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ApplyTexas: Essay Help for Topics A and B. Click HERE for resume, the current essay prompts! All public universities, and some private and essays in radical text 2-year colleges, in Texas do not use the Common Application. Instead, they have their own consolidated system called ApplyTexas. If you are applying to resume any of the hih insurance ltd case study schools that use ApplyTexas, you need to resume figure out what essays they require (if any), and then which specific prompts. I find it all very confusing. Are Stronger Words. But there are two main prompts that the largest schools (such as the University of Texas at Austinpick either Topic A or B; Texas AMboth Topic A and B; etc.) require applicants to address in their essays. Here#8217;s some advice on how to think about these prompts, called Topic A and Topic B. (Find help for Topic C.) They don#8217;t list a word count, but I believe the common length is around 300-500 each. #8220;Describe a setting in which you have collaborated or interacted with people whose experiences and/or beliefs differ from powerbuilder yours. Address your initial feelings, and how those feelings were or were not changed by this experience.#8221; What are they getting at with this prompt? To me, this is an opportunity to share what you believe about anything from diversity to leadership. The first step is to brainstorm a real-life experience that occurred while you worked with people who were different than you.
The group could be big or small. Essay. They could be a different age (seniors, toddlers); culture (from any that you are not, whether it#8217;s Jewish, Asian, Native Americanas long as it#8217;s new to you on some level); religion (again, anything that#8217;s different); overall personal philosophy (conservative, liberal, strict, casual, sloppy, OCD, ambitious, laid backas long as the other people were distinctly different from you). Other potential #8220;different#8221; groups that you could consider: education level, age, appearance, health, physical/mental ability, etc. Now that you have a group in mind that you have been involved with somehow, the resume trick is to write an essay that shows how you were affected by hih insurance ltd case them in powerbuilder, some wayand that what you first felt about them (your opinion) was somehow changed (or not). Unlv Admissions Essay. And then why that mattered.
What you don#8217;t want to powerbuilder do with this essay is words essay write a general explanation of some group you worked with and resume powerbuilder how they made you feel on essays in radical empiricism text a general level and how this changed you in powerbuilder, some general way. If you keep everything general , your essay will be dull and not reveal much about you. To make it more interesting and personal, try to think of resume online a moment or time something happened with that group. The most interesting moments are typically when there was some type of resume problem. If you can think of one of these moments, especially if it involved a problem (obstacle, challenge, mistake, conflict, misunderstanding, change, etc.), you can start your essay sharing that specific, real-life incident. Then go onto essays in radical empiricism text, explain how you and powerbuilder the group dealt with it, and share how you felt and thought, and then talk about what you learned about yourself and the group in the process. Are Stronger Than Essay. Finally, reflect on how you were, or were not, changed (affected, inspired, etc.) in some way by this experience. The point of this prompt is to get you to resume powerbuilder share how you feel and think about are stronger words people who are different than you. How To Structure Your Essay.
Here#8217;s a suggested outline: 1. Start with an resume, anecdote, which is a paragraph or two where you recreate a r eal-life moment or incident where you worked with a group that was different from actions words you. (Read more on how to resume powerbuilder craft an anecdote in these posts.) 2. Admissions. Back up and provide background that explains why you were working with this group, especially since they were so different from you. Share how you felt about it, and what led up to the problem you faced with this group. Resume Powerbuilder. 3. Explain the steps you took with this group to handle the problem. 4. Share what you learned from working on this problem with this group. *Make sure to include something about how your initial feelings or opinions about opinion essay this group changed along the way. 5. Describe how you intend to powerbuilder use what you learned in this process in your future . It#8217;s ideal if you can link that somehow to optional what you plan to study or your life goals. If you write about resume 100 words for each step, you should end up with a robust first draft. Order Online Swiss Chalet. #8220;Describe a circumstance, obstacle or conflict in your life and the skills and powerbuilder resources you used to resolve it. Did it change you? If so, how?#8221; This prompt is online chalet more direct, and should be easier to write about. It is more of a straight personal statement type of essay, in that they are looking to understand what you are made of, what core qualities, characteristics or values you have that make you effective in resume, your life. The key is to think of a time or moment when you dealt with some type of problem (#8220;obstacle or conflict#8221;). The problem does not have to be some huge catastrophe or crisis (even though those can work.) Often, something everyday or simple works even betteras long as it illustrates a larger life lesson for you.
Then make sure to are stronger than essay explain how you solved, handled or dealt with it#8212;and make sure to powerbuilder include the specific #8220;skills and resources#8221; you used in the process. The questions in Topic B are actually almost the same as Prompt 4 for the Common Application. Read When Your Problem is a Good Thing for a step-by-step guide on how to answer this prompt. ***If you can tell, there#8217;s a good chance you could recycle your Common App essay for this prompt. Just make sure it is about you dealing with some type of issue or problem in unlv admissions essay, your life (Common App prompts #1, 2 and 4 would be the most likely). #8220;Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals.#8221; Many college admissions experts believe Topic C is the most important of the powerbuilder three essays! As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and actions than words essay others from around the world on these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and online courses, . READ MORE. . Learn to Write Your Essay in One Hour!
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laura mulveys essay Visual Pleasure in Narrative Cinema. A. A Political Use of Psychoanalysis. This paper intends to use psychoanalysis to resume discover where and essays empiricism text how the fascination of film is reinforced by pre-existing patterns of fascination already at work within the individual subject and the social formations that have moulded him. It takes as starting point the powerbuilder, way film reflects, reveals and even plays on the straight, socially established interpretation of sexual difference which controls images, erotic ways of looking and spectacle. It is helpful to in radical understand what the cinema has been, how its magic has worked in the past, while attempting a theory and a practice which will challenge this cinema of the past. Psychoanalytic theory, is resume powerbuilder, thus appropriated here as a political weapon, demonstrating the way the unconscious of patriarchal society has structured film form. The paradox of phallocentrism in all its manifestations is order online swiss, that it depends on resume powerbuilder the image of the castrated woman to give order and meaning to essays its world. An idea of woman stands as lynch pin to the system it is her lack that produces the phallus as a symbolic presence, it is her desire to resume make good the lack that the phallus signifies.
Recent writing in Screen about psychoanalysis and the cinema has not sufficiently brought out the importance of the representation of the female form in ltd case a symbolic order in which, in the last resort, it speaks castration and nothing else. To summarise briefly: the powerbuilder, function of woman in forming the patriarclal unconscious is two-fold, she first symbolises the castration threat by essay, her real absence of a penis and second thereby raises her child into the symbolic. Once this has been achieved, her meaning in the process is at an end, it does not last into the world of law and language except as a memory which oscillates between memory of maternal plenitude and memory of lack. Resume. Both are posited on nature (or on anatomy in Freud's famous phrase). Woman's desire is subjected to her image as bearer of the bleeding wound, she can exist only in relation to castration and cannot transcend it. She turns her child into the signifier of her own desire to mba application possess a penis (the condition, she imagines, of entry into the symbolic). Either she must gracefully give way to the word, the Name of the Father and the Law, or else struggle to keep her child down with her in resume powerbuilder the half-light of the imaginary. Woman then stands in opinion action essay patriarchal culture as signifier for the male other, bound by powerbuilder, a symbolic order in which man can live out his phantasies and obsessions through linguistic command by imposing them on the silent image of woman still tied to her place as bearer of meaning, not maker of meaning. There is an obvious interest in this analysis for feminists, a beauty in its exact rendering of the frustration experienced under the phallocentric order.
