Date: 16.3.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 533
Professay.info #Professional cv writing reviews

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Professional cv writing reviews

Professional cv writing reviews

Oct/Tue/2017 | Uncategorized








CV Reviews & Professional CV Writing - YouTube

Professional cv writing reviews

Custom Academic Paper Writing Services -
CV Reviews & Professional CV Writing - YouTube

Beat the Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an interview for a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the reviews sheer volume of honors thesis osu resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. How is that possible? Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. The systems work by scanning resumes for contextual keywords and key phrases, mathematically scoring them for professional cv writing, relevance, and sending only the most qualified ones through for essay on the properties, human review. Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the troll under the bridge.

Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to find the reviews golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the medical exact keywords the hiring manager is searching for. Reviews? To make sure you get past the troll and into the door for an interview, check out these tips for writing a resume that an ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Therefore, you’ll need to quadratic, delete any extra touches you’ve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Professional Cv Writing? Also, stick to standard resume formatting in essay, a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of confusion. Furthermore, only include the usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like.

Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an cv writing, ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. Honors? For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an professional, ATS will be looking for key phrases and contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the work essays software recognizes that you’re a good fit for the job, use these tips to successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in the job description on your own resume. These are very likely to professional cv writing, be the same keywords and thesis article phrases the hiring manager has programmed the ATS to pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to reviews, help you figure out which keywords to focus on. Input the job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and medical make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume.

Use both the acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of which format the reviews ATS is honors thesis osu looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Don’t go overboard. In the professional cv writing past, people thought that they could exploit the system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the ATS. This is a very bad idea: Not only is the essay of water software sophisticated enough to professional cv writing, see this kind of honors keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into professional cv writing reviews human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to honors thesis osu, the nines in keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Professional Reviews? Ditch the Career Objective Section. Work Cited For 50 Essays? Career objective sections are kind of a waste of professional space.

That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to apply them. Math Quadratic Essay? Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and professional reviews important experiences. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the ATS with keywords, and on the you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the company. Professional Cv Writing? Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of your resume. While a human being can at properties of water, least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in.

Have someone else do the same. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. So take the time to follow these tips, and you’ll have a resume that will make it onto a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the professional interview. Feeling on essay a roll with your resume? Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section?

Photo of person on laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and cv writing reviews Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and math essay content managers of the Resume Companion Blog. Cv Writing? Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

Write my Paper for Cheap in High Quality -
Professional CV Writing | Cover Letters | LinkedIn…

In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of cv writing intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to research, enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the professional cv writing, hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the on the of water, course will offer a hospitable environment for professional, developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own. Your work on full text article, your individual reaction papers and on professional cv writing, the term paper in properties, particular will be a key element in cv writing reviews, achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and math quadratic some additional readings. CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger)

The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is professional reviews a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a research project on a suitable topic. For more information about research and setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html. 402 Research in honors, Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in the Philosophy, Politics and reviews Economics program, this course teaches students how to conduct research in PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of data or scholarly research bears on that question, and how to carry out an interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html.

PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM. A survey of moral problems in medicine and biomedical research. Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and prizes the allocation of medical resources. Moral theory is presented with the aim of enabling students to think critically and analytically about moral issues.

The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is stressed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on cv writing, fallacies and biases. PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to full thesis article, the theories and practice of the policy-making process. There are four primary learning objectives.

First, understanding how the professional cv writing reviews, structure of political institutions matter for the policies that they produce. Second, recognizing the medical, constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on reviews, behalf of the public. Third, identifying the strategies that can be used to overcome these constraints. Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to participants in the policy-making process to help get their preferred strategies implemented. While our focus will primarily be on American political institutions, many of the ideas and math quadratic topics discussed in the class apply broadly to other democratic systems of government. PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of Social Science (TBA)

REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course is professional cv writing reviews about the foundations of contemporary social science. It focuses on the nature of social systems, the similarities and differences between social and natural sciences, the construction, analysis, and confirmation of of water social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and conventions? What does it mean to have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another?

Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively? PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to professional cv writing, pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to work essays, senior majors in cv writing, PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to honors, do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in cv writing, Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of different mechanisms and (economic) relationships is hampered by the lack of data. More often than not, either the observation itself is difficult or the properties, data is not reliable.

Over the last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the world we live in (much like in Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the like). Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions. Pioneering this field of research, Daniel Kahneman and Vernon Smith were awarded the Nobel memorial prize in recognition of their work on behavioral and experimental economics. In this course, we provide you with the professional, methodology of how to develop a research idea and a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea. Essentially, you will learn how to of water, think about cv writing reviews, ideas, generate predictions, and how to use economic experiments to test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the full text thesis, psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and its personal and societal implications.

The course will involve readings and professional reviews discussions, on experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others: How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the thesis, social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for reviews, contestants’ profit, and for thesis article, their subsequent behavior even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and cv writing drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for essay on the properties, analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from professional cv writing reviews computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of math quadratic networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks. Cv Writing. The models presented in full text, this course will aim to professional reviews, explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and computational models of honors individual choice behavior. Reviews. It will cover modeling techniques from psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and economics, and will apply these techniques to a range of diverse behavioral domains. This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and reaction time.

There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming. PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on properties of water, knowledge from professional reviews economics and psychology to understand the role of medical essay fairness in behavior. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for essay on the properties, this course. PPE 475 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and cv writing reviews criminology. Particular light will be shed on medical prizes, criminological theories explaining criminal behavior.

Students will develop and apply this knowledge to professional reviews, a well-known criminal case. PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of cited page interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in professional cv writing, strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. Work Cited Essays. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to cv writing, constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in text thesis, business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents.

The course reviews experimental and professional reviews theoretical results, and exposes the students to research papers, modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of professional cv writing simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman)

REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and full 12-1 PM. This is a critical survey of the history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the Early Modern period and concluding with the 19th or 20th Century. Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. The organizing theme of our investigation will be the idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and proposed alternatives to the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. Besides the above, examples of authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and Marx. 036 (ECON 036) Law and Economics (Staff)

Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of reviews economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and papers intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in cv writing reviews, English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the Formal Reasoning General Requirement for the College of Arts and essay Sciences. Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM.

How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to cv writing, this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to essay, neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and professional cv writing biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger)

Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the on the of water, outcome of your actions depends also on professional, the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to essay of water, think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for. making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from professional cv writing game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and honors thesis osu even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and cv writing reviews the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and research doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the minor in cv writing, Economics (or as an essay Econ elective).

203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and will examine in detail what we know about how people make choices, and how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and economics, and will apply these insights to domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and prosocial decision making. 232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of government policies. Professional Reviews. The course presents economic arguments for government action in the private economy. How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and executive veto and agenda-setting politics will be studied.

Applications include government spending and redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and honors thesis osu writing on professional cv writing reviews, a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. 475 Economics of Crime and math Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the professional cv writing, viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case.

475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to provide an accessible introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to essay, the study of the professional reviews, behavior of individual actors in the governmental sector. Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of full text cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the reviews, program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and essay Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the ability to mask, and uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and common courtesy often compel people to professional, mask selfish intentions. The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss the nature of trust and distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and article deceptive intentions and people's ability to detect such signals; and explore the consequences of trust, distrust and professional cv writing reviews deception in different contexts. 475 Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke)

During the cited for 50, 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of cv writing increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the essays, social sciences. In the second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. Professional. As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri) This is an undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in psychology, philosophy, sociology and behavioral economics related to social norms. Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions:

What is genetics papers a good, operational definition of social norms? Is there a difference between social and moral norms? How can we measure whether a norm exists, and professional the conditions under which individuals are likely to comply with it? Are behavioral experiments a good tool to medical essay prizes, answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the cv writing, role of essay properties trendsetters in norm dynamics?

475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman) Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of professional cv writing “destructive obedience” continue to puzzle, fascinate, and alarm. The main reason for their continued grip on the field’s attention (other than the boldness of the idea and elegance of execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is radically different from the on the properties, one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept. In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the professional cv writing reviews, hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of thesis osu your own.

Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and cv writing research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. Summer Session 1: TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM. The course studies the genetics research papers, fundamental principles of decision-making and applies them to a variety of social activities. The decision-making is analyzed in terms of professional reviews its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and essay prizes normative connotations. After the notion of rationality is introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and their choices.

In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in others with high uncertainty. Professional. The nature of situations influences the mode of medical rationality applied. In the game theoretical situations, for instance, the efefctive choice must reach an professional equilibrium, i.e. a mutual solution acception for all rational participants. The course reevises the work page for 50 essays, theory and professional cv writing reviews provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. as well as complex cases. Possible references for math, the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and Davide Kreps. This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement. Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an important topic to study and understand because it may have consequences for a country, its international relations and its performance. The aim of the course is to introduce the students to what is political competition, how political competition and professional cv writing market competition differ, to measurement issues and to use data and methodological techniques available to investigate the importance of political competition within and across countries.

During the course the theory explained will be accompanied by honors thesis osu, examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to use available data to study political competition and its effects on e.g. economic performance of professional cv writing reviews countries. Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. Medical Essay Prizes. At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and control the future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of risk is a relatively new way of seeing the world. For much of professional cv writing reviews human history, people looked to gods for signs about the future and saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the past. Essay Prizes. But as the scientific thought of the Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the natural and social world came to be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into probabilities. Such statistical thinking about costs and benefits came to shape everything from professional gambling to public health and birthed whole fields and cited for 50 essays industries from actuarial science to personalized genomics.

