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Mood Disorders Essay Example for Free
Book Review #8211; a Matter of Principle. A Review of Conrad Black’s A Matter of Principle Conrad Moffat Black, former newspaper tycoon, historian and celebrity is an interesting man, to say the essay questions mood, least. The topic of his fall from business, professional, financial and questions mood disorders social grace is legendary and is one that still elicits numerous newspaper columns and debates. The latest matter of interest in his lengthy protracted battle is his extraordinary memoir, A Matter of thesis, Principle. Essay Disorders. Written largely from his prison cell in Coleman Federal Correction Complex in Florida, the book is a compelling narrative of his tribulations. With his command of the English language, Lord Black is at once strikingly eloquent, acidly cynical, ferociously angry, and surprisingly funny. However, the book teeters at the edge of being nothing more than a self-glorified memoir, laced with attacks on detractors. In the first three chapters of the book, Black charts his illustrious newspaper career, beginning from U. K. Business Finance Thesis. ’s Telegraph to his crowning achievement – National Post. Essay Questions Disorders. And in between his tales of rubbing shoulders with the powerful, he offers his take on thesis world affairs, yet almost ironically maintains that he has never exercised his power to sway public policy. He also spares a page-and-half to rant on Jean Chretien for opposing his proposed dual citizenship (Black was to be inducted into the British House of Lords).
Near the end of Chapter three, the readers are also introduced to essay mood some of thesis about the holocaust, Black’s questionable activities the sale of Hollinger Inc. ’s newspaper properties to CanWest, and the resultant non-compete payments. Chapter four marks the beginning of Black’s misfortune as he describes the essay questions disorders, investigation by Hollinger’s audit committee into the company’s funds. Black recounts being secretly videotaped while clearing out essay narrative his Toronto offices; his actions land him with charges of obstruction of justice. Over the next four chapters, Black recounts his trial process and essay disorders ends his story with the final hearing in Chicago that found him guilty. One of the essay narrative, first weaknesses a keen reader will spot is disorders, that Black struggles to find an appropriate voice in the two hundred pages of the book. Etymology. He attempts at a conversational tone, but comes off as oddly detached. The lack of a definitive theme is also due to Black’s breezy narrative that dashes from one key life event to essay mood the next. He jumps from his university days, to advising the Prime Minister of Britain, to the 1996 London bombings. Though enjoyable, these are only longing reminiscences of an imprisoned man, rather than key elements of his harrowing journey that forms the remainder of the book. In fact, it is only in page 269 that readers see Black defending the principles he alludes to in the book’s title. That being said, these sundry recollections offer readers a respite from detailed corporate machinations, which are also present in the first two hundred pages of the book.
Black risks losing his readers when he delves into corporate debt reorganizations and your most embarrassing moment share buy-backs that are both boring and confusing to the non-business mind. Hence, the narrative remains almost disjointed in the first third of the book, until Black is stripped of his title at Hollinger International, setting in motion the events that form the bulk of the book. The biggest flaw in the book is Black’s unmistakable bias, as he categorizes individuals based on their stance on essay questions mood his guilt or innocence; those who believe in etymology his innocence are virtuous, while those convinced of essay, his guild are either wrong or misguided. Describe Embarrassing Moment. In his own words “no one except me was telling the truth, but it wasn’t clear who was lying and who was merely mistaken. ” Similarly, when court decisions go against essay mood, him they are hopelessly wrong and indicative of the flaws of the judicial system, but when a decision is made in the holocaust his favour, it is questions disorders, absolutely correct and undisputed. While it is obvious that the prosecution and conviction of Black is the prism through which the story is told, it becomes tiresome when the readers are incessantly conditioned to view Black as the hobbies, lone voice of truth in the midst of the deceit and lies. Moreover, the mood, means and the extent to which Black denounces his opponents, perceived or real can be quite off-putting. In Black’s story, his greatest villains are Richard Breeden and David Radler. Breeden was the write world over, former chair of the S. E. C and the man behind the “Corporate Kleptocracy” report that resulted in Black’s criminal charges. Black’s attack on Breeden is quite spiteful; Black describes him as “Round, flabby face; dull, lifeless eyes behind thick spectacles…with the bloodless, piscine coldness of mood disorders, someone whose power vastly exceeded his intelligence. Radler was a long-time associate of Black’s who made a plea bargain with American prosecutors in exchange for narrative, providing evidence against Black. On Radler, he says “It was naturally a very strange experience listening to his false incrimination of me but also seeing his squinty, evasive eyes…he looked like a man bound for the gallows, worn down as much by a knowledge of his own wretchedness as by the impending punishment” Expectably, Black’s acid remarks are not just for essay disorders, Breeden and Radler; he slams all those involved in describe your embarrassing his downfall.
On Paul Healy, Hollinger’s V. P. of investor relations, Black says “he had a little porcine face so puffy it made his spectacles seem smaller… a maladjusted, scheming courtier, alternately fawning and snarling at the hand that fed him for so long. Essay Questions Mood. ” Black specifically saves a lot of firepower on Eddie Greenspan, his lead defence attorney who fizzled in business American courts; he says “The deterioration of such a man is objectively sad, and is made more so by the inelegance of his acts of denial and displacement of responsibility for his own shortcomings and aggressive paranoia. On the jury that convicted him, he says, “I was unprepared for such a procession of mainly monosyllabic and listless people. ” Such vilifying attacks are a few of many examples of Black’s verbal war on his critics. While his anger towards his critics is understandable, what is frustrating is his tendency to engage in baseless reporting. For instance, he declares that twenty percent of his fellow inmates were entirely innocent, a number seemingly plucked solely based on his conversations with his fellow inmates. Questions Mood Disorders. Also according to him, the U. S. government fills its prison system with unemployed visible minorities in order to keep unemployment rate down. Black risks losing his already damaged credibility with such uncorroborated statements. For all of the book’s weaknesses, Black redeems himself, at least partially, with his superb prose and infectious ardour. The book is a delectable read simply based on its literary merits. Some paragraphs are worth rereading just to be admired as works of thesis about the holocaust, art. The paragraphs in which he expresses his love and loyalty for his wife, his late brother or even deceased friends are quite moving and stand out essay questions mood disorders as great examples of his powerful prose.
Indeed, in your most moment the hands of essay, a less assured writer, the story of resume hobbies list, Black’s clash with his opponents would have been a bombastic mess, but after his initial struggles Black offers a gripping tale of essay disorders, his ordeal. When Black’s passion for defending his honour is coupled with his mastery of the language, what you get is resume hobbies, a riveting experience. The broad ethical issues raised in A Matter of Principle revolve around the essay mood, integrity of senior executives and ethical corruption. Black’s case is as much about breaking the law as it is getting entangled in ethical gray areas. Tweedy Browne, a U. S investment firm that owned 18% of Hollinger International accused Black and your embarrassing other directors of awarding themselves with unauthorized management payments and millions of dollars of non-competition fees through Ravelston, Black’s personal equity company. Black was ultimately found guilty of a slew of charges including fraud, money laundering and obstruction of justice. Given that Black has penned the book himself, he defends his actions vehemently. He maintains that the mood, Audit Committee explicitly approved the non-competition payments (totalling $80 million).
On the management fees, he states that “the total of thesis etymology, what we received had been sharply reduced when we shrank the company. Essay. ” Overall, the ethical issues in the book highlight the importance of fiduciary duty the duty of a senior executive to the shareholders of the company. The Holocaust. The book also highlights the power of intelligent shareholder activism, as practiced by questions disorders Tweedy Browne, which ultimately resulted in Black’s downfall. Ultimately, A Matter of Principle is a powerful read. List. While the book is bogged down with bilious attacks against Black’s critics, it packs a powerful punch. Essay. Black’s eloquence in describing the viciousness of the prosecutorial efforts and the harshness of his punishment is breathtaking. His continued insistence on his honesty and innocence is also admirable.
His intention with this book does not seem to be to questions sway readers’ opinions, but rather to settle accounts. Whether he has achieved this or not, one this is for sure, Conrad Black’s story will not fade from memory for essay questions mood, many years to come. #8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212; [ 1 ]. (pg. 46-90), A Matter of finance thesis, Principle [ 2 ]. (pg. 182-198) [ 3 ]. (pg. 142) [ 4 ]. (pg. 135) [ 5 ]. Essay Questions Mood. (pg. 392) [ 6 ]. (pg. 401) [ 7 ]. (pg. 418) [ 8 ]. (pg. 277) [ 9 ]. (pg.
465) [ 10 ]. Thesis The Holocaust. (pg. 514) [ 11 ]. (pg. 146) [ 12 ]. (pg. 96) [ 13 ]. (pg. 97) Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?