It gets us nearer to optional essay mba application the roots of our oppression, it brings an articulation of the problem closer, it faces us with the resume powerbuilder, ultimate challenge: how to fight the unconscious structured like a language (formed critically at the moment of arrival of language) while still caught within the language of the patriarchy. There is no 'way' in empiricism which we can produce an alternative of the blue, but we can begin to make a break by examining patriarchy with the tools it provides, of which psychoanalysis is resume powerbuilder, not the only but an important one. We are still separated by a great gap from important issues for the female unconscious which are scarcely relevant to phallocentric theory: the sexing of the female infant and her relationship to hih insurance the symbolic, the sexually mature woman as non-mother, maternity outside the signification of the phallus, the vagina. Resume. . . But, at this point, psychoanalytic theory as it now stands can at in radical least advance our understanding of the resume, status quo, of the patriarchal order in which we are caught. B. Destruction of Pleasure as a Radical Weapon. As an advanced representation system, the cinema poses questions of the ways the unconscious (formed by the dominant order) structures ways of in radical, seeing and pleasure in looking.
Cinema has changed over the last few decades. Powerbuilder. It is no longer the monolithic system based on large capital investment exemplified at its best by Hollywood in essay mba application the 1930'S, 1940'S and 1950's. Technological advances (16mm, etc) have changed the powerbuilder, economic conditions of cinematic production, which can now be artisanal as well as capitalist. Thus it has been possible for an alternative cinema to develop. However self-conscious and ironic Hollywood managed to be, it always restricted itself to unlv a formal mise-en-scene reflecting the dominant ideological concept of the cinema. The alternative cinema provides a space for a cinema to be born which is radical in both a political and an aesthetic sense and challenges the basic assumptions of the mainstream film.
This is not to resume reject the latter moralisticallly, but to highlight the ways in which its formal pre-occupations reflect the psychical obsessions of the society which produced it, and, further, to stress that the alternative cinema must start specifically by reacting against these obsessions and assumptions. A politically and aesthetically avant-garde cinema is now possible, but it can still only exist as counterpoint. The magic of the Hollywood style at its best (and of all the cinema which fell within its sphere of influence) arose, not exclusively, but in one important aspect, from its skilled and satisfying manipulation of visual pleasure. Unchallenged, mainstream film coded the essay, erotic into the language of the dominant patriarchal order. In the highly developed Hollywood cinema it was only through these codes that the alienated subject, torn in his imaginary memory by a sense of resume, loss, by the terror of potential lack in phantasy, came near to finding a glimpse of satisfaction: through its formal beauty and its play on his own formative obsessions. This article will discuss the interweaving of that erotic pleasure in film, its meaning, and in particular the central place of the image of woman.
It is said that analysing pleasure, or beauty, destroys it. That is the intention of this article. Hih Insurance. The satisfaction and reinforcement of the ego, that represent the high point of film history hitherto must be attacked. Not in favour of a reconstructed new pleasure, which cannot exist in the abstract, nor of intellectualised unpleasure, but to make way for a total negation of the ease and resume powerbuilder plenitude of the narrative fiction film. The alternative is the thrill that comes from leaving the past behind without rejecting it, transcending outworn or oppressive forms, or daring to break with normal pleasurable expectations in order to conceive a new language of desire. II Pleasure in Looking/Fascination with the Human Form. A. Mba Application. The cinema offers a number of possible pleasures. One is scopophilia. There are circumstances in which looking itself is a source of resume powerbuilder, pleasure, just as, in the reverse formation, there is pleasure in being looked at. Originally, in his Three Essays on Sexuality , Freud isolated scopophilia as one of the component instincts of sexuality which exist as drives quite independently of the erotogenic zones. At this point he associated scopophilia with taking other people as objects, subjecting them to a controlling and curious gaze.
His particular examples centre around the voyeuristic activities of children, their desire to see and make sure of the private and the forbidden (curiosity about other people's genital and bodily functions, about the presence or absence of the penis and, retrospectively, about the primal scene). In this analysis scopophilia is essentially active. (Later, in Instincts and their Vicissitudes , Freud developed his theory of scopophiia further, attaching it initially to pre-genital auto-eroticism, after which the resume online swiss, pleasure of the look is transferred to others by analogy. There, is a close working here of the relationship between the active instinct and resume powerbuilder its further development in a narcissistic form.) Although the instinct is modified by other factors, in particular the constitution of the ego, it continues to exist as the erotic basis for admissions, pleasure in looking at another person as object. At the extreme, it can become fixated into a perversion, producing obsessive voyeurs and Peeping Toms, whose only sexual satisfaction can come from watching, in an active controlling sense, an objectified other. At first glance, the resume powerbuilder, cinema would seem to be remote from the undercover world of the surreptitious observation of an unknowing and unwilling victim. What is seen of the screen is so manifestly shown.
But the mass of mainstream film, and the conventions within which it has consciously evolved, portray a hermetically sealed world which unwinds magically, indifferent to the presence of the audience, producing for them a sense of separation and plan on their voyeuristic phantasy. Moreover, the extreme contrast between the darkness in the auditorium (which also isolates the spectators from action, one another) and the brilliance of the shifting patterns of light and powerbuilder shade on the screen helps to promote the illusion of voyeuristic separation. Although the film is really being shown, is there to be seen, conditions of screening and narrative conventions give the spectator an illusion of looking in on a private world. Admissions. Among other things, the position of the spectators in the cinema is powerbuilder, blatantly one of repression of their exhibitionism and projection of the repressed desire on to the performer. B. The cinema satisfies a primordial wish for pleasurable looking, but it also goes further, developing scopophilia in its narcissistic aspect. The conventions of mainstream film focus attention on the human form.
Scale, space, stories are all anthropomorphic. Here, curiosity and the wish to look intermingle with a fascination with, likeness and recognition: the human face, the human body, the relationship between the human form and its surroundings, the opinion action, visible presence of the person in the world. Jacques Lacan has described how the moment when a child recognises its own image in the mirror is crucial for the constitution of the resume, ego. Several aspects of this analysis are relevant here. The mirror phase occurs at a time when the child's physical ambitions outstrip his motor capacity, with the result that his recognition of himself is joyous in that he imagines his mirror image to be more complete, more perfect than he experiences his own body. Recognition is thus overlaid with misrecognition: the image recognised is conceived as the reflected body of the ltd case, self, but its misrecognition as superior projects this body outside itself as an ideal ego, the alienated subject, which, re-introjected as an resume powerbuilder ego ideal, gives rise to the future generation of identification with others. This mirror-moment predates language for the child. Important for this article is the fact that it is an image that constitutes the matrix of the imaginary, of online swiss, recognition/mis-recognition and identification, and hence of the first articulation of the 'I', of subjectivity. This is a moment when an older, fascination with looking (at the mother's face, for an obvious example) collides with the initial inklings of self-awareness. Hence it is the birth of the long love affair/despair between image and self-image which has found such intensity of expression in film and such joyous recognition in the cinema audience. Quite apart from the extraneous similarities between screen and resume powerbuilder mirror (the framing of the human form in its surroundings, for instance), the study, cinema has structures of fascination strong enough to allow temporary loss of ego while simultaneously reinforcing the ego.
The sense of forgetting the powerbuilder, world as the essays text, ego has subsequently come to perceive it (I forgot who I am and resume where I was) is nostalgically reminiscent of that pre-subjective moment of hih insurance ltd case, image recognition. At the same time the cinema has distinguished itself in the production of resume, ego, ideals as expressed in particular in the star system, the stars centring both screen presence and screen story as they act out actions are stronger than words essay, a complex process of likeness and difference (the glamorous impersonates the ordinary). C. Sections II. A and B have set out two contradictory aspects of the pleasurable structures of looking, in the conventional cinematic situation. The first, scopophilic, arises from resume, pleasure in affirmative action using another person as an object of sexual stimulation through sight. Resume. The second, developed through narcissism and the constitution of the ego, comes from order resume chalet, identification with the image seen. Thus, in film terms, one implies a separation of the erotic identity of the subject from the object on the screen (active scopophilia), the other demands identification of the ego with the object on the screen through the spectator's fascination with and recognition of his like. The first is a function of the sexual instincts, the second of ego libido. This dichotomy was crucial for Freud.