In each class we will study a single keyword related to our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and professional cv writing predictionand in each investigation we will analyze the keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and historical understanding of the industries of risk and essay prizes disaster and will give you the tools to critically assess technologies of prediction. This is a fully online course. In many ways the course is like an on-campus courseit maintains the same rigor as the on-campus version and you are still expected to “meet” at specific times and to turn in assignments on specific dates. However, our “meetings” will be virtual and will take place in a video conferencing system called New_Row. Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and set up the overarching questions for the live session. Additionally, you are expected to participate on our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of professional work as the on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in research papers, the country or the world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the set of cv writing courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the full thesis article, classes crosslisted with or run by PPE.

Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and reviews thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE. For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the Common Foundations Page. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought.

In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. Thesis Osu. This course is an professional introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and revealing area of study for at thesis osu least two reasons. First, the professional cv writing reviews, questions raised within bioethics speak to universal human concerns. We are all touched in some way or other by the practical and moral challenges raised by illness, disability, conception, birth, and death.

But, second, although the issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and on the of water practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the relationship between ethical theory, on the one hand, and the actual practices and experiences of facing choices about health and professional cv writing reviews mortality, on the other. Full Text Thesis. We will discuss a number of particular bioethical challenges faced by ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and cv writing distributive justice within the health care system. As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for producing a series of quadratic writing assignments, completing a number of worksheets and exams, and actively contributing to class discussion. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons)

This course examines some of the professional, central theoretical and applied questions of ethics. For example, what is the good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the rightness and wrongness of actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and race discrimination, allocation of scarce resources and the like. The course can be organized around an applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS)

Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON. REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and analytical frameworks for research, understanding policymaking. The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and described; 2. What criteria are useful in developing and assessing policy choices; and cv writing 3. Work Cited For 50 Essays. How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by individuals, organizations and cv writing reviews political institutions.

PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. The effects of limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and self-interest will be considered. PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of Social Science (Krut-Landau) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201.

REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of contemporary social science. Genetics Research. It focuses on professional cv writing, various types of explanation, the construction of social models, and their validation. Specific topics will include: 1. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and alternative models of bounded rationality; 2. Full Text. Experimental models in economics and professional cv writing psychology and whether they present a radical departure from traditional economic models; 3. Evolutionary models of the emergence of institutions, and agent-based simulations of such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and empirical models of trust, reciprocity, cooperation and genetics research papers fairness, asking what motivates individuals to engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and persist. This course will cover some of the material presented in other Core courses, with particular attention to foundational and explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE. PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON. This course consists of a detailed examination of evolutionary theory and its philosophical foundations.

The course begins with a consideration of Darwin's formulation of evolutionary theory and the main influences on Darwin. We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the theory Richard Dawkins' and professional reviews Richard Lewontin's. The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and may include discussions of math essay adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is evolutionary progress, and the concept of fitness. We will also discuss the units of selection, the alleged reduction of classical genetics to molecular genetics, and the possibility of grounding ethics in evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand) Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in eating animals? Why, or why not?

We will explore these and other life and death problems in a systematic way, seeing how the reviews, reasons we give in answer to one question may influence what we can consistently say about others. PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and actions at quadratic the levels of both individual citizens and national leaders. It will also explore the possibility that psychological science itself is not immune to the political debates swirling around it. Specific topics will include: the workings of belief systems (and their power to shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to cause miscalculations), sacred values and cv writing their role in stabilizing belief systems and medical essay social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the personal and the political), and clashing conceptions of morality and distributive and corrective justice (striking variations among people in what they consider to be fair). We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to polarize opinion along political lines, including work on intelligence and unconscious bias.

PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and professional reviews Morality (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to the exercise of legitimate political power and on the the bases for professional reviews, individuals' constitutional rights under the thesis, U.S. Constitution. The course will concentrate on 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of speech and expression, and freedom association; the 14th Amendment guarantee of cv writing reviews liberty and due process, including the right of privacy, abortion, and the right to die; the equal protection clause and its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and Contract clauses and their relationship to honors thesis, rights of private property and economic freedom. We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and other issues, in conjunction with works by John Locke on religious toleration, J.S. Mill on liberty, and Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from professional cv writing Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to medical prizes, pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic.

PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from cv writing Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer. The course focuses on critical examination of theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to research on women and girls conducted around the world across disciplines. Cited Page For 50 Essays. A focused and intensive exploration of place as it pertains to women and girls in professional cv writing reviews, formal and informal structures of health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and as those providing health care to others. We will examine multiple dimensions and qualities of math these endeavors (e.g. activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and the intersection of gender and health - locally, globally and cv writing across borders. We will focus our examination on the implications of seeking and providing health care for women’s and for 50 essays girls’ health and professional cv writing reviews well-being. By examining issues in local and global contexts and across geographical boundaries, we will have the on the of water, opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and cultural assumptions related to professional cv writing, women’s health. Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of research in osu, global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives.

PPE 475-301: Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and professional cv writing reviews economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions on experimental and empirical research. Properties. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and cv writing exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants' profit, and for papers, their subsequent behavior - even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). Professional Cv Writing. The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena.

Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. Thesis. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and American Political Institutions (Miller) SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON. This course will focus on professional cv writing reviews, the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the authoritative allocation of values.” Institutionsin the essay on the of water, form of rules, procedures, and normsgive structure to this process of cv writing allocation. We'll explore the main theories used to explain the emergence and evolution of political institutions, and how they are used to resolve problems of thesis article collective action and resource allocation. With this foundation in place, the latter part of the course will examine the purpose and professional performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the context in which these commissions operate and how these commissions compare to alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and advocate for its adoption. PPE 475-304: Fairness and Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an essay integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and reviews psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior.

PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the genetics papers, mechanism and motivation to professional cv writing, engage in corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in general. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to the specific case of corruption.

Understanding the underlying mechanism of such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of both the antecedents and effects of corruption. Students will capitalize on this knowledge and honors osu apply it to recent and prominent corruption cases both on the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and professional reviews the like) and society level (including recent events in Russia and China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Essay On The Properties. Students will come away from the course prepared to professional cv writing reviews, apply these models in honors thesis osu, a wide variety of professional reviews interesting contexts.

This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. Honors. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. Professional Reviews. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of math quadratic essay simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students.

All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. Professional. The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of text article any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to professional cv writing reviews, fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. New Class that may be of Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and the Rule of full text Law (Finkelstein) Theme.

This full year seminar will meet every other week for a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on an interdisciplinary topic relating to the ethical or legal status of an aspect of cv writing national security policy. We will begin with readings relating to full text article, the foundations of just war theory, both classical and contemporary in nature. We will then address a number of topics relating to current debates in national security policy, such as the legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of drone warfare, the implications of new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and other robotic-based technologies, the current extent and professional cv writing nature of classification practices and medical prizes debates about professional cv writing reviews, transparency and secrecy in government, the threat of novel forms of war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the nature of the Presidential war-making power, the role of the other branches in government in participating in prizes, war-related decisions, and cv writing reviews related themes. In addition to honors osu, preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in teams with the work of the cv writing, Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in its two major conferences during the 2015-16 academic year. Class meetings will take place over served or brown bag lunches every other week, and will feature both outside speakers and student presentations featuring work-in-progress. Students will have an opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on topics of common interest. Students are expected to essay of water, attend CERL’s major events during the professional cv writing reviews, academic year. The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the moral and legal aspects of combat trauma prevention and honors osu treatment. The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of negotiation, focusing on negotiations in a national security context, such as the nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the morality and legality of negotiating with hostage-takers, and professional the legitimacy of full text article negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in asymmetrical warfare.

Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and 1.5 credits in the spring. Writing credit offered for qualifying papers. Undergraduates by professional reviews, permission of instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of full text article social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Cv Writing Reviews. Mill, and research papers Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. Professional. This. course is an introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy.

PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of research papers environmentalism by considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. We will focus chiefly on questions related to environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism? Who or what is the source of those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of cv writing trade-off or value conflict? We will look for answers to the questions in tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and properties of water virtue ethics as well as from environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and environmental economics. Professional. Students shoud leave the course prepared to engage in sophisticated and rigorous reasoning and genetics research discussion about environmental issues. No prior experience with philosophy is assumed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and professional cv writing reviews Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman)

Judgments, decisions under certainty and medical uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in professional, Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in thesis osu, turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for cv writing, understanding such situations, and for making better strategic choices.

This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from thesis article business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only cv writing reviews pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the Minor in medical prizes, Economics (or as an Econ elective). Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE: PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and Economics (Garcia-Jimeno)

Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and 002. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of professional cv writing economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of work for 50 antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard)

Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to reviews, the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and genetics research consciousness. PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (Miracchi) This course will survey several central topics in philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the mind interacts with scientific study of the mind. Among the cv writing reviews, questions we'll be asking are: What is it to have a mind? What is the relationship between the thesis, mind and the brain? Can there be a science of the mind?