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Mood Disorders Essay - 1377 Words
How to create your focused, relevant CV. Three sections makes it easy and clear for the reader. EDUCATION: normally at the top (especially for recent graduates entering the jobs market for questions mood, the first time). Include awards under each relevant education section, for example, grant awards for a DPhil, school prizes, undergraduate prizes or high rankings (‘2nd in year’) EXPERIENCE (rather than “Employment”): this can include voluntary work, student society roles, internships, paid work etc INTERESTS or COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AND SKILLS should be included to indicate extra, diverse talents. Narrative! Within this section, you might use sub-categories such as IT Skills (but only if they are specialist or unusual); Languages; Music; Sports etc. Remember that the CV is to get you the meeting or interview only, so don’t feel you have to questions mood, include every last detail – leave them wanting to learn more about you.
Specific things to leave out business finance thesis include: The words ‘Curriculum Vitae’ or ‘CV’ Date of birth and / or age Marital status, disability, children, partner, sexual preferences, sex, racial background, religion Home address Nationality – unless you want to essay disorders, show that you do have the etymology, Right to Work in the country in question Referees – this takes up space, they’ll assume you have them, there are probably other opportunities to record these details Basic IT skills: these days everyone can use the internet, word processing, spreadsheets etc to a competent level – but do include any super-advanced qualifications in essay questions mood, MS Office and of course any specialist software like C++, SPSS etc Areas of potential, personal contention, e.g. religious beliefs, political affiliation (though if you’ve worked for narrative, a political organisation this will obviously be mentioned under work experience) Soft interests such as ‘socialising with friends, cooking, reading, cinema’. Mood! If you do have deep and specialist interest in one of business finance thesis, these, then give more details: ‘French films of 1940-1960’ Aim to create powerful bullet points, with each bullet focused on questions disorders a single idea. Consider applying the ‘CAR’ mnemonic. Context : the organisation name, your job title and dates is resume hobbies often sufficient. Action Words that demonstrate you took responsibility are useful for mood, starting the bullet point, to highlight skills used – e.g. Business Finance! analysed, created, recommended, managed or led. See our list of action words on our Demonstrate You Fit the Job Criteria page for essay questions, more. Results can often be linked within an individual bullet point.
The traditional – or ‘reverse chronological’ – CV is the most commonly used format. Essay! It often lists your education, experience and additional activities – with your most recent achievements first. The sections of the traditional CV will normally be as follows: Personal information – such as contact details – but NOT date of birth, sex, marital status etc. Space may mean you should just list one contact detail, e.g. Oxford email address (not [email protected]), and your mobile number Education Experience – the core of your CV Additional skills Interests. This format makes it easy for employers to mood, spot relevant information fast and gives a complete picture of a candidate in how to write world history, a clear and structured way. Remember, however, that you can alter the titles to suit the application you are making. For example, you could use the mood disorders, heading “Teaching Experience” instead of “Experience” if you are applying for a teaching job. Even if you don’t have much paid work experience, you can include voluntary work or contributions you have made to describe your most embarrassing moment, clubs or societies (inside or outside Oxford).
In a skills-based CV, the information is disorders arranged to highlight relevant skills, with details presented under different skills categories. Thesis Questions About The Holocaust! A concise summary of your work history normally precedes or follows your relevant skills section, to provide context. This type of CV is used to highlight the transferability of your skills, and so is useful if you are applying to a role without direct experience. We generally only recommend using this style if you have great experience, as a considerable amount of evidence is required to make the skills sound meaningful. As such, it is normally used by: people changing career direction people transitioning from academia into mood industry or other sectors. However, a similar style may be useful if you are applying to resume hobbies, your first ever piece of work experience and have had few positions of responsibility, as it allows you to emphasise transferable skills you have gained from studying at Oxford. If you are heading to north America, then you might need a resume rather than a CV.
They are very similar documents so use our CV guide, and supplement it with the information here to build a great CV into a great resume. Default page size – A4 (21cm x 29.7cm) is replaced by Letter (21.59cm x 27.94cm) Use ‘Page Layout’ options in Word (or equivalent) to questions disorders, change the size of your document page Cut down a piece of thesis, A3 paper to size when checking out how it prints. Spelling – insure / ensure the resume is essay questions disorders oriented / orientated to thesis etymology, the readers’ spelling conventions: Set your default language to US or Canadian English to use your spelling and grammar check Watch out for common ‘Britishisms’ such as ‘analysed’ and ‘organised’ (both have a ‘z’ in essay mood, North America) See Wikipedia’s page on spelling differences. Include a cover letter with a resume, unless you are told otherwise Write a considered and your embarrassing moment essay thoughtful thank you letter within 48 hours of any interview Convert your resume and essay disorders cover letter into PDFs before sending them to an employer. The academic CV is very different from a CV used for business finance thesis, non-academic job applications. It focuses purely on your academic achievements and experience, and there is no page limit – although you should always keep it concise and relevant.
First, look at questions mood, the skills and competencies that the hiring department / research group requires. You can identify these from the person specification, the job advert, or your own research. Write An Ap World History Time Essay! Is this a research or teaching only job? Or will you be doing research, teaching and administration (typical for lectureships)? Do they highlight any particular skill areas, such as organisation or team work?
Look at what you need to do to apply. CVs are usually accompanied by cover letters, but they might also ask you to submit an application form, research and/or teaching statement. Once you are clear what the employer wants, start to tailor your CV to the post. The following sections are typical for the academic CV: Personal Information . Start the CV with your name, address, telephone number and email address. Research Interests . Write bullet points or a short paragraph summarising your research. Essay Questions! Education . Include degrees, possibly titles of theses, and the names of supervisors. Awards and narrative Funding . Questions Mood Disorders! Include undergraduate/postgraduate prizes, travel grants, doctoral scholarships, early career fellowships, and grants you have led on essay or are named on. Research Experience . Questions Disorders! Include any post docs or fellowships and business finance thesis research assistant jobs. You might include more detail about your doctoral research in this section too.
Teaching Experience . Note any lecturing, seminar, tutorial, supervising, demonstrating, mentoring experience, and potentially non-academic teaching. Give details about the role and responsibilities – even if it was informal – such as level of students, class sizes and topics you taught. Admin Experience . Highlight any conferences/seminars/reading groups you’ve organised, committees you have sat upon, and mood any other relevant administration experience. Relevant Training . Include academic teaching training, research methods training etc. Relevant research/technical/laboratory skills . You may find it useful to list these under one heading if you find yourself repeating throughout various sections. Thesis The Holocaust! Patents . Give details of the title, inventors, patent number and date granted.
Professional memberships. List these – e.g. the Royal Society of Chemistry or the British Association of American Studies. Include dates. Publications . Give full details as you would if citing them, and use a consistent style. You may wish to highlight (e.g. bold/underline) your name.
Conference presentations and posters . Highlight whether paper or poster and cite similarly to your publications with full author list, title, date and questions mood location. Referees . Ideally these should all be academic referees. They should be people who know you well and who are known in your field. Make sure the CV is focused on essay narrative academia. Only include non-academic work experience or extra-curricular activities and interests if you feel they are very relevant to the post you are applying for. Essay Questions Mood! You might include languages and IT skills if they are relevant. Thesis Etymology! You might include your nationality in questions, your personal details if you think it will be an advantage – e.g. so that they know you are a European citizen and have the right to work in the UK. If you have limited or no published work, consider including works in thesis etymology, progress.
Clearly label publications as ‘forthcoming’, ‘under review’ or ‘submitted’ if they are in process, but not yet in print or accepted. If you are unconcerned about giving your ideas away before they go to a publisher, you could have a separate heading for ‘Working Papers’ that you are preparing for publication but have not submitted yet. Include when and where you plan to essay questions disorders, submit them. If you have been invited to give seminars or conference papers, highlight under a separate heading. Translate jargon/acronyms that others might not understand, especially if applying abroad. Make sure you read the “Top Tips” in “Standard CVs”, above, which are relevant to how to history time essay, Academic CVs as well.
Does your name stand out? (Write it at the top – no need to say “Curriculum Vitae”) Can you be easily contacted using the information you’ve given? Are there particularly relevant courses/projects/extended essays you could mention? Are A-levels and GCSEs summarised on one or two lines each? Have you given an indication of the equivalence or grading system of any non-UK qualifications? Are section headings tailored to the recipient? (e.g. Essay Mood Disorders! Teaching Experience, Voluntary Work, etc.) Have you included greater detail on more relevant experience? Have you tailored your achievements and essay skills to the job? Are your sentences punchy and concise? Have you followed the essay questions, advice in our page on an ap world change demonstrating you fit the job criteria?
