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Writing a Research Paper on the Civil …
19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and research paper, allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for ordinary essay entry- and mid-level professionals with three to research about the civil five years of relevant work experience. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. On Criticism! It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile.
If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Research Paper About! Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from writing lab, having to research about the civil war guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and writing lab, online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and research war, email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the writing lab phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address.
4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for research about the civil war opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. The American Essay! Ditch it. About The Civil War! 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary.
Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to essays of georg henrik von wright a prospective employer, Augustine says. Paper War! 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to writing lab another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Paper About The Civil! 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the essay sexi initial screenings and on paper the civil war to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions.
It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. Wittgenstein Essays In Memory Of Georg! This should be included right underneath the the civil war name of the company. While the ordinary essay company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an paper about war, accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on essay sexi the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on paper about the civil war the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and less on discussing the ordinary essay various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of paper about text.
Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to interactive wittgenstein in memory of georg understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per research paper war, job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for essay sexi your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and paper the civil war, contributions for essay sexi each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. About! Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.
A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to daycare owner important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. Research Paper About The Civil War! It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service).
Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. The American Dream Essay! It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. Paper About The Civil War! You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. Ordinary Essay! It may look neat and paper about war, concise to essay sexi display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and paper the civil, charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine.
18. Education is listed at resume owner, the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. Research War! 19.
It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. The American The Great! Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to about war, keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for dream the great gatsby, a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for war, entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.
When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the writing lab purpose is to communicate to research about the civil, the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the the american dream gatsby necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation.
For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and research the civil war, documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003.
N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . Writing Lab? New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario.
The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and research about the civil war, the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in resume, the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Vol. Research? 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter.
The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. Writing Lab? 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas.
The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. The Civil War? Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey.
of Spirit . Rev. Writing Lab? ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and the civil, Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and dream the great essay, J.L. Granatstein, eds.
Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the paper about the civil Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.
Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . Ordinary Essay? New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by research paper about war, two editors:
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of ordinary essay Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and research paper the civil, Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Resume? Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special.
Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St.
Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors:
You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on paper about the civil, the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and writing lab, Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and research paper about the civil war, Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and wittgenstein essays henrik von wright, James Musson, eds. Canadian.
Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Paper About The Civil? Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of interactive wittgenstein essays of georg henrik von wright English: A Vocabulary. Series for paper about the civil, ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of an essay pope Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and research paper, editors:
McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to writing lab, the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.
Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the civil, the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.
7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Writing Lab? Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in research paper the civil war, an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue.
Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. Essay Sexi? James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. About The Civil War? 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed.
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ordinary Essay? Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. Research Paper About The Civil? New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11.
Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in writing lab, Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov.
2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. Paper About The Civil? 2005: I6. 12. Interactive Wittgenstein Of Georg Henrik Von Wright? Article in paper the civil, a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive.
Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of the american the great gatsby essay more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required.
Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of research about publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Writing Lab? Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of about the civil war scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar.
2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar.
2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct.
2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Daycare? Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.
Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept.
2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. Paper About The Civil? “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and ordinary essay, Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. Paper About War? 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein.
Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. The Great? Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. Research Paper About The Civil? 7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO.
Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15.
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Resume Daycare Owner? Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. War? (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.
Dillon, Brenda. Wittgenstein Essays In Memory Von Wright? “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by paper, Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry.
Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of owner Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. Research The Civil War? New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb.
1998: Neier, Aryeh. Owner? “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by research about, Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and interactive in memory henrik, Paint.” Rev. of research paper Frida , dir. An Essay Summary? Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of research about the civil war A Complicated.
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. Summary Pope? “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.
18. Research? CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. An Essay Summary? George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed.
DVD. Paper? Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. Interactive Wittgenstein Of Georg? “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. War? 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.
Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. Writing Lab? CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Research About The Civil War? Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:
Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. The American The Great? 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. Research About The Civil? (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. Essays Of Georg Henrik? (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by).
A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and research paper about the civil, year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. The American Dream The Great Gatsby? If citing a particular person involved in research paper the civil war, the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Essay Sexi? Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by research paper, Roald Dahl. Perf. The Great Gatsby Essay? Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf.
Charlie and research war, the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and interactive in memory, the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by paper the civil war, Roald Dahl. Perf.
Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Writing Lab? Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Research About The Civil War? Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.
Christianna. Brand. The American The Great Gatsby? Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Research Paper? Prod. Dream Essay? Jon Landau. Twentieth.
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. About? Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is writing lab, stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. Paper About The Civil? National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the owner Civil and Human. Rights of paper the civil People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . The American Dream The Great? Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and paper about the civil war, indicate only the the great essay date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to research the civil war, cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in on criticism pope, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23.
Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of paper Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.
8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and essay sexi, begin your citation with the title. About The Civil? Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and wittgenstein in memory of georg henrik, URL. If the URL is too long for paper, a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and the great, end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. Paper About The Civil War? SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page.
Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for resume daycare, an advertisement: IBM. Paper About War? Advertisement. The American Dream Gatsby Essay? 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g.
SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. Research About War? 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos.
IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. Writing Lab? “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. Paper About The Civil? 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/
If using an ordinary essay, online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the paper about war library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is writing lab, accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Research The Civil? Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access.
Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out owner, page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from paper about war accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . The American Dream Gatsby? 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for paper about the civil, an article from an the american gatsby essay, online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct.
2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567.
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. Research About? 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003.
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card.
Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. Ordinary Essay? 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Research Paper About? Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. Summary? 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr.
2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to paper about the civil war, E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to resume daycare owner, Musicals101.com.” E-mail to war, I. Lee. Essay Sexi? 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to about, author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. Gatsby Essay? “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to research the civil war, John Smith.
h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. An Essay On Criticism Summary? 1998. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to research about war, the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005.
Seaside Harry . Resume Owner? “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. Research War? 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an interactive wittgenstein essays in memory, information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org.
O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Research About? Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. Resume Daycare Owner? “Exchange Rate between the research paper about war United States Dollar and Forty.
Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. An Essay Summary? “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. Paper About War? “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr.
2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and writing lab, Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute.
10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for research paper about the civil, a software download: It is not essential to include the summary pope file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software.
12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler.
New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by war, another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo.
Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview.
Prime Minister’s Office. Essay Sexi? 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. Research Paper War? 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to ordinary essay, Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo.
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. About? Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept.
2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. An Essay On Criticism Pope? Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of research paper about the civil Mark Twain . Ed.
Jim Zwick. 2005. Writing Lab? 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map.
Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Research Paper The Civil? Traumerei , op. 9, no.
4. Components for gatsby essay, a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of research about the civil publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No.
1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Ordinary Essay? Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Research Paper About War? Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . 1819.
London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak.
Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . An Essay Pope? [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . Paper War? 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. Summary? La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork.
3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. Paper The Civil? 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. Ordinary Essay? 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. Research About? National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al.
Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. Essay Sexi? 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c.
1904]. Research War? Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and essay sexi, Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. About The Civil? Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. An Essay? Louvre Museum,
Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the paper war Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. Resume Daycare? de Vere.
New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. About The Civil War? Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme.
Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of summary Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St.
John the Baptist . 1742-51. Paper About The Civil War? Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. Writing Lab? 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes).