Although he saw the two as interacting and overlaying each other, the tension between instinctual drives and self-preservation continues to be a dramatic polarisation in terms of pleasure. Both are formative structures, mechanisms not meaning. Resume. In themselves they have no signification, they have to be attached to an idealisation. Both pursue aims in indifference to perceptual reality, creating the imagised, eroticised concept of the optional essay, world that forms the perception of the subject and powerbuilder makes a mockery of empirical objectivity. During its history, the cinema seems to have evolved a particular illusion of reality in words essay which this contradiction between libido and ego has found a beautifully complementary phantasy world.
In reality the phantasy world of the screen is subject to the law which produces it. Sexual instincts and identification processes have a meaning within the symbolic order which articulates desire. Resume Powerbuilder. Desire, born with language, allows the possibility of transcending the essays empiricism, instinctual and the imaginary, but its point of reference continually returns to the traumatic moment of its birth: the castration complex. Hence the look, pleasurable in form, can be threatening in content, and it is woman as representation/image that crystallises this paradox. III Woman as Image, Man as Bearer of the Look. A. Resume Powerbuilder. In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and are stronger than passive/female. The determining male gaze projects its phantasy on to the resume, female figure which is styled accordingly.
In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to empiricism text connote to-be-looked-at-ness . Woman displayed as sexual object is the leit-motif of erotic spectacle: from pin-ups to resume powerbuilder strip-tease, from Ziegfeld to Busby Berkeley, she holds the look, plays to study and signifies male desire. Mainstream film neatly combined spectacle and narrative. (Note, however, how in the musical song-and-dance numbers break the flow of the diegesis.) The presence of woman is an powerbuilder indispensable element of hih insurance, spectacle in normal narrative film, yet her visual presence tends to work against the development of a story line, to freeze the flow of action in moments of resume, erotic contemplation. This alien presence then has to actions are stronger than words be integrated into cohesion with the narrative. As Budd Boetticher has put it: 'What counts is what the heroine provokes, or rather what she represents. She is the one, or rather the love or fear she inspires in the hero, or else the concern he feels for her, who makes him act the way he does. In herself the resume powerbuilder, woman has not the affirmative, slightest importance.' (A recent tendency in narrative film has been to dispense with this problem altogether; hence the development of what Molly Haskell has called the 'buddy movie', in which the active homosexual eroticism of the powerbuilder, central male figures can carry the story without distraction.) Traditionally, the woman displayed has functioned on two levels: as erotic object for the characters within the screen story, and essay as erotic object for the spectator within the auditorium, with a shifting tension between the looks on either side of the screen. For instance, the device of the show-girl allows the two looks to be unified technically without any apparent break in resume powerbuilder the diegesis. A woman performs within the narrative, the gaze of the spectator and actions words that of the male characters in resume powerbuilder the film are neatly combined without breaking narrative verisimilitude. For a moment the sexual impact of the performing woman takes the film into a no-man's-land outside its own time and space.
Thus Marilyn Monroe's first appearance in The River No Return and essay mba application Lauren Bacall's songs in To Have or Have Not . Similarly, conventional close-ups of legs (Dietrich, for instance) or a face (Garbo) integrate into the narrative a different mode of eroticism. One part of a fragmented body destroys the Renaissance space, the illusion of depth demanded by the narrative, it gives flatness, the quality of resume, a cut-out or icon rather than verisimilitude to the screen. B. An active/passive heterosexual division of labour has similarly controlled narrative structure. According to the principles of the ruling ideology and the psychical structures that back it up, the male figure cannot bear the burden of sexual objectification. Man is reluctant to gaze at his exhibitionist like. Hence the optional essay mba application, split between spectacle and narrative supports the man's role as the active one of forwarding the story, making things happen. The man controls the film phantasy and also emerges as the representative of power in a further sense: as the bearer of the look of the spectator, transferring it behind the screen to neutralise the powerbuilder, extradiegetic tendencies represented by woman as spectacle. This is made possible through the processes set in motion by structuring the opinion action, film around a main controlling figure with whom the spectator can identify. Powerbuilder. As the optional, spectator identifies with the main male  protagonist, he projects his look on to that of his like, his screen surrogate, so that the resume, power of the essay, male protagonist as he controls events coincides with the active power of the erotic look, both giving a satisfying sense of omnipotence. A male movie star's glamorous characteristics are thus not those of the erotic object of the gaze, but those of the more perfect, more complete, more powerful ideal ego conceived in the original moment of recognition in front of the mirror.
The character in the story can make things happen and control events better than the subject/spectator, just as the image in resume the mirror was more in control of motor co-ordination. In contrast to woman as icon, the active male figure (the ego ideal of the identification process) demands a three dimensional space corresponding to that of the mirror-recognition in which the actions are stronger words essay, alienated subject internalised his own representation of this imaginary existence. He is a figure in a landscape. Resume. Here the function of film is to reproduce as accurately as possible the essays empiricism text, so-called natural conditions of human perception. Camera technology (as exemplified by deep focus in resume particular) and camera movements (determined by the action of the protagonist), combined with invisible editing (demanded by realism) all tend to blur the limits of screen space. The male protagonist is free to resume online swiss command the resume, stage, a stage of spatial illusion in which he articulates the look and creates the action.
C.1 Sections III. A and empiricism B have set out a tension between a mode of representation of woman in film and powerbuilder conventions surrounding the diegesis. Each is associated with a look: that of the spectator in study direct scopophilic contact with the female form displayed for his enjoyment (connoting male phantasy) and that of the spectator fascinated with the image of resume powerbuilder, his like set in an illusion of natural space, and through him gaining control and possession of the woman within the diegesis. (This tension and the shift from one pole to the other can structure a single text. Thus both in Only Angels Have Wings and in To Have and Have Not, the film opens with the woman as object of the combined gaze of spectator and all the male protagonists in the film. She is isolated, glamorous, on display, sexualised. But as the narrative progresses she falls in love with the affirmative action, main male protagonist and becomes his property, losing her outward glamorous characteristics, her generalised sexuality, her show-girl connotations; her eroticism is subjected to the male star alone. By means of identification with him, through participation in his power, the spectator can indirectly possess her too.) But in powerbuilder psychoanalytic terms, the female figure poses a deeper problem. She also connotes something that the look continually circles around but disavows: her lack of a penis, implying a threat of castration and hence unpleasure. Ltd Case Study. Ultimately, the meaning of woman is powerbuilder, sexual difference, the absence of the penis as visually ascertainable, the material evidence on which is action, based the castration complex essential for the organisation of entrance to resume powerbuilder the symbolic order and the law of the father.
Thus the woman as icon, displayed for the gaze and enjoyment of men, the active controllers of the look, always threatens to evoke the chalet, anxiety it originally signified. The male unconscious has two avenues of escape from this castration anxiety preoccupation with the re-enactment of the original trauma (investigating the woman, demystifying her mystery) counterbalanced by the devaluation, punishment or saving of the guilty object (an avenue typified by the concerns of the film noir ); or else complete disavowal of castration by the substitution of a fetish object or turning the represented figure itself into a fetish so that it becomes reassuring rather than dangerous (hence over-valuation, the cult of the female star). This second avenue, fetishistic scopophilia, builds up the physical beauty of the object, transforming it into something satisfying in itself. Resume Powerbuilder. The first avenue, voyeurism, on the contrary, has associations with sadism: pleasure lies in actions words essay ascertaining guilt (immediately associated with castration), asserting control and subjecting the guilty person through punishment or forgiveness. This sadistic side fits in well with narrative. Sadism demands a story, depends on making something happen, forcing a change in another person, a battle of will and strength, victory/defeat, all occuring in a linear time with a beginning and resume powerbuilder an end. Opinion. Fetishistic scopophilia, on the other hand, can exist outside linear time as the erotic instinct is resume, focussed on the look alone. These contradictions and ambiguities can be illustrated more simply by using works by Hitchcock and essays in radical Sternberg, both of whom take the look almost as the content or subject matter of resume powerbuilder, many of their films. Hitchcock is the more complex, as he uses both mechanisms. Sternberg's work, on the other hand, provides many pure examples of fetishistic scopophilia.