Is it clear what level of attainment you have in languages, IT, etc.? Are you able to use this section as another opportunity to demonstrate required competencies? Have you indicated your level of commitment? Is this section headed “referees” and not “references”? If you are giving contact details – have you asked your referees’ permission? Does the section take up too much space? If so, put their details on a single line – for example: Dr M. Mood Disorders! Misra, Keble College, Oxford, OX1 1AB, [email protected], 01865 377778. Does it look attractive at your most embarrassing moment, first glance? Would you want to questions mood disorders, read it? Would an employer want to read it?
Does it fit on to one or two full pages? Has it been checked for accurate and business thesis consistent grammar and mood spelling? Many recruiters will dismiss even the most qualified candidate if there is about the holocaust even one typo in the CV, cover letter or application form. Are fonts (type and size) consistent and questions mood not too small (11pt minimum)? Is the layout well balanced, with effective use of thesis questions about the holocaust, space, using the full width of the page? Broadly speaking, does the questions mood disorders, most relevant information occupy the most space? Are dates reverse chronological if you are using this type of format? Have you quantified your achievements?
Have you checked for gaps in your history? We recommend you explain any significant time gaps in your CV. About The Holocaust! There is questions disorders no right or wrong way of presenting your personal circumstances. Describe Your Embarrassing Moment! You may have been travelling, working on mood disorders an independent project (e.g. writing), been ill, or caring for others. If it helps, speak with a Careers Adviser to identify the most effective way for you to an ap world history change time essay, present your circumstances on a CV and/or cover letter as this will differ with each individual. Hold your CV at arms-length – does it look easy to read? Fold it vertically and scan the left side in 3 seconds. – Will the reader get the gist of your application? – Are your strongest responsibilities and achievements immediately visible? Check for jargon and essay mood acronyms, and over-long bullets – edit vigorously Is it the business thesis, right length?
– Some employers ( e.g. investment banks) expect just one page, so check beforehand. – Aim for a maximum of two pages, except for an academic CV Save your CV as a PDF to ensure it keeps its beautiful formatting Finally, finally , take a break and then proofread – yes, again! Double check for typos and errors. Mood! Then send it off! It can take a number of revisions before you are happy with your CV, and getting independent advice can prove very helpful: it might all make perfect sense to you, but you could be surprised by the things that others may question or not understand. Make an appointment and ask for about the holocaust, feedback from mood a Careers Adviser.
For sector specific advice about how to world change over time, how to tailor your CV please refer to our sector information. Putting Together the Perfect Consulting CV – information sheet Careers Beyond Profit – How to Write a Winning CV – presentation slides CVs: A Brief Introduction – presentation slides. Our Resource Centre has a number of files and essay questions books on CV writing that you may find useful. The Careers Service subscribes to essay narrative, GoinGlobal on behalf of Oxford students. Essay Mood! It features around 40 country guides. You can get advice on your CV from any of our Careers Advisers by resume, booking an essay mood disorders advice appointment.
Most of our careers fairs also have CV Clinics, to get advice from recruiters. Prospects: CV Writing – has sample CVs, sample covering letters, and tips on what to include TARGETjobs: Applications and CV Advice Academic CVs: 10 Irritating Mistakes – a Guardian article, 2013 Vitae: Researcher CVs: A specialist resource for the professional development of researchers, including many example CVs for narrative, careers inside and outside academia Vitae: Academic CVs: Information specifically on academic CV writing jobs.ac.uk – more information on questions disorders academic CVs. Upcoming Career Workshops for Researchers. Career Management for Research Staff and your most DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for questions mood disorders, University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and essay future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. Essay Questions Mood! An interactive mix of short individual exercises and describe your embarrassing small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and questions mood personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. Finance Thesis! You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to essay questions disorders, begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps.
[email protected] Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Business! Depending on essay questions mood disorders the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to hobbies list, discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to essay questions mood, get the essay narrative, most out of the essay questions, fair. Further information on the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for about the holocaust, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event.
[email protected] Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and essay questions staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on thesis about the holocaust the number of essay questions mood, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out business thesis of the fair. Further information on mood the fair can be found on thesis etymology our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the essay, event. [email protected] Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on questions the holocaust our Fairs page. Mood! The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Want to work in the public sector?
If you are interest in careers anywhere within the thesis questions about, public sector, in mood, addition to our first presentation on Monday 9 October at the Careers Service on the Civil Service Fast Stream (14:15 – 15:30) you should make plans to join us at the Oxford Careers Fair on 14 October. A clutch of leading public sector employers will be at your most moment essay, the fair throughout the day, and our panel session Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will bring together representatives from questions mood Times Top 100 employers Teach First, the NHS Leadership Academy, the Civil Service Fast Stream, Frontline and the National Graduate Development Programme for local government (NGDP). The organisations will showcase their leadership development opportunities in a variety of exciting public sector roles and you can discover more about the importance of the resume, key transferable skills in mood, the sector. Each employer will give a short presentation about the key skills they look for, followed by world history over, a QA panel session. Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will start at 13:20. You do not need to book a place, but please bear in questions mood, mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first-served basis. As popular events may fill early, please arrive in good time! The new iteration of the HOLT Valuation Challenge is online. It provides you with the opportunity to win outstanding prizes that could kick-start their careers in finance: Compete to secure an interview spot with Credit Suisse HOLT and their affiliates.
Win access to embarrassing moment, select courses to further develop their specialization in finance. The competition is open to all students (BA, MA, MBA and PhD). The HOLT Valuation Challenge is an online competition in which you will become familiar with the Credit Suisse HOLT methodology. By participating in the Challenge, your financial knowledge will expand, resulting in better skills in your future career. Apply now for essay questions, a ninth week Micro-Internship! “It was a great experience that let me contribute to a close-knit team of people working on a global scale. The Holocaust! It gave me a key insight into essay disorders the sector and taught me a lot about this kind of work.’ – MT16 micro-intern. If you would like to describe your moment essay, boost your CV with valuable experience, then the Micro-Internship Programme is for you!
Applications are now open for 2-5 day exclusive work experience placements in essay questions, 9 th week (4-8 December 2017), taking place in Oxfordshire or Greater London. The deadline for applications is midnight, 22 October 2017. Add experience to list, your CV and stand out from the crowd Develop your professional skills and essay questions disorders employability Gain insight into narrative a sector and organisation Enhance commercial awareness Make industry contacts. Placements can be industry or research based, and you will be assisting, observing and shadowing on a small project or ongoing work. Questions Mood Disorders! Placements this term range from producing a business model for a Tanzanian water project, to hands-on projects at essay, an economics consultancy, to essay questions mood, marketing an organisation’s 15 th anniversary. Whilst these placements are voluntary, organisations must reimburse interns with local travel and an ap history over essay lunch expenses on submission of receipts. The programme is essay questions mood open to thesis etymology, full-time, matriculated students, and essay questions disorders you can apply online through CareerConnect. Please visit the Micro-Internships webpage for more information about the resume hobbies list, programme.
The Internship Office offers Application Support Sessions for advice on your CV and personal statement, bookable via CareerConnect. The deadline for mood disorders, applications is midnight, 22 October 2017. Who can I contact with a question? Please send any queries to Rosanna Mills at [email protected] When: 16.00-17.00, 11 October Where: The Careers Service. If you are planning on becoming a solicitor or barrister but are not currently studying law, then this session will help you to navigate the process of qualification and answer questions about further study, funding, and what to do and when!
Students who hold non-qualifying Law Degrees (for example, from outside the English Welsh jurisdiction) may also find this useful if they wish to thesis questions, qualify in England Wales.
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Moods disorders Essay Examples
The Misguided Attacks on ACLU for Defending Neo-Nazis’ Free Speech Rights in Charlottesville. Each time horrific political violence is perpetrated that is deemed to questions disorders, be terrorism, a search is immediately conducted for culprits to blame other than those who actually perpetrated the violence or endorsed the hobbies, group responsible for it. It’s usually only essay disorders a matter of hours before the attack is exploited to declare one’s own political views as vindicated, and to list, depict one’s political adversaries as responsible for, if not complicit in, the violence. Often accompanying this search for disorders, villains is a list of core civil liberties that we’re told ought to be curtailed in the name of preventing similar acts of describe most essay, violence in the future. All of this typically happens before much of anything is known about the killer, his actual inspirations, his mental health, or his associations. In the aftermath of the widespread horror such violence naturally produces, the easiest target for these guilty-by-association tactics are those who have advocated for the legal rights of the group that the individual attacker is a member of and/or those who have defended the legal right to express opinions in mood, the name of thesis questions about the holocaust, which the essay questions, attack was carried out. These tactics are most familiar when a Muslim perpetrates violence within a Western city, aimed at Westerners. Before anything is known about the attacker other than his religious identity, the violence is instantly declared to be terrorism. Then the search is quickly launched to thesis, find anyone who can be said to be responsible for essay mood disorders, the violence by virtue of having “encouraged” or “enabled” Islamic extremism, often by hobbies, doing nothing more than having defended the legal rights of the essay mood, group being blamed for the attack.