2) Name of research paper about war person who took the photograph. An Essay Pope? 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by research about the civil war, Cassy Wyse.
28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917.
July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and writing lab, Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of research Wales Theatre, Toronto.
9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by essay sexi, James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Research The Civil War? Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible!
Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. Ordinary Essay? 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of research network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of an essay on criticism local station or channel. Paper About The Civil War? 6) Broadcast date.
The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart.
CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33.
Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of writing lab author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of about war publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. Interactive Essays Of Georg? CD. Exclusive Management by.
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Paper The Civil War? Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.
Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. An Essay Pope? Writ., dir. and prod. The Civil? Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c.
1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman.
Engineered and mixed by essay sexi, R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and research about war, 770E . Dream The Great? Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the research paper about the civil war 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver:
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on essay sexi, novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette.
Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Paper The Civil? Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and essay sexi, Steve Rudnick. Perf. The Civil? Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. On Criticism? DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Research Paper About War? Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming.
Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Essays In Memory Henrik Von Wright? Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in paper about the civil war, quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of the american the great gatsby university, and research paper about war, year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA.
thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and essay sexi, Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
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The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to research paper the civil format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in gatsby essay the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to research paper the civil war write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is the american dream the great gatsby essay, submitted together with the essay.
Needless to say that both can be done in about the civil MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the writing lab essay should be typed at research paper about the civil, the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to ordinary essay reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only research one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the interactive wittgenstein essays in memory henrik von wright outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the the civil war year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the american dream the great gatsby essay, the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. About? The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author.
In cases when there is no author, the writing lab references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by about the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by essay sexi their title. When you do the research about war references of ordinary essay this kind, you should put the paper the civil war author’s last name in front of writing lab his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. Research? The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and writing lab, then the place of publication, the paper war publishing house and interactive wittgenstein in memory of georg von wright, the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916.
Print. Note: According to paper about war the update in 2009 for essay the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and research paper about, the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the essay sexi book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power.
3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. About War? Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. An Essay On Criticism Pope? Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books.
The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the the civil war author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the interactive of georg day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in about the Works Cited list in regards to resume daycare the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. Research About War? London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the ordinary essay title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of research war publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Resume Owner? Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to research about the civil war the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to interactive essays of georg henrik formatting books and periodicals.
The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the about MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. Essay Sexi? The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and about war, year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. Ordinary Essay? In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of research paper about war publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com..
2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in writing lab the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and paper the civil war, formatting MLA essays . The Great? Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in paper war accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and essay sexi, Endnotes are marked out in research paper about the civil the text by Arabic numbers in superscript.
The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and writing lab, endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to research about war the title of your paper and the the essay sexi titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in paper about the civil same font and size as the essay sexi rest of the paper about the civil paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold.
The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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Analysis of Ronald Reagan#8217;s 40th Anniversary D-Day Address. Ronald Reagan, born February 6, 1911, accomplished a great many things in his life. He changed lives and about war, inspired many people from a wide variety of standpoints as an actor, governor, soldier, and eventually president of the United States of America. Reagan was a brilliant and gifted speaker, garnering himself with fame as a star actor, trust and relateability as a loving husband and father, and the love of the American people as the president who reformed the government, decreased the people#8217;s reliance on it, and set the Cold War up for an end during his successor, George H. W. Bush#8217;s term. From a young age, Reagan was known for an essay on criticism summary, his strong faith, belief in research paper about war, the inherent goodness of the american the great mankind, and opposition to racism. It is said that at the age of twelve, Reagan took a group of paper the civil African-American travelers who were denied access to a local inn home, where his mother fed them and allowed them to stay the night. As a young adult and college student at Eureka College, Reagan was famous for essay sexi, discrediting the research paper about school#8217;s president when he tried to ordinary essay, fire some of the school#8217;s faculty. The faculty was saved, the president was eventually forced to leave the school. Need essay sample on Analysis of Ronald Reagan#8217;s 40th Anniversary D-Day Address ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. After college, Reagan broke onto the media scene in research about the civil war, radio, starting by broadcasting football games for the University of Iowa. Interactive Henrik? He worked his way up the radio ladder, and eventually broke into film with a series of shoddy B-movies produced for Warner Brother#8217;s Studios.
As time went by, Reagan moved from B-list actor to A-list support, eventually starring as a college football player in Knute Rockne, All American. The movie earned him the lifelong nickname, “The Gipper. ” His personal favorite film performance was, however, the role of Drake McHugh, a double amputee, in paper about the civil, King#8217;s Row. It was also considered his best by many critics and fans. Reagan#8217;s life as an actor was cut short by a sudden military career, however. Reagan was restricted to limited service due to his nearsightedness, forcing him to serve strictly within the United States. In a short time, he was put on duty producing recruitment videos for essay sexi, the army. By the end of paper the civil war his career, he produced around 400 training and recruitment films, and ranked as a a lieutenant. He nearly attained Major status, but this was disapproved right before his second transfer to the 1st Motion Picture unit. Reagan began his political career as a liberal democrat, but changed his policies and opinions as he grew closer to republican actress Nancy Davis, who eventually became his wife. During his time as a democrat, he endorsed Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, and Richard Nixon.
Reagan officially became a member of the interactive wittgenstein of georg henrik republican party in 1962, claiming that “I didn#8217;t leave the research paper about Democratic Party. The party left me. ” Reagan hit an odd transitional phase then, many of his opinions started changing rapidly as he grew into the leader who would become president. Writing Lab? In 1967, Reagan was sworn in as the governor of California. This was during his aforementioned transitional phase, and he made many choices he later regretted, such as signing a pro-abortion bill. He served two sentences, and then decided it was time to move on and move up. Paper About The Civil War? He started campaigning for the presidency in pope, 1967 against current president Gerald Ford. Reagan quickly established himself as the conservative candidate, though the campaign failed and he lost to research paper the civil, Jimmy Carter. The American The Great Gatsby? In 1980 he began another campaign to defeat Carter, in which he asked opponent George W. H. Bush to be his running mate and strongly opposed a bill which would ban gays, lesbians, and supporters of homosexual rights from working in public schools. This time he prevailed, and research paper about, was sworn in the next year! Reagan was famous during his presidency for declaring that #8220;In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem. #8221; He moved to decrease the common man#8217;s reliance on government, and was also know for being the first president to survive being shot in an assassination attempt.
Two months into resume daycare owner his first term he was hit by a bullet to the chest, but lived through a near-death surgery to resume his duties. The survived assassination improved his popularity greatly with the people. Paper About War? Long after his presidency, on ordinary essay June 6, 1984, Reagan addressed an research paper about the civil war old group of World War II veterans and an essay on criticism pope, world leaders on paper about the civil Normandy Beach, France, to dedicate a memorial to the great battle fought there and honor the warriors who served throughout, both living and ordinary essay, dead. The day was significant in research paper about the civil war, that it was not only the ordinary essay the fortieth anniversary of D-Day, when the United States dropped an atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the island nation of Japan, but of the about war battle for Normandy Beach itself. Approximately 29,000 Americans died in the battle, many of the present veterans has lost friends forty years ago on an essay on criticism pope that very beach. It was morning, and video footage shows that the about the civil the mood was somber, and all eyes were turned too the former president. Reagan#8217;s purpose was to honor the wittgenstein of georg henrik von wright fallen, so it was important that he maintained the aforementioned somber mood. He did this by opening his speech with a summary of the situation surrounding the battle. “For four long years, much of Europe had been under a terrible shadow.
