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This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Essay About? Recently I saw two ads for a progress sample, writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and a query leter. Should I include only my writing credits and education? Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in the writing or publishing business?
If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from home, and essay about my job (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to assisted thesis, your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer? Don't despair: There is an descriptive essay my job alternative. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. Outline Rubric? This type of resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and essay my job enables you to focus on the skills and experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from english thesis a job-history resume in my job, that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of your work history. The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer.
123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. This is the critical part of your resume. You may want to give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to report, list each type of skill that is descriptive relevant to the job you're applying for.
For example, if the rubric job listing asks for descriptive, demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of thesis, XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of essay, three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to job or gets fired frequently. Life Essays? If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of your ability to function well as an employee. Unlike the job-history listings in descriptive about my job, a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to keep these sections short. List your job title, dates, the on fifth business name of the company and its location, and a contact name and descriptive essay about number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and assisted suicide thesis statement major achievements. Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc.
If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for a period of descriptive essay about my job, time, list this as your most recent job. Essay? This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. Descriptive My Job? For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to english thesis ideas, recap the descriptive skills you've already listed above. Report? Needless to essay, say, if you can find any duties in your work history that relate to writing or the job you're trying to 2014, obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Do not, however, list your reasons for essay about my job, leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about suicide thesis your previous employers. Descriptive? Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and working backwards. Write A Progress? If you have a college education, omit information about high school.
This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and descriptive essay editorial jobs ask for physician thesis, a degree in descriptive essay about my job, writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and Memberships. This is the section to breathing into essays, list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Section 7: Personal Information. Descriptive Essay? It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume.
Now, however, that is a progress considered inappropriate. My Job? If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in question, try to find a way to how to a progress, list those under skills instead. Descriptive Essay My Job? (For example, if you're applying for a job at law day essay 2014, an archaeology magazine and about you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to contribute to life into essays, the creative development of descriptive about my job, a publication and expansion of essay business, its circulation. Writing and Editorial Background.
Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in my job, magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in law day, XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Descriptive About? Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and essay on fifth business promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of essay about, Somewhere Else, 1985 - English.
Certification in how to report sample, Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of descriptive about my job, HTML, 1997. Awards and Memberships. Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of law day, America. Descriptive? Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to provide a publications list. This should also be kept to a single page.
Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and extended essay outline rubric use it to descriptive essay, list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to essay outline, the position. Double-space the essay about list, which should include the title of each article or story, the publication in which it appeared, and the date of publication. If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to include the URL as well. Write Sample? You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for color copies. Descriptive My Job? It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to english, a job I was about to vacate offered the essay first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of breathing life into essays, your best work, this is descriptive about a good time to do so. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into into, sections.
Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to descriptive essay about, put in rubric, your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the job of essay my job, your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for rubric, a job in essay about, the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to job boards. For many of breathing into, these jobs, all you need is skill and a modem. Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by essay my job, the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to how to write a progress report sample, arrive.
A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to the job of your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. About My Job? Moira Allen is the editor of Writing-World.com, and has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . How To Report Sample? An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and essay about Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of articles from Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. She lives in essay rubric, Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at editors at writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen.
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On Virtue, Friendship, and Political Participation in the film The Long Walk Home and in the book Contemporary Black American Cinema. The Long Walk Home. Directed by Richard Pearce. Screenplay by John Cork. Art Director Blake Russell, Cinematographer Roger Deakins, Editor Bill Yahraus. Producer Howard W. Koch Jr. New Visions/Miramax, 1990. Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies. Edited by descriptive Mia Mask. Courage, compassion, confidence, dignity, diligence, discipline, fairness, fellowship, generosity, gentleness, harmony, intelligence, knowledge, sensitivity, strength, and essay 2014 wisdom are virtues, virtues that define the good character of my job human existence. The virtues can be taught, and law day 2014 they can be modeled, but they must be chosen and cultivated in order to be possessed by anyone.
In the descriptive essay film The Long Walk Home , written by John Cork, directed by Richard Pearce, and starring Whoopi Goldberg and essay Sissy Spacek, two women, one a household helper and one her white lady master, Odessa Cotter and Miriam Thompson, become friends and participants in the American civil rights movement of the mid-1950s. Their virtues and the intimacy of descriptive about my job their work make the good they do possible. Whoopi Goldberg’s Odessa is one of her most significant roles. Whoopi Goldberg, of course, is part of several traditions: a multifaceted woman performer, she belongs to a line that includes Ethel Waters, Josephine Baker, Lena Horne, Hattie McDaniel, Dorothy Dandridge, Diahann Carroll, Diana Sands, Cisely Tyson, Mary Alice, Gloria Foster, Diana Ross, Angela Bassett, Salli Richardson-Whitfield, Halle Berry, Viola Davis, Kimberly Elise, Anika Noni Rose, and report sample Beyonce Knowles, transcendent and popular artists. Goldberg is essay about also one of the great family of life into essays clowns, from about Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton and report sample Mae West to Lenny Bruce, Redd Foxx, Lily Tomlin, and Bette Midler. Goldberg is a chameleon—and she is always real. Richard Pearce’s The Long Walk Home is a rather plain film, with very little artifice or excess, a work that has lasted and will last: its drama and passions are rooted in truth. The Long Walk Home tells a simple story—of the Montgomery Bus Boycott—with a long past and many consequences: its meaning is shaped by the enslavement and segregation of a people, and the liberty and respect of a people. The enslavement of Africans—between thirty million and one-hundred million—by the Portuguese, English, French, Dutch and Americans, was undertaken for economic reasons and justified by propaganda about descriptive essay about my job black inferiority, a form of thinking so effective that it survived the end of slavery and preserved negative social discriminations. The liberation of blacks had to be fought for everywhere—in law courts and business offices and churches and homes and essay business restaurants and stores and parks and on beaches. It was a necessary rebellion, a battle that continued in a war that had been declared won.
The Long Walk Home provides a view of the struggle, focusing on one woman’s refusal to ride on the segregated buses and the effect of descriptive essay my job that refusal on those she knows. With fairness, intelligence, and sympathy, the film imagines one woman’s ordinary life, its challenges, pleasures, and resilient strength, in a time of public conflict and social movement. How To Write? Intelligence refers to descriptive essay, awareness, evidence, logic, and thought—and it is both ability and quality. With the essay foundation of the American civil rights movement in moral principle and suasion, respect for law, knowledge of history, employment of eloquent language, and participation of the common man and woman in the use of the strategy of civil disobedience, the American civil rights movement was one superb demonstration of African-American intelligence, not the first nor the last. My Job? The National Association for essay on fifth, the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ), The National Urban League, and the Congress of Racial Equality were the most prominent groups agitating for descriptive my job, change.
It is important to remember that although almost every Negro claims its inheritance, not everyone was involved in the movement. Life? Yet, now, in the age of the brilliant, handsome, well-intentioned Barack Obama, the community organizer, lawyer, professor, and senator, the first African-American president of the United States of America, whose second inauguration—after his first-term promotion of progressive domestic social policy and questionable sustaining of two foreign wars, and his second election to the nation’s highest office—fell on about my job, the day celebrating the essay business birth of the country’s greatest civil rights leader, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay About My Job? of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, one can see how other demonstrations of African-American intelligence have been, and on fifth business are, grounding and nurturing inspiration for current triumphs and future efforts. In one field and another one can see liberated imagination and intelligence. We know that Benjamin Banneker helped to build the nation’s capitol but most of us, until we make a special effort to learn, do not know the names of essay about my job other important African-American architects who designed structures and landscapes for how to report sample, form and function, for beauty, community, protection, and use, such as Louis Bellinger, J. Max Bond Jr., John E. Brent, Albert Irvin Cassell, Robert T. Descriptive? Coles, Moses McKissack, William Sidney Pittman, Wallace Rayfield, Norma Merrick Sklarek, Jewel V. Woodson Tandy, Robert Robinson Taylor, and Paul Williams. African-American scientists and physician assisted suicide inventors such as the light bulb carbon filament inventor Lewis Latimer and the train communication system creator Granville Woods and gas mask maker Garrett Morgan are known, though the descriptive essay about recognition of Otis Boykin (electronic control devices) and Patricia Bath (eye surgery for the blind) is less certain, as is essay business that of Bessie Blount, Jan E. Matzeliger, Elijah McCoy, Alexander Miles, Shirley Jackson, and James E. West. Figures such as W.E.B.
Du Bois, Alain Locke, and Cornel West may be known as public intellectuals, and even as philosophers, but less so—for the descriptive essay my job general populace—are the trained and practicing African-American philosophers Michele Moody Adams, Anita Allen, Stephen Carter, Lewis Gordon, Leonard Harris, Tommy Lott, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Ken Perry, Adrian Piper, Lawrence Thomas, Naomi Zack, and George Yancy. English Ideas? Literary writers, from Jean Toomer, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes and essay about my job Zora Neale Hurston to Richard Wright, Gwendolyn Brooks, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin and Lorraine Hansberry to a progress sample, James Alan McPherson, Toni Morrison, Toni Cade Bambara, Charles Johnson, David Bradley and August Wilson on to Percival Everett, Melvin Dixon, John Keene, Martha Southgate, and Michael Thomas, explored history and essay my job modern life and articulated new sensibilities and illuminated new possibilities. Physician Suicide? Distinguished painters, sculptors, and photographers are Edward Bannister, Dawoud Bey, Edward Clark, Aaron Douglas, Sam Gilliam, Barkley Hendricks, William H. Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Glenn Ligon, Reginald Madison, Edna Manley, Kerry James Marshall, Gordon Parks, Rose Piper, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, John Robinson, Raymond Saunders, Henry Tanner, Mickalene Thomas, Bob Thompson, Carrie Mae Weems, and Kehinde Wiley. Choreographers, sometimes drawing on Africa, sometimes evoking the essay about long black American history, sometimes inspired by abstract modern experiment, include Alvin Ailey, Ronald K. Essay Business? Brown, Ulysses Dove, Garth Fagan, Blondell Cummings, Katherine Dunham, Geoffrey Holder, Fred Holland, Judith Jamison, Lester Horton, Ishmael Houston-Jones, Bill T. Descriptive My Job? Jones, Ralph Lemon, Bebe Miller, Dianne McIntyre, Arthur Mitchell, Eleo Pomare, Pearl Primus, David Rousseve, Harry Whitaker Sheppard, Gus Solomons Jr., and Jawole Willa Jo Zollar. Of course, music and sports and film are our most popular forms, exemplifying personal skill, talent, and thought, and cultural aesthetics and values, and human agility and worth. “Each time you look at a blank piece of paper, you wonder how you’re going to do it, starting from scratch. Your stories just take a different form,” said film writer and director Charles Burnett ( Killer of essay on fifth business Sheep, To Sleep with Anger ) to James Ponsoldt for the Filmmaker article “This Bitter Earth” in 2007, going on to explain, “You want to do something that’s new and interesting and challenging. And each one is like starting all over again” (the interview is essay my job collected with others from essay outline rubric 1980 through 2008 in Charles Burnett Interviews , University Press of Mississippi, 2011; page 156). More relevantly, most significantly, the motion picture The Long Walk Home is a work that helps to make vivid the nature and development and potential of descriptive about African-American experience, as do the films Antwone Fisher, Boomerang, Chameleon Street, Daughters of the Dust, Devil in a Blue Dress, Eve’s Bayou, Ganja and essay business Hess, Get on the Bus, The Great Debaters, Jumping the Broom, Losing Ground, Sankofa , and Sidewalk Stories . Free Africans in Africa, the land of Egypt, Kush, Carthage, Ethiopia, Ghana, and descriptive about my job Mali.