C.2 It is well known that Sternberg once said he would welcome his films being projected upside down so that story and character involvement would not interfere with the spectator's undiluted appreciation of the opinion affirmative action essay, screen image. This statement is revealing but ingenuous. Ingenuous in powerbuilder that his films do demand that the figure of the woman (Dietrich, in the cycle of films with her, as the ultimate example) should be identifiable. But revealing in that it emphasises the fact that for him the pictorial space enclosed by mba application, the frame is paramount rather than narrative or identification processes. While Hitchcock goes into the investigative side of voyeurism, Sternberg produces the ultimate fetish, taking it to the point where the powerful look of the male protagonist (characteristic of resume, traditional narrative film) is broken in favour of the image in direct erotic rapport with the spectator.
The beauty of the actions are stronger essay, woman as object and resume the screen space coalesce; she is no longer the bearer of guilt but a perfect product, whose body, stylised and fragmented by close-ups, is the ltd case, content of the film and the direct recipient of the spectator's look Sternberg plays down the illusion of screen depth, his screen tends to be one-dimensional, as light and powerbuilder shade, lace, steam, foliage, net, streamers, etc. reduce the visual field. There is little or no mediation of the hih insurance ltd case, look through the powerbuilder, eyes of the main male protagonist. On the contrary, shadowy presences like La Bessiere in Morocco act as surrogates for the director, detached as they are from mba application, audience identification. Despite Sternberg's insistence that his stories are irrelevant, it is significant that they are concerned with situation, not suspense, and cyclical rather than linear time, while plot complications revolve around misunderstanding rather than conflict. The most important absence is that of the controlling male gaze within the screen scene. Resume Powerbuilder. The high point of emotional drama in the most typical Dietrich films, her supreme moments of erotic meaning, take place in the absence of the man she loves in the fiction. There are other witnesses, other spectators watching her on the screen, their gaze is one with, not standing in for, that of the empiricism text, audience. At the end of resume, Morocco , Tom Brown has already disappeared into the desert when Amy Jolly kicks off her gold sandals and walks after him. At the end of Dishonoured , Kranau is indifferent to the fate of Magda. In both cases, the erotic impact, sanctified by essay, death, is displayed as a spectacle for resume powerbuilder, the audience. The male hero misunderstands and, above all, does not see.
In Hitchcock, by contrast, the male hero does see precisely what the audience sees. However, in the films I shall discuss here, he takes fascination with an image through scopophiic eroticism as the subject of the film. Moreover, in these cases the hero portrays the contradictions and tensions experienced by the spectator. In Vertigo in particular, but also in Marnie and Rear Window , the look is central to the plot, oscillating between voyeurism and fetishistic fascination. As a twist, a further manipulation of the normal viewing process which in some sense reveals it, Hitchcock uses the process of admissions essay, identification normally associated with ideological correctness and the recognition of resume powerbuilder, established morality and resume online swiss shows up its perverted side. Hitchcock has never concealed his interest in voyeurism, cinematic and non-cinematic. His heroes are exemplary of the symbolic order and the law - a policeman (Vertigo) a dominant male possessing money and power (Marnie) - but their erotic drives lead them into compromised situations. The power to subject another person to the will sadistically or to the gaze voyeuristically is turned on to the woman as the resume, object of ltd case study, both. Resume Powerbuilder. Power is backed by a certainty of legal right and the established guilt of the woman (evoking castration, psychoanalytically speaking).
True perversion is essay mba application, barely concealed under a shallow mask of ideology correctness - the man is on the right side of the law, the woman on the wrong. Hitchcock's skilful use of identification processes and liberal use of subjective camera from the point of view of the male protagonist draw the spectators deeply into his position, making them share his uneasy gaze. The audience is absorbed into a voyeuristic situation within the screen scene and diegesis which parodies his own in the cinema. In his analysis of resume powerbuilder, Rear Window , Douchet takes the film as a metaphor for the cinema. Order Online Swiss Chalet. Jeffries is the audience, the events in resume powerbuilder the apartment block opposite correspond to unlv admissions the screen. As he watches, an erotic dimension is added to his look, a central image to the drama. Powerbuilder. His girlfriend Lisa had been of little sexual interest to him, more or less a drag, so long as she remained on the spectator side.
When she crosses the barrier between his room and admissions essay the block opposite, their relationship is re-born erotically. Resume Powerbuilder. He does not merely watch her through his lens, as a distant meaningful image, he also sees her as a guilty intruder exposed by a dangerous man threatening her with punishment, and thus finally save her. Lisa's exhibitionism has already been established by her obsessive interest in dress and style, in being a passive image of visual perfection; Jeffries voyeurism and activity have also been established through his work as a photo-journalist, a maker of stories and captor of hih insurance ltd case, images. However, his enforced inactivity, binding him to his seat as a spectator, puts him squarely in the phantasy position of the cinema audience. In Vertigo , subjective camera predominates. Apart from one flash-back from Judy's point of view, the narrative is woven around what Scottie sees or fails to see. The audience follows the growth of his erotic obsession and subsequent despair precisely from his point of resume powerbuilder, view. Scottie's voyeurism is blatant: he falls in love with a woman he follows and spies on without speaking to. Its sadistic side is equally blatant: he has chosen (and freely chosen, for he had been a successful lawyer) to be a policeman, with all the attendant possibilities of pursuit and investigation.
As a result, he follows, witches and falls in love with a perfect image of female beauty and mystery. Once he actually confronts her, his erotic drive is to break her down and force her to admissions tell by persistent cross-questioning. Then, in the second part of the film, he re-enacts his obsessive involvement with the image he, loved to watch secretly. He reconstructs Judy as Madeleine, forces her to conform in every detail to the actual physical appearance of resume, his fetish. Her exhibitionism, her masochism, make her an ideal passive counterpart to are stronger words essay Scottie's active sadistic voyeurism. She knows her part is to perform, and only by playing it through and then replaying it can she keep Scottie's erotic interest.
But in the repetition he does break her down and succeeds in exposing her guilt. His curiosity wins through and resume she is punished. In Vertigo , erotic involvement with the look is disorientating: the spectator's fascination is turned against affirmative, him as the narrative carries him through and entwines him with the processes that he is resume powerbuilder, himself exercising. Resume Swiss. The Hitchcock hero here is firmly placed within the symbolic order, in narrative terms. He has all the attributes of the partriachal super-ego. Hence the spectator, lulled into a false sense of security by the apparent legality of resume, his surrogate, sees through his look and finds himself exposed as complicit, caught in the moral ambiguity of looking. Far from opinion essay, being simply an aside on the perversion of the police, Vertigo focuses on the implications of the active/looking, passive/looked-at split in terms of powerbuilder, sexual difference and the power of the hih insurance ltd case study, male symbolic encapsulated in the hero. Marnie, too, performs for Mark Rutland's gaze and masquerades as the perfect to-be-looked-at image. Resume Powerbuilder. He, too, is on the side of the law until, drawn in by obsession with her guilt, her secret, he longs to see her in the act of committing a crime, make her confess and thus save her.
So he, too, becomes complicit as he acts out the implications of his power. He controls money and empiricism words, he can have his cake and eat it. The psychoanalytic background that has been discussed in this article is resume, relevant to the pleasure and unlv unpleasure offered by traditional narrative film. The scopophilic instinct (pleasure in looking at another person as an erotic object), and, in contradistinction, ego libido (forming identification processes) act as formations, mechanisms, which this cinema has played on. The image of woman as (passive) raw material for the (active) gaze of powerbuilder, man takes the argument a step further into the structure of representation, adding a further layer demanded by the ideology of the patriarchal order as it is worked out in its favourite cinematic form - illusionistic narrative film. The argument returns again to order online chalet the psychoanalytic background in that woman as representation signifies castration, inducing voyeuristic or fetishistic mechanisms to resume circumvent her threat. None of these interacting layers is essay, intrinsic to film, but it is only in the film form that they can reach a perfect and beautiful contradiction, thanks to the possibility in the cinema of shifting the emhpasis of the look.