Free nations had fallen, Jews cried out in paper about, the camps, millions cried out for liberation. Europe was enslaved and the world prayed for its rescue,” he said. Parallelism can be observed here, as he shows the undesirable circumstances of both World War II victims and American allies. This parallelism also serves to make the next sentence of his first paragraph stand out essays of georg henrik, even more. “Here, in Normandy, the rescue began,” said Reagan. Here, the Allies stood and fought against tyranny, in a giant undertaking unparalleled in human history. ” It was as if he was bluntly stating that the men before him were heroes. They were the ones who led the Allied army to victory. It was an effective way of involving his audience. It is clear at this point that Reagan is telling a story. The next three paragraphs tell this story, utilizing strong sensory language bring the surrounding veterans back to the day they stormed Normandy beach, and to spark the imaginations of the younger onlookers and world leaders listening.
Strong auditory descriptions are used in research the civil, the speech#8217;s second paragraph, when Reagan describes the “cries of resume men,” the about “crack of rifle fire,” and “roar of [the] cannon. ” it is also important to dream gatsby, note that for paper, the first three paragraphs, Reagan does not use the word “American,” but calls the troops storming the beach the “Allies. ” This is of utmost importance; Reagan knew how crucial his sensory language was to essay sexi, maintain his audience#8217;s interest, and about the civil war, wanted to insure that it applied to all present onlookers. This becomes far more apparent later in the speech. Reagan#8217;s storytelling tendencies become very apparent in the fourth paragraph, but the sixth, seventh, and eighth are where they truly shine, along with his inclusiveness. Reagan begins to tell stories about the actions of the Scottish, Polish, and Canadian armies. These three paragraphs are key to understanding the brilliance of Reagan#8217;s speech. Not only do they build credibility and likeability with the non-American leaders and soldiers present at the dedication, but they shatter- if only for ordinary essay, the duration of the speech- the still prevalent international stereotype that Americans are so arrogant and ull of themselves as to consider themselves more important or strong than other peoples. Reagan does little to glorify America or its efforts during the speech, he highlights unity between nations, the combined will to fight, makes us realize that it took all the allies to win the war. Given the location of the memorial and his audience, this was a stroke of brilliance. The end of Reagan#8217;s stories glorifying the multiculturalism of the Allied army (paragraph 8) marks the end of the first part of the speech.
If Reagan was utilizing the research paper about the civil war dramatistic pentad, it could be said that he had explained and satisfied the act, scene, agent(s), and agency. If it seems as though Reagan has rushing things a bit, that is because he has. However that#8217;s just fine, as all he has left is purpose, and purpose was always the whole point of the speech. Pope? The reason for the fighting and bloodshed is what Reagan came to explain, thus it is fitting that he dedicates the rest of his speech to it. “Forty summers have passed since the battle that you fought here. Research Paper The Civil War? You were young the day you took these cliffs; some of you were hardly more than boys, with the deepest joys of ordinary essay life before you. Research Paper The Civil? Yet you risked everything here. Why? Why did you do it? ” Thus begins the tenth paragraph. Reagan#8217;s speech becomes very personal now, with repetition of the on criticism pope word “you” to draw in, specifically, the veterans surrounding him.
Reagan#8217;s speech stays thematically the same from now on. His goal is to promote and renew the unity between all the nations present, and he uses some mixed techniques to the civil, do so. Knowing that Europe is primarily christian as America is, he makes sure to on criticism pope, drop plenty of references to God throughout his speech. This is not to say he merely used them to gain good moral standing with his audience; Reagan#8217;s God references were from the heart, and proven by a long life of christian faith and service and there is little doubt that his audience knew it. Said references begin in paragraph eleven and about, continue up throughout fourteen, ending when Reagan talks about the men of an essay D-Day and the forced that assisted them, declaring that “God was an ally in this great cause. In keeping with his theme of unity, Reagan tells of the state of the world after the war, and the need the allies had had to come together and help each other rebuild. “The allies summoned strength from the faith, belief, loyalty, and love of research the civil those who fell here. ” Reagan uses assonance here to emphasize the virtues and daycare, values of the allied armies and people, likely to encourage his audience and build a common bond between the mixed nationalities present. Reagan knew that, unfortunately, not all went well in the war and many lives and nations were lost. Research Paper The Civil War? He makes sure to writing lab, take time to honor them in paragraphs seventeen through nineteen. He specifically mentions Warsaw, where hundreds of thousands of research paper about the civil war polish civilians were killed, Prague, where America was accidentally responsible for ordinary essay, some 700 civilian deaths, and East Berlin, where up to 50,000 died. “The Soviet troops that came to about the civil war, the center of this continent did not leave when peace came,” Reagan said. “They#8217;re still here, uninvited, unwanted, unyielding, almost forty years after the writing lab war. Assonance is once again employed to research paper about the civil, emphasize how the threat still lives on, followed by a quick reassurance that the American troops stationed in Europe are only there to preserve and protect democratic values, as well as guard memorial sites. Resume Owner? “We will pray forever that someday change will come.
But for now, particularly today, it is good and fitting to renew out paper about the civil, commitment to each other, to our freedom, and to the alliance that protects it. ” Reagan brings his speech full circle now, returning to the need for on criticism, unity amongst the nations. He knows that the previously mentioned soviets are still lurking throughout Europe, and predicts a time when the allies may have to rise up and defend freedom, liberty, and democracy again. This has always been the entire point of the speech, to renew vows and bring to paper war, light still-present similarities and common goals among the nations. Essay Sexi? Twice in the speech Reagan uses a biblical quote to boost morale, “I shall not fail thee or forsake thee,” as God says to the civil war, Joshua in Joshua 1:5. The American Dream? He first uses it in paragraph fourteen when talking about the faith the allied soldiers had for God. He uses it again at the end of the speech to about the civil, encourage his audience and well up feelings of faith and the christian brotherhood between them. Not only does this link the entire audience together, but it links them to those who fought and died forty years before. In the end, Reagan#8217;s unity extends back through time itself.
After the speech was finished, Reagan personally greeted each veteran present by name, cementing his impression as a man focused, even long after his presidency, on uniting the world against evil. Thank you very much, and essay sexi, God bless you all. Paper About? Facts about Reagan’s life: Ronald Reagan.#8221;The White House. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. . #8220;Ronald Reagan.#8221; IMDb.
IMDb.com. Ordinary Essay? Web. 24 Feb. 2012. . War facts/ casualty numbers: #8220;SCHIELE.US Casualty Statistics of American Battles Page.#8221; SCHIELE.US Home Page. Web. Paper About The Civil? 24 Feb.
2012. . Essay Sexi? #8220;Ronald Reagan #8212; 40th Anniversary of D-Day Address.#8221; American Rhetoric: The Power of Oratory in the United States. Web. 22 Feb. 2012.
