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Optional essays on medical school applications
A Test for the Anti-Trump Movement. A Test for optional applications the Anti-Trump Movement. In the week leading up to the presidential election, like hockey players who refuse to shave during the playoffs, the women of the Weiss family lived in their “Pussy Grabs Back” T-shirts. For months, our family texts had buzzed day and thesis essex, night with emoji-laden reactions to the latest Trump outrage, while my mother waged a very personal campaign against the Republican candidate. When the first Tuesday in November was upon us, my dad, who has a giant poster of William F. Buckley in his office, bowed to shalom bayit and wrote in applications Steph Curry. All of this camaraderie put me in a strange position. Common Requirements For A Term. Since the crucible of my college years—in which being an outspoken Zionist made you fascist, supporting the war in Iraq made you an imperialist, and believing that some cultures are indeed more enlightened than others a hegemon—I’ve gotten used to feeling politically homeless. I’m typically the hardass among the squishes. All of a sudden, I found myself making common cause with those whom I disagree with vehemently on, say, the optional on college applications, Iran deal (bad), the necessity of teaching Western Civ. (good), and most certainly Israel. It is the difference on the Jewish state that has been the starkest and the most painful, as anyone who has paid any attention to common for a term paper the increasingly leftward tilt of the Democratic Party will not be surprised to learn.
One of the rising stars of this new generation of optional applications, progressive politicos is Linda Sarsour, who was honored as a “champion of change” by the Obama administration and is now one of the anti-Trump movement’s most visible leaders. Sarsour, a longtime Arab-American community organizer, was one of the heads of the Women’s March in Washington and is the named plaintiff in the high-profile lawsuit against Trump’s immigration ban. The image of a fire, her, hijab-clad and flashing a defiant smile, rivaled the optional on college, pink knitted hat as the muet format, unofficial symbol of the march. She is also a proudly outspoken supporter of optional on college applications, BDS. “Nothing is creepier than Zionism,” she has tweeted, a remark that, along with the fact that in nashville tennessee December she posed for a photo with a former Hamas operative, stirred a series of optional essays, critical pieces on right-wing websites in the days following the essay on short, march on the capital. Within hours, Sarsour’s newfound friends and on college, supporters—do I even need mention that Mark Ruffalo and essay on short a fire, Susan Sarandon were among them?—burst forth with a social-media-driven campaign dubbed #IMarchWithLinda, in which the stories about her background and optional essays, views were presented as vicious hatchet jobs by muet format pro-Trump legions determined to slow the momentum of the anti-Trump brigades. Optional Essays On College Applications. Indeed, how could a woman who last week made headlines for help nashville organizing a fundraising drive that raised more than $56,000 to optional essays applications repair the desecrated Jewish cemetery in St. Louis harbor hostility to Jews? Among those who have pledged allegiance to Sarsour are prominent Jewish leaders and rabbis. Criticism of the muet format essay, Muslim activist was nothing but “a deliberate smear campaign from the far right to delegitimize the march itself,” said Los Angeles Rabbi Sharon Brous, expressing the view of many other anti-Trump Jews. “This is a time for serious coalition-building, for standing beside other minority populations that are targeted.
It is time for people to stand for and with each other. There will be in the mix a number of different perspectives. I don’t feel at all uncomfortable about that,” Brous has said. “A much greater problem would be if the Jewish community stepped out of activism because we’re afraid that someone on the stage has a position on BDS different than our own.” This was something of a dodge, because, as Brous and on college applications, others must know, Sarsour’s odious views aren’t limited to BDS, and stretch particularly into issues that directly relate to the systemic oppression of common term, women. Optional Essays On College Applications. “You’ll know when you’re living under Sharia Law if suddenly all your loans credit cards become interest-free. Sound nice, doesn’t it?” Sarsour tweeted about the Islamic law code that justifies beating women and considers the testimony of a woman half that of a man. She has also denigrated the anti-Islamist feminist Ayaan Hirsi Ali in astonishingly vulgar terms, insisting that Hirsi Ali is to build, “not a real woman” and joking that she wishes she could take away Ali’s vagina—a particularly vicious bon mot , given that Hirsi Ali was well-known as a victim of genital mutilation in her native Somalia.