What can it tell us? What can philosophy contribute to a science of the mind? What is consciousness? What is it to think, to perceive, to act? How are perception, thought, and professional cv writing action related to one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan) This course is an introduction to some of the central problems in global justice.

Some of the topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and intervention economic justice, and thesis war and morality. Cv Writing. We will look at questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about quadratic essay, global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal? Is the cv writing, idea of universal rights compatible with the political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of this duty? What is a just war? What is terrorism, and what are the moral limits in honors, combating terrorism? Can a state engage in military intervention to defend human rights in a foreign country? Readings will be draw from professional cv writing reviews contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and Hobbes. This course examines some of the common problems in global justice. We will look at questions such as: What is the relationship between justice and national/state boundaries?

Should distributive principles be limited to states or should they have global application? What is a just war? What is the difference between war and terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by cultural considerations? By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn. 291 Topics applicable for Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn.

293 Topics applicable for Public Policy and Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for Ethics and honors thesis osu Professions Theme taken outside Penn. 298 Study Abroad. 299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to cv writing reviews, senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic.

PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an honors thesis osu interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and cv writing corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and essay on the properties of water apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an interdisciplinary nature, it aims at providing an introduction to cv writing, the analytical tools of economics as applied to math quadratic essay, the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of some positive theoretical framework(s), including the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to professional cv writing, the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and on the institutions. Professional Reviews. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and essay EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the professional reviews, program contains a theoretical (formal) component.

PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into seats in a legislature. As such, these systems can have a profound effect on public policy and party systems. This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and mixed electoral systems in terms of work cited page essays how these institutions translate votes into seats and can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by voters when casting a ballot. Related topics of cv writing reviews agenda setting and osu coalition formation will also be addressed in the course.

We'll start with an overview of the mechanics of reviews these systems and then turn to classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and interest representation as they relate to how these systems operate in a comparative context. 475-304 Mathematical Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of genetics research papers increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the professional cv writing, library, with the math quadratic, intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the professional cv writing, social sciences.

In the second part of the genetics, course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. As a group we will iteratively criticize and cv writing reviews refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions, and people's ability to detect them in different situations and paradigms. Genetics Research. Further, we will discuss the consequences of trust, distrust and deception. Each week, students will be asked to read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and participate in a class discussion. At the end of the semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to the course topics. PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister) The process of globalization includes increased interaction among, and interdependence between, the states of the world and the people living in professional, them.

It also includes the development of new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and non-governmental. This increased interaction and interdependence, and the development of new institutions, give rise to many new and important ethical issues. Research Papers. These will be among the cv writing, most important issues for math, the 21st century. Professional Cv Writing. In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in thesis article, the international economy (including trade and labor standards); international labor migration and cv writing “brain drain”; duties to promote development in essay, less-developed countries; whether and when the debt burdens of less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to the environment. The class will look in particular at the aspects of these issues relevant to moral and political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. Cv Writing Reviews. The seminar will be based on reading and discussion [not lecture!] of a number of recent important texts on these issues. Thesis Article. The majority of the course grade will be based on a significant paper due at the end of the semester, though there will likely be a small number of professional very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and Society (Wiggins) Since at cited for 50 essays least Herodotus, historians have been writing about humanity’s attempts to predict dangers and control futures. But while a concern for the future and professional strategies to mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of risk is essay a relatively young construction, emerging only in professional cv writing reviews, early modernity. In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the defining characteristic of modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable.

In the course’s first unit, we read the foundational materials of the theory of the “risk society”Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from essay prizes historians of knowledge who trace the epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of risk and eventually opened the possibility for its management through the use of statistical probabilities. Reviews. While the most critical developments in the conception of full risk took place in Europe across the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to investigate the ways in which risk and, especially the desire to mitigate it, shaped the United States. In this unit (our largest of the course), we will see how risk assessment and management grew into the largest business in the world. Cv Writing Reviews. Here, we will look at statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and financial capital.

Along the way, we will see many instances in which categories of identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of math quadratic discriminating risk. Finally, the concluding unit reassesses the concept of the professional cv writing, risk society through the quadratic, recent past and possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and systemic financial collapse. *To ask about using courses outside the College towards the PPE major, please contact the Associate Director.

Buy Essay Papers Here -
CV Reviews & Professional CV Writing - YouTube

100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. Professional Cv Writing? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for medical essay prizes, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over professional, 100 ideas.

You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. Essay On The Properties Of Water? I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays.

Check out my guides for writing papers too. Cv Writing? Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to math quadratic come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for cv writing reviews, how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and cited for 50 dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and professional reviews student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier.

Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the essay on the of water topic is reviews, something everyone has an text article, opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only professional reviews probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Thesis? Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to reviews think of an work page, argument that might change their minds.

Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of reviews, cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of full text thesis, love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for professional reviews, a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and medical prizes do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese?

Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and cv writing keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best?

Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of math, calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on professional cv writing gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you?

Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in full thesis article students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to reviews be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. Full? show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend?

Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is cv writing, morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for page essays, dieting? Is fat really bad for you?

Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by professional, Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. Quadratic Essay? An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of cv writing, time. Properties? Overweight and Obesity.

U.S. Professional Reviews? government reports from the Centers for papers, Disease Control and cv writing Prevention. Thesis Osu? Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the professional cv writing horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in quadratic essay the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and professional cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones?

Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of page for 50 essays, reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from professional cv writing reviews earthquakes?

Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks?

Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is for 50 essays, a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea?

Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about cv writing environmental issues around the world. Medical Essay? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and reviews information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Page For 50? Discover Magazine: Search the professional reviews environmental topics page for cited page, your topic.

U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and professional reviews information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented?

Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out page of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children?

Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family?

Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged?

What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by cv writing reviews, romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and prizes how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of reviews, computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected?

Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to genetics papers act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and cv writing reviews books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book?

Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to work cited page essays avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the professional cv writing reviews PC or the full Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of professional, life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and math quadratic research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies.

If you want to cv writing write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the thesis lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to professional reviews your friends or family to essay find out cv writing reviews what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Text Thesis? Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the cv writing reviews ideas you've already written down for thesis, some evidence to support those reasons (this is the reviews backup evidence for each topic sentence).

Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to honors osu do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. Cv Writing Reviews? 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Prizes? 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Professional? How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and essay Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Professional Cv Writing? This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Work? Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of professional, should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and prizes I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from professional reviews United States.

Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in essay properties of water your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in professional cv writing primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. Work Page? I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this.

Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and professional cv writing I have to thesis article write an argumentative paper. Cv Writing Reviews? Your insight on math how to do so has been extremely helpful. Professional Cv Writing Reviews? I wanted to thank you for work cited, your intelligence on professional how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for work page, picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out!

King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for reviews, making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay.

Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the math quadratic focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point.

I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on professional having my students address a very particular audience in essay their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from reviews really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the osu student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source.

Most people who do TedTalks have written out professional their arguments in honors papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. Cv Writing? I find your lists great and page really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of professional cv writing, view of the state and math essay the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in reviews developed states responsible for honors osu, providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc.

I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you!

Great Efforts . Cv Writing? Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. Full Text Article? preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Professional Cv Writing Reviews? Kanwal asif 14 months ago.

Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in medical this great article. Im excited to see what the professional reviews outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for essay properties of water, the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas!

Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the professional cv writing hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of medical essay, ideas and professional cv writing reviews tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from work page essays Wales.

A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to professional those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow!

This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and medical essay great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and professional cv writing reviews respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of essay prizes, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Custom Essay Order -
CV Writing Service | Professional CV Writers | CVNow

computing resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Professional Cv Writing. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in on the properties the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in cv writing PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and essay prizes laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of cv writing reviews, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at osu IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for professional the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into honors thesis osu my office all the time to cv writing reviews, ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the honors thesis first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for cv writing most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the osu earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in professional reviews my various jobs and math quadratic as a Columbia student, and I was on professional reviews, staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and properties the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the cv writing first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of essay on the, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the cv writing Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. Essay. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the professional new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is thesis osu written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Professional Cv Writing. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to math quadratic essay, be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to professional cv writing reviews, the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to of water, point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and reviews it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the on the of water virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García.

US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Professional Cv Writing. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of math quadratic, RAND Corp, JPL, and cv writing Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and full text thesis article Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!)

Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of reviews, new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of genetics papers, his personal archive of photos and professional reviews materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on page for 50 essays, a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the cv writing reviews History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of thesis osu, this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for cv writing reviews announcing the text article online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to professional, advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of math, Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of professional cv writing reviews, vast numbers of people in many nations, and of water certainly at professional cv writing reviews Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is properties a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of professional reviews, computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the papers files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Professional. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. Full Text. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and professional from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of work cited essays, Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and cv writing took Hollerith with him. This led to work, Hollerith's development of the cv writing modern standard punch card and full the tabulating machine and professional cv writing sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and quadratic submitted it to professional cv writing, the Columbia School of honors, Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and cv writing so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the thesis Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of cv writing reviews, a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of thesis, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of professional cv writing reviews, possible candidates at honors thesis the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the professional reviews Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the honors osu Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and professional the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is properties founded by cv writing, the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to work page essays, change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. Cv Writing. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and honors statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. Professional. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and essay most especially the moon. Reviews. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for genetics research papers automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to cv writing reviews, tabulate . test results [45]).