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. many countries encourage participation, but provide limited mechanisms to allow user feedback. When questions about participation are discussed and presented in plans there seem to be a tendency towards understanding openness in about war, terms of access to, and gathering of information through the building of infrastructure, better availability, the use of open standards, securing universal accessibility, etc. Gatsby Essay! This becomes evident when the European governments are elaborating on the implementation of e#150;government (Commission of the European Communities, 2002) within the European community, as well as when American authorities discuss similar issues (U.S. Executive Office of the research President, 2003). Aspects of openness regarding how the resume public should become more able to research about war, #147;analyse and utilize#148; this information do not seem to resume owner, be considered as important as those concerning access and availability.
Commercial information providers have another relationship to paper about war, the quality and sustainability of information. They always have to consider whether the presentation of information is going to sell their product, and if it is going to improve the customer#146;s experience of the product in which they have decided to invest their time and/or money. From a strictly commercial point of view it does not matter if the quality of information in low, inaccurate, or even false, as long as the production costs are kept down compared to the revenue. Commercial actors are therefore encouraged to design systems facilitating openness by the fact that a large number of people are willing to produce information for free through participation, being both producers and consumers of information. These systems may be organised as large communities with tens, perhaps even hundreds of thousands of users, or the users may be organised in a large number of small groups where the members have closer ties. Writing Lab! Small groups may also exist within a large community, as in research about war, the physical world, and essay sexi may provide information on a more personal level.
Information with personal qualities interests users, but these qualities may be difficult to achieve . From the point of view of the vendor the different ways of organising a community are of less concern if there is research about, a large number of users who produce and use information on essay sexi a regular basis, and as long as the work moderating and managing this information is kept to a minimum. When talking about about the civil openness, commercial vendors tend to use the term as part of their strategic thinking to interactive von wright, introduce #147;pervasive media environments#148; (Berman, 2004), not necessarily in research about war, terms of empowering individuals or technology#146;s democratic potential (Rushkoff, 2003). An interesting observation is that education is somewhere in the great gatsby essay, the middle, being obliged to handle all aspects of openness, from a strictly authoritative approach, where the learners are given access to one understanding of specific information, to an approach where the learners are expected to explore, re#150;contextualise and produce information on their own. When media change information providers are affected most significantly by the civil whether they are able to on criticism summary pope, build new relationships to their previous customers/consumers  who now become potential contributors in a participation culture . Civil services will still be restricted by concerns regarding quality of research paper about the civil war information, issues that are more complex than the considerations made by interactive wittgenstein essays von wright individuals writing weblogs, online newspapers providing discussion boards, or vendors facilitating online communities, etc. There may be numerous reasons why the research about different actors do what they do; I would like to emphasize the increasing differences between how information is created and distributed in various parts of society. These differences were not as evident before as long as most public information was produced centrally by state authorities or the press, and distributed to consumers through technical solutions that did not provide any significant possibilities for feedback. To summarise some of these approaches to openness: From an official and daycare public service point of research about the civil war view information providers want openness biased towards information access. Essay Sexi! One tends to encourage participation, but this is understood as mechanisms facilitating feedback , not as tools making the public producers of content . Research About! From a commercial point of view information providers also want to facilitate easy access, but these actors also have strong interests in encouraging openness with users acting as producers of content. These actors are more likely to develop an understanding of the #147;quality of information#148; with a bias towards information#146;s ability to appeal and interactive wittgenstein of georg engage an audience. Some approaches to openness in communication.
The complexity of openness in communication systems range from technical issues, like how information is mediated and distributed, via economical concerns, to research paper about the civil war, a number of social issues that may influence the availability, use and the potential impact of information in society. Therefore, when trying to make classifications of communication, one should not alone look at the technical properties of technologies, or how they are related to time and space, or solely on the basis of information content. The Great Gatsby! These are all important aspects of any technology, but do not provide a vocabulary capable of describing some important features of digital networked media: the different ways in which the users become both consumers and producers of information (Jensen, 1998). Online networked computers, accompanied by digital cameras, small sound recording devices, techniques for positioning, mobile phones etc. all have the potential of enabling groups of various sizes and individuals to participate actively in the production of information in numerous ways. When looking for a classification that includes different aspects of openness these features of #147;new media#148; have to be considered. Open vs. closed content.
Mayer (1997) building upon earlier work #151; presents a classification of research paper common computer media applications which focuses on the computer#146;s characteristic semiotic nature and its #147;capacities for the american gatsby essay, symbol manipulation#148;, and the #147;responsive context of reception#148;. In the research war table below, content scope, temporal, and spatial attributes are compared, and the american the great demonstrate how these characteristics can be used to differentiate between various computer media. The model provides a useful approach to a distinction between open and closed content that is consistent with existing terminology used in traditional media studies. However, this classification fails to grasp the processes related to how this content came into being, or how it is about the civil, used. Another perspective on openness is provided by resume daycare owner Benkler  who defines three different layers of communication, a physical layer (wires, cable, radio frequency spectrum), a logical layer (software, protocols), and a content layer (text, images, sound etc). Lessig (2001) uses Benkler#146;s layers when discussing how different communication systems influence on research paper about the civil our abilities to writing lab, act as users instead of mere consumers of information. The table below is an extension of the model presented by Lessig . Lessig discuss 1, 2, 3 8, and uses #147;free#148; vs. #147;closed#148; where I am using #147;open#148; vs. Research War! #147;closed#148;: Speakers#146; Corner and Madison Square Garden are two of the examples used by Lessig.
At Speakers#146; Corner (1) anyone who wants to public performance get access to essay sexi, the park (the physical layer), he may do a presentation of his own choice (the logical level), and he is free to chose what to present (the content level). One may, however, argue that this openness become a theoretical possibility to most people, not being able to visit Speakers Corner when they have something they want to say, or not being among the relatively few constituting a #147;public sphere#148; where private people come together #147;as a public and research about the civil war articulating the needs of society with the state#148; . However, communication will always be limited by both physical and social/psychological constraints, and for practical purpose we will only ordinary essay be able to talk about this complete openness within limited communities, though never in the world at large. In an arena like Madison Square Garden (2) an individual will have the same possibilities as at Speakers#146; Corner, save that the building has to be rented. That is because the access to the physical level is restricted by the owner of the infrastructure needed to research paper the civil, give a performance. In the telephone system (3) a user will have to pay for access to the system and he has no influence on how the content is mediated at the logical level. But the system is open on the content level making the users able to say whatever they want, as long as the writing lab system does not discriminate between different users on the basis of the information they are communicating. Writing by hand (4) is an example of a technology that do not imply any restrictions to paper the civil, the content, and wittgenstein in memory of georg henrik where the physical level is war, fully accessible, at lest for most practical purposes. The only restrictions to what the users are able to express is found on the logical level as limitations implicit in written language.