At the top of the blame list, one always finds a wide range of imams who preach Islam — even those who have never in their lives advocated violence of any kind — as well as activists who defend Muslims from bigotry and persecution. But also prominently featured in write an ap world history over time essay, this vilification game are legal groups, such as the Council on American-Islamic Relations and the American Civil Liberties Union, that defend the free speech rights and other civil liberties of Muslims to be free of state persecution and suppression. Essay Mood? Recently, even social media platforms that allow Muslims to thesis, express themselves without state censorship are said to questions disorders, be “complicit.” Linking CAIR to terrorist attacks because of their civil liberties work is commonplace among the Islamophobic right. The ACLU — which has defended accused Al Qaeda terrorists, tried to thesis, prevent the Obama administration from killing Anwar al-Awlaki without due process, and opposed the essay questions mood disorders, criminal prosecution of Muslim extremists on free speech grounds — is constantly vilified as terrorist enablers by how to change time essay, the anti-Muslim right as a result of essay, that civil liberties advocacy. And now, each time there’s a new attack, the hobbies, UK government routinely accuses Facebook and other social media companies of essay mood disorders, “aiding and abetting” the Islamic State and hobbies list, Al Qaeda because of its refusal to obey UK government orders about which views should be censored from the site.
That anyone who defends the legal rights of terrorists or gives them a platform is culpable for essay questions mood disorders, the violence they commit has been standard neoconservative and far right cant for decades. One of the most odious examples came from 2009 when a new group started by resume hobbies list, Bill Kristol and Lynne Cheney — calling itself “Keep America Safe” — produced ads strongly implying that Obama DOJ lawyers who defended accused Al Qaeda suspects were supporters of jihadist violence against the U.S.: Demonizing lawyers and civil liberties advocates by depicting them as “complicit” in the heinous acts of their clients is a long-standing scam that is not confined to the U.S. The Belgian lawyer who represented one of the mood disorders, Muslim attackers in Paris, Sven Mary, said “he had suffered physical and verbal attacks and his daughters had even needed a police escort to business thesis, school.” Needless to say, none of these legal organizations or individual lawyers condone violence. They all vehemently oppose the ideology and worldview in the name of which this violence is committed. Yet they are all blamed for the violence and accused of complicity in it because they defend the essay, free speech rights and civil liberties of people who express views in the name of which violence is committed.
This same warped mentality — blaming civil liberties advocates for the bad acts of their clients — was on full display yesterday in the wake of the heinous car attack in Charlottesville, Virginia, by a white nationalist on a group of thesis questions about, anti-fascist protesters. That attack killed one woman, a 32-year-old paralegal, Heather Heyer, and injured multiple anti-racist protesters, many of whom were members of groups, such as Democratic Socialists of America and Industrial Workers of the World, now regularly castigated as the “alt-left” (as though they bear any resemblance to essay questions mood, the “alt-right” groups they bravely protest). The accused attacker, 20-year-old James Alex Fields Jr., is in custody. He seems to describe moment essay, have been photographed participating before the attack in the white nationalist march. And Field’s local Ohio paper cited his mother as saying that “her son texted her Friday to say he had dropped his cat off at her Monclova Township apartment so he could go to an ‘alt-right’ rally in Virginia.”
Photo: Samuel Corum/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images. Some of the attempts to assign culpability for this violence on others besides the perpetrator were reasonable and rational. Essay Questions Disorders? In particular, a legitimate causal connection can be drawn between this violence and the two-year flirtation by Donald Trump and essay narrative, several of his closest advisers with the questions disorders, rhetoric and even the activism of white nationalism, as even many of the white supremacists themselves recognized. As I argued last August, it seemed only a matter of time before Trump’s worldview sparked violence of this kind: The rhetoric that [Trump has] been embracing over the past 18 months is extraordinarily frightening, because, even if he loses, he is an ap history change essay emboldening extremist nationalism, racism, all kinds of bigotry. He’s giving license for its expression. He is serving as a galvanizing force for these very dangerous elements, not just in the American political culture, but in Europe and elsewhere throughout the right. But other blame attempts were not just baseless but themselves deeply pernicious, a mirror image of the ugly Kristol/Cheney campaign against the Obama Justice Department lawyers who had defended the due process rights of Al Qaeda members. Last week, the ACLU sparked controversy when it announced that it was defending the free speech rights of “alt-right” activist Milo Yiannopoulos after the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority refused to allow ads for his book to essay questions mood disorders, be displayed on public transit. Lost in hobbies, the debate was that other groups the ACLU was defending along with Yiannopoulos were also censored under the disorders, same rule: Carafem, which helps women access birth control and medical abortion; the animal rights group PETA; and the ACLU itself. For representing Yiannopoulos, the civil liberties group was widely accused of defending and enabling fascism.
But the ACLU wasn’t “defending Yiannopoulos” as much as it was opposing a rule that allows state censorship of any controversial political messages the state wishes to suppress: a rule that is resume list often applied to groups which are supported by many who attacked the ACLU here. The same formula was applied yesterday when people learned that the ACLU of Virginia had represented the white supremacist protesters in Charlottesville after city officials tried to ban the group from gathering in Emancipation Park where a statue of Robert E. Lee was to be removed (city officials tried to move the march to an isolated location one mile away). One board member of the ACLU of Virginia, Waldo Jaquith, waited until the essay, violence erupted to announce on Twitter that he was resigning in thesis etymology, protest of the ACLU’s representation of the questions, protesters — as though he was unaware when he joined the board that the ACLU has been representing the describe your moment essay, free speech rights of neo-Nazis and other white supremacist groups (along with communists, Muslims, war protesters, and the full spectrum of marginalized minorities and leftists) for many decades. Many attacked the ACLU’s decision to represent Yiannopoulos and these Charlottesville protests as though they were allies of the marchers, while others literally accused them of questions mood disorders, enabling fascism or even blamed them for the violence: The antifascists targeted in essay narrative, the white supremacist terror attack today will forever remember the ACLU's positionhttps://t.co/6Mj1UMaM7T. Defund the essay mood, ACLU. Please stop donating to them. https://t.co/bx90vKEz3Z. ACLU CELEBRATES CAUSING DEATH TO ANTI-FASCISTS AT THE HANDS OF NAZI AND KKK. The ACLU of etymology, Virginia has blood on their hands through defending these Nazis' right to assemble. pretty cool how we all donated to the @aclu after the election and essay disorders, they used that money to business finance thesis, support milo nice nice nice. you just confessed to being white supremacists.
You don't get to defend them and claim separation. You. Are. Their. Allies. (Ironically, just last month, the ACLU was the target of a similar de-funding campaign by the anti-Islam, pro-Israel right for the group’s defense of questions, Muslim-American activist Linda Sarsour; such is life as a principled civil liberties proponent).
The flaws and dangers in this anti-free speech mindset are manifest, but nonetheless always worth highlighting, especially when horrific violence causes people to want to abridge civil liberties in the name of essay narrative, stopping it. In sum, purporting to oppose fascism by essay questions mood disorders, allowing the state to ban views it opposes is like purporting to oppose human rights abuses by mandating the torture of all prisoners. One of the defining attributes of fascism is forcible suppression of views (“For Ur-Fascism, disagreement is treason,” wrote Umberto Eco); recall that one of Trump’s first proposals after winning the about, 2016 election was to criminalize flag desecration. You can’t fight that ideology by employing and questions mood disorders, championing one of its defining traits: viewpoint-based state censorship. Nobody should be allowed to burn the American flag – if they do, there must be consequences – perhaps loss of citizenship or year in jail! Even if this position could be morally justified, those who favor free speech suppression, or who oppose the ACLU’s universal defense of speech rights, will create results that are the exact opposite of those they claim to want.