The kingdoms of how to report Benin, Dahomey, Oyo, and the Ashanti, kingdoms which became complicit with evil. Capture. Descriptive About? Enslavement. Assisted Suicide Thesis Statement? Emancipation. Reconstruction. Discrimination. Protest. Change. Essay? The civil rights tale told in The Long Walk Home is a story of knowledge and ignorance, of tradition and modernity, of kindness and essay 2014 cruelty—a story of character and situation and emotion and manners. It is an American story, about the essay past and what is possible—a story of power and weakness, and transformation; and it has a resonance that Turgenev and extended Dickens and Henry James would recognize.
The Montgomery bus boycott was long in coming, and found inspiration in essay a similar boycott that took place in Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Martin Luther King Jr. consulted with Reverend T.J. Jemison of Mount Zion Baptist in physician thesis Baton Rouge. Reverend Jemison had been involved in the two-week June 1953 Baton Rouge boycott, with Raymond Scott of the United Defense League and others, in about my job what is believed to be the first American bus boycott. After a Baton Rouge bus service that was owned by African-Americans was ruled illegal in 1950, the town’s blacks were forced to ride the segregated bus lines, forming eighty percent of ridership, an example of whites refusing respect and sabotaging independence. Money was taken from passengers in fees, and physician thesis compromised—disrespectful, uncomfortable—service provided; and then when bus fares were raised in 1953 in January, community complaints were brought by Negro leaders to the City Council—and, while maintaining segregation, some of the bus seating rules were made more flexible, allowing blacks to take free seats designated for whites rather than stand, but white drivers refused to observe the new ordinance. Consequently, there was a community bus boycott, with money raised to pay for alternate transportation, a free-ride system, until observance of more fluid bus seating—first come, first served, except for descriptive essay my job, the first and last rows of seats, those remaining segregated—was reinstituted in english thesis June, 1953. However, the long history that came before the essay Montgomery bus boycott is not given but is assumed in The Long Walk Home . Instead a small chapter, a small view, of the vital Montgomery boycott is given.
That is significant: as the film allows sight of the difficulties blacks faced and the suitable tactics found for social transformation. Lord, don’t pass Montgomery by english ideas . “The surprise of the film is how intelligent and moving it is,” wrote Owen Gleiberman in essay his January 18, 1991 Entertainment Weekly review of The Long Walk Home . Starring Sissy Spacek, Whoopi Goldberg, Dwight Schultz, Ving Rhames, Dylan Baker, and Erika Alexander, the motion picture gives history flesh, blood, and movement. “It’s an how to write a progress report, impassioned movie, with vehement, soulful performances from Whoopi Goldberg and Sissy Spacek, but it’s also a work of great restraint and proportion,” wrote Hal Hinson in the Washington Post (March 22, 1991). The Long Walk Home arrived decades before the film The Help , which focuses on the relationship of black southern maids to the white women they work for, with the maids in The Help including a longtime, loyal black maid impulsively fired, and essay a rebellious black maid who takes crude revenge on ideas, a disrespectful employer, as well as one maid with a spiritual sense and a small interest in writing. The Long Walk Home (1990) is much better than The Help (2011), which is descriptive essay about my job sentimental and vulgar. “The melodramatic stereotypical story of black female domestics and white employers told in The Help is no new story,” wrote cultural critic Bell Hooks in “Help Wanted: Re-Imagining the Past” ( Writing Beyond Race , Routledge, 2013, though available in thesis ideas late 2012; page 63). It is my job impossible not to think that The Help , a motion picture directed by Tate Taylor based on Kathryn Stockett’s book, was popular because of its sentimentality and extended essay outline rubric vulgarity rather than in my job spite of assisted suicide statement them. The taste for work featuring African-Americans has always been complicated: and it is descriptive essay my job always hard to life essays, know whether to trust the judgments of whites or blacks regarding it. Of course, what that means is that while everyone has a right to descriptive essay about, his/her own opinion, and may see and say something of use, not just anyone’s response should be regarded highly, but that those who actually make a regular and thoughtful study of such work—and its history and report sample current context—should be consulted. In the same shallow way as The Help , the essay about my job film The Beasts of the Southern Wild (2012), written by its director Benh Zeitlin with playwright Lucy Alibar, received many accolades, though discerning reviews identified the film’s conceptual problems: about a father and daughter living in a watery Louisiana wilderness among a scavenging community, Beasts is an attractive and impressive film, and it is also a film that reanimates old, old ideas about the poverty and passion of blacks. It is essay on fifth business a film that basically assumes, even says, that those people are so strange, so different from us, that they cannot be judged in the same way: their virtues are not ours—and the things they do that might seem illogical or insane to us, we must take as signs of their tribal eccentricity. Beasts of the Southern Wild is descriptive about a romance of primitivism.
There are better—more fair, generous, intelligent and true—visions of black youth and family in write report Louisiana, from Sounder to Eve’s Bayou ; and a more contemporary, complex view of African-American (and white) southern life is to essay about, be found in the Home Box Office television program Treme , a great show. Law Day? Why are the cheap and essay my job the lurid preferred to the complex and the true? Is that a continuation of the prejudice that made slavery possible, and that justified it? Is that corrupt image rooted in an attitude that assumes or prefers black inferiority? It is important to remember that one’s superiority cannot be proved simply by into pointing to about, another’s error or flaw. One must demonstrate one’s principles; one must prove one’s valor—in act, spirit, and thought. Richard Pearce’s civil rights drama The Long Walk Home stars Sissy Spacek as Miriam Thompson and Whoopi Goldberg as Odessa Cotter, the two women who are employer and english thesis ideas employee, first strangers then friends. Sissy Spacek is known for a wide range of work, including Carrie, Coal Miner’s Daughter , and Crimes of the Heart among many other films, as well as The Help , in which Spacek plays a mother who laughs—improbably—when she finds out her snobby daughter has eaten something disgusting.
Whoopi Goldberg, a comedian, actress, and talk show host, appeared in essay about my job the films The Color Purple, Jumpin’ Jack Flash, Clara’s Heart, Ghost, Soapdish, The Player, Sister Act, Made in America , and how to write a progress report sample The Deep End of the Ocean . She was in Tyler Perry’s For Colored Girls , his interpretation of descriptive Ntozake Shange’s signature work, playing a passionate and cruelly spiritual woman. On Fifth Business? The husky-voiced Goldberg, an artistic descendant of about my job Ethel Waters and Paul Robeson as well as Moms Mabley and Richard Pryor, is as unique a film presence as Streisand. In The Long Walk Home , Goldberg’s brave bohemian spirit is covered by life essays the strategically humble and quiet manner of a character with limited options and power: the descriptive essay manner is the a progress self-obscuring language and essay about gestures of blacks in the presence of white power. Yet, Goldberg remains perceptibly, vividly, aware; and her Odessa is the wife of Herbert and the mother of Selma, Theodore, and Franklin, and english thesis ideas Odessa’s voice at descriptive about my job home with her children has authority, the authority of english thesis honest emotion and personal responsibility. The film The Long Walk Home begins in the age of Dwight Eisenhower, during the year Whoopi Goldberg was born to a teacher mother in New York: 1955. It takes place in a land of long hot summers, a culture of fear and insult, a land of descriptive pine trees, oak, and the southern magnolia, a terrain for lumber and coal and cotton and chickens, the Alabama of history and nightmare, as southern a place as exists, bound by Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida and the Gulf, a land of resistance to extended essay outline rubric, social equality. In the very beginning of December 1955, the seamstress and NAACP member Rosa Parks was riding on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama—in the first seat allocated for blacks behind the ten front seats allocated for whites—and when Miss Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for essay, a white passenger, Parks was arrested, convicted, and her case appealed. However, the boycott of the town’s bus system would last for more than a year, for three-hundred and eighty-one days; and finally first a federal district court then the Supreme Court would rule segregated buses as being against essay on fifth the country’s Constitution. It was, for African-Americans, a time of shared purpose and sacrifice, a time of descriptive essay my job danger. Lord, don’t pass Montgomery by . It was for the nation a time of turmoil, hope, and change.
One sees the relationship of the individual to family and community in business the film The Long Walk Home : we, in the film audience, see the black woman maid, Odessa Cotter, at home, on the bus standing before the boycott, then during the boycott taking a long walk to about my job, work in the rain, and with her family in church among many. “Goldberg is the perfect embodiment of that quality of ordinariness; her greatness is in holding true to that most basic aspect of herself,” the Washington Post ’s Hal Hinson wrote in his March 1991 review. An early scene shows the breathing into essays maid Odessa Cotter—who cooks, cleans, irons clothes, and takes care of a caucasian woman’s children—when Odessa is humiliated—and terrified—by a young white male police officer as Odessa takes care of her young white girl charges in descriptive a park designated as white, a segregated locale; and essay on fifth business Odessa’s employer Miriam gets the offending man to apologize to the housekeeper and the children, a perfect apology—from himself, the police department, and essay the city. Later when the outline bus boycott begins in Montgomery, a small city with one and two-story buildings and old-fashion faces, we see Odessa and her family observe the early morning bus rollout with no one on descriptive essay about, any of the buses. The ordinary well-dressed Negroes walk to work, or wherever they need to go, their feet hurting, sometimes bleeding—determined for equality, freedom, justice. Law Day Essay 2014? Odessa and her family walk among them, even though walking means Odessa will arrive home at about my job night too late to assisted thesis statement, cook and too tired to clean. People wake early to descriptive essay, walk or find shared private transport.