Still, anti-Trumpers argued, Sarsour’s personal imperfections didn’t come close to forcing Jews to applications disavow her and her movement. Echoing Brous, Yehuda Kurtzer, president of the Shalom Hartman Institute of North America, pushed back against those who use support of essays 2013, Israel as a single-issue litmus test. In a piece in the Jewish Journal , he made the case that American Jews should stick to what he dubbed the “two-thirds and 51 percent” rule: “We identify in political communities, or organize for particular causes, with people who share, or at applications, least do not operate in contradistinction to, two-thirds of our core moral imperatives, and with whom we agree on a minimum of psychology coursework, 51 percent of our moral concerns,” he writes. By this standard, Sarsour’s leadership role is optional applications, not a deal breaker. “Rotten compromise, the kind we must not do,” wrote Kurtzer, “entails making common cause with evil.” So what does boundary-crossing evil look like? Is it OK, for example, to support the civil rights of Palestinians, undocumented immigrants, and women who wear hijab while also calling for the denial of the national and indigenous rights of Jews, and rejecting the rights of women in application essays Muslim-majority countries to control their own bodies? Is that a fair definition of optional essays, Kurtzer’s 51-percent rule? If you call for the death of essex, Zionists but support Palestinian nationalism, is being against Donald Trump the moral tie-breaker that makes you a legitimate ally of American Jews like me—and immune from our criticism? Kurtzer doesn’t say, but the assumption was that nothing had thus far emerged in optional essays on college applications the anti-Trump movement to meet the rotten compromise test. That logic resonated with almost all the anti-Trump Jews I know, who either actively rallied around Sarsour, or—like me—held their tongues. I justified it by telling myself that no political movement is perfect, no coalition entirely pure. Opposing this president, I reasoned, is too critical a priority.
Now, unhappily, the anti-Trump movement has produced a leader far worse than Sarsour: a woman whose actions must surely qualify as evil. If they don’t, the problem doesn’t belong to Zionists or Jews, but to the movement itself—and even more so to the spiritual health of the to build a fire, political party angling to benefit from optional essays on college it. The names Leon Kaner and essay a fire, Edward Jaffe are now lost to optional essays applications history, but Rasmea Odeh surely remembers them well. Kaner and Jaffe are the 21-year-old and 22-year-old who went to a Jerusalem supermarket on Feb. 21, 1969 to format essay pick up food for a trip and were blown up thanks to a bomb that Odeh and an accomplice had placed there.
Nine others were injured in the blast. Four days later, a second bomb that the duo planted exploded at the British Consulate. Odeh was sentenced to life in prison by Israel but was released in optional on college applications a prisoner exchange in to build the early 1980s. This convicted terrorist has surfaced since the march on Washington as a new leader of the women’s movement, announcing its next global action in the pages of the Guardian : a worldwide women’s strike on March 8. Essays. Along with Angela Davis and several others, Odeh called for a day of “striking, marching, blocking roads, bridges, and squares, abstaining from domestic care and sex work, boycotting, calling out misogynistic politicians and companies, striking in common requirements term paper educational institutions.” And the organizers of the on college, Washington March followed Odeh’s lead, recently announcing their participation in this international “day without women.” The political stupidity of embracing Odeh is plain. Format Essay. What better ammunition could there possibly be for a White House all too keen to dismiss a genuine grassroots movement as paid professional protestors and anti-American anarchists than the public participation of a bona fide terrorist? If the optional on college applications, anti-Trump movement is thesis help tennessee, going to stand for tolerance, genuine liberalism, civility, and decency—everything we disdain Trump for optional on college applications disdaining—Odeh and essay story to build, her ilk can have no place in it. But there is a deeper, darker point here beyond strategy: It concerns the alarming cheapness of Jewish blood. A movement that has so much to say about the value of black lives, of transgender lives, of women’s lives, of Latino lives, of Muslim lives, of the lives of the disabled and optional on college, the poor and the weak, but becomes mealy-mouthed and contingent about the lives of Jews when those Jews happen to live in the land of Israel should make any person of conscience question the essay on short story to build a fire, sincerity of that movement.
Indeed, what’s perhaps even more disturbing is the increasing tendency on the part of Jews to optional essays applications silence themselves on these fundamental moral matters to fit in or to on short story a fire avoid accusations of on college, being soft on essay story a fire, Trump. Optional Essays On College. On this, our leaders must do better, even though it will surely mean fewer likes and retweets from on short a fire popular progressives. It’s incumbent upon those who assert themselves as representatives of the Jewish community not to paper over optional essays on college applications this disturbing hypocrisy—especially if what they are trying to do is convince amcha that it’s still in their best interest to be at binding essex, the anti-Trump table. Somehow it seems that Jews are always the ones being asked to check their identity at the door in movements driven by identity politics. We may assiduously follow the “two-thirds and 51 percent” rule, but our partners often do not. If asking for something so minimal—to disassociate and condemn a woman who murdered innocent Jews—seems impolite or greedy, then perhaps the compromise we have made is rotten. Bari Weiss is an associate book review editor at optional on college, The Wall Street Journal. Monthly rate: $18. Yearly rate: $180. Muet Format Essay. WAIT, WHY DO I HAVE TO PAY TO COMMENT?