An example is writings shortcomings when it comes to describe movement in wittgenstein in memory, any fulfilling way. One may also argue that the paper about use of recordable media like CD#150;R, DVD#150;R, and hard disk recorders, MP3 players etc. can serve as examples of (4), even though the access to the physical level is restricted by the need of specific hardware. However, given that in wittgenstein henrik, large parts of the world such recording devices are relatively cheap and research paper about the civil war easy to purchase, this limitation do not imply any practical restriction that prevents these people from using recording devices. The most severe limitations to the use of digital recording technologies are found on the logical level where DRM systems applied in writing lab, software and research paper about the civil the implications of copyright laws are some examples. Lessig argues that the Internet (5) is an example where the physical layer is completely controlled by ordinary essay governments and commercial vendors. Most of the content is protected by copyright laws, Benkler  uses Los Angeles Times v. Research! Free Republic (Carney, 2001) as an example. However, on the logical level the Internet has been open, as long as protocols and software traditionally have been openly documented, as well as shared and used without severe restrictions, and developed by collective efforts.
Because of this openness Internet technology has been transferable to summary pope, numerous infrastructures, making the paper the civil war communication facilitated by wittgenstein essays in memory of georg these technologies difficult to control by research about war introducing restrictions at the physical level. However, this may change from a number of reasons. Trusted computing , referring to the embedding of end#150;to#150;end validation of the origin and integrity of data into computer hardware and system software (Kay, 2006), is one of essay sexi several technical solutions that alone, or in combination with other technical and paper war legal solutions, will limit users#146; abilities to produce, back up, copy, and essay sexi distribute content in about the civil, ways they find opportune (Walker, 2003). A perhaps more common example of how closeness is dream, introduced on the logical level is the use of special applications like Flash to present content on the Web. Instead of making autonomous Web pages that can be linked to, and accessed one by research paper about the civil war one Flash applications usually close references to different content on a server.
Personal Video Recorders (PVR) (6) are perhaps not the interactive wittgenstein essays of georg henrik von wright best example where only the content layer is about the civil war, closed, as long as when they are used to record television programs the logical layer will be controlled by the broadcasters, and a number of restrictions may be implemented in hardware. However, I am using PVRs as an essays henrik, example to research paper the civil war, be able to introduce the possibility of technical restrictions taking full control over the presentation of media content, in extreme cases even over perception. A concrete example is Philips solution for #147;preventing a viewer from switching from a channel when an advertisement is being displayed on the channel#148;, and if the program is recorded on a PVR the technology #147;prevents a viewer of a recorded program from fast forwarding the recorded program in order to skip past advertisements#148; . . individuals will become accustomed to the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. AWhen the physical level is open and there are restrictions to both the writing lab content and the logical level we are experiencing an instance of surveillance (7).
Writing this sitting in Volkspark Friedrichshain I am thinking of what Speakers#146; Corner would be like in former East Germany: Most people would have physical access, but would be unable to research paper the civil war, speak freely or make performances of their own choice. Ordinary Essay! Aspects of surveillance introduce several questions about power relations, not only between the paper about the civil producers and resume daycare owner consumers of information, which will be discussed later, but also to an increasing degree those who the communication is about. An example is services like gawker.com/stalker (at http://gawker.com/stalker/ that re#150;mediates parts of gossip#150;journalism, now in the hands of the public. But the potential in paper about the civil war, #147;surveillance#148; goes much further, and is one of the an essay pope main reasons why Google fund the research paper about building of free WiFi systems, making them capable of providing plateatic advertising (advertisements targeted by geographic location). The surveillance potential in resume daycare, different technologies may cause an erosion of of privacy with the result that individuals will become accustomed to the idea of paper the civil war little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. Writing Lab! Examples are: when they are travelling; sharing files or communicating on the Internet; they are using their cellphones; in education. In addition to intended use technologies almost always have a #147;function creep#148; that occurs when technical features, designed for a specific purpose, ends up serving many other purposes (Hoepman and Jacobs, 2006). Research The Civil War! Being accustomed to a general idea that privacy is not available, people may become less able to recognize new, potential threats against privacy. Even if such threats are identified the precedence of already accepted solutions will make it increasingly difficult to define and articulate other, alternative solutions that respect privacy.
Cable TV systems (8) are designed to provide a great deal of information from vendors to the consumers, resembling broadcasting. All three levels are restricted: the consumers do not own the wires into interactive wittgenstein essays in memory von wright their homes, programming is controlled, and the use of the content is limited by copyright, or by technical restrictions (see Personal Video Recorder). Cable and ADSL are also technologies used to provide many with broadband access to the Internet, building an asymmetric relationship between information providers and information consumers to a technology (the Internet) that originally treated all actors as peers. Users with unrestricted Internet connections are already a privileged class being able to set up their own servers, create new services, establish true peer#150;to#150;peer connections with other sites, etc. By introducing technical solutions to research the civil, make online computers more easy and secure, like NATs and of georg von wright firewalls, new technologies reproduce the traditional relationship between #147;publishers#148; or #147;broadcasters#148; and their #147;consumers#148; or #147;audience#148; (Walker, 2003). Being able to describe how the different layers of a communication technology influence the production, distribution and use of information is important to research, an understanding of the american the great essay openness . However, even though Benkler discusses how regulatory choices influence the #147;consumer#150;producer relationship#148;, the model does not provide a vocabulary that considers how users are affected as producers or as consumers of research the civil information on pope different levels. A comprehensive understanding of openness in communication should be able to classify different media according to how they influence relations between producers and consumers, an approach taken by Bordewijk and van Kaam (1986) when explaining the future development of #147;tele#150;information services#148;. They presented a model with four communication patterns describing the relationships between information providers and information consumers. Rather than emphasizing different media#146;s technical characteristics, genres or content Bordewijk and van Kaam answer two initial questions about the #147;provider#148; and the #147;consumer#148; of information: Is the transmitted information owned by an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer? Is the transmission and use of the information controlled by an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer?
Answering who delivers the information, and who controls access to and use of information is research about war, represented as a matrix with four #147;ideal information#150;patterns#148;. It is important to note that these patterns are #147;ideal#148; in a sense where they are supposed to writing lab, be used as analytical tools. In reality no media can be understood as being part of only one of these patterns: Bordewijk and van Kaam use the research about the civil terms #147;information service centre#148; and #147;information service consumer#148; instead of #147;sender#148; and #147;receiver#148;. Like Benkler#146;s model, one distinctive mark of the pope typology of research paper about the civil war communication patterns is that it is writing lab, defined independently of the technical design of the media, the form of research war presentation, and the content of information. But where Benkler is inspired by the topology of computer networks the communication patterns are derived from social power relations.
Focus is on the flow of information between different actors ignoring the essay sexi different quantitative and qualitative aspects of the information content (Jensen, 1996). When discussing openness the communication patterns must therefore be used with other aspects of openness in mind. Bordewijk and van Kaam came up with their model years before the invention of the Web; their four communication patterns only research about the civil war take into account #147;centre#148; and #147;consumer#148;. Ordinary Essay! This is hardly surprising, given that their main interests were the future development of broadcasting and telecommunication systems. However the model does not take into consideration new aspects of digital networked media that facilitate users as producers of information. These perspectives call for an extension of both axes of the model: I am therefore adding information produced by users as a collective and distribution controlled by users as a collective . In the following model my understanding of #147;distribution#148; goes beyond the ability to control the infrastructure (corresponding to Benkler#146;s physical level) used for distribution. One also has to consider the users#146; ability to decide when and how the content is re#150;edited, re#150;used, or just consumed. The use of #147;collective#148; also needs some initial explanation. Collective does not necessarily mean that individuals are organised in definable groups; on the contrary, individuals forming a networked collective using digital media will often be loosely organised.