It is the place of the look that defines cinema, the possibility of varying it and exposing it. This is what makes cinema quite different in its voyeuristic potential from, say, striptease, theatre, shows, etc. Powerbuilder. Going far beyond highlighting a woman's to-be-looked-at-ness, cinema builds the way she is to be looked at into, the spectacle itself. Playing on the tension between film as controlling the dimension of time (editing, narrative) and film as controlling the dimension of space (changes in distance, editing), cinematic codes create a gaze, a world, and opinion an object, thereby producing an illusion cut to the measure of desire. It is these cinematic codes and their relationship to formative external structures that must be broken down before mainstream film and the pleasure it provides can be challenged. To begin with (as an ending), the voyeuristic-scopophilic look that is powerbuilder, a crucial part of traditional filmic pleasure can itself be broken down. There are three different looks associated with cinema: that of the camera as it records the pro-filmic event, that of the audience as it watches the final product, and that of the characters at each other within the screen illusion. The conventions of narrative film deny the opinion action, first two and subordinate them to the third, the conscious aim being always to eliminate intrusive camera presence and prevent a distancing awareness in the audience.
Without these two absences (the material existence of the recording process, the critical reacting of the spectator), fictional drama cannot achieve reality, obviousness and truth. Nevertheless, as this article has argued, the structure of looking in narrative fiction film contains a contradiction in powerbuilder its own premises: the female image as a castration threat constantly endangers the unity of the diegesis and bursts through the optional essay mba application, world of illusion as an intrusive, static, one-dimensional fetish. Thus the two looks materially present in time and space are obsessively subordinated to the neurotic needs of the male ego. The camera becomes the mechanism for producing an illusion of Renaissance space, flowing movements compatible with the human eye, an ideology of representation that revolves around the perception of the subject; the camera's look is disavowed in order to create a convincing world in which the spectator's surrogate can perform with verisimilitude. Simultaneously, the look of the audience is denied, an intrinsic force: as soon as fetishistic representation of the female image threatens to break the spell of illusion, and the erotic image on the screen appears directly (without mediation) to the spectator, the fact of fetishisation, concealing as it does castration fear, freezes the look, fixates the spectator and resume powerbuilder prevents him from achieving, any distance from the image in front of optional essay mba application, him. This complex interaction of looks is specific to film. The first blow against the monolithic accumulation of traditional film conventions (already undertaken by radical film-makers) is to free the look of the camera into its materiality in time and space and the look of the audience into dialectics, passionate detachment. There is no doubt that this destroys the satisfaction, pleasure and powerbuilder privilege of the 'invisible guest', and highlights how film has depended on swiss chalet voyeuristic active/passive mechanisms.
Women, whose image has continually been stolen and used for this end, cannot view the decline of the traditional film form with anything much more than sentimental regret. 1. There are films with a woman as main protagonist, of course. To analyse this phenomenon seriously here would take me too far afield. Pam Cook and Claire Johnston's study of The Revolt of Mamie Stover in resume powerbuilder Phil Hardy, ed: Raoul Walsh, Edinburgh 1974, shows in a striking case how the strength of this female protagonist is more apparent than real. 2. This article is a reworked version of a paper given in ltd case the French Department of the resume powerbuilder, University of Wisconsin, Madison, in the Spring of essays in radical empiricism text, 1973.
This essay was first published in Screen, vol. Resume Powerbuilder. 16, (Autumn 1975), pp 6-18.
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Analysis of Poems #8216;Eurydice#8217; and #8216;Mrs. Midas#8217; by Carol-Ann Duffy. A woman’s voice, her opinion and her viewpoint have all been heavily disregarded in the past centuries, with a woman being seen as an resume powerbuilder, accessory to a man rather than an individual with the capability to think for herself. However, Carol Ann Duffy’s anthology ‘The World’s Wife’ seeks to correct the gender inequalities, with the poems Eurydice and Mrs. Midas portraying strong minded and authoritative females that retell the Greek mythological stories from a women’s point of view.
In both poems Eurydice and Mrs. We will write a custom essay sample. on Analysis of Poems #8216;Eurydice#8217; and #8216;Mrs. Midas#8217; by Carol-Ann Duffy or any similar. topic specifically for you. Midas we are introduced to two women who in mythology have been overshadowed by their more famous husbands or left out of the opinion affirmative essay story completely. Through Duffy’s extensive use of resume powerbuilder language features such as humour and metaphors in the poem Mrs. Resume. Midas, we are able to understand the powerbuilder previously unheard point of view of Mr. Midas as she comprehends the breaking down of her marriage to the mythological King Midas and deals with the selfishness of her Husband’s wish for the ‘golden touch’. Through the use of allusions, capitalization and humour in the poem Eurydice we can see Duffy’s intent to transform the original Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice to resume online swiss chalet, give a rather unspoken and resume innocent Eurydice a new devious persona. Duffy seeks to optional, make the reader consider another viewpoint in a rather one dimensional society by allowing Eurydice to voice her opinion of not wanting to return to Orpheus despite him trying to rescue her “with his lyre and a poem to pitch with me as the prize”. In Mrs. Midas, Carol Ann Duffy introduces the character Mrs Midas as your typical housewife as “I’d just poured myself a glass of resume wine, begun to unwind, while the vegetables cooked. ” The first use of assonance, in the long ‘I’ vowel sound creates a sense of calm before the big storm, before King Midas’ golden touch destroys their marriage.
The setting for the first stanza of the poem is set with the aid of imagery which is used to create an optimistic and happy relationship between Mrs. Midas and hersurroundings with a carefree attitude. However when Mrs. Page 2 Analysis of Poems #8216;Eurydice#8217; and #8216;Mrs. Midas#8217; by unlv essay, Carol-Ann Duffy Essay. Midas spots her husband when “he was under the pear-tree snapping a twig” the tone of the poem changes as the line introduces some violence, and foreshadows the breaking of Mrs. Midas’ marriage to her husband, King Midas.
In Eurydice, Duffyalso uses language to foreshadow the apex of the poem, where Eurydice refuses to powerbuilder, follow Orpheus back from the underworld. “Girls, forget what you’ve read. It happened like this,” is the turning point where the reader realises the first half of the poem is not how the series of events occurred, but rather the following stanzas is how the unlv admissions essay story really went from Eurydice’s point of view. The direct address of “girls” grabs the powerbuilder attention of the reader to show a sudden transformation of the original myth being told, which implies that the outcome from the original tale has been disregarded, helping to foreshadow what Eurydice’s real actions were; “I stretched out my hand to touch him once on the back of the optional essay neck#8230; He was smiling modestly, when he turned, when he turned and looked at me,” these events allowing Eurydice to resume, stay in in radical empiricism the underworld where she wanted to stay. Duffy uses language to design Mrs. Midas’ character as a pretentious housewife trying to powerbuilder, be in essays in radical empiricism text a higher social class than she is. Through subtle sentences like “We’d a caravan in the wilds, in a glade of its own” where she brags that her caravan has its own glade, gives Mrs. Midas a pretentious attitude. Additionally Duffy uses assonance in “He asked where was the wine…a fragrant bone dry white wine from Italy…” with a long ‘I’ sound slowing the resume powerbuilder pace and creating a genteel sound that mimics the middle class accent.
However Duffy uses the language feature of diction to change the nature of the poem. From smooth, rolling words of imagery – “…as he picked up the glass, goblet, golden chalice, drank. ” to hih insurance study, direct, short, monosyllabic sentences -“He came into the house. The doorknobs gleamed. ” The change of tone and following short sentences are used to show how through the surfacing anxiety of powerbuilder Mrs. Midas, she is opinion affirmative essay able to carefully explain her every action with comments such as “I locked the resume powerbuilder cat in the cellar. Affirmative Action. I moved the phone.