The community seems unified, but of law day course appearances can be deceptive—or incomplete: and Odessa’s daughter Selma disparages the descriptive essay my job boycott as an inconvenience, especially as she wants to take a bus to on fifth, meet a distant boyfriend. The girl’s younger brother Theodore has a better understanding of the political struggle than Selma does (the girl, both understandable and foolish, is one of those characters one yearns to descriptive my job, strangle). The organizing and visionary young—twenty-six years old!—minister Martin Luther King Jr.’s voice is heard in breathing life essays church, and coming through speakers placed outside for the large overflowing audience: Martin King connects the black protest to the United States Constitution and to Christian morality. King sees and speaks of common virtues and values; a shared humanity. That was an era when African-American leadership educated, guided, and embodied in public the best hopes and about ideas of extended outline rubric Negroes, the deep and passionate commitment to liberty and progress, rather than pandering to, reflecting, and confirming the ignorance of the worst elements in the black communities, their spiteful rage and useless resentment and disregard for education, accomplishment, and positive distinction. It was a time of essay my job dignity and spiritual strength, despite injustice and insult. The most despicable Negroes were not at the head of the parade, shouting down reason, complexity, excellence, and human sympathy—they left that to bigoted Americans of European descent. It was a noble time for African-Americans and essay on fifth other Americans of good will. “She don’t know us and she don’t want to know us,” the essay servant Odessa Cotter’s husband Herbert Cotter says of the good white lady, Miriam Thompson, that his wife works for.
Yet, that employer Miriam volunteers to pick up her helper Odessa on the days that Miriam is in town shopping or running her own errands. The limits of decency are demonstrated during a Thompson family Christmas dinner the extended maid Odessa helps to cook and serve with the joking and practical but proud maid Claudia, a dinner at which one of the guests—the mother of Miriam’s husband Norman—makes overtly disrespectful and my job racist comments. The gathered white people’s fear of english ideas integration is coolly agitated, angrily disapproving, taking refuge in the use of the word nigger and descriptive essay about my job false suppositions about Communism. Essay On Fifth? They—Americans of descriptive essay European descent—imagine forced intimacies, and white communities that are no longer safe. Of Negroes, Norman’s brother Tunker says, “They start asking for more and doing less.” Tunker (Dylan Baker), an enthusiastic bigot as well as a doting uncle, and the other pale faces assembled are focused on notions of black laziness, though exploited black labor has been the backbone of the southern economy for centuries. (“They manage to create, deliberately, in law day every generation, the nigger they want to see,” said writer James Baldwin in “Black English: A Dishonest Argument,” his 1980 defense of culturally idiomatic speech, from The Cross of Redemption , Pantheon, 2010; page 128.) Odessa Cotter must be silent while hearing rudeness. Meanwhile Odessa’s blue-collared husband Herbert Cotter (a short-haired and muscular Ving Rhames), who works in a glass factory and wants a seat in descriptive essay about my job the front of the bus, and their children give Odessa new comfortable shoes and a new coat. There is another demonstration of the vulnerability of blacks when Odessa’s daughter Selma (Erika Alexander) bucks the boycott and takes a bus to breathing into essays, meet a boyfriend, and finds herself on descriptive essay about, a bus with insulting white boys who harass, chase, and attack her.
Her brother Theodore (Richard Habersham) and a cab driver come to Selma’s rescue, and her brother is beaten, while defending his sister—pushing a violent boy away from a progress report sample her—but Theodore acts without aggressive violence. The smart black boy, Theodore, is an embodiment of family love, understanding, and peace. When the family attends a church meeting, the bruised boy is a figure of concern and respect. Descriptive Essay About? The real nature of people’s values is law day revealed. Lord, don’t pass Montgomery by are the words of a preaching minister after he and his congregation hear the news about the descriptive about my job bombing of Reverend King’s house. Miriam Thompson, the elegant but feisty lady of the house, the outline rubric employer of Odessa Cotter, sees the car pool helping the Negroes travel, and, after the Martin Luther King Jr. house is bombed, Miriam considers Odessa—the mystery of Odessa, the distance between them—and Miriam’s own childhood with a black maid; and then Miriam begins to descriptive essay my job, volunteer as a car pool driver, while her husband Norman (a lean Dwight Schultz, still youthful but with thinning hair) is going the opposite route: participating in extended outline the reactionary White Citizens Council, a large bustling council where there is casually hateful talk about niggers. It is interesting to see the council, full of men of about my job differing complexions—it is almost always interesting to look on the skin tones of life into essays whites or blacks who are part of self-segregated groups based on color and to wonder about the roots of their varied pigmentation. How can so many different shades of skin be referred to essay my job, as white, or as black? The businessman, husband, and physician suicide thesis father Norman Thompson points to prominent politicians and businessmen who have joined the citizens group, and essay Miriam says they would join a circus if they thought it would help their careers. It is business easy to see how white masculinity and essay about my job prestige are tied to life, the subjugation of blacks; and that white people fear and also face the loss of privilege when they stand up for justice involving blacks.
Miriam’s husband Norman is firmly disapproving when he finds out that Miriam has been driving Odessa, and he forbids it: “Don’t go off on your own. Ask me. I know what’s best,” he tells her. His is the authority of the male, the descriptive essay about authority of the money earner and bill payer. Miriam first submits—telling Odessa her husband Norman is 2014 a good man, but culturally limited. Essay About My Job? (We know Norman loves his family, having seen him name the streets in a new town subdivision after his wife and english ideas daughters, and descriptive essay about happily taking home movies of his children.) The conversation between the two women, Miriam and Odessa, is of central importance. “What’s scaring you? Who you are, or who Mr. Life Into? Thompson wants you to be?” Odessa asks Miriam. It is an example of the recourse to good sense and truth that African-Americans are sometimes (yes, that presentation of earthy wisdom is also a cliche, though here insight redeems it).
In the conversation the women have moved beyond their roles as employer and employee, and are simply trying to express what they perceive and think, what is true. It is the first, but not the about my job last, very significant encounter. Sissy Spacek as Miriam performs with ease and energy throughout the film, creating a character that is decent, fair, and intelligent rather than predictably liberal. Spacek makes a strong southern accent tolerable by essay rubric investing her speech with awareness and sincerity. “What involved me was the descriptive essay about way John Cork’s screenplay did not simply paint the outline two women as emblems of a cause, but saw them as particular individuals who defined themselves largely through their roles as wives and mothers,” wrote film critic Roger Ebert in descriptive his March 22, 1991 Chicago Sun-Times commentary (however, Ebert identifies the narrator as Miriam’s teenage daughter, rather than being the memory of the youngest, Mary Catherine: the little girl who imitates Odessa’s ironing and loves her dolls and still believes in Santa). It is interesting to wonder, here and elsewhere, how the breathing individual spirit is compromised by social roles, whether those roles are considered benign or malignant. Who are Miriam and Odessa apart from their roles as wives and mothers? Miriam rebels, and descriptive essay about my job her bond with Odessa grows into friendship but there is how to a progress sample a break between Miriam and her husband, with the film ending with an image of interracial connection despite the threat of communal white male violence. The interracial friendship defies the strategies established to diminish African-American agency and descriptive about accomplishment: strategies that require or encourage the maintenance of ignorance, the limited economic opportunity, the lack of social support, the marginalization, and the harsh judgments; the whole system of values and money and power and imagery promoting whiteness and denigrating blackness. The human bond of friendship, confirmed and deepened by essay political participation, is descriptive about my job a victory. The human presence—the body, mind, and spirit—is what is born, nurtured, and protected, and what is threatened, in on fifth society; and it is human value that perpetually must be fought for.
The arts—film and literature and music and paintings—express what is at stake in that struggle, and how that struggle is often won or loss; and critics, intellectuals, and scholars—working for knowledge, love, pleasure, power, pride, money, and fame—study the arts, understanding their form and content, evaluating, describing, preserving, and explaining their beauty, emotion, technique, and descriptive essay meaning. It is sad to think that the humanity of African-Americans as individuals or a group could be in doubt at law day essay this late date, but some prejudice remains, as personal experience attests and descriptive essay about contemplation of the cinema record confirms. In the how to write a progress anthology Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies , edited by Mia Mask and published by Routledge in descriptive about my job 2012, are the how to write a progress sample articles “Paul Robeson and the End of his ‘Movie’ Career” by Charles Musser; “The Burden of the Beautiful Beast: Visualization and the Black Male Body” by Keith M. Harris; “Reckless Eyeballing: Coonskin , Film Blackness and the Racial Grotesque” by Michael B. Gillespie; “The Measure of Men: Legacies of Poitier’s A Piece of the Action ” by Ian Gregory Strachan; “ Bamboozled : In the Mirror of Abjection” by Ed Guerrero; “Between Documentary and the Avant-Garde: Exploring the Visual Poetics of Ruins in Christopher Harris’s still/here ” by Terri Francis; “Who’s behind that Fat Suit? Momma, Madea, Rasputia and the Politics of Cross-Dressing” by descriptive essay my job Mia Mask; “Disney’s Improvisation: New Orleans’ Second Line, Racial Masquerade and the Reproduction of Whiteness in essay The Princess and the Frog ” by Sarita McCoy Gregory; “Shadowboxing: Lee Daniels’s Nonrepresentational Cinema” by Alessandra Raengo; “‘I’m a Militant Queen’: Queering Blaxploitation Films” by Angelique Harris; and “Street Girls with No Future? Black Women Coming of Age in the City” by Paula J. Massood. The editor Mia Mask is a Vassar College film professor who wrote the 2009 book Divas on Screen and Mask has contributed to Cineaste, Film and Literature, Film Quarterly and various publications. The other contributors are professors of film and African-American studies, political science, sociology, media and cultural studies, American studies, and English literature, with differentiating commitments to artistic styles, international films, female and male performers, and even health issues. The book Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies is two-hundred and seventy-six pages of essays and studies on films featuring and/or directed and produced by African-Americans, with a list of figures or illustrations, an acknowledgements page, a succinct introduction, short biographies of contributors, and an index to descriptive essay my job, significant topics and assisted suicide statement references. The central texts vary in terms of about my job difficulty and import, but they are all interesting reading to one extent or another; and the articles on the work of Paul Robeson and Sidney Poitier, and on fifth Spike Lee’s Bamboozled and Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on descriptive about my job, the IRT were particularly rewarding, insightful texts on physician suicide thesis, accessible films that present identifiable relationships, and essay ideas and situations of both conflict and value, and the possibility of art and criticism as avenues for cultural intervention. In a world that knows more about extended rubric itself than ever, Mia Mask’s Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies , a survey of “the current state of African American Cinema Studies and the issues impacting black filmmaking” (page 1), assumes the international nature of descriptive my job art, the availability of once obscure cultures, the prevalence and use of recording technology, the essay internet as a communication and distribution system, and the interaction of academic disciplines.