It’s an indescribably misguided strategy that will inevitably victimize themselves and their own views. Let’s begin with one critical fact: the resume list, ACLU has always defended, and still does defend, the free speech rights of the most marginalized left-wing activists, from communists and atheists, to essay, hardcore war opponents and pacifists, and has taken up numerous free speech causes supported by many on the left and loathed by the right, including defending the rights of etymology, Muslim extremists and even NAMBLA. That’s true of any consistent civil liberties advocate: we defend the mood disorders, rights of those with views we hate in order to essay, strengthen our defense of the rights of questions, those who are most marginalized and thesis about, vulnerable in society. The ACLU is primarily a legal organization. That means they defend people’s rights in court, under principles of law. Questions? One of the governing tools of resume list, courts is precedent : the application of essay mood, prior rulings to current cases. If the ACLU allows the state to suppress the free speech rights of white nationalists or neo-Nazi groups — by refusing to essay, defend such groups when the state tries to censor them or by allowing them to have inadequate representation — then the ACLU’s ability to defend the free speech rights of groups and people that you like will be severely compromised. It’s easy to be dismissive of this serious aspect of the debate if you’re some white American or non-Muslim American whose free speech is very unlikely to be depicted as “material support for terrorism” or otherwise criminalized. But if you’re someone who cares about the free speech attacks on radical leftists, Muslims, and other marginalized groups, and tries to defend those rights in court, then you’re going to be genuinely afraid of essay mood disorders, allowing anti-free speech precedents to become entrenched that will then be used against you when it’s time to defend free speech rights.
The ACLU is not defending white supremacist groups but instead is defending a principle — one that it must defend if it is going to be successful in defending free speech rights for people you support. Beyond that, the contradiction embedded in this anti-free speech advocacy is so glaring. For many of thesis etymology, those attacking the ACLU here, it is a staple of their worldview that the U.S. is a racist and essay disorders, fascist country and that those who control the government are right-wing authoritarians. Finance Thesis? There is substantial validity to essay questions disorders, that view. Why, then, would people who believe that simultaneously want to vest in these same fascism-supporting authorities the etymology, power to essay questions mood disorders, ban and resume hobbies, outlaw ideas they dislike? Why would you possibly think that the List of Prohibited Ideas will end up including the views you hate rather than the questions mood disorders, views you support? Most levers of state power are now controlled by the Republican Party, while many Democrats have also advocated the an ap world time essay, criminalization of left-wing views. Why would you trust those officials to suppress free speech in ways that you find just and noble, rather than oppressive? As I wrote in my comprehensive 2013 defense of free speech in The Guardian, this overflowing naivete is questions mood what I’ve always found most confounding about the resume hobbies list, left-wing case against essay questions mood disorders universal free speech: this belief that state authorities will exercise this power of thesis about the holocaust, censorship magnanimously and responsibly: “At any given point, any speech that subverts state authority can be deemed — legitimately so — to be hateful and essay disorders, even tending to thesis, incite violence.” Then there’s the back-up attack on questions mood, the ACLU: OK, fine, I’m for free speech, even of thesis questions, Milo and Nazis, but why don’t they spend their resources defending free speech rights for good people rather than white supremacists? Nobody is essay questions mood forcing them to take these cases . As a recent Vox article on the ACLU debate put it: “Some question whether the organization should be using its resources to defend such awful groups of people.
It’s one thing in theory to support universal free speech rights, but it’s another to actually spend time and money defending neo-Nazis.” This was one of the arguments made by ACLU lawyer Chase Strangio in how to write, objecting to questions mood disorders, the group’s decision to defend Yiannopoulous. Notably, this was the same argument made by right-wing neocon activists to attack the Obama DOJ lawyers for defending Al Qaeda members: Y es, fine, everyone deserves a defense, but why did they choose to represent Al Qaeda? As National Review’s Andrew McCarthy put it in thesis questions, attacking those lawyers: “The salient issue in the controversy over Justice Department attorneys who formerly represented our terrorist enemies detained at Guantanamo Bay is this: They were volunteers.” Leave aside the questions, fact that the ACLU does expend vast resources to defend the rights of immigrants, minorities against abusive policing and a racist justice system, and Muslims. Beyond all that, the how to an ap world change over essay, reason it’s vital to questions, expend resources to defend free speech rights of awful people, even white nationalists, is because that’s where free speech battles are always and by definition fought. It’s always those whose views are deemed most odious by the mainstream that are the initial targets of censorship efforts; it’s very rare that the state tries to resume, censor the views held by the mainstream. If you allow those initial censorship efforts to mood disorders, succeed because of your distaste for those being targeted, then you lose the ability to defend the rights of those you like because the censorship principle has been enshrined.
That’s why the ACLU, for instance, defended the free speech rights of the revolting Fred Phelps, and one of its leading LGBT lawyers justified that position this way: We do it because we believe in the principle, and because we realize that once you chip away at one person’s rights, everyone else’s are at risk. … Free speech doesn’t belong only to those we agree with, and the First Amendment doesn’t only business finance protect speech that is tasteful and inoffensive. In fact, it is in the hard cases that our commitment to questions disorders, the First Amendment is most tested and most important. As one federal judge has put it, tolerating hateful speech is “the best protection we have against any Nazi-type regime in this country.” Then, finally, there’s the argument about efficacy. Thesis Questions The Holocaust? How can anyone believe that neo-Nazism or white supremacy will disappear in the U.S., or even be weakened, if it’s forcibly suppressed by the state? Is it not glaringly apparent that the exact opposite essay disorders will happen: by turning them into free speech martyrs, you will do nothing but strengthen them and make them more sympathetic? Literally nothing has helped Yiannopoulos become a national cult figure more than the well-intentioned (but failed) efforts to deny him a platform. Nothing could be better designed to aid their cause than converting a fringe, tiny group of overt neo-Nazis into some sort of describe most moment, poster child for questions disorders, free speech rights. The need to finance thesis, fight neo-Nazism and essay questions disorders, white supremacy wherever it appears is compelling. The least effective tactic is to your most embarrassing moment essay, try to empower the state to suppress the expression of their views.
That will backfire in all sorts of ways: strengthening that movement and ensuring that those who advocate state censorship today are its defenseless targets tomorrow. And whatever else is essay questions true, the impulse to react to terrorist attacks by demanding the curtailment of core civil liberties is always irrational, dangerous, and self-destructive, no matter how tempting that impulse might be. Clarification: One sentence was lightly edited to clarify that it was the ACLU’s defense of the free speech rights of Muslim extremists and NAMBLA that found support on the left — not that those groups are themselves part of the resume hobbies, left. Top photo: Demonstrators hold shields and flags during the “Unite the Right” free speech rally at Emancipation Park in Charlottesville, Va., on August 12, 2017.
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Advertising’s 15 Basic Appeals Essay. Fowles has written other books on the effects of essay questions disorders media on society such as “Advertising and Popular Culture” published in 1996. He is also a researcher, publisher, and narrative, professor in disorders, media. “Advertising’s” has also appeared in “Mass Advertising as Social Forecast” by Jib Fowles. From the title, you can expect that this essay will explore the the holocaust reasoning behind advertisements and questions mood, why people like them. It is an appropriate title because Fowles breaks down each “appeal” he lists and describe most, explains why it is used to draw in audiences.
This essay’s focus is about the techniques that advertisers use to appeal to audiences. Fowles got his ideas about the essay questions mood appeals from studying advertisements and using interviews by Henry A. Murray, a Harvard professor. Fowles separates the appeals into 15 parts and gives details on how each is used and how often. His purpose it to inform advertising, marketing and media students, and also other educators on how to us ads to appeal to the public. Also, he wanted to inform the general public on an ap world change over essay, how they are being influenced. The target audience is essay, mainly students who are studying media. Etymology! Fowles does a good and effective job of getting his point across.
His goal is to educate students and he does that well. His information is organized well, which makes the essay easy to understand. He uses a lot of details and examples to back up his points. Finally, Fowles ends his analysis by explaining to the reader how to look at ads for the things he wrote about. “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals” is a good resource for mood, any student interested in learning more about the media. When looking at “Advertising’s” by essay Jib Fowles, the essay questions mood reader can easily see what each of his appeals is.
He gives each appeal in a number list and describes each appeal in that list. This way of presenting information makes it very easy for the reader. Someone can simply pick and choose what parts of resume hobbies list advertising appeals he or she would like to explore and essay mood, find it right away. The good organization is a positive aspect of the writing as well as how thorough Fowles is. “Advertising’s” can be seen as a good resource because it is very detailed. With each appeal there is a description with examples or background provided. One appeal is the need for autonomy. If the reader does not know what this appeal is just by looking at the title, he or she will soon know by reading Fowle’s description.
Fowles gives examples of companies that use this need for autonomy. One slogan he quotes is from etymology, Visa, “you can have it the way you want it,” they say. Fowles explains why Visa would use this as an questions mood, effective marketing tool. “The focus here is upon the independence and integrity of the individual; this need is the finance thesis antithesis for guidance…” (Fowles 562). Now the reader, who may not even know what autonomy is, has an understanding of the appeal and an example to essay questions disorders clarify. After the explanation of the appeal comes the lesson on how to analyze advertisements. This part is important because if people know all of these things about ads but don’t know how to apply them to what they see everyday, then “Advertising’s” has missed the point. “When analyzing ads yourself for their emotional appeals, it takes a bit of practice to learn to ignore the product information#8230; sort out from all the non-product aspects of an ad the chief element which is the most striking,” (Fowles 566). The viewer must not only learn to sort the information, but also he says to look at the angle the ad is viewed in and the audience it is targeted to. Again, good examples are provided to explain this.
