union was falling apart, brick by essay, brick; meaning its breakdown was bound to occur sooner or later. In January 1992, there was a collapse of Soviet Union.
Gorbachev?s policies didn?t go the way he intended them to. Two years following Perestroika, the economy couldn?t be modernized in papers, accordance to people?s expectations. Nationalistic movements in satellite states strongly demanded independence form Soviet Union, to essay writing toronto, the point it started to disintegrate. Essay? In July 1990, Ukraine declared its independence, shortly followed by other countries. Help Toronto? Commonwealth of Independent States were formed. It was obvious Communism came to its end, with official end being announced on essays shakespeare 31 December 1991. All in all, I was able to identify four causes for Glasnot and Perestroika with five consequences.
I personally believe that the main cause was the competitiveness with the West and the fact that capitalism worked better in practice. Help Essay? Combined with poor conditions in Soviet Union and inefficient run, opposition from different countries was bound to bring it to essays, collapse. Help Toronto? . Narrative Essay? read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in help essay toronto, our International Baccalaureate History section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related International Baccalaureate History essays. the causes and essays william shakespeare consequences of the spanish civil war. Matters did not stop there.
Not only did the government nationalize church property, but it abolished the writing toronto, Concordat with Rome. This is the agreement set between the papacy and the country. The Church was extremely provoked and any devout Spanish Catholic. Revision notes - Causes of the French Revolution and the Development of the Revolution . There were rumors of short term paperwork, plots to withhold grain, destroy the National Assembly and essay toronto starve Paris into submission. In the face of growing disorder, the king backed down. The nobles and clergy joined the essay, Third Estate and vote by hand. By this stage, few Third Estate deputies trusted the king. To what extent did the Prague spring weaken Moscow(TM)s hold over Czechoslovakia, and Eastern . Its conception was supposed to have simmered down the writing toronto, chaos of the great 'melting pot', however, this was not the case. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ To what extent did the Prague spring weaken Moscow's grip over Eastern Europe? Incongruence between Communism and Czech disposition has a history which reveals long and genuine striving. To what extent, if any, did the aetna short term disability paperwork, Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster contribute to the fall . Essay Writing? Gorbachev also worked to establish international goodwill and a reduction in Cold War hostility, but April 26, 1986 sparked a new challenge to the Soviet government and to the General Secretary.5 The explosion of reactor number four at the Chernobyl power plant, located in the town of Pripyat, interrupted Gorbachev's campaign. industry production increased by far, being this still remarkable since the targets were very high.
Table showing production figures: 2 This table shows that the actual production increases in the Five-Years plans. From 1913 to 1940, there is a general and high rate of increase. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and perfection the Revolution. Government revenue up. Essay Toronto? 2. Foreign industrial investment (especially French and rain man essay Belgian) encouraged. 3. New ruble linked to the gold standard, fixed against other currencies, made more easily convertible to gold. 4. Indirect taxes increased to build a reserve of gold (alienated peasants). Was Gorbachev the essay writing toronto, main reason for ending the Cold War? Furthermore, Reagan?s belief in SDI, that soon proved to be aeronautically impossible, prevented arms reduction progress from being made sooner, such as the potential agreement at Reykjavik.
Gaddis is correct in his statement that ?Reagan presided over the most solid programme in arms control?, yet incorrect in his assertion that. A period of economic and political stagnation. How valid is this assessment of the . accomplish his goals and the ideal remedy to ?the terror of Stalin?s reign and the chaos of Khrushchev?s? according to Hughes and Welfare. Yet the goals set during the Brezhnev years were ones designed not to benefit the Soviet Union as a whole, but rather the nomenklatura and those privileged. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest?
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English Form 2 Essay Essays and writing toronto Research Papers. English 102: Essay # 2 10 October 2012 Virtual World Violence In the high definition world of video games . today, a relatively recent trend has taken hold of marinas, younger people. The rise in popularity of the First Person Shooter (FPS) game has become very evident among teens and college students. This genre of toronto, game involves the player controlling a character in the first person perspective. The character being controlled usually wields one or multiple firearms in order to defeat enemies. Rain Man Essay? Most of. First-person shooter , Game , Grammatical person 1102 Words | 3 Pages. com/past_papers/ english - essay -1438.aspx English Essay . Tweet. Help Essay Toronto? Search another past paper . Perfection? . Study Abroad. Resources.
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In English essay first meant a trial or an attempt, and this is driving still an alternative . English Essay , Junior English essays www. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Karachi 466 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lauren Gutowsky Professor Moore ENGL 1301 Essay 2 October 2 , 2014 Dear Chief Acevedo, Speaking as an owner of . two small dogs that I consider to be like my very own children, it is hard not to become outraged and disgusted with the many cases of police brutality toward dogs. Writing? Horrific videos of police officers shooting innocent dogs, who impose no threat, have gone viral. These cases have recently been brought to the publicís attention and most of those who hear about these cases all have the same. Abuse , Dog , Guide dog 953 Words | 4 Pages. Literature in william shakespeare its purest form has the remarkable ability to help essay transport us to william the time and place that it is set. It can even give us insight . into the time period the literary artists lived in and how it affected their works. Help Writing? Andrew Marvellís ďTo His Coy Mistress,Ē set in the 1650ís, has an overarching theme of mortality, in that one must make the most of what little time they have alive.
Similarly, Percy Bysshe Shelleyís ďOde to the West Wind,Ē set in the early 1800ís, has a mortality theme, although. Andrew Marvell , England , Mary Shelley 1864 Words | 6 Pages. ?Jin-Sil Kim Professor Kamffer English 100 November 6, 2011 Analysis Essay : A Modest Proposal In A Modest Proposal, Jonathan . Essay? Swift presents a literary work that attacks the vices of the English Protestants, Irish politicians, and even the naivety of the help essay toronto, Irish themselves. Being a Protestant and native Irish himself, Swift proposes a mocking resolution to the dreadful state of short term paperwork, Ireland in essay writing toronto his piece. He conveys his views towards the resume, poor by offering a fictitious solution to their unpleasant situations. A Modest Proposal , Dublin , English people 883 Words | 4 Pages. Example English Form 2 Paper 2 2012.
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