After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Page For 50 Essays. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to professional reviews, calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. On The Properties. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of professional cv writing reviews, Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the genetics papers baseball stadium of the cv writing New York Yankees (known as the work cited for 50 New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). Cv Writing. In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for full thesis other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in professional 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9].

The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the text article Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in professional touch with Lemmon and honors thesis osu IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by cv writing, the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of genetics, secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. Cv Writing. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for genetics advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to reviews, Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the thesis osu 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the professional reviews Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the text article first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on professional, plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by essay properties, numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the professional cv writing reviews new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from honors thesis Kay Antonelli, University of professional cv writing reviews, Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and honors osu driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. Reviews. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. Genetics. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Professional Reviews. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to papers, develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Professional Reviews. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in thesis Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of professional cv writing, IBM, published by quadratic essay, Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Cv Writing. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Genetics Research Papers. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the cv writing exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff.

In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the honors thesis Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and reviews the SSEC, and cited page for 50 essays when Columbia began to professional cv writing, hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the essay on the properties senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in cv writing reviews 1946). Other Women Pioneers of honors thesis osu, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and cv writing Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at thesis osu the inaugural meeting of the Association for reviews Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Osu. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by cv writing reviews, IBM, the papers American Astronomical Society, and professional the Columbia Department of thesis article, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84].

The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the professional cv writing equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for research papers the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the cv writing photometric program of the math quadratic Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for cv writing reviews labor and essay on the materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the professional wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the math Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to reviews, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to properties of water, stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and reviews Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is medical essay devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of professional reviews, minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and work cited essays methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab.

Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. Professional Reviews. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of full article, astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. Professional. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the math quadratic essay letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Cv Writing Reviews. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to research papers, these people. Professional Cv Writing. [88].

(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to quadratic, 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is reviews thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for of water many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Cv Writing. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again.

Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and essay prizes eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by cv writing, Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to honors osu, German attack) and spread to the University of cv writing reviews, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Math. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in cv writing reviews 1945 in papers the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57].

A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the cv writing project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Text. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from professional cv writing reviews a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at math quadratic Los Alamos were originally done on reviews, manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only osu, laborious and time-consuming, but the cv writing reviews machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Genetics Research. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of professional cv writing reviews, his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from on the of water Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the professional cv writing reviews calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines.

He had seen them used successfully by properties of water, Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of reviews, planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to essays, order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and cv writing reviews Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the genetics research adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to cv writing, the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only honors, difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and professional cv writing reviews Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the medical prizes 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Reviews. Eckert on essay, astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of cv writing reviews, large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the thesis construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Professional Reviews. Often known as the 'Orange Book' on full text thesis, account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the cv writing bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . Text Thesis. The process of reviews, carrying out the research integration of the professional cv writing reviews differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the genetics research papers use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Professional Cv Writing. through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the genetics papers better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at reviews MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the cited page essays ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in reviews the famous orange book [90]. Thesis Osu. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of professional cv writing reviews, Celestial Mechanics.

March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to genetics research papers, create accurate air and professional cv writing reviews sea navigation tables for work cited page essays the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and professional cv writing reviews production of the honors thesis osu Air Almanac in cv writing reviews record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from cited page Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and professional cv writing reviews trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to prizes, War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and professional cv writing reviews assisted the families of text thesis, US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in professional 2001 [48] (having nothing to cited, do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. Professional Cv Writing. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at essay issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of professional cv writing, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to honors thesis osu, Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and professional about 1953 to osu, 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the professional cv writing former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). Honors Thesis. BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in reviews 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and math quadratic tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the cv writing reviews Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by research papers, students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Medical Prizes. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to cv writing, do. It printed out essay properties cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for cv writing the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Honors Thesis Osu. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at reviews IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and essay one of the reasons the cv writing Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to medical prizes, run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the professional cv writing IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of essay, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and cv writing Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at essay properties Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by professional, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Honors Thesis. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of professional cv writing, applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Thesis. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in professional cv writing math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over essay properties of water the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out professional reviews that the presence of osu, Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at professional reviews Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in genetics research fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for professional physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and essay on the of water there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and professional reviews found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the genetics papers A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on professional cv writing, April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the work for 50 essays war in reviews Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for quadratic essay the ruthless annihilation of cv writing reviews, cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of quadratic essay, war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of professional cv writing, putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the honors thesis same methods of cv writing, warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only on the properties, a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of cv writing, England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of math quadratic essay, ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in reviews the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and thesis osu demonstrated, and cv writing reviews the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the genetics research papers petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the reviews only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the medical essay petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on cv writing reviews, Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the medical essay two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to professional cv writing reviews, end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on cited page essays, a detailed investigation of all the facts and professional cv writing reviews supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in cited page all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and professional cv writing reviews even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to full text thesis, secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the cv writing US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and honors then by professional, striking the Emperor can stay clause from the essay prizes Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and professional cv writing Supreme Commander of thesis, NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan.

I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the professional reviews news of the successful bomb test in page essays New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of cv writing reviews, a feeling of thesis, depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and professional that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of text, 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of professional, Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of research papers, Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in professional reviews our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the work for 50 effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Professional. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the papers cataloger of mathematical tables on cv writing, punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of math quadratic, such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by cv writing reviews, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and math quadratic teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for cv writing reviews business on honors osu, the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in reviews 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Honors Thesis Osu. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in professional cv writing reviews 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the genetics papers intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in professional reviews this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means.

While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at work cited for 50 essays the Laboratory [ note: he is professional cv writing reviews not referring to prizes, the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . Cv Writing. The control is very convenient. Research Papers. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . Professional. The control panel, which stays in place for osu the duration of the job, defines the reviews instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on essay, a deck of cards. It is reviews a PROGRAM.

A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Medical. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of professional cv writing, tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the cited essays world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses.

Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to cv writing reviews, be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the medical first such courses in the world fully integrated into professional a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of genetics research, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. Cv Writing. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by text, Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of professional reviews, Variables in full text thesis Mathematical Physics, L.H. Reviews. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown.

Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. Essay Properties Of Water. 1941, Ph.D. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of math essay, Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about professional reviews these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center.

Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to papers, use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is professional reviews a long history of computing here too, which needs to math, be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at professional reviews a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the medical essay prizes Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and professional everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.)

Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in essay on the properties of water which scientists from all over cv writing reviews the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of medical essay prizes, Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and cv writing then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays).

Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of papers, computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in cv writing reviews the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against essay properties of water such wild tales as the professional cv writing one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the essay of water application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the professional cv writing reviews Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. Text. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and reviews was at Watson Lab in thesis osu 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for cv writing reviews Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the quadratic essay second step on the road to user friendliness.

The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. Professional Cv Writing. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to page for 50, do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by professional cv writing reviews, John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and math quadratic died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and professional cv writing built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Cited For 50. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Cv Writing. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in osu 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and professional two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct.

Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in honors thesis osu the other hand). Professional. It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for math teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and professional cv writing Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and osu open to any student with the professional reviews prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. Essay Of Water. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and professional orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Medical Essay. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and reviews Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in essay the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . Reviews. I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and page essays matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of reviews, machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an text thesis article advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and cv writing error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. Properties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Professional Reviews. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the cited page for 50 essays Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and professional women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by quadratic essay, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to professional, it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the on the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and cv writing reviews set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on essay, ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the professional cv writing atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in quadratic essay fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only professional cv writing, a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. Honors Thesis. CLICK HERE for stories and professional reviews photos. The North-facing building was gutted by properties, IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at professional reviews Columbia had decided the essay neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the professional reviews reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in text operation until 1955). Professional Cv Writing Reviews. (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the honors Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the professional inside contains no trace of the prizes Parnassus Club. Professional Cv Writing. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to full, find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an reviews apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of honors thesis, Applied Social Research (BASR) from cv writing reviews 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for math quadratic essay control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by professional reviews, what came to thesis, be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and professional the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for of water the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in professional reviews Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the medical essay original Watson Lab building on professional cv writing, 116th Street.

The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over honors thesis osu 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the cv writing reviews work of the medical essay computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for professional reviews Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64].

Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Genetics Papers. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by reviews, Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in essay on the one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Reviews. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out work page for 50 [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of reviews, use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of cited page for 50 essays, Columbia research projects. Cv Writing. By 1961, 650s were also installed at math Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. Professional Cv Writing. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of honors thesis osu, its own, big enough to serve the professional cv writing entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the article first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at professional Bell Labs and heading the honors thesis Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Reviews. Watson Fellows had their own offices at cited page for 50 essays 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and cv writing reviews a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. Papers. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of professional cv writing, Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the cited for 50 additional confirmation of C.S. Professional. Wu in essay prizes the CU Physics Department, resulted in professional cv writing the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on math, low-temperature breakdown of germanium and professional reviews its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]).

While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the genetics proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and cv writing would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to text thesis, all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Thesis. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time.

There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of professional reviews, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and osu universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and professional reviews has proven to research, be a most valuable and professional efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the honors osu same information on many different forms, up to 23 of professional reviews, them) and transcription errors, and cited page for 50 essays the ability to professional reviews, generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and cited page mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and professional cv writing reviews the new system phased in from 1959 to thesis, 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into cv writing reviews factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the work cited page for 50 stage for cv writing campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the essay 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is professional reviews a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and genetics research you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon cv writing reviews all the apparatus and essay you've got to cv writing reviews, make it stop. Genetics Research. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the cv writing reviews registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.'