Tablet is committed to essays applications bringing you the best, smartest, most enlightening and entertaining reporting and writing on Jewish life, all free of charge. We take pride in our community of readers, and are thrilled that you choose to engage with us in a way that is both thoughtful and thought-provoking. But the Internet, for all of its wonders, poses challenges to civilized and constructive discussion, allowing vocal—and, often, anonymous—minorities to drag it down with invective (and worse). Starting today, then, we are asking people who'd like to post comments on the site to pay a nominal fee—less a paywall than a gesture of your own commitment to the cause of great conversation. Georgetown 2013. All proceeds go to helping us bring you the essays on college applications, ambitious journalism that brought you here in help the first place. I NEED TO BE HEARD! BUT I DONT WANT TO PAY.
Readers can still interact with us free of charge via Facebook, Twitter, and our other social media channels, or write to us at [email protected] Optional Essays On College Applications. Each week, we’ll select the best letters and a level, publish them in a new letters to the editor feature on the Scroll. We hope this new largely symbolic measure will help us create a more pleasant and cultivated environment for all of our readers, and, as always, we thank you deeply for your support. On College. Evidence abounds that Trump and, increasingly the GOP (with some exceptions), are an common requirements term paper, existential threat to the big three #8212; liberty, prosperity, and security. For me, that puts fighting Trump at the base of Maslow#8217;s hierarchy of needs.
I draw moral clarity by essays on college applications engaging with others, whether the adoration of Angela Davis or the Sarsour tweets you cite (the one about Ayann Hirsi Ali is repellent). Yet, for me, they don#8217;t obviate Sarsour#8217;s fundraising for desecrated Jewish cemeteries. I once worked with a politically active conservative man who said vicious things about gay people. These views were an essential part of his identity. I wasn#8217;t going to change that but, by indicating that I know and love gay people, I did not provide silent assent.
The point is, life requires a constant calculation #8212; where is my line? When should there be a line? It is all these things that Trump is taking a sledgehammer to American ingenuity, the idea of a common humanity the ability to bring heart and on short to build a fire, mind to everything from the simple to the complex. We must fight this with everything we#8217;ve got. Believe me, just as I#8217;m evaluating my bedfellows in this fight they#8217;re evaluating me. Let#8217;s take it step by step, with an eye toward the optional applications, big threat. I never duck my Judaism and muet format essay, Zionism; I also don#8217;t always lead with them.
It depends on the situation. It#8217;s the bit by essays on college applications bit engagement with others with whom we have differences, even virulent ones, that has intrinsic value. Are there bright lines? Yes, there must be. Essay. It#8217;s up to optional applications us to psychology identify them. Will Trump supporters do the same? I#8217;m amazed, I have to admit.
Seldom do I encounter a blog that#8217;s both educative. and entertaining, and without a doubt, you have hit the nail. on the head. The problem is optional on college applications, something that not enough people are speaking intelligently about. Muet Format Essay. I#8217;m very happy that I found this in my hunt for something regarding this. A Test for the Anti-Trump Movement. Sabermetrician Ari Kaplan Uses the Science of Balls and Strikes to Illuminate the Fate of Holocaust Rescuer Raoul Wallenberg.
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lemuria essay “Behold the day is coming, burning like an oven and on college, all the proud, yes, all who do wickedly will be stubble. Essays. And the day which is coming shall burn them up. Says the Lord of Hosts… But to optional applications you who fear My Name the SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS shall arise with healing in HIS WINGS…” Malachi 4 vs. 1-2 (From the New King James version of the Bible) Mainstream history has chosen to forget about this lost continent that once existed in the Pacific. But to requirements term paper many esoteric researchers, including me, Lemuria should be included in academic text-books. One such educational book that does include Lemurian history was published by an obscure Rosicrucian sect called The Stelle Group or The Lemurian Fellowship based out of Stelle, Illinois and San Jose, California respectively.
Exhibit A) Eklal Kueshana (The Ultimate Frontier 1963) The inside jacket cover says the essays on college following: “Some of the…fascinating subjects discussed in THE ULTIMATE FRONTIER are: - Evidence of a magnificent civilization that once flourished on the now submerged continent of Lemuria in application essays, the Pacific Ocean. - A moving story of essays applications communities that are actually living by this [Lemurian] philosophy. - A Master Plan, dating from 4700 B.C. and involving the requirements for a term paper Great Pyramid, for establishing in October A.D., 2001 a new nation dedicated to optional essays on college applications the uplift of help tennessee all mankind. THE ULTIMATE FRONTIER describes the mysteries of human existence… and may well mark the beginning of a much greater phase of Western Civilization.” I must admit, the intro of this book does seem a little ‘cultish’ but I believe the Rosicrucians are onto something here to suggest the Lemurian Continent was very physical and very real. Why did Lemuria submerge into the Pacific Ocean? According to optional on college applications North American Rosicrucian adepts this occurred because of a pole shift. THE LOST CONTINENT OF ‘MU’ Exhibit B) David Hatcher Childress (Lost Cities of Ancient Lemuria the Pacific ©1988) “One of the great proponents of Lemuria [or MU] was James Churchward , an Anglo-American who spent a great deal of his life in binding essex, India.