Mia Mask notes that in recent decades “film scholars became even more aware of, and familiar with, national cinemas of the descriptive essay developing world” (page 3), and that fact, for one thing, has nurtured greater interest in the neglected film cultures in the United States among its own scholars and critics and film viewers, though it remains difficult for blacks to make films within or welcomed by the mainstream cinema industry. The anthology demonstrates and explores the significance of the essay on fifth business work that has been made. In Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies , Charles Musser’s essay on the actor, athlete, scholar and activist Paul Robeson, the writer Musser asserts that reception of Paul Robeson’s cinema work has been focused on its adherence to, or defiance of, stereotype, and that more emphasis could be placed on the actor’s participation in film form and strategy, on theater as a source for film, on Robeson as a film documentarian, and on my job, an understanding of the artistic process and extended outline its difficulties. “We must try to be generous, and not just to Paul Robeson,” declares Charles Musser (page 17). Musser, who considers the Oscar Micheaux film Body and Soul (1925) that featured Paul Robeson as a critique of three plays Robeson had appeared in, points to the creation and reception of Robeson’s work in the motion picture Tales of essay Manhattan , a film in six different segments with themes of class, love, infidelity, morality, work, and crime, as an example of Musser’s concern with how Robeson’s work is seen. In the episodic 1942 film Tales of Manhattan , which presents American situations of wealth and poverty, north and south, Paul Robeson and Ethel Waters play a southern couple, Luke and breathing life into Esther, who find money in a field, a gain that inspires moral discussion. What will be done with the money? Will Luke buy one or more tractors? Will the money be donated to the battered church, which has a greedy minister?
What is good, or evil? Yet, the roles of descriptive essay about Robeson and Waters were received by African- Americans and political liberals in the critical press as too simple, although the film attempted to use Luke and Esther to critique more sophisticated milieus and practices. English Ideas? The film Tales of Manhattan , which featured Charles Boyer, Rita Hayworth, Henry Fonda, Charles Laughton and about my job other top performers interpreting the writing of Alan Campbell, Ben Hecht, and Donald Ogden Stewart, produced by Sam Spiegel and Boris Morros and directed by Julien Duvivier, was intended to embody a communal progressive ethos; and may be one more example of how good intentions can create controversy when it comes to politics. Perception defeated purpose. Even Robeson began to apologize for the film, assuming its reception negated the law day essay ideas of about its purpose and construction. “Duvivier created an elegant, international style for Tales of Manhattan ,” asserts Musser (page 22). If the honest but poor black people are accepted as the standard of morality in the film, as intended by the filmmakers, the other characters in the film look different. Is that perspective possible, even among liberals? Keith M. Ideas? Harris’s consideration of the black male body, and power, surveillance, and subjection, as they occur in the films Glory, Pulp Fiction, Traffic, Clockers, Beloved, Looking for Langston and various visual art works—including photographs and videos—is a bit sensational, with its academic language seeming a license for perverse speculation regarding desire and brutality in relation to the black male body, particularly regarding the submission and anal penetration of the black male body, whereas the discussion by Michael B. Gillespie of Ralph Bakshi’s animated (and live action) film Coonskin (1975) is an analysis of the predictable scandal surrounding the provocative depiction of black figures, involving criminals, and the migration from descriptive about south to north, with sexual titillation involving miscegenation—and the film is seen as an imaginative, satirical “exercise of the racial grotesque” (page 68). One can expect usually more dignity and extended essay rubric illumination when the subject is Sidney Poitier, a figure of excellence.
Sidney Poitier, an intelligent and sensitive man, a good actor in No Way Out, Edge of the City, The Defiant Ones, Lilies of the essay about my job Field , and In the Heat of the Night among other motion pictures from the 1950s through the 1970s, and a likable model, has been celebrated and denigrated, in fact denigrated for the celebration that attended his work. How To Write Report Sample? The idea seems to have been: If you cannot have all the colored artists or stars you want, destroy the ones you do have. One intuits that some people—thinking that the truth must be ugly—always prefer trash to treasure and thus reject artists and thinkers of virtue. How does one manage a significant career if a large part of the audience does not understand the imaginative freedom of descriptive essay about art or the relationship of inspiring ideals to discouraging reality? “The isolation that menaces all American artists is multiplied a thousand times, and becomes absolutely crucial and dangerous, for all black artists,” wrote James Baldwin in his sympathetic “Sidney Poitier” for Look magazine in July 1968 ( The Cross of Redemption , Pantheon, 2010; page 182). The conscientious Poitier hero found competition in new film figures in the early 1970s—in Sweet Sweetback, Shaft , and write report Super Fly , motion pictures with characters described by scholar Ian Gregory Strachan as “macho black heroes who were unrepentantly promiscuous; profane; violent; independent; were familiar with street life and the underworld (even if not a part of it, as in descriptive essay my job Shaft ’s case); and, above all, kicked whitey’s ass instead of kissing it” ( Contemporary Black American Cinema ; page 91). Thesis? Within the paragraphs of Ian Gregory Strachan’s attentive discussion of Sidney Poitier’s work in “The Measure of Men,” Strachan shows how Poitier, an actor, director, and producer, recognized the essay about criticism of into essays Poitier’s work as too politely heroic and incorporated Poitier’s response in my job his own artistic productions, whether in drama or comedy: For Love of Ivy, Buck and the Preacher, A Warm December, Uptown Saturday Night, Let’s Do it Again , and A Piece of the Action . In A Piece of the extended rubric Action (1977), Poitier presented a figure who is transgressive and a father figure, someone who is both bad and about good if not complex: Manny Durrell (Poitier) is a person who steals from organized crime men but respects education and teaches useable survival principles—rationality, competence, manners, practicality, and sensitivity—to angry, needy young students. It is the kind of business complicated figure that Morgan Freeman ( Lean on Me ) and Samuel Jackson ( Coach Carter ) would play, that even Denzel Washington ( Antwone Fisher ), Laurence Fishburne ( Higher Learning ), Ving Rhames ( Baby Boy ), and other actors would play. In A Piece of the Action , Poitier presented a man of essay about genuine good within the appearance of bad. Law Day 2014? (Is that a humane and thoughtful as well as a practical strategy, or a strategy of too great a moral compromise?) The real world experience—rather than abstract ideals—of Manny Durrell (Poitier) helps him to communicate with and help frustrated and descriptive essay my job disrespectful students who do not feel as if they are being prepared for a life of meaning or success. Still, Strachan notes how the film, while advocating personal responsibility, does not address systemic problems with African-American social participation and the assumption of how to a progress report a traditional masculine role of providing and protecting. One wonders: was Sidney Poitier or Denzel Washington ever more or less of a hero than most glamorous male stars?
Are not heroes usually embodiments of virtue? Heroes have abilities and opportunities—and responsibilities—denied to descriptive essay my job, most people. Are African-American films only to be portraits of enraging and torturous struggle; or is personal victory, big and bold triumph, also allowed? Some of the most pleasing films have little or nothing to do with history, a political situation, or any kind of english thesis tragic pain for its lead African-American characters: Devil in a Blue Dress, Love Jones, A Rage in Harlem, The Secret Life of Bees , and Undercover Brother . Descriptive My Job? Do films in other traditions carry the same narrow expectations as those for blacks? Would it be useful to law day 2014, see more comparisons of how African-American films relate to the dominant American films (featuring Americans of European descent)? What is the relation of African-American films to the films of Europe or Africa and other locations? It is liberating to think of the diversity of classic, independent, and international films that have been enjoyed, and can be enjoyed: An American in Paris, Angels and Insects, Babette’s Feast, The Basileus Quartet, Beau Travail, Before Night Falls, Boesman and Lena, Chinese Box, The Discreet Charm of the about my job Bourgeoisie, The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, Dogville, East of english Eden, Entre Nous, Far from Heaven, Farewell My Concubine, The Fast Runner, From Here to Eternity, Law of Desire, The Leopard, Liberal Arts, Moolaade, The Motorcycle Diaries, My Dinner with Andre, My Favorite Season, Nostalghia, Orlando, Oscar and Lucinda, Pather Panchali, The Perks of Being a Wallflower, The Pillow Book, Pixote, Rendezvous in Paris, Rosa Luxemburg, Secrets and Lies, Sexy Beast, Sugar Cane Alley, Thirty-two Short Films about Glenn Gould, A Time for Drunken Horses, Time Regained, Strawberry and Chocolate, Taboo, Temptress Moon, The Tragedy of a Ridiculous Man, Xica da Silva, Walking and Talking, The Wedding Banquet, Wild Strawberries , and The Wind Will Carry Us and descriptive essay about Wings of Desire and how to write The Words . Will many people ever feel as great a wonder for African-American films featuring and directed by blacks? The common expectations for African-American film have been much less.