One can even describe this organisation, or lack of such, as autonomous individuals #147;out of control#148;, not connected by a hierarchical chain of command. Research Paper War! Instead their activities are results from a multitude of simultaneous actions whose collective pattern are called networks, complex adaptive systems, swarms, collective systems, etc. Ordinary Essay! . The members of such collectives are highly connected in a peer network, but without answering to an organisation, or a centre of control. Each member acts individually according to some basic rules and paper the civil war given situations in their local environment . When taking the collective into consideration the model forms nine different communication patterns: Transmission occurs when information is produced by a centralized information service which also controls when information is distributed to the users. The flow of information runs in one direction only, from the essay sexi centre to paper about the civil war, a number of autonomous users. All users are treated in the exact same manner when it comes to distribution, receiving the information simultaneously. The information can either be previously stored by the information service, or it may be offered #147;on the fly#148; at the moment of distribution. Most media based on essay sexi transmission are characterized by access to large amounts of stored information. Only a tiny fragment of about this information is distributed to users at a given time, and always in ways that ensure that users are receiving the same information simultaneously.
Individual users in the transmission model have no other choice that to receive the information provided at a given moment in time. Communication based on transmission may therefore be referred to as #147;one#150;way#148; or #147;one#150;to#150;many#148;, emphasizing that the communication channels have no possibilities for feedback. This information-pattern is typical in writing lab, traditional broadcast media like radio and television. Transmission is the communication pattern with the strongest bias towards closeness. Still, the about the civil war content may be fully accessible, communicated by using open standards, and even possible to manipulate through interaction. Nevertheless, the pattern is heavily restricted, as long as the information centre exclusively chooses when to grant access to users. However, the use of essay sexi video recorders is an research about the civil, example of how new technology changes an existing communication pattern by giving users more choices to wittgenstein henrik, control the distribution of information.
The most telling examples of transmission today are found in streaming media solutions on paper about the civil war the Internet where the summary pope ability of users to record can be heavily restricted. Registration occurs when information is about war, produced by individual users, but a centralised service then takes control of the information by collecting and storing it. Users may provide information by request from the information centre, or the user may give information without any previous request. As long as the information is produced by users the division of ordinary essay power seems to be reversed from #147;transmission#148; and #147;consultation#148; patterns. However, the information centre has exclusive control over what users are able to register by providing interfaces where information is produced. An example is the paper war use of polls where the owners of Web sites give their users opportunities to answer questions by selecting between predefined choices. It is also important to ordinary essay, remember that the information centre in most cases collects information with a purpose, and does not facilitate openness in the sense of giving communicating parties equal opportunities.
In registration patterns the research about the civil war initial information producers are not able to control the information after it is wittgenstein of georg von wright, registered by the information centre. The centre has exclusive control of storage and may use this control to re#150;arrange and re#150;mediate the information and research war use it in other communication patterns, or to facilitate such patterns. Bordewijk and van Kaam use (tele#150;)opinion polling, shopping systems, etc. as examples of wittgenstein of georg registration by request. Examples of about the civil war registration without request can be systems made for surveillance, logging of computer systems, etc. Services offering storage of photos where the users are given few possibilities may also be characterised as registration without request. The registration pattern can also be said to be present in relationships between the makers of software, that is writing lab, publicly available, and users. Research Paper About! Most users are not able to make their own software, or they are finding it more convenient to use software made by others. These users are limited to the possibilities build into software and illustrate that production of digital media objects are often assembled by selecting from ready#150;made functions, or from media material provided centrally. All authoring and editing software comes with a large number of these predefined functions, and additional functionality may be added by using #147;plug#150;ins#148; which makes third#150;party vendors able to incorporate new functions into a program#146;s interface .
This selection among predefined functions is only registration when the new information is ordinary essay, stored by a central service, but to an increasing degree this is happening with online services that provide the same functions as standalone programs. Google is the paper the civil war most obvious example of a successful commercial approach based on the principle that information is accessible, and, to an increasing degree, produced online (Google, 2005). Questions about essay sexi selection are important when discussing openness and control, and makes evident one of the limitations in research paper the civil, the model: there is writing lab, no pattern that covers situations where information that is controlled by paper the civil a centre (the program manufacturer or the service provider) and used by individuals to make products that they are able to writing lab, store and research paper the civil war control. Selecting performed by individuals when producing and wittgenstein in memory of georg von wright re#150;mediating information that is stored locally has to be understood as a combination of several patterns. Commenting occurs when the paper collecting and storage of information is centralized, but some of the information is provided by a number of users. The central service controls the initial information, but individual users are able to provide additional information that may even contradict the original.
The commenting pattern also implies that the information provided by individual users is essay sexi, accessible by other users. Commenting can therefore be considered as more open than the registration pattern because information is not hidden after it is stored by the central service. Where registration normally will be limited to selecting between pre#150;defined alternatives most instances of research about the civil commenting make the individual producers able to formulate their opinions with their own words, perhaps even provide some additional media material by uploading or using hyperlinking. However, those providing information though the commenting pattern are not able to revise their texts after it is posted, similar to how information is controlled centrally in the registration pattern. Commenting appears in online discussion- oards, weblogs, and a number of other online media that makes it possible to display feedback in the same context as an original information element. Normally this pattern does not include response where additional information are controlled, or changed by ordinary essay an editor, unless the content is research paper about the civil war, a violation of daycare law or considered as spam. Pure commenting are unmoderated responses where the information provided by others is presented without delay in addition to the original information that initiated the response in the first place. Consultation occurs when information is research about war, produced and owned by a central information service, but where individuals are able to control which information they receive and when this information is delivered.
The consultation pattern always depends on information which is stored before the moment of ordinary essay distribution. About The Civil War! In other words, this communication pattern is always asynchronous. Consultation offers some flexibility in favour of users, but it requires some specific activities on ordinary essay their behalf. Research War! The users have to daycare owner, request information by performing activities defined by the information centre. The label #147;interactivity#148;  is often used to characterise this process, ranging from clicking on specific hyperlinks to research paper about war, the users#146; movement and achievements in computer games. One can argue that these techniques represent a potential democratisation of the use of media by essay sexi empowering users in new ways. However, interactivity is research the civil, also used to describe systems that are no more than collections of information which can be accessed at a time which the user finds convenient. On Criticism Summary Pope! These systems thereby belong to about the civil, the same pattern as newspapers and books. Discussing openness one can even argue that many so#150;called interactive systems are much less open than printed books: for example, cybertexts (Aarseth, 1997) are controlled by a computer, where users can do no more than select between pre#150;defined options since the overall structure is hidden. Dream The Great Gatsby Essay! Even if the paper the civil functionality of a given program is available, most users will not be able to make qualified judgements about ordinary essay how information is presented. Communication based on consultation is often #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;one#148;, found in research paper about the civil war, what Jensen calls #147;electronic memories#148; (Jensen, 1996).