He writes about the Green Giant who is looking down on you and resume hobbies, appealing to your need for guidance, and about the difference between the essay questions disorders message of the same ad if it’s in “Penthouse (need for sex)…and Cosmopolitan (need for attention),”(Fowles 566). There are some who may think that despite Fowles organization, detailed explanation, and analysis, that the resume essay is essay mood, too old to about the holocaust be useful to a modern audience. When describing the need for mood disorders, sex, appeal number one, Fowles uses some example that could be seen as dated. First he says that sex is only used in two percent of ads because it can be too much for how to write history essay, the viewer. Sex is definitely something seen a lot more in today’s ads. He then provides examples using companies and products that aren’t around anymore. The description of the “lithe blouse-less female astride a similarly clad male” (Fowles 555), in the Jordache jeans commercial could paint a picture for some in their forties.
Today’s students might not get anything from essay questions disorders, that visual. Even though the examples are dated, the information remains true. You may find more sex in different ads these days but advertisers are still marketing to that need and doing it in the same ways. Jib Fowles was an educator with a strong background and understanding of the media. Describe Embarrassing Essay! For this reason his goal with this essay was mainly to appeal to questions students.
He does that well by how to world history change over staying organized and giving a lot of details. He puts his theory into mood, use by informing the reader on who to analyze ads. Though some of Fowles examples are old and people may think they are outdated, his ideas are still good for today’s audience. All of this makes “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals” a good place for business finance, students to turn to when wanting to learn more about advertisements. Fowles, Jib. “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals”. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum Ed. Lavrence Behrens and Lenard J. Rosen. Boston: Pearson, 2013 551-68. Questions Mood Disorders! Print. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
Date: 12 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Advertising’s 15 Basic Appeals. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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essays about essay questions values Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. Values and ethics are central to any organization; those operating in business thesis, the national security arena are no exception. What exactly do we mean by values and questions mood disorders, ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers.
What we will first discuss is the distinctive nature of describe, ethics for questions mood disorders, public officials; second, the forces which influence the your embarrassing moment ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the essay disorders actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in write world history change essay, their organizations. THE CHARACTER OF VALUES AND ETHICS. Values can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by mood disorders, someone. That someone can be an business, individual or, collectively, an organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. One of the imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with the organization's core values.
In one example of a vision statement we'll look at later, the organization's core values - in this case, integrity, professionalism, caring, teamwork, and stewardship - were deemed important enough to be included with the statement of the questions mood organization's vision. Dr. John Johns, in etymology, an article entitled The Ethical Dimensions of National Security, mentions honesty and loyalty as values that are the ingredients of essay, integrity. When values are shared by all members of an business finance thesis, organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments, assessing probable outcomes of essay questions, contemplated actions, and choosing among alternatives. Perhaps more important, they put all members on the same sheet of music with regard to what all members as a body consider important. The Army, in 1986, had as the theme for how to an ap world, the year values, and listed four organizational values -loyalty, duty, selfless service, and integrity-and four individual values - commitment, competence, candor, and courage. A Department of the questions mood Army pamphlet entitled Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession spent some time talking about the importance of hobbies, values , and essay questions disorders, included this definition: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to essay be right.
They are more than words-they are the moral, ethical, and professional attributes of character . Essay Questions Mood Disorders? . . there are certain core values that must be instilled in members of the U.S. Army-civilian and uniformed soldier alike. These are not the only values that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession and should guide our lives as we serve our Nation. Values are the embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be the questions basis for the behavior of its members. However, what if members of the organization do not share and have not internalized the organization's values? Obviously, a disconnect between individual and organizational values will be dysfunctional. Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. Mood Disorders? When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values , it may be difficult to determine what is acceptable.
For example, two of the Army's organizational values include candor and courage. One might infer that officers are encouraged to have the essay narrative courage of essay disorders, their convictions and speak their disagreements openly. Business Finance Thesis? In some cases, this does work; in others it does not. The same thing works at essay disorders, the level of the society. The principles by which the society functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated. Those in power may covertly allow the business finance use of force to suppress debate in order to remain in power. (death squads are an example.) In some organizations, dissent may be rewarded by termination-the organizational equivalent of death squad action. In others, a group member may be ostracized or expelled. Group members quickly learn the operating values , or they don't survive for long.
To the extent they differ from stated values , the organization will not only suffer from doing things less effectively, but also from the cynicism of its members, who have yet another reason for mistrusting the essay mood leadership, or doubting its wisdom. VALUES PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGMENTS ABOUT WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION TO SUCCEED IN ITS CORE BUSINESS. So, there are some disconnects, and these disconnects create problems. However, the central purpose of values remains. They state either an actual or an idealized set of criteria for evaluating options and deciding what is appropriate, based on long experience. The relevance of the Army's values , for example, is apparent.
When soldiers may be called upon to expose themselves to an ap world history change over time essay mortal danger in the performance of their duty, they must be absolutely able to essay trust their fellow soldiers (to do their fair share and to help in the event of need) and their leaders (to guard them from unnecessary risk). Essay? So the Army's values prescribe conditions that facilitate trust, a necessary element in willingness to face danger. Without trust, risk tolerance will be low, as will combat effectiveness. TO BEHAVE ETHICALLY IS TO BEHAVE IN A MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH WHAT IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE RIGHT OR MORAL. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS THE BEDROCK OF MUTUAL TRUST. So how do values relate to ethics , and what do we mean by ethics? One of the keys is in the phrase we quoted above from the mood DA pamphlet: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right. Individually or organizationally, values determine what is right and what is wrong, and your embarrassing moment essay, doing what is right or wrong is what we mean by ethics. To behave ethically is to behave in questions mood disorders, a manner consistent with what is right or moral . What does generally considered to be right mean? That is a critical question, and part of the essay narrative difficulty in deciding whether or not behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong.
Perhaps the first place to look in determining what is right or wrong is society. Virtually every society makes some determination of morally correct behavior. In Islamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religious strictures. Essay Questions Disorders? In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be less obvious, but still a key factor. In the United States much of what is believed to thesis be right or wrong is based in Judeo-Christian heritage. The Ten Commandments, for many people, define what is morally right or wrong.
Societies not only regulate the behavior of essay mood disorders, their members, but also define their societal core values. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness represent core American values. Experience often has led societies to essay narrative develop beliefs about what is of value for the common good. (Note that societies differ from one another in the specifics, but not in mood disorders, the general principles.) One example is the notion of etymology, reciprocity. Essay Mood Disorders? (One good deed deserves another.) Another is the an ap history over essay notion of good intent. (A gentleman's word is his bond.) Yet, a third is the notion of appreciation of merit in others regardless of personal feelings. (Give the questions mood disorders Devil his due.) These all contain implied shoulds about how people interact and behave toward one another in groups, organizations, and societies. Questions The Holocaust? These shoulds define collective effort because they are fundamental to trust and to team relationships that entail risk. The greater the potential risk, the essay mood disorders more important ethical practices become.
Organizations, to some extent, define what is right or wrong for the members of the organization. Ethical codes, such as West Point's A cadet will not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do, make clear what the organization considers to be right or wrong. To quote again from the DA Pamphlet, Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession, statements such as : Loyalty to the Nation, to the Army, and to list the unit is essential. Selfless service puts the questions disorders welfare of the Nation and the accomplishment of the assigned mission before individual welfare. All who serve the narrative Nation must resist the essay disorders temptation to pursue self-gain, personal advantage, and questions about the holocaust, self-interest ahead of the collective good. [Integrity] is the basis for trust and confidence that must exist between the essay questions leaders and the led. Furthermore, integrity is demonstrated by propriety in one's personal life. are unequivocal statements of what the Army considers to be ethical behavior.
What does generally considered to be right mean? All one needs to do is to look at the positive values of describe your embarrassing moment essay, society and essay questions disorders, the organizations one belongs to, and what is right or wrong should be evident. There is another aspect to be considered, however, and that is the influence of societal or organizational norms. Your Most Moment? Norms are the disorders unstated rules, usually informally reached by the members of a group, which govern the behavior of the group's members. Norms often have a greater effect on what is and resume list, isn't done by the members of a group than formal rules and regulations. The reason norms are important for mood disorders, a discussion of ethics and values is that norms may allow or even encourage certain behavior as OK that is not in thesis, keeping with society's or an organization's stated values. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to disorders determine what is right. An example might be a company that has among its stated values to treat everyone with dignity and respect, but whose norms have permitted and perhaps even encouraged a pattern of sexual harassment over most moment, a number of years. Do those in the organization know that the behavior is wrong, but condone it nevertheless? Is it clear to the Bosnian Serbs that ethnic cleansing is unethical and wrong, or would it fall under the mantle of behavior that is considered to be acceptable in that society? Listen to the arguments in essay questions mood disorders, support of ethnic cleansing that have been made, and thesis questions, you will find that many of the perpetrators argued that they did nothing wrong, and were only righting previous wrongs done to them.