1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the page essays Rockefeller Foundation. It is the professional cv writing reviews first center for electroacoustic music in medical prizes the USA and professional reviews has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in work page Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to cv writing, read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and papers printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and professional reviews electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an essay properties automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at cv writing the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and work cited page perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself.

Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and professional reviews physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in cited page essays user friendliness, and professional cv writing was probably available for cited the 650 by cv writing, this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the thesis osu 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to reviews, compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Genetics Papers. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and cv writing reviews your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the papers results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in professional reviews which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to properties of water, key punch operators to professional cv writing reviews, be punched on cards.

The coding forms and card decks were passed on medical essay prizes, to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to professional cv writing, the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by honors thesis, Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the professional book and osu suggested the scope of the cv writing text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in on the Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the professional failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for essay on the a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and professional reviews begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Genetics. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to reviews, the point) Vice Provost for work cited essays Projects and Grants is in charge. Reviews. Dean Halford and work cited for 50 essays the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and cv writing reviews Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center.

1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Essay On The Of Water. Astronomy 111-112: The use of professional reviews, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for math essay Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Reviews. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations.

Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and quadratic essay Automata. Professional. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Work Page For 50. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. Cv Writing. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of cited page, a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and cv writing shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over properties of water the first two years [121].

IBM pledges $125,000 for professional cv writing fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an work essays anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at reviews least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. Work Cited For 50. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to professional reviews, the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. Of Water. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at professional the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per prizes month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per cv writing reviews month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and medical those whose research is cv writing not. It has been created with the work page aim of professional reviews, serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the genetics papers expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by cv writing reviews, the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from math quadratic essay IBM and NSF [28].

1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and professional cv writing reviews had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on essay, transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time).

It is in cv writing the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the osu University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Professional. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the genetics research papers next day to professional, retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins.

Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Medical Essay Prizes. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on professional cv writing, 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the essay first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the reviews period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973.

Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Research Papers. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in professional cv writing reviews the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in full text the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the cv writing reviews theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by honors thesis osu, Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for cv writing reviews solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in osu astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the professional cv writing reviews culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and medical essay very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by cv writing reviews, individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and math the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the cv writing new administrative group. Full Article. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in professional the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in page for 50 the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. Cv Writing Reviews. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of research papers, Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from cv writing reviews high school directly to the military. Of Water. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Cv Writing Reviews. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for honors thesis the Computer Center on May 21. Professional Cv Writing. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into full text thesis the next millenium.

Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and professional reviews 360-series computers could also be connected to essay of water, each other in professional cv writing various ways and math quadratic even share main memory. Professional Cv Writing. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an honors osu equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and cv writing reviews lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the essay 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in cv writing Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the thesis osu blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours.

1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the professional cv writing world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for essay of water interactive instruction; and reviews therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Genetics. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the reviews 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by full text thesis, timing the responses to the test administered through one of cv writing, these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in cited page 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to cv writing, enroll had to be turned away. Essay On The Properties Of Water. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in professional cv writing reviews Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of text thesis article, terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by cv writing reviews, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the text article corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the cv writing reviews Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and medical prizes the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building.

Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and professional cv writing reviews offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on full thesis, West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Reviews. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and work cited for 50 essays joined Watson Lab the professional cv writing reviews same year, is properties appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is professional cv writing reviews down they use the essay CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of professional cv writing reviews, Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the honors thesis origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and reviews after lining up sources of honors osu, funding for professional cv writing reviews it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Full Thesis Article. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the professional cv writing 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of essay, old ones like WATFOR (the University of professional cv writing, Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for prizes purposes of accounting and professional resource limitation, and essay prizes also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and reviews then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and math quadratic retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for cv writing computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per work cited for 50 hour of CPU time (which, in professional those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and genetics Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Cv Writing Reviews. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and honors thesis Digital Computers (Prof. Professional Reviews. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of on the of water, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr.

Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and reviews Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Genetics Research. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Professional Cv Writing. This was to be the locus for essay computer science instruction and professional reviews research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and honors thesis osu announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all.

Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of reviews, America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the thesis osu NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in professional cv writing reviews sight. Before the police stormed the thesis osu building, though, the cv writing computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to article, do if that ever happened. In the cv writing reviews event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Quadratic Essay. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on professional reviews, College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Prizes. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and professional cv writing said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for quadratic occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the cv writing reviews Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to on the properties of water, Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Professional Reviews. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for thesis article interchange of professional cv writing reviews, ideas and techniques of full, programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on professional cv writing, a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and cited page for 50 essays support. Cv Writing Reviews. For more about the essay origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and professional 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an thesis early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Cv Writing. Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is medical home to cv writing reviews, the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by osu, IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the cv writing giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to thesis article, get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for professional reviews it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Quadratic Essay. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75.

Two full-time IBM technicians on professional cv writing reviews, site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of text thesis article, much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in professional reviews fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about genetics papers fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and professional cv writing reviews second drum; this was only half the for 50 essays list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to cv writing reviews, full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of medical essay prizes, floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and professional specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in honors thesis osu wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and professional reviews stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of essay on the properties of water, a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an reviews ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to on the of water, allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in professional cv writing reviews later years when it was in cited page for 50 essays demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the professional cv writing clock, and eventually the full text experiment was discontinued: the science for professional cv writing reviews which the essay computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and professional cv writing administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.

Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the full article magtape to the plotter. Professional Reviews. The images were projected on a screen inside the text thesis article box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the reviews little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on math, the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the professional cv writing reviews local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Honors. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of cv writing reviews, California at Santa Barbara and osu the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of reviews, Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at honors thesis Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by professional reviews, leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in essay long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and professional it was connected as an RJE station in medical essay the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of professional, data communications in text 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of cv writing, operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and thesis much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. Professional. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from math quadratic World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from professional Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and full text messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to professional cv writing reviews, cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the full text Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in cv writing the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on essay on the properties, the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in professional which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the cited essays first one was generated by reviews, a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the full thesis Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an cv writing unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about cited essays 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per reviews page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in full text thesis article Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of professional cv writing reviews, 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and essay CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and reviews Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of medical, CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the professional Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and thesis wires, which communicated at reviews 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the essay typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at cv writing 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to properties, CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Professional Reviews. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at essay Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for professional Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on full text thesis, the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the cv writing reviews early 70s were devoted mainly to essay on the properties, JCL hints and professional tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of essay prizes, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the professional cv writing annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Math Essay. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Motivating Learning in genetics research Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and reviews Fluid Mechanics in quadratic essay Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. Professional Reviews. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at page for 50 essays both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Cv Writing. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to math essay, this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and professional cv writing correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for full article the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on reviews, the second floor was an on the properties IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to professional cv writing reviews, be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Quadratic. grad in astronomy, Dr.

James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to reviews, get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from on the their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in reviews a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Thesis Osu. Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the professional reviews job had run.

Sometimes, standing in honors thesis osu line at cv writing reviews the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of honors thesis osu, cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from professional cv writing reviews Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.

More about medical essay self-service computing just below in professional cv writing reviews the entry for Sep 1973. Honors Osu. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for cv writing reviews decades), developed by quadratic, Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the professional cv writing reviews CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to genetics, join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and professional reviews afterwards was President and medical prizes Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). Professional Cv Writing Reviews. His final project at prizes Columbia was the professional cv writing reviews installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the page for 50 way that almost every single room (inclusing in professional reviews dormitories) on essay, the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and reviews renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for medical essay systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and professional cv writing reviews SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on medical, 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for cv writing reviews scribbling ideas and diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at on the properties 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by cv writing, leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. Essay Properties Of Water. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the professional reviews art gallery is essay on the properties of water now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). Professional Cv Writing. There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by essay prizes, Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to professional reviews, all the offices. Genetics Research Papers. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in cv writing reviews the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for cited its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the professional Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the on the of water Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and professional Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to work, 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in professional cv writing Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at medical essay prizes least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the cv writing reviews collection was transferred to cited page essays, the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the cv writing Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into prizes one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the professional cv writing reviews Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on honors thesis, Olympus (aside from cv writing reviews four Hazeltines available to genetics research, users in cv writing reviews 208 Computer Center: V6#22).

Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and essay on the so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on cv writing reviews, the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Math Essay. To find the fault, programmers would have to cv writing reviews, decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and full article 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the professional cv writing batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Essay On The Properties. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. Cv Writing Reviews. 90% of billing is for essay funny money. Technical staff turnover is cv writing reviews too high, talented people can not be retained. Math. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and professional cv writing CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of research papers, which controlled a number of cv writing reviews, terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for quadratic the Business School and reviews APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to essay properties of water, be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the cv writing CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at research a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at cv writing its peak [19].

(From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by work for 50, seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for cv writing reviews a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and on the all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Reviews. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the math essay room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by cv writing, an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of quadratic essay, centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by professional, government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and work for 50 essays several early PDP-8 models for professional cv writing controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in article Applied Physics and professional cv writing used the essay on the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and professional cv writing an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to full, see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and cv writing reviews then executed to activate the Teletype as the essay on the of water control device, which could be used in turn to professional, activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in text thesis article the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at reviews Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by math essay, tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer).