The toilet I didn’t mind. ” The use of humour not only breaks down the barrier between the reader and herself, but also releases her previous pretentious attitudes. Resume. Yet looking through this use of humour, we can see how Mrs. Midas is still taking control of order resume online swiss her situation which effectively place her in a more dominant and authoritative role in the relationship between herself and King Midas. In both Mrs. Midas and resume powerbuilder Eurydice, Duffy uses allusions to compare different things. For example, in Eurydice by alluding to characters familiar to the reader such as “Him. Big O,” famous singer Roy Orbison, the reader can understand what Orpheus was truly like in Eurydice’s opinion. A familiar knock-knock-knock at admissions essay, death’s door,” another allusion, to Bob Dylan’s “knocking on Heaven’s door,” symbolises that Eurydice’s death, leaving her in powerbuilder the underworld and free from Orpheus is her idea of heaven. Admissions. Both of these allusions allowing the reader to resume powerbuilder, make comparisons and links between the characters and familiar people and songs.
Duffy also alludes to gold several times in the poem Mrs. Midas. With sentences such as “And who, when it comes to the crunch, can live with a heart of gold? ”
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essay image virtue Native Americans and the Land. Wilderness and American Identity. The Use of the resume powerbuilder, Land. Native Americans and text, the Land Essays. American Indians: The Image of the Indian.
Nature Transformed is made possible by grants from the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. American Indians: The Image of the Indian. Department of History. University of Victoria, British Columbia. National Humanities Center. An early twentieth-century elementary school textbook quizzed pupils on their grasp of the lesson devoted to American Indians. It was a time of unblushing certainty about the superiority of civilization to “savagery.” “In what three ways were the resume, Indians different from the white men,” the school text asked, and “What did the white people think of the Indians?” Judging from related questions, the correct answer was that the Indians were strange : What was one of the strangest things that the Indians did? What strange things did the Indians believe about spirits?
What strange things did the Indians do to drive the admissions essay, evil spirits away? Today it is difficult even to talk about the powerbuilder, racial stereotypes once so confidently assumed. Stereotyping as a subject for study may be historical, but the are stronger words essay, emotions it arouses are eminently present day. Whether we use terms like image, stereotype or construct, we are talking about the same thing: ideas about a particular group that serve to powerbuilder characterize all the individuals within that group. Certain ideas entrench themselves as fundamental, and the rule of thumb is optional essay mba application, that such ideas are invariably self-servingthey promote the resume powerbuilder, interests of the essays in radical empiricism, group that holds them, and resume powerbuilder, they form the reality upon which that group acts. It is a given today that the empiricism, idea of the American Indian has been historically significant.
It shaped the attitudes of those in resume powerbuilder, the nineteenth century who shaped Indian policy. Indian policybe it removal of the Eastern tribes in the 1830s, reservation isolationism beginning in the 1850s, or allotment of words reservation lands and assimilation in the 1880scannot be understood without an awareness of the ideas behind it. Literature and the visual arts provide revealing guides to nineteenth-century assumptions about the Indian. Traditionally, Indians were divided into two “types”: noble and ignoble savages. The Indian woman was either a princess or a drudge, the Indian man an admirable brave or a fiendish warrior. These venerable images, dating back to the earliest European contact with American natives, found their most influential literary expression in James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel Last of the powerbuilder, Mohicans . Cooper personified good and bad by tribe and individualthe noble Delawares Uncas and his father Chingachgook, the evil Hurons Magua and his “bloody-minded hellhounds.” Lasting influence? Students might be encouraged to watch the 1992 Daniel Day-Lewis movie Last of the essay, Mohicans a very free adaptation of Cooper’s novel. Powerbuilder? Better yet, have them watch Dances with Wolves . It won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1990, and was a crowd favorite. Besides a sympathetic white hero in line with Cooper’s own Natty Bumppo, it starkly contrasts “good” Indians (the ever-so-noble Lakotas) and text, “bad” Indians (the villainous Pawnees, with their roach-cuts and face paint making them look like English “punks” on a rampage).
The stark contrast between the resume powerbuilder, noble and ignoble savage obscures their common denominator: savagery . In Radical Text? Savagery referred to powerbuilder a state of order online chalet social development below civilization and, in some calculations, below an intermediate step, barbarism. Since savagery was inferior to resume civilization, the reasoning went; a savage was naturally inferior to a civilized person. Unlv Essay? The noble savage might be admired for certain rude virtues, and the ignoble savage deplored as brutal and bloody-minded, but the fate of each was identical. In time, both would vanish from the resume powerbuilder, face of the earth as civilization, in in radical empiricism text, accordance with the universal law of progress, displaced savagery. Resume Powerbuilder? The ending of Dances with Wolves echoes this sentiment as an admirable culture, unaware of inexorable fate, is about to actions are stronger be swept away by a more progressive but less admirable one. Swept away.
Such was the resume, theory of the Vanishing American. It held out no long-term hope for Indians, noble or ignoble, unless they could be civilized . Sadly, many Americans in the first half of the nineteenth-century concluded, they could not. For there was another law at work when civilization met savagery, the law of admissions vices and virtues. In confronting white civilization, the reasoning went, Indians lost their savage virtuesindependence, hospitality, couragewhile retaining only resume, their savage vices; worse yet, they added civilization’s vices to the mixture, ignoring civilization’s virtues. This lethal combination of savage vices and in radical, civilized vices ensured the Indians’ extinction. The artist George Catlin (17961872), who based his entire body of workincluding over 500 paintings done in the 1830s and several books recounting his travelson the theory of the Vanishing American, provided a vivid description of the process at work: In traversing the resume, immense regions of the ltd case study, Classic West , the mind of resume a Philanthropist is opinion affirmative, filled to the brim with feelings of admiration; but to reach this country, one is obliged to descend from the light and glow of civilized atmosphere, through the different grades of civilization, which gradually sink to the most deplorable vice and darkness along our frontier; thence through the most pitiable misery and wretchedness of savage degradation, where the genius of natural liberty and independence have been blasted and resume, destroyed by the contaminating vices and admissions essay, dissipations of civilized society. Through this dark and sunken vale of wretchedness one hurries as through a pestilence, until he gradually rises again into the proud and heroic elegance of savage society, in a state of pure and powerbuilder, original nature, beyond the opinion essay, reach of civilized contamination Even here, the predominant passions of the savage breast, of resume treachery and essays text, cruelty, are often found, yet restrained and frequently subdued by the noblest traits of honor and magnanimity,a race of men who live and enjoy life and its luxuries, and powerbuilder, practice its virtues, very far beyond the usual estimations of the world From the order resume chalet, first settlements of our Atlantic coast to powerbuilder the present day, the unlv, bane of this blasting frontier has regularly crowded upon them, from the northern to the southern extremities of our country, and, like the fire in a mountain, which destroys every thing where it passes, it has blasted and sunk them, and all but their names, into oblivion, wherever it has traveled. Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) going to. and returning from Washington.
Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Institute Alcohol symbolized the fatal exchange: it turned once noble savages into “the poor, degraded, and humbled specimens which alone can be seen along our frontiers.” Resistance was futile. Resume? Should the actions are stronger words essay, Indians accept the resume powerbuilder, inevitable and embrace civilization, they would be destroyed by essay its vices; should they resist civilization and go to resume war, they would be destroyed by its avenging sword. Not everyone accepted such a grim prognosis. Missionaries always rejected the notion of a race created for optional essay mba application extinction, and insisted that substituting good example for bad would find the resume powerbuilder, Indians’ gratefully embracing civilization’s virtues and optional essay, spurning its vices. Even Catlin held out hope. “The protecting arm of government,” he insisted, “could easily shield them from vices, and civilize them (if necessary) with virtues.” Nevertheless, the resume powerbuilder, thrust of popular opinion, like his own, cleaved to the notion of a vanishing race. “This wild, but noble and unhappy race, is rapidly becoming extinct,” a New York newspaper editorialized in 1837:
They are rapidly sinking into the stream of oblivion, and soon nothing of them will remain but the memory of their past existence and glory. Where are now the descendants of Powhattan, the father of Pocahontas, or Tamenend and of Pontiac? Alas! They are blotted from the face of the earth, or swallowed up in essays, the remnants of other tribes. Science buttressed popular understanding of the Indian. In the middle of the nineteenth century, polygenesisthe theory of multiple creation of human “types”provided a race-based explanation for permanent differences in racial capacity, thereby reinforcing notions about the incompatibility of powerbuilder savagery and civilization. However, polygenesis clashed with religious orthodoxy, which denied the separate creation of admissions races. All humans shared an innate capacity for improvement; no race was intended for extinction.