Examples are FTP, World Wide Web, and a number of writing lab online services providing stored content. The consultation pattern also include various forms of printed media, CD#150;ROM, DVDs and videotapes. Dialogue occurs when individual users are able to research the civil, participate actively in both the production and ordinary essay distribution of information. The information and the time of research paper war information exchange are totally controlled by the users, and the means of production and distribution are shared equally between them. Resume! Information in the dialogue pattern is normally not stored before it is communicated, but it may be stored by one or several users during the communication process. The flow of research about the civil war information runs in several directions and cannot be controlled by one user alone. When communication is mediated the connections between users will often be provided by an information service centre. In these cases the dream the great essay centre represents a technical facility which typically serves several consumers, and the centre does not intervene in war, the production or in the time of distribution of information. Dialogue may be referred to as #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;many#148;. This pattern is typical in writing lab, oral traditions where those communicating have to meet physically, but the dialogue pattern also apply to mediated communication. The telephone system is a typical example: users decide who they want to paper the civil, call, when to make the the great call, and paper war what the conversation is on criticism summary pope, going to the civil war, be about, while the system operates like a #147;black box#148; routing the telephone calls between users without interfering with the information that users communicate.
Dialogues do not have to be synchronous and instantaneous. The dialogue pattern can include ordinary mail, fax, e#150;mail, etc. Dream Gatsby Essay! Similar patterns also occur on a number of different services on research about the civil the Internet, from Usenet discussions, via a wide range of on criticism pope commenting functions to open chatrooms. Collaboration occurs when information is produced by a number of individuals organised as a collective, and distribution is controlled at an individual level. A communication system facilitating collaboration allows users to use and revise content provided by others without any prior consent. The information in the collaboration pattern has to be stored before it will be accessible to other users, and this storage is normally done by research paper the civil war a central service. This service may be taken down and users may lose content, but as long as the system is dream, up and running all users are treated the same.
Wikis and, to some extent, the development of open source software exemplifies collective efforts where collaborative patterns occur. Note that a great deal of software that is sold under the umbrella #147;collaborative tools#148; does not necessarily facilitate a collaborative pattern. In a collaborative environment individuals do not have exclusive control over content they make available, every user has the same possibilities to make changes, add new or additional information, or even delete content provided by others. This does not cause any substantial problems in wikis where malicious behaviour or mistakes may be corrected easily, and only affect autonomous nodes without severe consequences in related nodes. However, even though most users have the same privileges some users have access to additional functions. In a wiki this will be system operators and administrators at different levels who are able to make changes to software, carry out sanctions against misbehaving, etc. When collaborating on paper the civil large software projects there are also differences in the status of essay sexi users, because minor changes in one part of a program may cause unexpected failures in other parts. There has to be some centralised revision control with the paper about war implementation of new code . Essay Sexi! Since software is made for a relatively specific purpose there also has to be a consensus about the core functionality. Consequently software projects have to implement some kind of hierarchy where some users are given privileges that make them capable of making decisions that other contributors have to research the civil, follow. In other words, neither a wiki, nor a software project can be organised following collaborative patterns only.
Because users in wittgenstein in memory of georg, a collaborative environment are able to revise and re#150;use each other#146;s work they have to make an agreement stating that copyright law shall not be applied to the civil, shared information. In software development there exist numerous such agreements and licences (Free Software Foundation, 2006) that potential contributors have to accept to be allowed to participate in a project. When working with other kinds of content, like text, images, and audio files, Creative Commons is the most widely used licensing regime, providing six different licences (Creative Commons, 2006) that make content creators able give others opportunities to collaborate using their content. The two communication patterns #151; collaboration and dialogue #151; are often closely connected: dialogue is necessary to foster many of the social processes which make collaboration possible. Discussions about the functionality in open source software are a good example, where many are involved, but the final decisions are made by relatively few, privileged members of the community. Collaboration differs from commenting because new content can be produced by essay sexi users revising each other#146;s work as well as adding new material. Syndication occurs when information is produced by an information centre, but individual users are able to research paper the civil, take control over the information and re#150;use it for different purposes. Syndication is well known from traditional media. Both television and newspapers pay for the right to use information provided by an essay on criticism summary news agencies and they often use this information quite extensively without substantial editorial changes, adding it to research about, information they produce themselves. However, the latter is writing lab, more like the communication pattern sharing, while a precise understanding of research paper about the civil war syndication does not involve any changes in the information content by others than the the central service creating the content in the first place.
On the Internet syndication normally refers to resume owner, the distribution of banner advertisements, and #147;feeds#148; from a site indicating new content (like the latest posts from a weblog). The degree of user control varies from full text feeds in XML, that other services may re#150;mediate in multiple ways, to solutions where content may be included, but not changed. File sharing systems are another example of how the syndication pattern becomes facilitated on the Internet. File sharing systems distribute data, or parts of paper war larger collections of data, to daycare, a number of users who then provide this data to others. Sharing occurs when content produced by individual users is research paper the civil war, distributed and re#150;used by a number of others. The sharing pattern is similar to syndication with one important difference: in the sharing pattern information initially is produced by individual users. Note that sharing is not necessarily a communication pattern that all the daycare actors approve, as long as information may be distributed through a sharing pattern without the original creator#146;s consent. The re#150;use and about re#150;editing of information may be an aspect of sharing, but the sharing pattern differs from essay sexi collaboration because there are only individual users who take part in the production and editing of information.
Creators of research about war weblogs often use the sharing pattern this way when they create new posts by using citations and links found at other sites. However, when looking at how information may change when shared between large numbers of blog creators the pattern changes and becomes more like collaboration. Some actors are always considered to be more authoritative, or more trustworthy that others, and when information are edited by these users others are likely to treat this information in ways which may have some of the characteristics of ordinary essay syndication. It is about the civil war, also possible to argue that authority causes behaviour that resembles the transmission pattern (Shirky, 2003). Resume Owner! There are numerous examples of how information is shared among online newspapers and blogs, where the exact same citations, phrases, and references are used on research paper the civil hundreds of sites. When the summary pope creator of a new post only makes a citation, without making any changes to the initial information, the communication pattern that occurs is only distinguished from syndication by the fact that the original producer no longer has the ability to make changes to the cited content.
Transclusion (Nelson, 2000) of media material, typically used to #147;hot#150;link#148; images and research paper about the civil war multimedia files or by displaying an resume daycare owner, external site within a frameset, are also examples of the communication pattern. These examples are made possible by the Web, and the Internet#146;s #147;openness#148; on Benkler#146;s logical layer, which makes content creators able to identify autonomous elements and address them directly. Emergence occurs when both production and distribution of paper about information are collective processes. No centralised unit or individual user are able to an essay pope, fully control the creation or re#150;editing and distribution of information. Actually emergence is characterised by an explicit absence of control and systems facilitating emergence are those which come closest to full #147;openness#148;. It is relatively easy to research about war, design communication systems where emergence is not likely to occur; if information can only be accessed, not re#150;used, emergence will never happen within a system. On the other hand is it almost impossible to design a system to explicitly facilitate emergence, simply because these processes always are unpredictable and essay sexi occurs as a result of social processes.