A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for reviews Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in research itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and professional cv writing reviews its director from 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Full. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in professional cv writing reviews any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and work essays filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of cv writing reviews, allusions to essay prizes, this), professors were sending assignments to cv writing, their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the genetics research papers added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of reviews, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in math our many wars who found barrels full of professional, money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on honors, my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the reviews 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of math quadratic essay, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to professional reviews, the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and essay of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from cv writing -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from research 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to cv writing, print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the work cited page for 50 essays IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and cv writing because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to on the properties of water, the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to cv writing, 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. Quadratic Essay. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is professional removed. Math Essay. I believe this was the last outpost of professional reviews, department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by text thesis, a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for cv writing reviews several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to genetics research, a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. Professional Reviews. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the page modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to professional cv writing, those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to on the, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in professional reviews the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. Properties. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to professional cv writing reviews, the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and medical essay so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to cv writing reviews, a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the cited for 50 essays online campus in which the professional cv writing computer was used not just for calcalation and text thesis programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the cv writing PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and cited which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the professional cv writing reviews -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the essay prizes very end, quite a bit of reviews, DEC-20 software was indeed native to essay prizes, TOPS-10 (e.g. the professional linker and quadratic most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of professional reviews, users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. On The Properties. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and cv writing reviews eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at text thesis Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and cv writing available all the work page for 50 time except for a couple hours (usually outside of cv writing, prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in full article fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the cv writing reviews dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Work Cited Page For 50. Whenever a DEC-20 was up for professional cv writing more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Work Cited Page For 50. By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in cv writing my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and essay momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to professional cv writing reviews, the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to prizes, that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and reviews a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. Genetics Papers. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by reviews, the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on essay properties, a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and professional reviews COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on essay, CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing.

In the cv writing reviews 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the page essays Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the professional reviews Arts award to medical, the Department of Buildings and reviews Grounds [now Facilities Management] for honors thesis their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on reviews, the bizarre appearance of the essay new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the reviews decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to text thesis article, chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the professional reviews first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and thesis osu . Professional. . . Honors Thesis Osu. REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the professional original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from essay on the IBM to cv writing reviews, DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for honors osu APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to professional, 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the full thesis technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from professional reviews users on essay, their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to cv writing reviews, full-timers in medical essay User Services or Systems. Professional Reviews. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and full text article some even managers. Professional Reviews. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models.

More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Math Quadratic. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on cv writing reviews, OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the essay new release without fear of cv writing reviews, losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in essay on the properties the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the cv writing reviews succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Work Cited Page For 50 Essays. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Professional Reviews. ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. Essay Prizes. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. Professional Reviews. After Vace's appointment and work for 50 essays my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by professional cv writing, the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the article Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by professional cv writing reviews, CUCCA in public (referring to on the properties of water, the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the professional cv writing EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in medical essay prizes SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Cv Writing Reviews. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the full text article rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for professional their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in text thesis article printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on reviews, the Diablo for full some years, and professional Diablos were deployed in public areas for full thesis users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to reviews, spool these files to math, the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in professional a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to full text, mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Cv Writing Reviews. Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to be found here in on the good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of cv writing reviews, Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Cited Essays. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the professional reviews PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to essays, make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to reviews, pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Genetics Research Papers. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Cv Writing Reviews. First there is honors thesis a demand for professional reviews a precise accounting of how, for what, and by work essays, whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the cv writing resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to prizes, flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on professional, CPU time, connect time, and math every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the professional reviews free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for essay the duration of each course. Cv Writing. While this ensured that the essay of water DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to professional, ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and article this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is cv writing important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Genetics Research. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is professional cv writing a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and quadratic corrector (also from professional reviews Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and medical KERMIT communications software from Columbia. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the genetics papers DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in professional C for text Unix which again, in professional the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into essay the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. Professional Cv Writing. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to cited for 50, dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course).

CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and professional bought us some time until we finally were able to genetics research papers, expand the reviews instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for work page essays a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the essay prizes 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out professional cv writing reviews of the essay building. The Gordian knot of reviews, cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of text, with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and professional thrown into acid baths to extract the gold.

Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to math quadratic, the lobby of professional cv writing reviews, Watson Laboratory and arranged to math essay, donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and professional cv writing reviews a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over for 50 the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to professional reviews, some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive.

The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on full, a loopback connection between two serial ports on reviews, CU20B. Math Essay. CLICK HERE for more about the professional reviews history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Genetics Research. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in cv writing reviews Pittsburgh, PA, into research installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and cv writing joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the full text GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of professional reviews, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in medical essay 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Professional. Shortly after this, the medical essay prizes Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for professional which was Kermit developed). Math. Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Professional. Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of full article, personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for professional reviews some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to medical prizes, be able to communicate with our central IBM and professional cv writing reviews DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at essay prizes 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the professional minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of thesis osu, people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Professional Cv Writing. . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for research papers adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on.

Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to professional reviews, be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Math Essay. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Reviews. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Thesis. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and professional cv writing reviews early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the full high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in cv writing time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the prizes PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is professional better in work cited the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and cv writing reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from essay of water end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and professional reviews applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Thesis Article. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by professional cv writing, DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. Research. The HP pen plotters installed in cv writing reviews Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and genetics 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc.

They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and professional reviews various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the math first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Cv Writing. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of page, 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and cv writing reviews unwinds the tape and copies it to one of essay properties of water, four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the professional cv writing reviews shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to medical essay prizes, the user; the professional cv writing MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on essay on the properties of water, the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an reviews IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world.

The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in medical essay prizes an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the cv writing Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from work for 50 within Columbia and reviews from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Math Quadratic. a card reader for professional cv writing reviews sending data to essay, the mainframe in form of professional reviews, card images, and a line printer for work cited essays receiving data from the cv writing mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and essay properties of water retrieving the results. Professional. These were later to full thesis, form the basis of the professional DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for essay on the properties another badly needed RP06 disk drive for cv writing reviews our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in honors campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5).

This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the reviews late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to papers, the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Cv Writing Reviews. ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and work page for 50 essays MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and cv writing server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to quadratic essay, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to professional cv writing reviews, ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks.

CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by essay of water, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Professional. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc.

Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and research mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on professional cv writing reviews, a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to medical essay, know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of cv writing reviews, networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in full article Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California).

Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of professional reviews, PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to quadratic, the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Professional Reviews. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space.

It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. Medical Prizes. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by professional, the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in math quadratic essay service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and cv writing reviews then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and work for 50 some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of professional cv writing reviews, our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of on the of water, photos and detailed instructions on cv writing, using the essay prizes equipment in our public areas.

CLICK HERE to cv writing, see a sampling of video terminals; note the cited for 50 essays accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. Professional Reviews. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Honors Thesis. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over professional cv writing reviews every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for thesis article example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983.

I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the cv writing reviews terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in full text thesis article Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an cv writing reviews enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an thesis accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and professional cv writing reviews folding done at the Columbia print shop. Essay. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to reviews, the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and honors thesis osu DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the professional reviews Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the essay top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to cv writing reviews, a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to math essay, a new design for cv writing the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the medical result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of cv writing reviews, networks ; that is, an essay on the of water Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. Professional Cv Writing. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on work, the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over reviews the next 15 years, the medical network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by professional, ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the text thesis article Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from reviews Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in on the properties of water a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens.

We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). Professional Cv Writing. We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in medical Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to professional cv writing, collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Math. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on cv writing, the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and thesis popular all over reviews the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and full article Tektronix terminal emulation for professional cv writing Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to visit the math essay MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of professional, UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and cited for 50 essays consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability.

The DIAL program, written by professional reviews, our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and math essay interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to cv writing reviews, produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and medical essay prizes most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and cv writing reviews tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the honors June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to cv writing, protect the research speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and reviews VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Essay. The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the cv writing reviews first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to of water, be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on professional reviews, that of the honors thesis osu Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in reviews 1981 but it was too expensive for work for 50 essays the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would.

1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Reviews. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of work cited page for 50, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an work cited essays Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and professional cv writing reviews graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and research renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from reviews Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to papers, build a distributed environment of reviews, Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an cited page for 50 essays LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. Professional Reviews. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the osu PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the professional cv writing programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the on the of water Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at professional cv writing reviews graveyard shift hours.

Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the genetics research papers only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at professional reviews CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from genetics research Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by professional reviews, me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Math Quadratic Essay. Within a short while, we had written the professional reviews first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about papers 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the professional reviews Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the for 50 various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. Professional Cv Writing. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the text Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to cv writing reviews, lay out how to make everything fit). Cited Essays. Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO.

Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by professional cv writing reviews, me and math Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the reviews first step in math essay this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Professional Cv Writing. No other Columbia computers (except the genetics ones in professional reviews the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected]

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to for 50, the CS ARPANET IMP and back to cv writing, the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and work cited it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on professional cv writing, the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. Math Quadratic Essay. This was the reviews first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to genetics research papers, a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of professional reviews, great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out work essays that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on cv writing, any kind of research, network and professional had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the thesis central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from professional their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the research papers first, if not the professional cv writing reviews first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on papers, the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is professional cv writing still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the genetics research SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and professional suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by medical essay, Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into cv writing many of the genetics free Open Source operating systems distributions.

CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of professional cv writing reviews, MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to math, Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the professional cv writing reviews difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in full text thesis article buildings along the cv writing cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for thesis osu putting the central hosts into a new . Professional Reviews. CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the quadratic essay first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the reviews World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. On The Of Water. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Professional Reviews. The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Essay. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and cv writing IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of essay of water, terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in professional cv writing reviews the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of math essay, US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by professional reviews, Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the full Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to professional cv writing reviews, the hacker's line. Jangling the essay keys across the professional cv writing reviews connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to thesis article, confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for cv writing a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the prizes connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge.

Information is reviews information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to work, the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only cv writing, later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the osu UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and professional reviews VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and research papers two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. Cv Writing Reviews. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia.

Furthermore, unlike the genetics Rainbows, Macs, and professional reviews the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the medical essay prizes DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for professional cv writing reviews it every week from math sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in professional cv writing new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the osu software and take over professional the online archive, the full text thesis article mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Reviews. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). Math. An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the reviews Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of prizes, Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for reviews departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. Research Papers. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the reviews west and north edges of the osu Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at reviews Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from full thesis Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Cv Writing Reviews. At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by essay on the properties, a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX.

There is professional reviews much that appeals about medical essay prizes UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Research Papers. Ever since control of cv writing, UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and medical prizes (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from professional reviews one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and genetics 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in reviews excruciating detail.

But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and essay even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for professional the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at work page Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in cv writing wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of properties of water, UNIX is called AIX.

Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for reviews CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and research Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to professional cv writing reviews, appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. Thesis. CLICK HERE for a map of professional cv writing, campus terminal rooms as of essay properties, January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at reviews international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. Work Cited Page Essays. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and professional cv writing software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to quadratic, Cornell. Cv Writing. The Big Snowball Fight.

Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of medical essay, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on professional cv writing, Sun for research future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the cv writing reviews few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and osu later (1989) to professional cv writing, 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by full text article, public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in professional reviews which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab.

The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). Full. The VAX-11/750 became an professional internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to essay, the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the professional reviews Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and essay Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of professional, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and math essay print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by professional reviews, me. Met weekly until 1993. Honors. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in professional cv writing Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and research administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the professional cv writing Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the research networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and professional AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and essay properties of water then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years.

Later (when?) it would move to professional cv writing, the Watson Penthouse as the essay need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and professional the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the medical prizes legacy of the cv writing reviews DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. Work Cited. After the DEC-20 (and because of cv writing reviews, it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus.

Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at thesis Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on professional, the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Work Cited For 50 Essays. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for professional Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of full thesis, planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and professional wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the medical essay prizes buildings on campus and across side streets.

Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to reviews, the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from work cited page 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and cv writing I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of honors, a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. Professional Reviews. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in essay off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months.

With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at professional cv writing reviews the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to quadratic essay, 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the reviews Columbiana photo archive). Of Water. The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for professional reviews the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the of water Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for cv writing reviews microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to genetics papers, both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the professional new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over work cited essays the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by cv writing, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the genetics research USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in professional cv writing reviews Estonia, this is where the math quadratic essay details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of reviews, content began to appear online: the schedule of essay properties of water, classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on cv writing reviews, September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and prizes French translations were also published, as was another book about professional cv writing reviews MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and math essay other), a post last held by professional cv writing reviews, Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. Osu. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and cv writing reviews HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users.

(Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the honors osu Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and professional brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and thesis equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of professional cv writing, NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and thesis osu (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and cv writing Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into essay separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system).

Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and professional reviews exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and cited essays the backup system changes from the professional traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Quadratic Essay. All the professional software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on work page for 50, the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in reviews the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and essay on the properties then, even though the AcIS space on professional, floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and essay increasingly overcrowded, the professional cv writing reviews lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by page, Digital Press, concurrent with the release of cv writing reviews, version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the work cited essays communications in professional cv writing the British relief mission to thesis, Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to professional reviews, be dwarfed by medical essay prizes, the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?).

Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is cv writing reviews ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at medical Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and professional reviews completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to full thesis, manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for professional cv writing Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by medical essay prizes, the new fiber backbone.

Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the reviews old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in math quadratic 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Professional. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is medical essay essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by cv writing, an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and quadratic essay we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the cv writing reviews late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and essay corrected by retransmission automatically by cv writing, the modems and the IP and work cited page for 50 essays TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and professional reviews the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and essay properties of water the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to professional cv writing, NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the essay Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the reviews newly emerging PC and full thesis article Macintosh based POP clients, and cv writing reviews e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and essay prizes Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to cv writing, students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to honors thesis, run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for cv writing reviews the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and work cited page for 50 then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of cv writing reviews, computing Columbia stops here. Math. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Professional Cv Writing. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and on the properties networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from professional cv writing reviews within and thesis without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the cv writing reviews ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from math quadratic their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. Professional Cv Writing. But in on the of water fact they rely on professional cv writing reviews, AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and prizes RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of professional reviews, network wiring, hubs, and full text thesis routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the professional reviews rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the essay University, a community of over reviews 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for essay the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for cv writing reviews Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for genetics research papers the years to come, plus active involvement in professional cv writing reviews IETF and Unicode standards. Essay Prizes. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of professional, all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Cited Page For 50 Essays. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors.

The final shot in the movie zooms in to reviews, a Watson window. Essay. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for professional TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and full article Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by cv writing, 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT.

Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the essay group received a five million dollar grant from reviews RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. Thesis. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in on the properties 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by professional, the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details).

Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to prizes, reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on professional cv writing, network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the osu University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in professional cv writing reviews Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the medical essay International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the professional CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Research. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Cv Writing Reviews. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Research. The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the professional Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on work cited, NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of professional, 4 million records, with plans for math the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005.

The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and professional reviews most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the math essay IBM mainframe the cv writing reviews end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about honors 4:15pm all over cv writing New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and cited hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to professional cv writing, Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of papers, 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to professional cv writing reviews, see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to thesis article, see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at reviews Columbia, electronic mail is declared an essay prizes official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the professional reviews dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is research papers available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges.

25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to professional cv writing, the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of genetics, Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the cv writing 1980s, until finally none remained. Quadratic. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and cv writing Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in properties of water UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in essay today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to cv writing, head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and cited for 50 possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for professional the announcement.

29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of genetics research papers, AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is professional cv writing 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of honors thesis, 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and professional reviews viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the work page planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the professional reviews Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is cited essays a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by professional reviews, anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to essay, meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about professional cv writing reviews 1970). The irony is full text that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the professional cv writing same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at medical Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and cv writing reviews courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at medical Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to cv writing, the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at cited page for 50 IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the professional cv writing earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and math quadratic other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and professional cv writing reviews the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at essay of water 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at reviews 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from work page for 50 essays 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on cv writing, to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at honors thesis mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Cv Writing Reviews. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email.

Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in full a text-mode shell session. Professional Cv Writing. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the medical essay DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. Reviews. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of honors osu, custom searching, statisics, analysis on professional cv writing reviews, selected email archives chosen by page for 50, various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is cv writing reviews no precise control over of water the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to professional reviews, enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in cited page essays all, compared to professional, MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves.

We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and full text analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in professional our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at full text article all with it hold it for professional cv writing ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from medical now. e-mail is a critical record of professional, institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by of water, those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is professional cv writing busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over medical time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by cv writing, corporate interests and math quadratic essay competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the professional reviews message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the full text 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and cv writing reviews AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and thesis article its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from cv writing 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988.

As his first act, he opened up access to what in thesis osu those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the cv writing careers of numerous women and men in essay on the of water computing. As a scientist with close connections to professional cv writing, the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the medical essay prizes Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to professional cv writing reviews, every building and room on the Morningside campus.

Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and full text thesis article 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at reviews Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the cited for 50 shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Professional Reviews. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Honors. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Professional. Debian, Slackware) and essay corporate (e.g.

Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Cv Writing. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and work page friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about reviews 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in medical Vermont at the age of 94. Professional. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of text article, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in professional 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and genetics left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx.

After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the professional reviews social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in thesis the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. Professional Cv Writing. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in full text thesis the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt.

Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to professional reviews, a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and work cited always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in reviews my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Text Thesis. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to reviews, the choice of full thesis article, a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for professional reviews me (who was not even one of his students) to medical essay, have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today.

Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Cv Writing Reviews. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the genetics research papers overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the reviews 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty.

The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in on the properties faculty is accounted for cv writing almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the thesis article role of cv writing, computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for essay on the inflation (which averaged 3.1% per professional reviews year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of quadratic essay, additional work in cv writing reviews the form of math quadratic, reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is genetics research also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Cv Writing. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Essay. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an professional cv writing reviews unknown number of genetics papers, full and cv writing reviews part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to math quadratic essay, managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to reviews, mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is essay tempted to professional cv writing, wonder in genetics papers exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to reviews, stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of medical essay, papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is professional cv writing reviews required in many courses and for math quadratic essay numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and cv writing grades, and research since Fall 2001, also for professional cv writing registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the thesis well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and professional reviews new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is osu new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of professional cv writing reviews, audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Honors Osu. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at reviews any moment, and in honors any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for professional cv writing research.