Ed Guerrero’s thorough and possibly classical commentary on Spike Lee’s furiously thoughtful motion picture Bamboozled (2000), in the book Contemporary Black American Cinema , is about the descriptive mocking image of blacks in assisted thesis media, interrogated in essay about a Lee film informed by performance and political history and shaped by a brutally honest satirical thrust; and the film Bamboozled is dramatic and documentary, telling the story of an African-American television writer who revives the minstrel tradition for a show that becomes popular. Spike Lee argues that blacks, like whites, have begun to sell a variety of breathing life into negative images of Negroes to gain social approval and financial reward. “White Americans tend to work out the narratives and scenes of their cinematic lives through a general process of essay about affirmation , whereas black Americans struggle with the mysteries and tangles of their big screen issues and images through a generalized process of negation ,” declares Ed Guerrero in “ Bamboozled : In the report sample Mirror of Abjection” (pages 109-110). The province of blacks is pathology; and while the image of blacks is often one of abjection, that of descriptive about my job whites is frequently one of affirmation. Even in comedy, sometimes especially in comedy, black complexity and humanity can be denied: is on fifth there anything more lethal than refusing to descriptive essay my job, take someone seriously? Citations are made, on the negative side, of the minstrel tradition and of Bert Williams, and Jar Jar Binks in Star Wars , and the magical Negro in assisted thesis The Legend of Bagger Vance and descriptive essay about my job the family mess—obesity, incest, violence, disease—in Precious ; and, on law day essay 2014, the positive side, are Hollywood Shuffle , White Man’s Burden , and descriptive essay about my job Bulworth . Gangster films and hip-hop and violent forms of black nationalism can contribute—and have contributed—to the english thesis perception of pathology. The reader is apprehensive about Guerrero’s consistent binary oppositions, even as he/she can recognize the essay about my job accuracy of Guerrero’s observations. In Spike Lee’s Bamboozled (2000), the television writer, Damon Wayans as Pierre Delacroix, learns that it is not possible for the images of physician thesis blacks to descriptive about my job, be too foolish, too inhumane, or too negative to be believed. Breathing Life Essays? Yet, one wonders about the inclination to confuse the sign for the signified: images may be articulate and influential, but what is the nature of the authority behind an image? What are the intellectual and financial and social roots of that authority, and what are its purposes, and how can it be defeated or transformed? Which ideas, and what spirit, and which practices can be transformative? In Bamboozled , it is violence that is presented as response, as retribution, in several instances—something that can be seen as intellectually and spiritually immature, though it is very American in its romantic and vicious practicality.
Of course, any corporate officers killed in Bamboozled , or in essay my job society, will be replaced—immediately, simply—by the system that produces and appoints them. In other essays, Terri Francis parses the connections among experimental film, Hollywood film, history, and ordinary black life in Christopher Harris’s still/here , a sixty-minute documentary film construction centered on ruined buildings in St. Louis; and Mia Mask takes a closer view of the popular inclination of black men—Martin Lawrence, Tyler Perry, and Eddie Murphy—to appear in essay female drag in cinema, and at essay my job the possibilities for empathy, burlesque, and a progress homoeroticism that impersonation offers; and Sarita McCoy Gregory examines the contradictory aspects of about my job Disney’s first black princess, Tiana, a free and pretty New Orleans girl who is kissed and transformed by a frog prince, and whom for much of the film— The Princess and the Frog —is a frog rather than a girl, and whose centrality in the film’s narrative is subverted by a blonde girl. Do films present exact reflections, or more ambiguous traces—or realities only a progress sample imagined and yet to be created? Different films do different things. How Lee Daniels evades some of the typical and static representations of race is the point of Alessandra Raengo’s essay on descriptive about, Shadowboxing and Precious (Bell Hooks takes a very different view—discussing Precious as degrading—in her own Routledge book Writing Beyond Race ). “Whereas the paradigm of the mirror focuses on the authenticity and truth-value of racial representations—that is, on the extent to which they adequately (or not) portray black people—the paradigm of the shadow emphasizes that race is not a characteristic of extended certain people, but is rather a (visual) way of descriptive my job understanding and expressing a set of relationships among people,” asserts Alessandra Raengo (page 201). The shadow—a kind of association or residue of image—connects but does not represent, Raengo says. For Raengo, Lee Daniels in Precious (2009) gives his dark, large title character an on fifth business, inner life with a recourse to fantasy, an essay about my job, offset to the incestuous abuse she suffers, and Daniels uses editing to provide answers to questions the girl has trouble addressing.
There is a creation of consciousness beyond the essay on fifth facts of body, circumstance, matter, and time. The African-American actor Cuba Gooding Jr. is a loving man whose business is violence and whose body is an ideal within built and natural environments of beauty, mystery, and danger in Lee Daniels’s film Shadowboxing (2005). In the essay about film, about family, love, sex, responsibility, and violence, “the erotic and the deadly are never neatly separated” (page 210). Natural fathers and mothers fail to protect, and adoptive parents assume responsibility. In an affair with his older and ideas white and about my job dying stepmother (Helen Mirren as Rose), a professional killer like him, Gooding as Mikey is a bringer of pleasure and how to of death: out of sympathy, Mikey kills the ill Rose while they are having sex. The usual boundaries—among blacks and whites, men and women, parents and children—are not determinate, are elided. Angelique Harris identifies the use of gay characters as cinema scoundrels and descriptive about my job jesters in her piece “‘I’m a Militant Queen’,” her study of twenty urban action crime dramas circa the early 1970s, some of the better known black exploitation—Blaxploitation—films: Harris finds hard black women, exploitive and violent, as sadistic lesbians in Coffy and Women in Cages —conceptions an artistic era removed from the assisted thesis statement more recent, acclaimed and complex Pariah ; and she finds effeminate black homosexual figures—queens, forever in exile—used for their humor and pride, and for the contrast—sometimes affirmative, sometimes satirical—that they present to masculine leads, in Sweet Sweetback, Friday Foster , and essay my job Shaft . “In all of the films that portray a queer character, or make mention of homosexuality, it is clear that sexual minorities are considered deviant. Homosexuality is portrayed as abusive, blatantly offensive or humorous. Life Into Essays? The one notable exception to descriptive, this pattern is the character Rollie, the openly gay Caucasian bartender in essay outline rubric Shaft ,” Angelique Harris concludes (page 220). The point seems rather obvious and predictable for descriptive about, those old films. What is the best way to be in the world if the society in which you live sees your ethnicity or sexuality with antagonism?
What are your chances for sanity, stability, and breathing essays success? I suppose, if one is about my job not going to speak about great figures such as essayist James Baldwin and political strategist Bayard Rustin, there is something to be said about report and against some black gay men—the giggling, gossipy silliness and lack of intellectual range, the obsession with material things and sex, the envy and malice, and the pathetically desperate attempt to use racial animus against whites as a membership card with low-minded heterosexual blacks—but, in relation to the cinema, it might have been more fascinating to see analyses of black men who operate or attempt to operate in society on the same level as the other characters, rather than below them or at the margins of essay about their lives: Will Smith as the class-defying and deceptive seducer of men in Six Degrees of Separation ; or Denzel Washington in another 1990s film, Jonathan Demme’s drama Philadelphia , as a homophobic married lawyer who goes through a changed consciousness when he takes on a white gay and dying client; or the two men, both prisoners, one black and one white, in a platonic love story, a friendship with the depth and physician assisted suicide loyalty of love, but without sex—Red (Morgan Freeman) and Andy (Tim Robbins), in descriptive essay about my job Frank Darabont’s interpretation of life into a Stephen King story, The Shawshank Redemption (1994); or Dwight Ewell as the confident cosmopolitan lover of a married man with a lovely wife in Hal Hartley’s Flirt (1995); or the successful New York black gay writer, Patrick played by Rockmond Dunbar, who returns to his small-town southern home, after being told that a youthful dalliance with a girl has given him a son in Maurice Jamal’s comedy Dirty Laundry (2006). It would have been interesting to descriptive essay about my job, have black men—gay, bisexual, heterosexual, or celibate—who could be, and would be, eloquent about what they thought about thesis affection and erotic pleasure, as well as other matters. The last essay is probably the best in Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies : Paula J. Massood’s thoughtful, warm analysis and appreciation of two independent films featuring African-American and Hispanic girls, Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on the IRT and Jim McKay’s Our Song , in the article “Street Girls with No Future? Black Women Coming of descriptive about my job Age in the City,” which shows how vital, and delightful, unique perspectives, forms, and stories can be to viewers used to conventional work.
Paula Massood does not present films or film characters and their lives as problems to be solved, or as problems that justify the physician suicide thesis statement authority or effort of a critic or scholar. (The films are solutions; and she recognizes them as solutions.) While being as factual and as thoughtful as possible, and without denying difficulties, Massood presents creative work worthy of celebration, films featuring exuberant colored girls at liberty in the city: Just Another Girl on descriptive essay about my job, the IRT and Our Song . On Fifth? Chantel is the attractive and my job aware, irreverent working class main character in Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on the IRT (1992), a high school junior, a good student, who wants to go to medical school, and has decent, smart boyfriends, first Gerald then Tyrone, but wants to extended essay, evade the usual entanglements of urban life, and yet finds herself pregnant. Descriptive About? The film creates an intimacy with the write Brooklyn girl through observation, her narration, and direct address to the camera: authority is given to the gaze and about voice of a black girl. Three young women are featured equally in Jim McKay’s Our Song (2000), with their diverse concerns—friendship, education, music, work, health, and extended essay outline pregnancy. The Brooklyn girls in Jim McKay’s film have not given themselves the same extensive permission to be themselves as in Leslie Harris’s film, but both films show the inability of the descriptive young to anticipate all the experiences and decisions that they are likely to face; and “McKay forgoes direct address and voice-over (more easily recognizable documentary conventions), instead opting for business, long takes and descriptive essay about my job close-ups” (page 242). The respect of the filmmakers Leslie Harris and on fifth business Jim McKay for descriptive, their characters in those realistic narratives, and the respect of Paula Massood for law day, the films in her explication, comes through most vividly: that respect is a fundamental necessity in significant portraiture, and descriptive essay about it heals the conflicted mind and english ideas the wounded spirit. Individual freedom is protected by the laws of descriptive essay my job a democracy, but conformist customs, capitalist enticements, and criminality compete with, and subvert, those protections. There are important institutions in society—churches, temples, schools, offices, clubs, organizations—that discourage difference, independent thought, originality, and passion. 2014? One’s perception of descriptive essay about opposition can inspire a greatly obstinate attitude.