Later, evolutionary theorists, in advancing the case for survival of the fittest, gave new credence to the tradition of the Vanishing Indian, since there had to be losers as well as winners in the struggle for survival. JH Colton, New York, 1855. Ruderman Antique Maps Inc. Artists after Catlin also doted on this theme. One popular motif showed the vanguard of civilization scattering Indians and wild animals before its irresistible advance; another placed Indians on a bluff gazing down with melancholy resignation on the thriving civilization below. Progress had made them outcasts in their own land. As for resume the contrasting images of noble and ignoble savage, expansion rendered the former something of an Eastern monopoly, the latter a Western one, while the Vanishing American subsumed both.
from Harper’s New Monthly. Magazine , June 1867. Courtesy of Cornell UniversityThus, ambivalence marked Indian imagery at the end of the essay, nineteenth century. In the long struggle for powerbuilder mastery of the continent, the image of the bloody savage had always qualified any regret occasioned by the passing of the noble savage. After the frontier moment ended, however, Americans could look upon their native peoples with sentimental regret. It was a short step from unlv essay, celebrating the heroic white pioneers who “won the West” to mourning the losers who, once resistance was over, served as poignant symbols of the cost of progress. James Earle Fraser in resume powerbuilder, 1894 translated popular sentiment into a sculpture of lasting appeal.
End of the Trail shows a mounted Plains Indian, head bowed, shoulders slumped, his spear pointing at optional the ground, resigned to resume powerbuilder his fate, which was that of unlv admissions his race. This was the nineteenth century’s legacy to the twentieth, fusing the noble savage with the Vanishing American to create a timeless Indian symbolizing a past already receding into pure nostalgia. Guiding Student Discussion. Racial stereotyping is a minefield, and entering it for purposes of resume classroom discussion requires a carefully thought out actions are stronger words essay, strategy. The truth is resume, that students are often impatient with the past. Essay Mba Application? They cannot see why people “back then” got everything so wrong, and they tend to judge them, rather than attempt the more difficultand, we historians like to think, more rewarding!task of understanding why people were the way they were, and why they thought the resume powerbuilder, way they did. In order to order resume online discuss historical stereotypes, you have to introduce students to them. This runs the risk of coming across as advocacy. Indeed, in raising anything historically unpleasant, you may be held responsible for the resulting unpleasantnessit would not exist had you not mentioned it! Having introduced stereotypes, you are left to deal with them. Outright condemnation is easy, since it conforms to what students already think.
Anything more challenging runs even greater risks. Let me (literally!) illustrate the problem. You want to talk about stereotypes of African Americans and American Indians, so you show your class a cartoon of an African American eating watermelon and a photograph of a cigar store Indian. If your point is simply that these images prove the ignorance of EuroAmericans in the past, then you will have no controversy. If you introduce the same images to probe the underlying values of a society that considered them acceptable, then you invite controversy. Why did EuroAmericans stereotype African Americans as servile and American Indians as stoic freemen? And to what ends? What use did the EuroAmerican majority have for each race? The labor of one, of course, and the land of the other. How would those different uses shape stereotypes? In short, what can stereotypes teach us that would make them valuable in the classroom?
What can they tell us beyond the obvious? Students may remain un-persuaded. When it comes to a sensitive issue like ethnic stereotyping, it’s just easier to powerbuilder dismiss past beliefs as racist. What else is there to say? Why study the optional essay mba application, attitudes of powerbuilder another age if, by our standards today, they were deplorable? The answer is in unlv admissions essay, that qualifier“ by our standards today .” It is essential to resume recognize that people in the past were as confident of the validity of their views as we are of our own. Moral certainty underlay their actions, too. Far from opinion action, being illogical, they were, according to their lights, entirely logical! And that’s a good departure point for discussion. In talking about powerbuilder past values, students should be encouraged to examine their own values.
How are attitudes formed? How do we know what we know? How does experience shape our views? More than thatand hardest of allstudents must be challenged to understand that their most cherished beliefs will one day, too, be part of history. People not yet born will study us and analyze our valuesand they just may find us wanting.
Far from actions are stronger than words essay, making us feel superior, then, history should chasten us. The past has been described as a foreign country. Resume? We must visit it with open minds and all due respect for mba application its customs, eager to learn, not simply to judge. Thus Bryan Le Beau, writing about the Salem witch trials, reminds us “the people of seventeenth-century New England believed in witchcraft not because they were Puritans, but because they were men of resume their time.” And James McPherson, reviewing a book condemning Abraham Lincoln as a racist, observes that Lincoln “shared many of the racist convictions of his time,” but considered slavery “morally wrong” and was able “to transcend his prejudices and to preside over the greatest social revolution in American history, the liberation of four million slaves.” People from the past will never conform to present-day standards; if we would understand them, we must grant them their own worldview in words, order to evaluate their actions and to draw the critical distinctions that are the powerbuilder, heart and soul of history. Other, more narrowly focused issues will also probably emerge in any class discussion of the image of the unlv admissions, Indian.
Students like to resume powerbuilder distinguish “good” from opinion essay, “bad”. Initially, they may consider all stereotypes bad because they conceal something good, the real Indian. Two lines of questioning suggest themselves: First, what was/is the “real” Indian? Do we define an resume Indian racially, by “blood quantum”? Or by an allegiance to traditional culture? Or by federal status (reservation/nonreservation)? How do we define a “real” Indian? Second, are some stereotypes more acceptable than others?
That is, are positive stereotypes better than negative onesthe noble savage more acceptable than the ignoble savage? It’s here that Dances with Wolves can be helpful. Besides engaging students in a discussion about the longevity of old stereotypes, it raises another issue: Aren’t the Lakotas in the film just updated noble savages, representing the socially acceptable values of the 1990s grafted onto the latest version of the Vanishing American? Just because the Lakotas get to essays in radical empiricism text be the good guys in Dances with Wolves , is it okay to stereotype them-or to see them off with tear-dimmed eyes at movie’s end as, faithful to the tradition of the vanishing race, they await the destruction of their way of life? Class discussion of Indian images may also pursue another line of questioning. Granted stereotypes like the noble and powerbuilder, ignoble savage and the Vanishing American, who, in resume online, particular, believed themand how do you show that they believed them? Citing a few heavyweight thinkers proves little, and smacks of elitism. How about ordinary people? What did they thinkand how do we know? Here the popular culture of any given period is relevant.
Today we would look at the electronic media, films, music, etc.; in powerbuilder, studying the nineteenth century, students might examine folk tales and humor, newspapers, popular fiction, Currier Ives prints, advertising cards, sermons, etc. At the very least, the sheer pervasiveness of the major Indian stereotypes in popular culture will be a revelation to most students. Students may then want to know how the optional essay, public’s belief in noble and ignoble savages and the Vanishing American mattered historically. Resume? Given that people held certain views about Indians, So what? How do we prove that those views caused anything in particular to happen in a specific situation? This is the in radical, same challenge that has always faced intellectual historiansestablishing the link between idea and action.
It is powerbuilder, useful to remind students at essay the outset that ideas are as real as any other historical data. Since history itself is a mental exercise, the powerbuilder, historian can hardly deny people in the past a fully active mental life of actions are stronger words essay their own. As a general proposition, what people believe explains what they do. When, for example, Congressmen in the nineteenth century debated Indian affairs and referred to the bloody savage to promote an aggressive policy, or talked about resume a noble race that had been dispossessed to advocate a humanitarian policy, we can see a belief system at hih insurance study work with direct, practical consequences. To sum up, historians do not defend what was done in resume powerbuilder, the name of past beliefs.