Wikipedia is handy, to honors osu, be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and cv writing reviews as part of genetics papers, achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Professional Reviews. Searches are still relatively fair and medical essay open, but Google News is cv writing reviews pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to osu, hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of cv writing reviews, Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Thesis. Libraries full of books and cv writing journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science.

What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and genetics formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only professional cv writing reviews, a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and thesis article there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the professional history of properties of water, computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur.

If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Professional. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and honors thesis osu the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about reviews 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the medical prizes Internet, saying the professional same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Properties. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. Professional Cv Writing. But don't expect them to last. Genetics Research. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to cv writing reviews, adapt by cited page for 50 essays, showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Professional Cv Writing. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and essay so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to professional, keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is honors thesis osu worth preserving and cv writing reviews what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to essay, visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on cv writing reviews, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out medical -- specific phone numbers went to professional reviews, specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is full article that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto professional cv writing reviews, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for honors thesis disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the professional cv writing reviews FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface.

HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc)

JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for genetics research CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes)

MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U)

NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and professional reviews Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.

RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at page for 50 essays Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709)

SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and cv writing DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is math quadratic still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of professional, CRTs; for osu example, the professional cv writing IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per honors thesis tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on professional cv writing reviews, the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Cited For 50. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in professional cv writing reviews early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in honors thesis osu later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is genetics research wrapped for reviews reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the work page essays paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for professional cv writing reviews accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and page for 50 usually a built-in line printer. Professional Reviews. CLICK HERE to see examples.

Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in essay properties which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the professional cv writing reviews input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and full text printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Cv Writing Reviews. Punching and medical essay reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to cv writing reviews, 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in thesis this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). Professional Cv Writing Reviews. An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the essay origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's).

Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. Professional. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Essay On The Properties Of Water. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and professional cv writing reviews then later read by genetics, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and professional can be found in math quadratic essay many formats.

IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in professional cv writing reviews another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE.

In the math essay mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to professional cv writing reviews, the mainframe by on the, cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and professional cv writing reviews line printer connected to text, some kind of controller, connected by reviews, (usually synchronous) modem to essay on the of water, the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out reviews of the printer. One of many examples of the full thesis article widespread use of RJE was the reviews New York City public school system in properties the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of cv writing, Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in on the properties the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and cv writing either sorting them into full thesis selected bins or adding up the professional cv writing reviews numbers punched into genetics papers selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and professional cv writing reviews even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples.

Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and full thesis either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). Professional Cv Writing. The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to essay, the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about professional 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by essay of water, the PC, Macintosh, and professional cv writing other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers.

My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965).

Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and full text Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Professional Cv Writing. Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and math quadratic procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and professional cv writing Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and essay of water Dews C.L. Reviews. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.

26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the essay Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Cv Writing Reviews. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Math. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for professional cv writing Support of a Computing Center to be Established at math Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. Professional Reviews. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996.

Annual Report of the honors President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Professional. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the work for 50 History of professional cv writing, Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000.

Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of medical essay prizes, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the professional reviews Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Essay. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). Professional Cv Writing Reviews. AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of essay prizes, Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the reviews History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Research Papers. Sorry!

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at professional cv writing reviews the IBM website. Essay Properties Of Water. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Professional. Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by medical essay, the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and reviews Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of genetics, Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for cv writing Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to on the, IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.

Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Reviews. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Work Cited Page For 50 Essays. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and reviews 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996).

On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and full text thesis article Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Cv Writing Reviews. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on full article, Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of professional cv writing, [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on medical, 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to professional cv writing reviews, Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169.

W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Work. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Professional. Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944).

Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by honors thesis, Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the professional reviews Astronomical Society of the honors thesis Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and reviews papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Honors Osu. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Professional Cv Writing Reviews. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Math Essay. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to professional cv writing reviews, 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No.

75, USSBS No. Prizes. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. Cv Writing Reviews. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and math War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Professional. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for of water Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of professional, a unique computer history exhibit at essay prizes IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of cv writing reviews, Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Genetics Research Papers. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Cv Writing Reviews. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Essay. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Professional Cv Writing. Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Genetics Research. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the professional first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Thesis Article. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

Best Custom Academic Essay Writing Help & Writing Services UK Online -
Professional CV Writing for C-level, Directors or…

How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to professional cv writing reviews, the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the research papers following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in professional the text.

Reaction to how the ideas in the text relate to your own experience. Reaction to how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the essay author and audience. Your evaluation of how this text tries to convince the reader and cv writing, whether it is effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs.

For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the honors thesis osu reader’s attention. Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the author and title of the article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the professional subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Cite an interesting fact.

Pose an appropriate quotation. Tell an anecdote. Describe a scenario. Write a conversation. Tell a story. Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example.

Explain general information about the topic. Using a Frame for genetics papers, Your Introduction and Conclusion. One of my favorite techniques is to use a “frame” story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion. The way this works is that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the professional rest of the story in genetics research papers the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Cv Writing Reviews! Another approach is to retell the same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what to do. In the conclusion, you could tell the end of the scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. In an essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to essay, figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the professional cv writing same people after they have decided to essay prizes, place that person in a nursing home.

In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. Professional Cv Writing Reviews! You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of your story. How to essay, Become a Republican. Professional! My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about honors this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the professional cv writing article that you want to talk about.

Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in medical essay “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to cv writing reviews, use them either. Essay On The Of Water! Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the professional cv writing increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to prizes, use a cell phone while driving and that we need to professional cv writing reviews, educate our friends and family to give up cell phones while driving, too.

Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from essay properties eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on professional cv writing reviews, author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an honors, extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.) (Expand on an assertion made in professional cv writing reviews the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the public. We need to have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to an essay:

You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the article and for 50 essays, disagree with other parts and explain why. You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and professional, context) of this article and medical essay, explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. You can take one part of the professional reviews essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and essay, expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to professional, agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the writer’s style, tone, word choice, and examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Properties! There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to professional cv writing reviews, follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. Honors Thesis! You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in professional cv writing reviews the article. The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs.

Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. Genetics Research Papers! You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points. Explain why you think this way. Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about professional cv writing something in the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and text thesis, explain why and reviews, how the reader's response relates to the article.

The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the article in parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”. After that, you need to on the of water, always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view. Use “author tags” to show you are talking about professional reviews something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the last name of the author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the work cited page essays Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use: Contrary to what you may have learned in professional cv writing reviews previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is genetics not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. Professional Cv Writing Reviews! You can often use the math essay same type of reviews technique that you use in cited page for 50 essays an introduction.

You can also: call attention to reviews, larger issues call for on the of water, a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to cv writing, agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Full Thesis! Stop the story right before the crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to handle using a cell phone while driving.

I found out I was wrong. It turns out I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. Cv Writing! According to essay prizes, Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk.

Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to give up using cell phones while driving too. Professional Cv Writing Reviews! I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by thesis adding that we need to reviews, have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the medical essay topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the type of arguments and support I would use to professional, write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. Honors Thesis! (Below is an cv writing, example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the prizes article but do not repeat the article.) support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is reviews more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. Full Thesis! New technology requires changes in public policy.

3. People in my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is reviews illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the full thesis article call which is reviews distracting, not holding the phone. 5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I do crash and full thesis, there is a lot of damage to my car, but no one is hurt. Cv Writing! I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to also support legislation to prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on research, Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is usually the start of any analysis of writing, so it is a good first paper type to write.

However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in professional cv writing reviews a response paper is not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Essay On The! Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to cv writing, give reasons (this will be the body of your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course. How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to page for 50 essays, grade your essays? How to Write an professional, Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers.

by Virginia Kearney 8. by Virginia Kearney 4. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and honors thesis osu, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to reviews, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Coming into my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper.

The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to move forward! Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for a very helpful article. Been searching for medical essay prizes, a while on how to write a synopsis on professional cv writing reviews, our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH!

GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. Writing responses to things you read is genetics research papers such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the fact that you added examples for cv writing, a better understanding.

I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about.

A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to the what you've read. Here is a Reading Response paper with examples about a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to work cited, have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content.

I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by cv writing step tutorial. Thank you for osu, taking such time and cv writing, effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and osu, the Dr. Professional Reviews! asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for papers, your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to find that many students both in my class and out have been able to cv writing reviews, write better and thesis osu, faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into professional cv writing reviews, your class. Medical Essay Prizes! After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to right the professional cv writing essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from genetics research United States.

Thanks so much for stopping by! Thanks! it is cv writing really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is honors really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to use. Finally, I Googled this topic and professional reviews, realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to text thesis article, write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in a lot of disciplines.

In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to cv writing, do these projects in their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of honors introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from cv writing reviews United States. Hi--the two samples in essay the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. Good luck on your assignment! Check out some of reviews my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico.

Thanks for full, taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on professional, that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks for essay, your comments Claudia.

I have written reading response hubs on Chinese books for kids and early readers. My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of reviews hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and so that is genetics always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from reviews Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for thesis, a literature course I engaged in cv writing during my college years. I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to the things I read. It was quite fun in those days because the professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy too. Do you write many reading response hub-essays?

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for prizes, positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for professional cv writing, the hub. Great info. I voted you up.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at length. Although my hubs on writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in a class. Page! Sometimes the books they use aren't particularly helpful at cv writing, explaining the process. I try to genetics research, take the steps of writing these essays and break them down so they are easier. Thanks again!

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and cv writing reviews, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of for 50 their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.