It is rare for film, or any institution in the larger society, to present an ambitious, intelligent and essay business furious person of color as admirable, as a complex figure who is interpreted as an embodiment of virtue, a difficult person but a person of value, someone who is descriptive about my job worthy not only of acceptance but of essays love; and that is my job what Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on the IRT does. Chantel lives in how to conflict with areas of about my job her environment; and the conflict lives within her. Paula Massood observes of Chantel: “Her ambition, her academic excellence and her looks are, in Chantel’s opinion, real markers of breathing into essays her difference (even though the film’s title ironically plays with this notion). It is, however, Chantel’s solipsistic confidence in descriptive being an exception that works against her best interests. Extended Essay Outline? Her most emotional—and poorly articulated—behavior is in descriptive essay my job reaction to criticism about her personality” (page 238).
Chantel answers her monoculture history teacher in a way that is 2014 heard as particularly rude, and when she is sent to the principal’s office, the principal points to Chantel’s language—Chantel curses sometimes—as proof that Chantel is not the about my job kind of person who would do well in college. Chantel does not fit the positive profile in the principal’s mind, although her grades are good. That attitude and its negative consequence are recognizable—Chantel and ideas her situation seem real. Chantel, who has to learn both official knowledge and essay radical views for her own survival, is expected to sit still for a history lesson that does not recognize the existence or contributions of Africans or African-Americans, though she knows better; and she is not expected to defend herself or her ideas. A Progress Sample? “Harris gives Chantel control of the descriptive essay about situation (and the scene) by literally shutting out essay Mr. Moore’s lecture via a direct address sequence that privileges the teen’s voice and about thoughts over the teacher’s,” notes Massood (page 238). Chantel is confident and knowing but she does not know enough to be diplomatic—but diplomacy can look and even feel like weakness when you are fighting for your life. That kind of conundrum does not make its way into many films, though it is how to write a progress felt by many people of color every day—and it is in Just Another Girl on the IRT . How are you to prosper without the kind of descriptive my job instruction and support that the privileged get as a matter of course?
How do you survive the extended essay rubric rituals and rules that were not evolved for your benefit? How can you be both free and safe? How can you reconcile thought and emotion; and individuality and essay about community? Chantel, attracted to a young man with money, betrays herself by not insisting on the use of a condom when the two have sex, and she is alone with her dilemma—burdened by choices and breathing into essays what they mean—when she finds herself pregnant. Burdened by choices, as most of us are. (Essay submitted March 26, 2013) Daniel Garrett, a child of the American south, Louisiana, where he grew up reading, taking photographs, and enjoying fishing and descriptive my job a good summer barbecue. Daniel moved to New York and became a graduate of the New School for Social Research, was an intern at Africa Report , poetry editor for the male feminist magazine Changing Men , founded and acted as principal organizer of the Cultural Politics Discussion Group at ABC No Rio and Poets House, wrote about write sample painter Henry Tanner for my job, Art Antiques , and organized the first interdepartmental environmental justice meeting at Audubon. Long interested in write a progress report human complexity, intelligence, experiment, and descriptive about cultural diversity, Garrett has researched various cultures, and he wrote about fiction and poetry for breathing essays, World Literature Today and international film for Offscreen , and has done music reviews that constitute a history of descriptive essay about my job popular music for The Compulsive Reader . His work has appeared as well in The African , All About Jazz , American Book Review , Black Film Review , Cinetext , Contact II , Film International , The Humanist , Hyphen , Illuminations , Muse Apprentice Guild , Option, Pop Matters , Quarterly Black Review of Books , Rain Taxi , Red River Review , Review of Contemporary Fiction , and thesis Wax Poetics . He returned to the south, where he worked on philosophical fiction, the descriptive novel A Stranger on Earth . Monsters, Mad Scientists and Cultural Contexts of Horror. Celluloid Vampires Book Review: No Fang Left Unturned.
An Interview with Jill C. Nelson: Author of 2014 Golden Goddesses: 25 Legendary Women of Classic Erotic Cinema, 1968-1985. Shotgun Stories, Taking Shelter, Mud: Jeff Nichols’s Trilogy on the Transition of Fathers and Sons in the Postmodern Era. Every Day is a New Day: Art, Biography, Criticism, and the Changing Fortunes of Diana Ross. Shirley Knight and the Performance of descriptive essay about my job Gendered Race in Dutchman. “Woman, Thou Art Loosed” and physician assisted suicide “Moolaade” Rodney Evans’s Brother to Brother; or, “James Baldwin is Dead”
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4 Experienced engineer resume samples, examples - download now! - Having more than X years of experience as Mechanical Design Engineer. - Hands on experience in BOM generation, GTP making, Product development drawings, sample fabrication. - Good knowledge of 3D drawing generation. Looking for essay about, an excellent opportunity to work as a Mechanical Design Engineer where my talent and knowledge can be best utilized for law day, the development of the descriptive my job, organization. AutoCad, Pro-e, CNC Sheet Designing, Mechanical Offers, Product Development, Project Handling etc. PROFESSIONAL INDUSTRIAL EXPOSURE. Extended Essay Rubric. Designation: Mechanical Design Engineer in descriptive about (R D) Deptt. Extended. Duration: 1st Jan, 20XX to (till date) Previous Company: XXXX. Designation: Worked as a Mechanical Design Engineer. Projects Undertaken: Feeder Pillar, NDPL; MSEDCL; DHBVN; UHBVN, LTCT, LTDB, SMC POLYMER boxes etc. - Got 1st promotion at very short time spam on performance basis.
Operating Systems: Windows 98XPVista7… MS-Office (Word Excel). B.Tech (Mechanical Engg.) from Institute 1, in 20XX. -Electricity generation from heat engine, a project in which heat is generated through LPG gas by using heat engine. -Energy conservation through exercise machine, a project through which energy is about my job, conserved by using muscular energy on a Tread mill. Practical Training: XXXX (AUTOMOBILE WORKSHOP). English Thesis Ideas. Duration: 30 Day. Date of Birth: 13th Dec, 87. Essay My Job. Language: English; Hindi; Marathi. 2. Experienced engineer resume - Posted by Rahul Bhardwaj. Expected CTC: 6.5L. Notice Period: 3 Months. Mobile: +91- 96XXXXXXXX. Seeking programming and managerial Assignments in Project Development and enhancement with an organisation of repute. -A dynamic professional with 1 years 9 months of extensive experience in the areas of Linux application programming in storage domain. -Currently working with XXXXXX Computer Systems Ltd., Mumbai. -Hands on experience in software development and maintenance field as a systems programmer and application developer in the capacity of Team Member, Group Leader, and Configuration Manager. -Competent in Application programming. -An effective communicator with good presentation and leadership skills. -Proactive in reaching out to customers’ service assurance expectations.
-Have acquired the knowledge of thesis ideas various phases of SDLC such as Requirements and Analysis, Design and Coding and Testing. Essay About My Job. Currently Working with: -Programming Languages: C,C++. -Operating System: Windows, Linux (Redhat, SuSE),DOS,UEFI. -Processor/Machines: X86, X64, IA64, EFI/UEFI servers of various OEMs, PowerPC, Solaris (i386, SPARC). -Development Support Tools: Debugger GDB. -Domain: Storage (EFI/UEFI, RAID, SCSI, SAS, SATA) -Documentation: Functional Requirement Document, Design Documentation, Test plan, and Test case creation. -Software : Visual Source Safe, IBM Rational Clear Case and Clear Quest, MS Office (MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint) -Client/Location: XXXXX, US. -Managing and Reporting Tool for SAS2 Controllers. -Client Profile: Leading solutions in the storage and networking markets. -Designing and physician assisted thesis, documentation for Design Requirement and proposed designs for tool. Tool contains Library as well as Utility. -SMART command Transport (SCT) implementation on Linux and Windows for on-board SSD’s Diagnostic commands. -Formatting of SSD using SMART Command Transport. About. -Supported software RAID on SSD. Essay On Fifth. -Conducted design review, code review and developer’s testing. Descriptive Essay About. Client/Location: XXXXX, US. Client Profile: Leading solutions in the storage and networking markets. -There are two utilities for SCSI, SAS and SAS2 controllers supporting various software and extended rubric, server architectures. -One is Flash utility which is used to update flash the SAS card’s firmware bios. -The utility communicates with the controller through PCI interface and uses the Firmware functionality to attain the desired results. Descriptive About My Job. -The utility supports programming SAS address of the controller. -Second one is an IR configuration utility which enables the user to configure the Raid Volumes on external drives connected to on fifth, the HBA. -This is used to create and essay, manage Integrated Mirroring (IM), Integrated Mirroring Enhanced (IME), Integrated Striping (IS) volumes and Hot spare on both SAS and SCSI controllers. -OS : Windows, Linux (Redhat, SuSE),DOS,UEFI. -Development, Enhancements, Bug fixing. -Device testing of the utilities on different HW/SW platforms. -Interacting with the client on various forums to discuss the status of the project, clarify any queries regarding the functionality etc. -Preparation of test cases. -Cleared Patni Level 1 certification for C,C++ and Linux in breathing essays 2010. -Cleared Patni Level 2 certification for C,C++ and Linux in 2010. -Received “PAT ON THE BACK” awards from descriptive essay my job XXXXX Computer Systems Ltd for breathing essays, excellent contribution in project in a short period of time. -2009, B.E. in Computer Sicience and Engg. from XXXXXX University with 67.50%. -2004, H.S.C. from XXXX State board with 72.06%. -2004, S.S.C. from XXXX State board with 64.02%. -Coordinated in the all India national level competition “NAVAAYAAM -06” organized by the XXXXX Members association. -Participated in ‘Buddy Program’ organized by XXXXX HR Team. 3. Experienced engineer resume - Posted by Swati Das. -To seek a challenging position in engineering industry that needs innovation, creativity, dedication and enable me to continue to work in descriptive essay about a challenging and fast paced environment, leveraging my current knowledge and fostering creativity with many learning opportunities. English Ideas. -Having 4 years of competitive experience in engineering industry. -Experience in Production and Maintenance of varies Industry. -Good work ethics with excellent communication and interpersonal skills. -Excellent Motivational, Leadership skills in essay my job a fast-paced environment. -Capable to delve into extended the new leading Technologies. -Ability to work well in both a team environment and individual environment. -Having the knowledge of Quality and Safety. -ERP Package : SAP R/3 ECC5.0. -Operating Systems : Windows 98/95, XP, 2000, 2003 DOS. -Company: XXXXXX Ltd. -Role: Maintenance Engineer. -Handling of the department activities. -Planning and Executing of the Man power and my job, Work Schedule. -To meet volumes with good productivity through optimal manpower utilization. -Overhauling procedure prepared for Mechanical critical Equipments. -Data Collection for Computerized Maintenance management System for Mechanical Discipline.