They are not apologists or advocates. But historians must labor to understand past beliefs if they would understand what happened in the past. Ideas are often self-fulfilling prophecies: historically, they make happen what they say will happen. Order Online Chalet? And historical stereotypes of the American Indian have done exactly that. Almost fifty years ago, Roy Harvey Pearce, a literary scholar, in his book The Savages of America: A Study of the resume powerbuilder, Indian and in radical empiricism text, the Idea of Civilization (1953; rev. ed., Savagism and resume, Civilization: A Study of the Indian and essay, the American Mind , 1965), stated the assumption still fundamental to any examination of the image of the American Indian. In talking about Indians, he wrote, white Americans “were only talking to themselves about powerbuilder themselves.” Stereotypes, in order online chalet, short, tell us more about the perceiver than the perceived. Every historical study of Indian images since has worked a variation on resume Pearce’s premise, be it “the white man’s Indian” (Robert Berkhofer, The White Man’s Indian: Images of the unlv, American Indian from Columbus to the Present ), “the Vanishing American” (Brian W. Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S.
Indian Policy ), “the invented Indian” (James Clifton, ed., The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies ), “the imaginary Indian” (Daniel Francis, The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture ), or “the constructed Indian” (Elizabeth S. Bird, ed., Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture ). Overviews of Indian stereotyping in the nineteenth century should be supplemented with case studies such as Sherry L. Resume? Smith’s The View from Officers’ Row: Army Perceptions of Western Indians (1990) and Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 18801940 (2000) and John M. Coward’s The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in the Press, 182090 (1999). All go to prove the pervasiveness of essays James Fenimore Cooper’s influence in the nineteenth centuryand since. Many Westerners (and some army officers), for example, fancied themselves realists when it came to Indians, and powerbuilder, routinely denounced Cooper’s Uncas and the whole sentimental tradition of the in radical empiricism, noble savage as a palpable fictioneven as they embraced Magua and the ignoble savage as unvarnished truth! Historians have given particular attention to the “So what?” questionthat is, to correlating attitudes and their practical consequences, often through policy developments. Resume? As can be seen, they have had much to say on the subject of Indian stereotyping. But because of the seminal influence of Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans in optional essay mba application, giving memorable form to the noble savage, bloody savage and the Vanishing American, students of resume American literature continue to lead the way in probing Indian stereotypes.
A readable, accessible book is Louise K. Barnett’s The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism, 17901890 (1975). It, and Richard Slotkin’s seminal work fusing literature and history, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (1973), point the way to recent “cultural studies” offering sometimes imaginative, sometimes tendentious readings of literary texts that advance the “postcolonialist” critique of American culture. For those who want to essay test the waters, a number of titles come to mind: Lucy Maddox’s Removals: Nineteenth-century American Literature the resume, Politics of Indian Affairs (1991), Robert S. Tilton’s Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (1994), Cheryl Walker’s Indian Nation: Native American Literature and actions are stronger than essay, 19th-Century Nationalisms (1997), Susan Scheckel’s The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-century American Culture (1998) and resume, Renee L. Bergland’s The National Uncanny: Indian Ghosts and American Subjects (2000). Martin Barker and Roger Sabin’s The Lasting of the Mohicans: History of an American Myth (1995) documents the growth industry created by hih insurance ltd case one novel over resume the years, while Alan Trachtenberg’s Shades of Hiawatha: Staging Indians, Making Americans, 18801930 (2004) uses the most famous Indian poem ever written, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Hiawatha (1855), as a launching pad for a broad-gauged investigation of essay Indian and immigrant stereotypes in the twentieth century. The image of the Indian in art has been comparatively neglected. Two illustrated essays provide different interpretations. Julie Schimmel’s “Inventing ‘the Indian,’” in William Truettner, ed., The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier (1991), stresses the construction of the resume powerbuilder, “Indian” in nineteenth-century art, while Brian Dippie’s “The Moving Finger Writes: Western Art and the Dynamics of Change,” in Jules Prown, et al., Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (1992), focuses on order visual representations of the fate of the Indian. Two well-illustrated exhibition catalogs examining relevant issues are Jehanne Teilhet-Fisk and Robin F. Nigh, comps., Dimensions of Native America: The Contact Zone (1998), and Sarah E. Boehme, et al., Powerful Images: Portrayals of Native America (1998). Steven Conn’s History’s Shadow: Native Americans and Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century (2004) includes a chapter on “Indians in American Art.”
There has been a growth industry in Edward S. Curtis’s romantic, turn of the twentieth-century photographs of American Indians. Barbara Davis’s Edward S. Curtis: The Life and powerbuilder, Times of a Shadow Catcher (1985) is the most substantial of the many Curtis picture books, and students always enjoy looking at optional his work. However, Curtis’s role in perpetuating the myth of the Vanishing American has also generated criticism. Christopher M. Lyman’s The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of powerbuilder Indians by Edward S. Curtis (1982) fired the opening salvo by affirmative action essay documenting the ways Curtis manipulated his subjects to create images of the timeless Indian. Resume Powerbuilder? Paula Fleming and Judith Luskey’s Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography (1993) is useful for placing Curtis in context, while Mick Gidley’s Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian, Incorporated (1998) analyzes Curtis’s commercial strategies in producing his photographic record of the Western tribes. A critical approach to affirmative action essay the Curtis photographs permits access to the ideas behind them.
Not surprisingly, the resume, noble savage and the Vanishing American lurk just beneath their appealing surfaces. The perpetuation of Indian stereotypes in the twentieth century will naturally arise in any classroom discussion of nineteenth-century stereotypes. Resume Swiss? Students invariably turn to film, television, and music as sources for resume their own ideas, and essay, I have already mentioned the resume powerbuilder, usefulness of a film like Dances with Wolves in stimulating interest. Consequently, the literature on cinema as a source for Indian stereotypes may prove relevant. The most recent studies (with up-to-date bibliographies) are Peter Rollins and John O’Connor’s Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film (1998), Jacquelyn Kilpatrick’s Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film (1999), and Armando José Prats’ Invisible Natives: Myth and mba application, Identity in the American Western (2002). More broadly, twentieth-century popular culture and resume, the Indian figure into the Elizabeth Bird anthology Dressing in Feathers , as well as Rennard Strickland’s Tonto’s Revenge: Reflections on American Indian Culture and chalet, Policy (1997), Ward Churchill’s polemical Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of American Indians (1998), and Philip J. Deloria’s engaging exposé of stereotypes, Indians in Unexpected Places (2004).
But in bringing the subject of Indian stereotypes in resume powerbuilder, literature and art up to the present, it seems to hih insurance me useful to end with something elsethe contemporary American Indian voice. Powerbuilder? Besides the gritty, realistic novels of such esteemed Native writers as N. Scott Momaday, Louise Erdrich, James Welch and Leslie Marmon Silko, I recommend Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and opinion affirmative essay, Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1993), a collection of short stories that keep an powerbuilder eagle eye on some of the absurdities of Indian stereotyping, and that served as the basis for Smoke Signals (1998), another film your students should see. A final recommendation: Thomas King’s Medicine River (1989), a sly, amusing novel thatbeginning with its protagonist, a Native photographersends up many of the admissions, hoary stereotypes of the American Indian. Brian W. Dippie is Professor of History at University of Victoria, British Columbia, and past president of the Western History Association. He is the author of Custer’s Last Stand: The Anatomy of an American Myth (1976), The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Powerbuilder? Indian Policy (1982), Catlin and optional mba application, His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage (1990), and The Frederic Remington Art Museum Collection (2001). He has also contributed to numerous other volumes and resume powerbuilder, edited or co-authored several volumes on the art and artists of the American West.
Address comments or questions to ltd case Professor Dippie through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.” Dippie, Brian W. “American Indians: The Image of the resume, Indian.” Nature Transformed, TeacherServe®. National Humanities Center. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indimage.htm 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.
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