If ethics and essay questions disorders, morality are important for groups and organizations, they should also be important for public officials, and for thesis, very much the same reasons. York Willbern, in an article entitled Types and Levels of Public Morality, argues for six types or levels of morality (or ethics) for public officials. By public officials, he means those who are in policy making positions in public institutions; in essay mood, other words, strategic decision makers in the government, including the national security arena. The six levels he differentiates are: basic honesty and conformity to law; conflicts of interest; service orientation and procedural fairness; the ethic of democratic responsibility; the ethic of hobbies list, public policy determination; and the ethic of questions mood, compromise and thesis, social integration. WILLBERN'S LEVEL OF PUBLIC MORALITY. ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS CONFLICT OF INTEREST BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW.
The public servant is morally bound, just as are other persons, to tell the truth, to keep promises, to respect the person and the property of questions, others, and to resume list abide by the requirements of the law (Willbern). In many ways, this level only describes the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of a group or society. There are some basics of behavior that are expected of all if a society is to function for the collective good. Essay Questions Mood Disorders? For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is important to adhere to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than the average member of the society, and hence more opportunity for your moment, violation of essay questions disorders, those codes or laws. There also is the thesis negative example that misconduct by public officials provides. CONFLICT OF INTEREST.
This relates to public officials, because it deals with the conflict between advancing the public interest, which a public official is charged to essay do, and advancing one's self-interest. The duty here is to ensure that the public interest comes first, and that one does not advance his own personal interest at the expense of the public. Willbern uses embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and contract kickbacks as examples of pursuing personal interests at the expense of those of the public. The requirements for public officials to thesis about divest themselves of questions, investments that might be influenced by the performance of their duties (or put them in trust) and to hobbies recuse themselves in situations where they have a personal interest are designed to help public officials avoid conflicts of interest. Essay Questions Mood? Ultimately, it still comes down to the individual making an business, ethical decision. Avoidance of conflict of essay, interest is often difficult because it is often hard to separate personal and hobbies, public interests, and because individuals as private citizens are encouraged to disorders pursue private interests through any legal means. One of the areas where there is the greatest potential for conflicts of finance thesis, interest is where public officials deal with private organizations which are pursuing their private interests, and where any decision by a public official on allocation of resources will favor some private interest. The fields of government contracting and acquisition are two areas where the possibility of conflicts of interest is high.
SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS. This level relates closely to the last, and deals with the responsibility of public officials to ensure their actions serve the public, and that the power they wield is used only for that purpose. It is easy to questions disorders abuse the business thesis power that comes with public office. Procedural safeguards are designed to essay questions disorders prevent that abuse. Essay? The moral obligation of public servants is to follow established procedures, and not to use their power to circumvent those procedures for essay mood, their own convenience or benefit. Power must be used fairly and for the benefit of the public. One can again think of examples of public officials who have violated this moral charge by resume hobbies, using their influence and power for their own benefit or for the benefit of special interest groups, or who have circumvented established procedures for their own benefit or convenience. Essay Mood Disorders? One frequent example is the use of government vehicles or aircraft for nonofficial business.
These first three levels of public morality share one important characteristic: they all relate to the behavior or conduct of business finance, public officials. These three levels are the areas that get most of the essay mood attention in discussions of ethics, this is thesis questions where public officials are most likely to get in essay mood, trouble. However, there are three additional levels of your embarrassing essay, public morality equally important. These deal with the questions mood content of what public officials do, the moral choices involved in thesis, deciding what to do, in pursuing the purposes of the state and the society (Willbern). THE ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY. Given that public officials are operating within a democratic system, they either are elected by the people or appointed by an elected official.
This confers upon them the obligation to carry out the will of the people. However, public officials also have the responsibility to essay questions make moral choices consistent with their own values, and that may be in conflict with what they perceive to hobbies list be the will of the people. Willbern contends that the public official acts according to essay questions mood disorders his or her own judgment, rationalizing that it would be the will of the people if they were well enough informed on the issue. To give one example of describe your essay, this level of public morality, consider whether or not the essay disorders representative in Congress is morally bound to support policies and legislation which his constituents overwhelmingly support but he personally opposes. THE ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION. Thesis The Holocaust? This level involves the most difficult ethical choices, because it concerns making moral judgments about public policies. The responsibility is to make moral policies; the difficulty is in determining how moral a policy is. Public policies almost always deal with very complex issues, where ethical choices are rarely clear, and it is often difficult to determine if a policy is right or wrong. For example, many public policies deal with the distribution of limited resources. Is it right or wrong to slash funding for one program, or to increase funding for another? In almost any decision, there will be winners and losers, and there will be some benefit for some and cost to others.
Right and wrong may not apply. Equity and fairness are important considerations, but not always easy to mood disorders discern. The determination of how much funding to provide for national security, and describe embarrassing essay, which social programs to fund, involves ethical choices of the most difficult type. Essay Mood Disorders? What is the difference between equality and equity? Consider the controversy around affirmative action programs: are they examples of business finance thesis, moral public policies?
THE ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION. This final level deals with an area not as salient as some of the others. Questions Mood Disorders? It deals with the necessity for compromise in a society. A society with irreconcilable differences on fundamental issues will be torn apart. Hence, it becomes a moral obligation of public officials to engage in give and take, working toward compromise in the policies they develop.
One often sees legislators in our political system establishing positions where they may not get all they want from particular legislation, but will settle for some of what they want. Willbern contends that compromise, rather than standing on principle, is moral, because without compromise there will be discord and conflict, and disintegration rather than integration of the society. Public officials are given the trust of the public to develop and carry out policies that are in the public's best interest. Living up to this trust has a significant impact on the national will; public confidence is essential to the exercise of national power. Public officials have a moral duty to act in an ap world time essay, a trustworthy manner. Why, then, do individuals behave unethically? One reason is the complexity of the issues leaders deal with, and the difficulty in essay mood, many instances of determining which is the most ethical alternative. There are several systemic factors.
One is the competition for scarce resources. It is easy to slip into resume unethical acts to gain a competitive advantage in the race for position or power. Questions? A second is conflicting loyalties, which Johns labels the thesis about the holocaust most troublesome ethical dilemma facing public officials. Essay Mood? The Iran Contra affair is a case of unethical behavior on the part of North, Poindexter, Secord, and McFarlane because of misplaced loyalty to the executive chain of command. Johns also identifies systemic factors in groups and teams which can lead to unethical behavior. One is groupthink , which can occur in a homogeneous group with a strong leader. A second is the presence of idealogues: individuals who view their own extreme positions as right and any opposing positions as wrong.
A third is the organization's response to dissent. There are few incentives for whistleblowers or those who try to expose unethical behavior in organizations. Organizational norms encourage going along and change time, discourage questioning the unethical actions of others. This can quickly compromise ethical standards in any organization. CAUSES OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR. COMPLEXITY OF STRATEGIC ISSUES OBSCURES ETHICS COMPETITION FOR SCARCE RESOURCES/ POWER/POSITION CONFLICTING LOYALTIES. GROUPTHINK PRESENCE OF IDEALOGUES NEGATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE TO DISSENT. Kenneth R. Andrews, in Ethics in Practice, contends that there are three aspects to ethical behavior in organizations: the development of the individual as an ethical person, the effect of the organization as an questions, ethical or unethical environment, and the actions or procedures developed by the organization to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. INFLUENCES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOR.
PRIOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AS ETHICAL PERSON. THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ETHICAL ENVIRONMENT. PROCEDURES THAT ENCOURAGE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR. Most of an individual's ethical development occurs before entering an organization. The influence of family, church, community, and school will determine individual values.
The organization, to a large extent, is dealing with individuals whose value base has been established. This might imply that ethical organizations are those fortunate enough to bring in ethical individuals, while unethical organizations brought in unethical people. But it is not that simple. While the internalized values of thesis the holocaust, individuals are important, the organization has a major impact on the behavior of essay mood disorders, its members, and can have a positive or negative influence on their values. One example of the thesis questions development of essay questions mood, ethical individuals is the service academies. In their admissions processes, the about the holocaust academies attempt to get individuals of good character with the questions disorders values integral to the military profession. However, the thesis about academies also recognize that their core values may be different than those prevalent in society, and they devote considerable effort to the development and internalization of their core values. As is evident from essay periodic breaches of write an ap world history change, integrity at the academies, e.g., cheating scandals, these attempts to instill core values do not always succeed. There are three qualities individuals must possess to essay make ethical decisions.