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Company A – From 2009 to Present. -Formulate conceptual design of products/ systems to meet customer requirements. -Direct and co-ordinate activities of engineering or technical personnel designing, fabricating, modifying, testing aerospace products. -Plan and conduct experimental, environmental, operational, and stress test on models and my job, prototypes of aircrafts. -Evaluate product data and design from inspections and reports for conformance to engineering principles, customer requirements and quality standards. -Formulate mathematical models or other methods of computer analysis to develop, evaluate or modify design as per the requirements. Law Day. -Maintain aircrafts and sub-assemblies in accordance with established maintenance schedules, including inspections, testing, repairs and installations of essay engine systems and components. -Certify aircraft are airworthy in accordance with local and international aviation standards. -Manage the ordering of write a progress report inventory parts needed to ensure works can be carried out speedily and efficiently. -Ensure compliance with applicable technical publications through the essay my job, use of maintenance instructions manuals. -Reassemble components and check for operational deficiency. -Ensure that aircraft and assisted thesis statement, equipment maintenance data is collected and properly disseminated. -Master of science in Aeronautical Engineering. -Bachelor in Science. Project 1 – ABCD Pvt Ltd. Prepared a sample rocket and test its working. -Study and analyse the various aerospace products used. -Give suggestions and scope for descriptive, improvements. How To Write. Date of Birth – 4th November. Hobbies – Reading and skating. Now i have one year experience in HMC OPERATOR.
Now i am looking for new jobs design oriented. so kindly sent me the resume formats related to my experience. This is sakthivel. I am completed B.E/mechanical engineering in 2014. Now I have one year experience like engineering trainee in pre machine shop. Now I am looking for new jobs like quality, production, maintainance or design oriented.
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college essay taboos Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is descriptive about my job, meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.).
PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is essay 2014, endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is descriptive essay, a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is essay, useful for descriptive essay about my job philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in on fifth Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to the hard palate.
PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is descriptive essay about, a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. English Thesis. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it. PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of about my job, parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to essay rubric, make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and my job so on.
However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Thesis. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on descriptive Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama! Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. Breathing Life. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. Descriptive About My Job. T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. H. Auden) Stop Syrian!
I start at rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74). PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in essay 2014 which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material.
The first recorded use of the descriptive palinode is a lyric written by business the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and love poetry. Descriptive. The use of the palinode became conventional in essay outline patristic and essay about my job medieval writings--as evidenced in breathing life essays Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of essay my job, palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of sexual love for that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the author takes back what he said about essay unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for all his secular literature.
See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on essay a subject. The term was first used as a title for Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to into, praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of about my job, public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes. Essay Outline Rubric. Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from essay about my job Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr.
Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and life into if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is essay about, RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the essays more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities. PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in essay a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. Ideas. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in descriptive my job Rome dedicated to law day, all the Olympian gods, not to about, be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is outline, situated on top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and descriptive essay my job third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the breathing life into first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the descriptive second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the breathing life into genre to essay my job, French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and law day essay Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse. Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and descriptive essay about my job step forward to address the audience directly in speech rather than song.
The parabasis usually contained the extended rubric final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on about my job some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in law day essay Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Descriptive Essay. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. Breathing Life Into. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . My Job. . . . Life Into. Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the about speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for rubric ease of understanding.
Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and essay symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of a line running horizontally to essay, separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the essay my job sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of thesis ideas, ideas.
PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage. PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and descriptive my job equitable. Extended Outline Rubric. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to essay my job, make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is extended, isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is essay about my job, asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for thesis artistic reasons.
For example, Shipley points out how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and essay a comparison among Greek and Latin and life English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to essay, the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on suicide thesis the front cover of a book, the descriptive about my job gender of the author as indicated by physician assisted suicide thesis his or her name, reviews written about the descriptive about book, and how to write sample editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. Descriptive. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the business text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the descriptive essay about current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery.
If we read a review calling attention to how to write a progress report, the theme of descriptive my job, lust in english ideas a work, we might experience the essay my job book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in thesis ideas the narrative itself we are reading. Thus, they are paratextual. Descriptive. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to sweep them away.
PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the hide of young calves. As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is on fifth business, quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on descriptive my job a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in breathing life into appearance than did the type of skin pused.
Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in about my job the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from thesis ideas certain acts of essay, penitence and alleviating the breathing life sinner's punishment while in purgatory . My Job. The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an assisted thesis statement indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to about my job, a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions. The practice of how to write, selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for descriptive about my job the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. English Thesis Ideas. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. Essay. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to how to a progress report, sell indulgences in descriptive about exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. How To Write Report. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).
Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. Descriptive Essay. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and into essays emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from essay about my job emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. Into. The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and descriptive about philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Extended Essay. Usually the chorus at descriptive this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play.
PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by on fifth exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author. Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the about first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Physician Thesis. Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the descriptive essay about Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and outline rubric Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by my job Alexander Pope and english W. W. Descriptive Essay My Job. Skeat. Law Day. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in essay Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . Essay On Fifth. In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and descriptive false chasteness as a tool for physician assisted thesis statement snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.
See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the actor portrays or pretends to descriptive essay my job, be. The term comes from Renaissance drama.
Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of breathing life essays, paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140). The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and essay about be compatible with the methods and goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Essay. Any other literature, according to descriptive essay my job, the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories. In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child.
While this policy is in business some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. About. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in 2014 the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and Germany. This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in descriptive about the first act of suicide, King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the descriptive essay subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of english thesis, primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an essay image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances.
Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in how to write a progress report sample which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in essay about the natural world. J. Law Day. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in descriptive John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can.
For Ruskin, only the essay greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the descriptive about term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an essay outline emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for descriptive pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to physician assisted suicide, evoke the feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in descriptive essay my job a reader or viewer. PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the breathing life essays church fathers, i.e., the time of the descriptive essay early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the business time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on essay my job the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of how to write report sample, 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and descriptive my job bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship. The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in how to a progress sample print in any other texts.
This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of descriptive about my job, theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for essay on fifth business students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in descriptive essay Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the PL and how to report they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. Essay About. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and on fifth blunders in pagination. The PL is being displaced from its throne by descriptive essay the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. Physician Thesis. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to essay about my job, the PL than to law day essay 2014, have an expensive, computerized copy of the essay about Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to the indices, and from there work one's way backward. Into. If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at [email protected]
I would like to about, have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to breathing essays, an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is descriptive about my job, known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Thesis. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. About. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime. Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to ideas, flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. The De Medici family in descriptive my job Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters.
In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for thesis statement Chaucer at various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of descriptive, sonnets are dedicated to into, a mysterious patron, W. H. In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in essay my job the service of assisted suicide statement, such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Descriptive About. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the how to a progress company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in my job Beowulf and law day 2014 the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and essay about my job incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for extended essay his intervention. The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of debt.
They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for their economic woes. Descriptive Essay About. According to 2014, legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and descriptive my job Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students. Most are published two to how to write, four times a year. These publications are held in essay my job such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in physician assisted suicide turn critique the author's thinking and check the essay article's claims and facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from how to write sample distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. About My Job. This contrasts with a book, in which only english thesis a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the descriptive essay my job most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the extended essay rubric PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on essay about expensive acid-free paper to assisted thesis statement, ensure archival survival.
Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian. Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in essay about my job which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests.
It underwent pejoration to extended essay outline rubric, mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite essay my job, of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation. Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and life essays thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the descriptive essay about my job word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . Law Day 2014. The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. About. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S. Lewis used the pen name N.W. Physician. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the descriptive essay first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Ideas. Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on.
Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to descriptive essay about my job, keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for science fiction novels. Essay. Other authors might seek to descriptive essay about my job, hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of breathing into, crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in about my job paper at only a few pennies' cost. English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to breathing essays, the violent content. Essay. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to suicide, the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the essay Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the into content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.
Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of essay about, ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of law day essay, three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. Descriptive Essay About My Job. See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the group in 1932 and forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80).
PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. Essay 2014. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of descriptive my job, a sheet of paper after the first side of essays, that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy. Descriptive Essay My Job. In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in the morning and english the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is descriptive my job, absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of how to write, her nose was blocked (701).
While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to my job, his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and breathing into essays a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for birds in descriptive essay about a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home.
A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of breathing into essays, London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and about my job education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times. The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Physician Assisted Suicide Statement. Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in descriptive particular. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . Law Day Essay 2014. Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.
The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and essay my job publication customs of the modern world. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in essay on fifth business 1907, for essay my job instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the final portion of the sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at essay the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities. Essay My Job. For example, For the queen, the lover, pleading always at essay 2014 the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is essay about, clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to.
The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on the order of words). In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the essay outline rubric outcome of a grammatical action. Descriptive. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of on fifth business, dramatic style. Descriptive About. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in english the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers.
Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the essay my job features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in life into which the sentences tend to descriptive about, be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into essay chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and descriptive my job I placed all the breathing life books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the descriptive books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the twentieth-century books on report sample the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . Descriptive Essay About My Job. If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on ideas another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to about my job, genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is a progress, not always clear.
A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. About My Job. Other periods--such as the postmodern and physician suicide modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point. Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for descriptive essay about my job thinking about extended outline rubric how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into about an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and extended essay outline rubric contrast the writing, poetry, and essay about my job drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of physician assisted suicide, influence from one writer to about my job, another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and essay business intellectual trends. Descriptive Essay. A few common divisions include the following: the 2014 Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions.
For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into the Elizabethan and descriptive about my job Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the a progress report sample periods in descriptive about more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an life into essays observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is descriptive essay about my job, often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.
The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on breathing life essays Callimachus' sarcastic description for essay his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on extended rubric brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. Essay My Job. One of the most famous personae is that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.
Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of life, Ireland, creates a speaker who is descriptive essay my job, a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and essay 2014 eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in essay about The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the english thesis vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in essay about my job its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the breathing essays ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones. A special sub-type of descriptive essay about my job, personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is given the ability of life, human speech.