These processes include contributors with different objectives and they seldom have a shared understanding about the research the civil results of pope their collective achievements. As individuals, each contributor may have well#150;defined reasons for what he is doing, but there are absolutely no guarantees that these ideas are shared by others. Emergent communication patterns can only be realised by a close interplay between the research paper the civil cultural use of technical solutions and the development of these solutions. The actors using and developing an emergent system will quite often be unaware of resume daycare owner each other, but they will still rely upon each other#146;s work and they may share a set of socially constituted #147;rules#148; influencing their behaviour. From this follows that a communication system that gives an paper about, emergent information pattern in one setting may not cause the same effects when some of the conditions change. An attempt to writing lab, give a practical example of the emergent communication pattern can be seen in paper about, the figure above, an attempt to create the title of resume daycare owner this paper in colourful letters. The letters are provided by individuals posting pictures to Flickr.com, a service hosting pictures and giving their users the option of research paper war tagging their images. Tagging is one approach to resume daycare, the ordering of research paper about information by unorganised efforts, often called folksonomy (Quintarelli, 2005). Some of those who upload pictures of an #147;O#148; choose to tag it with the tags #147;oneletter#148; and #147;o#148;.
When this paper was written 3,408 pictures were tagged this with #147;oneletter#148;. Flickr also provides an application interface (API) available for owner, non#150;commercial use by outside developers (Flickr, 2006), something that made it possible to write a script (Kastner, 2005) which I could use to make the title. The final result is possible because of the war contribution from a number of people, not connected to resume, each other and with no obvious intentions on collaborating. The communication patterns are limited by the two initial questions: #147;Who controls production?#148;, and #147;Who controls distribution?#148; These questions do not address the different actors' underlying motivation, in research paper about the civil war, other words: which and dream essay whose interests benefit from different patterns? Some initial answers to this question may be formulated by using what Michel de Certeau calls strategies and tactics, used in his analysing the nature and research paper the civil war politics of the american dream cultural production within #147;the practice of everyday life#148; . Research Paper About! Strategies are manifested through institutional means of essay sexi control in what one can describe as more closed systems.
Among the communication patterns presented #147;transmission#148;, #147;registration#148;, and #147;consultation#148; may be characterized as strategic/more closed communication patterns where the control is centralized. On the other hand, any economic, political, or technological system has to give their users some #147;space#148; for movement, qualities that connotes more openness . Only a completely totalitarian regime will be able to reserve these spaces for exclusive purposes and these limitations to the application of paper about the civil war strategies allow individuals to develop tactics . Certeau describe tactics as individual techniques of knowing how to operate within the processes of a dominating system. Common examples of such techniques are informal communication, improvisations, unauthorized simplification of procedures, unintended usage, etc. #147;Sharing#148;, #147;collaboration#148;, and #147;emergence#148; #151; where users are in control #151; are more tactical and open patterns. When designing a communication system one will have to come up with solutions that fulfill multiple purposes. One will never be able to design solely on the basis of daycare owner either strategic or tactical needs. Experience from designing and testing a virtual learning environment in primary schools (Hoem, 2006) indicates that most users were satisfied when the designers focused on facilitating communication patterns found in research the civil, the middle of the model: #147;syndication#148;, #147;dialogue#148;, and #147;commenting#148;.
This is not surprising, as long as these communication patterns are where strategies and tactics are most likely to merge. In the case of a communication system used in education this becomes a negotiated solution between the different needs of the essays of georg administration, educators, and learners. Communication patterns provide a terminology that can be used to describe and discuss openness in relationships between users. However, research context always influences the deifinition of terms and there are numerous definitions of openness. For example: degrees of openness can be discussed by war looking at technical factors that cause interruptions between an information source and on criticism summary those who are going to receive information. Communication patterns may still provide a useful framework, but emergence would probably not be characterised as the most open pattern is this scenario. The question of #147;place#148; is one essential aspect of openness that has not been discussed in this article. I mentioned some problems of physical access in the introduction, and when introducing Benkler#146;s model, but our relationships to space are perhaps where the most significant changes will come in the next few years. Research Paper About The Civil War! Production and consumption of information was freed from some of the restrictions of space by writing, and brought to a state of essay sexi #147;no sense of place#148; (Meyrowitz, 1985) by electronic media. Today the importance of place is the civil war, reinforced by the ability to interactive essays in memory henrik, position mobile devices, making it possible to control access to research paper the civil war, information and objects on the basis of where the users are in physical space.
Connections between users and objects in physical space have to be coordinated with a number of other connections in virtual space, calling for a more complex understanding of the intersections between these spaces (Manovich, 2006), facilitated by communication systems. How we relate to different social situations becomes further complicated when users of networked communication systems have to make a number of significant decisions about information. Users will have to make continuous judgements about an essay summary how they produce information, by about where they are, who they communicate with, which devices they use, and so on. Wittgenstein Essays In Memory Of Georg Henrik! Users indeed may want to opt for less open solutions, characterised as restricted with a bias towards closeness. The Civil War! The designers of future communication systems need to be strongly aware of how users benefit from different communication patterns in different situations. Jon Hoem gives lectures at the Department of Art and Media studies (IKM) of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim.
He works with the essay sexi Bergen University College (HiB) and is doing a PhD on how to use #147;personal publishing#148; as a tool for learning. His most recent book is entitled Informasjonsdesign for digitale medier . E#150;mail: Jon [dot] Hoem [at] hib [dot] no. 1. The Civil War! Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006, p. Writing Lab! 3. 2. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001, p. 10. 3. UNPAN, 2004, pp.
18#150;19. 4. UNPAN, 2004, p. 70. 5. Powazek, 2002, pp. 22#150;. 6. Berman, 2004, p. 6. 7. Benkler, 2000, p. 562. 8. Paper About! Lessig, 2001, p. 25. 9. On Criticism Summary Pope! Habermas, 1989, p. 176. 10. Benkler, 2000, p. 568. 12.
Kelly, 1994, chap. 23. 14. Manovich, 2001, p. 124. 17. Certeau, 1984, p. xix. Espen J. Aarseth, 1997. Paper The Civil War! #147;Introduction: Ergodic literature,#148; In: Espen J. Aarseth. Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature . Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, and at http://www.hf.uib.no/cybertext/Ergodic.html, accessed 26 February 2006. Yochai Benkler, 2000. #147;From consumers to on criticism pope, users: Shifting the research about deeper structures of regulation towards sustainable commons and user access,#148; Federal Communication Law Journal , volume 52, at http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v52/no3/benkler1.pdf, accessed 23 April 2006. Saul J. Berman, 2004. #147;Media and writing lab entertainment 2010 Open on research paper about war the inside, open on the outside: The open media company of the future,#148; IBM Institute for Business Value study , at http://www-1.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge510-3569-01f-media-2010.pdf, accessed 25 April 2006.
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Paper received 30 April 2006; accepted 17 May 2006. Openness in communication by Jon Hoem. First Monday , Volume 11, Number 7 — 3 July 2006 (Proceedings of the 2nd First Monday Conference, May 2006, Chicago)