The first is the ability to recognize ethical issues and to reason through the ethical consequences of decisions. The ability to see second and third order effects, one of the elements of strategic thinking, is very important. The second is the ability to look at alternative points of view, deciding what is right in a particular set of circumstances. This is similar to the ability to reframe. And the third is the ability to deal with ambiguity and hobbies, uncertainty; making a decision on the best information available. ATTRIBUTES FOR ETHICAL DECISIONS. SEEING SECOND- AND THIRD-ORDER CONSEQUENCES-WARGAMING ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS SEEING ALTERNATIVE POINTS OF VIEW-REFRAMING DEALING WITH AMBIGUITY AND UNCERTAINTY-MAKING DECISIONS WITH BEST INFORMATION AVAILABLE. As important as these individual characteristics are, the influence of the organization is essay mood equally important. Describe Your Most Moment? The ethical standards that one observes in the organization will have a significant effect on individual behavior.
People will do what they are rewarded for mood, doing (Andrews). The organization has its greatest impact in the standards it establishes for ethical and thesis about the holocaust, unethical conduct in its formal reward systems. Informal norms also have a strong influence on individuals' behavior as do the actions of the leaders of the organization. Strategic leaders must understand that their actions, more than words alone, will determine the operating values in the organization. The influence of the organizational context is underscored in Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesn't Pay? In this article, Bhide and Stevenson note that there often are no economic or other incentives to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior.
They contend that it most often is the dishonest individual who gets ahead, and that cases where unethical behavior was punished are far outweighed by those in which there either were no consequences or unethical behavior was rewarded. The Gordon Ghekkos of the world (the unethical corporate executive played by Michael Douglas in essay, the movie Wall Street) often get ahead, because they rarely are held to account for business, their actions. While these observations might lead one to a cynical view of ethics in organizations, Bhide and Stevenson come to a different conclusion. They see room for optimism despite the lack of financial gain for ethical behavior, or the absence of negative consequences for unethical behavior. Essay Disorders? Their reasoning is write world over based in the fact that so many people do behave ethically, in questions, spite of the apparent lack of resume, gain. Ethical behavior must be intrinsically rewarding; and most people behave ethically because it's the right thing to do. People are guided by their personal value systems. Questions Disorders? They often choose the harder right instead of the easier wrong specifically because of their intrinsic values of what is right. Bhide and Stevenson make this caveat: We should remember, however, that this. works only as long as most of us live by an honorable moral compass. Since our trust isn't grounded in self-interest, it is fragile.
And, indeed, we all know of organizations, industries, and even whole societies in essay, which trust has given way either to a destructive free-for-all or to inflexible rules and bureaucracy. Only our individual wills, our determination to do what is right, whether or not it is profitable, save us from choosing between chaos and stagnation. Chaloupka, in Ethical Responses: How to Influence One's Organization, asserts that organization members have only three choices when confronted with unethical behavior: exit, voice, or loyalty. Exit is the most direct response: if you can't live with behavior that does not meet your own ethical standards, leave. Essay Mood Disorders? However, exit is not only describe your embarrassing moment a direct response, it is a final one, so the personal and organizational consequences must be considered. The most important personal consequences are the costs. Essay? Where do you go from there? What other options are available? How marketable are you?
Can you afford the financial loss? There are specific organizational consequences as well. Will the ethics of the thesis organization's leaders change? Will they do business with someone else who doesn't have the essay questions mood disorders high standards you do? In leaving, one gives up the ability to influence the organization directly. When considering exit, one must ask, Could I have had more of an business thesis, impact by remaining in the organization and trying to change it from within? Voice . This means expressing discomfort with and opposition to the observed unethical behavior. To whom do you voice your objections? The obvious choice is mood your supervisor. But what if your supervisor condones the unethical behavior, or worse, is its source?
You may be jeopardizing your position, and maybe your membership in the organization. Finance? A second choice is to go to senior management. Essay Mood Disorders? This also has potential risk. The senior leadership may be condoning or even directing the unethical behavior. This action may bring your loyalty into question. If so, your objections may be covered up or ignored, and you may end up being forced out of the organization. On the other hand, it may be that the senior leadership is unaware of the unethical behavior, and you may have initiated an essay narrative, organizational response eliminating unethical behavior and restoring ethical standards. A third option is to go public, to engage in whistleblowing.
This is also risky, because it can lead to reprisals with negative consequences. The level of risk depends on the commitment of the organization to high ethical standards and on essay questions disorders its willingness to encourage whistleblowing in its own best interests. Many organizations have shown commitment to ferreting out unethical individuals and maintaining high ethical standards by establishing procedures for anonymous reporting of ethical breaches and history change over essay, safeguards to questions protect whistleblowers. Exit and voice may be combined. An individual resigns in thesis, protest and goes public with his or her reasons for leaving. This leaves the individual vulnerable to the label of an employee who quit before being fired, but it also can lead to increased credibility as someone acting on conviction in spite of personal cost. Exit combined with voice is questions mood disorders most effective if taken by someone at the upper levels of the organization. An organization can more easily ignore the exit + voice of a lower level employee than it can the resignation of a strategic leader, followed immediately by a press conference. The widely publicized resignation of former President Bush from the National Rifle Association over what he viewed as extreme actions is an example of exit combined with voice. It undoubtedly had a much greater effect on the NRA than the resignation of someone less well known and respected. The resignation of James Webb as Secretary of the your moment essay Navy is questions another example of an ap history over essay, effective exit combined with voice.
Loyalty . The final response to questions disorders unethical behavior in an organization is loyalty. This is the alternative to exit. Instead of business thesis, leaving, the individual remains and tries to change the organization from within. Loyalty thus discourages or delays exit. Disorders? Loyalty also may discourage public voice, since being loyal to the organization means trying to solve problems from within without causing public embarrassment or damage. Loyalty can also encourage unethical behavior, particularly in organizations which promote loyalty above all. These organizations discourage exit and voice, and basically want their members to etymology go along with organizational practices.
An interesting question is, Can an individual be loyal to an organization by engaging in questions disorders, exit or voice as a response to unethical behavior? Chaloupka maintains that both exit and voice must exist for continued organizational effectiveness. Resume Hobbies List? Additionally, an organization cannot maintain high ethical standards without mechanisms for eliminating unethical behavior. Also, loyalty is not always a virtue. Essay Mood? Loyalty should be predicated on the organization's ethical demonstration that it is worthy of loyalty. If the organization condones unethical behavior, it relieves the individual of any responsibility to be loyal. BUILDING AN ETHICAL CLIMATE. How can the questions the holocaust strategic leaders of an organization build an ethical climate? Andrews suggests a number of questions mood, steps that foster corporate ethics. First are the actions of the strategic leadership and the way they deal with ethical issues. The pattern of top leaders' behavior determines organizational values.
A second step is to make explicit ethics policies. Ethical codes are one common example. The next step is to increase awareness of how to apply those ethical codes. Training on how to deal with situations with an ethical dimension, and how to anticipate situations that involve ethical choices, can go a long way toward ethical institutional practices. Another step to increase the salience of ethics is to expand the information system to focus on areas where ethics may come into play. Describe Your Most Embarrassing? Knowing what actually is going on in the questions mood organization is essential to understanding the ethical principles which govern behavior. The information system should also support ethical behavior, and allow the strategic leader to know when or where there are potential ethical breaches so that corrective action can be taken. The real danger is that when unethical behavior is unnoticed, or not punished, members will assume it is condoned by the organization's leadership. Establishing moral principles means determining the core values which should guide the organization.
O'Brien suggests four for thesis questions about the holocaust, consideration: localness, merit, openness, and leanness. By localness, he means adopting a philosophy of pushing power down to the lowest level possible, and encouraging initiative and autonomy. By merit, he means directing actions toward the essay disorders overall goals of the organization, and what is best for all. By openness, he means being forthright and honest in all dealings. And by leanness, he means efficient use of resources and economies when possible. ULTIMATELY, THE QUEST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION MUST BEGIN WITH A PERSONAL COMMITMENT WITHIN EACH INDIVIDUAL TO PURSUE MORAL EXCELLENCE. Encouraging leaders to pursue their own moral development is critical at higher levels because strategic leaders set the moral climate for the organization.
O'Brien believes that moral development is even more important than professional development. Creating a culture based on moral excellence requires a commitment among managers to embody and develop two qualities in thesis questions, their leadership: virtue and questions disorders, wisdom. However, creating an organization characterized by moral excellence is a lengthy process. It involves changing organizational culture, discussed in the next chapter.