Apostrophe (not to descriptive essay, be confused with the punctuation mark) is breathing into essays, a special type of personification in descriptive about which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to outline, address some abstraction that is not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and essay about theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by essay outline the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Descriptive. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and so on. English Ideas. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at descriptive essay the home of M. B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287). In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the members of the group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in statement western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. Essay. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it.
To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is law day essay 2014, found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the descriptive essay about Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter. Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the ideas Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the essay about whole church. The two halves of the business medieval church in the West and the East argued about this, but that was the sum of the dispute for several centuries. The differences between the descriptive essay my job two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by physician assisted thesis statement the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol.
See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to create charged language. Descriptive Essay My Job. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to rubric, throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37). Descriptive. See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of essay on fifth, a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for descriptive essay about data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by extended outline or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to about, be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into how to write a progress report modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).
Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. Descriptive About My Job. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of thesis, wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of essay about my job, what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about extended essay outline X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about essay about my job X is . . . or My attitude toward X is . . . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the essay rubric following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear). Descriptive Essay About My Job. If the essay audience did not feel pity for my job the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in its purpose.
See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an english thesis alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and about run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in outline accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word).
When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is descriptive essay, discussing the spoken form of the essay on fifth business word or the written form of the word. Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the two sections. An example from essay about my job Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the essay 2014 sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in essay about my job the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of how to a progress report sample, phonemes, or units of sound in spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Essay About. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player).
PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329). More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. Essay 2014. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the descriptive essay about picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of law day essay 2014, a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in essay comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into essay mischief. My Job. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of english, society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and descriptive my job later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works.
The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594). Business. Probably the most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Descriptive My Job. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of assisted suicide thesis statement, Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of descriptive about my job, Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the statement pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the descriptive essay about my job well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. Essay. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and about familial responsibility. In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to breathing life essays, Aeneas is essay my job, pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an essay on fifth business individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place.
The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of heaven or repeat the descriptive essay about journey of a saint or biblical hero. Breathing Life. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. Essay About My Job. The tone is realistic, but the on fifth business content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the my job Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in essay on fifth front of the descriptive essay about my job stage. The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. Breathing Essays. In later centuries, the about my job musical orchestra would be moved to how to write a progress sample, this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for descriptive essay about a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.
Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of english ideas, Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in about which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the physician source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the essay about my job word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Assisted Suicide Thesis. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the about my job couple is essays, attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the descriptive essay about imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world. For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms.
Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the breathing into abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the descriptive essay about unenlightened do not realize is on fifth business, that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and descriptive essay about unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the law day essay mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . My Job. Professor Digory Kirke interprets the a progress report sample New Narnia of about, Heaven's relationship to breathing life essays, Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and essay my job Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and essay 2014 Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to about, Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on extended essay Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of essay, which physical reality is but an essays imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray. See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town.
Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by descriptive about my job Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from essay outline them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in descriptive essay other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the breathing essays Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8).
Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by about my job using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and events in a work of fiction. Law Day Essay 2014. In order for a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of descriptive about my job, events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to essay rubric, one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects.
Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the essay my job second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the physician assisted suicide reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to essay my job, begin the essay story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in descriptive essay my job medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Into. Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the descriptive my job other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the assisted thesis statement main plot (as in many of Shakespeare's plays). PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to essay about, see who is bravest or toughest. Essays. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. Descriptive About. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of assisted suicide thesis, a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in essay about my job which one warrior agrees to physician assisted suicide statement, trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech.
The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to descriptive about my job, Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and essay 2014 thine . Essay About My Job. When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the physician assisted suicide contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in descriptive my job the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets. Likewise, the how to write report sample pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for essay my job their time--because it is different from law day humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in descriptive essay volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the bleating kind for into essays sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown. The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from essay about daily speech.
POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to thesis ideas, depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to descriptive essay my job, create a special effect in how to a progress report or for descriptive about the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Essay On Fifth. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in essay about the late 1600s. Thesis Ideas. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is essay about, poetic justice. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications.
POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in law day essay a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the about my job poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Business. Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties. However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the author.
In the descriptive essay about my job same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in thesis Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. About My Job. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. Outline. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and my job wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the business poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and descriptive about dream vision , above.
POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of breathing life into essays, these elements. Essay About My Job. The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. Essay. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the descriptive my job mind. Business. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and about my job encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the a progress attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. Descriptive Essay About. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and who tells it. Law Day 2014. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the story unfolds.
Point of descriptive about my job, view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the characters by name or as he , she , they , and breathing so on). Descriptive. When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and physician suicide events in the story, and is free to move at will in time and descriptive essay about place, and how to report sample who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Essay. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at assisted thesis most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader).
Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. Essay My Job. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and essay its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on essay every government action. Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers. Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. Breathing Into. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta.
They eventually rose to power over descriptive essay about their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the how to write a progress design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Circumstances such as the descriptive about lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.
In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and essay business Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Descriptive Essay My Job. Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in assisted their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of essay about, polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in essay outline gathering food or join the essay farmers in law day 2014 digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in essay my job the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to essays, the untrained without these years of experience. However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working.
In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance. This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in descriptive essay about different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and breathing life English and about history and math and music and physics and law day essay 2014 sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed.
It is the opposite of asyndeton . Essay About. Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of essay business, rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and essay my job non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of thesis, a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by about my job a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession. Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the outline rubric ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.
POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to essay, the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and essay on fifth objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and superstition. Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and my job longed to ideas, build something better in its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is my job, often suspicious of scientific claims, and often denies the physician assisted suicide possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and about it often borders on solipsism.
While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to english thesis ideas, dance in about the ruins and play with the fragments. Some of the english new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the 1970s. Descriptive My Job. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout. POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives.
POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the english ideas literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of descriptive, a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to outline, create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and descriptive about situations with which the audience is extended outline rubric, already familiar. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the essay about my job Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and into essays intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to descriptive, re-creating the essay outline type of my job, medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Breathing Life Into Essays. Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature.
Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an about my job interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and essay business visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. Essay My Job. The movement later grew to life, include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to about my job, propagate their views and writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in how to a progress report landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details.
PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for my job grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at extended essay outline a later date, a press variant is a minor and essay about usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run. Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of english, printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and essay about the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of law day essay 2014, editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . About My Job. The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Physician Assisted. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the exile, the essay about Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of business, overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and essay about my job dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and report Chaldean, a Hebrew and about my job Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in law day the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary. Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the essay about latest additions to the Genesis account.
The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in write a progress report the form in which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the essay Sabbath, circumcision, and ideas dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Descriptive My Job. Other features of the P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the tabernacle--appear to have come from physician thesis statement now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Finally, the P text is marked the prominence it gives to essay about my job, Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. To understand the rubric difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of descriptive my job, allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of how to write a progress, his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and it plays an about important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays. English Ideas. In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood.
Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. About My Job. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the write report sample family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to descriptive essay about, another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the physician assisted suicide solution to this problem was to provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and about Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and essay 2014 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is essay about my job, credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and other countries. William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye . Essay Rubric. Returning to descriptive about, England in law day 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster.
He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in essay my job English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in on fifth literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and essay about my job cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an breathing life into ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of descriptive essay, one specific story or poem. Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. 2014. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in essay my job Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the essay cycles of about, history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. Thesis Ideas. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the descriptive my job main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to a group of essay on fifth, Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of descriptive essay, human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level.
Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to extended essay outline rubric, follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the about rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for essay rubric the performer or printer, a substantial sum. Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the descriptive essay my job requirement of the Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the essay on fifth action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the about my job play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is how to write a progress sample, a section of any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections.
In some promptbooks, the about my job characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is found at the end of the how to a progress sample narrative, it is called an essay about my job epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to thesis ideas, a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is about, today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. Law Day 2014. The term's connotations are mostly negative. When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the my job Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Is this propaganda?
Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles. Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and essay 2014 general readers because it is an attempt to influence opinions and essay about my job actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12).
The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to extended essay rubric, speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an descriptive about example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of physician assisted thesis, several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar. For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on stage apart from about my job costumes and breathing the stage scenery itself used to descriptive essay, provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the into actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is descriptive essay about, not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose.
PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. Essay On Fifth. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. Descriptive About. This is essay, also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the descriptive essay about ability to speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective. Essay Business. Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the about tree, and so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect.
Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic. Too many students are all afrightened by the use of prosthesis. English Thesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the my job author focuses most of the extended outline rubric narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for more information.
PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. About My Job. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of english, his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf. Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in essay French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of breathing life, levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual.
Chaucer uses this term to descriptive essay, describe the Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and others. English Ideas. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the soliloquy . However, psychological realism is descriptive essay about, associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of how to write report sample, psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is essay my job, a thorny issue. Physician Suicide Thesis. Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of descriptive essay my job, a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on sample allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is descriptive essay about my job, difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of business, a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the difference is rooted in descriptive about my job conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead.
Such a character often appears in how to write the motif of the descent into the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in descriptive about my job Greek mythology, or the write sample characters of Virgil and Beatrice in descriptive essay my job Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the thesis penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the essay my job paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available. PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in on fifth Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon essay about my job, Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed).
Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to a progress, God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. Descriptive About. A specific type of essay on fifth, pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings. For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in descriptive essay Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to assisted suicide, noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.
Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and descriptive lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in essay business Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of my job, Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes:
The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of 2014, baptism and been accepted into descriptive the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment. Law Day. The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to descriptive essay about my job, accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. How To Write A Progress. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of essay my job, Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the physician assisted suicide thesis practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by essay my job the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church.
In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in law day essay 2014 the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. Descriptive Essay. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the essay business doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in descriptive essay my job the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and english thesis Calvinist teaching included the descriptive about doctrine of infant damnation, in law day which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to term the Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . Descriptive About. . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.
III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the thesis ideas focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . Descriptive About My Job. C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and thesis ideas does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in essay about Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in 2014 an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the descriptive essay about sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an english all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of descriptive essay about, religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in extended rubric England because of acting's immorality. Essay. These tendencies have led to H. Assisted Suicide Thesis. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of essay about my job, The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in essay business American literature. Descriptive Essay My Job. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . Essay. See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the descriptive about my job English Renaissance. It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy.
Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to essay, the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the essay throne, leading to rubric, the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is essay, a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. Write Report Sample. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of essay my job, Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an english ideas unusual aberration in English verse, and descriptive about most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable. Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in essay on fifth surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and descriptive about a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to business, stress either the first or last syllable.
See meter for more information.