Here he was initiated into certain eastern esoteric “truths,” being shown, supposedly, some ancient tablets in an Indian/Tibetan monastery. [See ‘ Nibiru and optional on college, the Subterranean Connection – Part One ”—GJ] (There have been many Tibetan monasteries in India for psychology a level coursework hundreds, if not thousands of years.) He was taught how to read the tablets and was told many fascinating things about essays on college ancient history. Then, after traveling all over the world, he wrote a series of very popular books. [The first one entitled] The lost Continent of Mu …” The above map was obtained from Lemuria—Lost Continent in the Pacific ©1931 (Exhibit C) published by the AMORC Rosicrucians of nashville San Jose, California. It shows a submerged Lemuria after the cataclysmic pole-shift. Note also the Brazilian Amazon Sea. Exhibit B) David Hatcher Childress (Lost Cities of Ancient Lemuria the Pacific) continues: “Something else which lends credibility to the belief that these secret libraries exist is the fact that many references are made to them in Central Asian literature. It is said that they can be found in many temples in India, Nepal and Tibet.
They probably can be found in optional, China and essay story a fire, Mongolia as well. The appearance of this book would seem to optional essays on college illustrate that such archives do in fact exist, and that knowledge is occasionally disseminated from them. Furthermore, the Rosicrucians claim to have access to a number of secret [subterranean] libraries in essays 2013, Tibet. [See ‘Theosophy and the Dark Star’—GJ] Therefore, one can see that the idea of Churchward having access to some “secret” tablets, fantastic though it may seem, is really not so far fetched.” “The founding fathers of the optional essays on college United States included many Masons as well as several Rosicrucians. The history of both of these groups can be traced back to the ancient Mystery Schools of Egypt; the same Mystery Schools that had taught Moses! Had the secret teachings of the Masons and Rosicrucians been based on information which had been passed down for thousands of years through Egypt, originally having come from common paper, some lost civilization? It occurred to me that this was possible, and applications, certainly, both MASONS AND ROSICRUCIANS HAVE ASSURED ME IT IS INDEED THE CASE.” “…according to The Lemurian Fellowship…the Elders of Lemuria, known as the “Thirteenth School,” moved their headquarters prior to the [pole-shift] cataclysm to the uninhabited plateau of Central Asia that we now call Tibet. Here they supposedly established a library and school, and became known as “ The Great White Brotherhood .” Were these legendary Masters identical with the masters of … “The Great White Brotherhood” spoken of by The Lemurian Fellowship? It is an intriguing possibility.
Could the GREAT WHITE BROTHERHOOD be the same group as the LOST WHITE BROTHERS from Hopi Indian tradition? I believe so! See ‘ Nibiru and the Subterranean Connection – Part Two ’—GJ. “… The Ultimate Frontier [states that] Lemuria had been a large continent in the pacific which had encompassed all the present-day Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Oceania, western North America, and everything in between. The continents’s real name had been Mukulia or Mu…’ “According to common for a term the Fellowship, these Lemurians built great cities out of … stone and, under the direction of the so-called Elders, went on to create an “advanced” civilization. Optional On College. As the Mukulian Empire grew, more people wanted to be part of it.
Persons from muet essay, all the valleys of on college Mukulia eventually joined the “Empire of the Sun.” “The Ultimate Frontier…says the Lemurian, or Mukulian civilization “…lasted in the form of an empire for 52,000 years and reached heights so great that our present civilization can barely be considered a civilization when compared to it. Government, religion, and science achieved such perfection as to be far beyond our present comprehension. Western Civilization is only about 2,500 years old and has narrowly survived its power-seeking rulers and application essays, priests. Our science and technology are but in their infancy and as yet consist of relatively few rediscoveries.” “…Mankind’s first civilization rose 78,000 years ago on this giant continent and it lasted an astonishing 52,000 years. It was destroyed in earthquakes which had been generated by a “pole shift” occurring some 26,000 years ago, or at approximately 24,000 B.C. The continent was so large, that when it sank, the oceans of the world became drastically lowered as water rushed into the newly formed Pacific Basin. The relatively small islands which had existed in the Atlantic during the time of the Lemurian civilization were left high and dry by the receding ocean. The newly emerged land joined the on college Poseid Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean to form a small continent.
This continent is called Atlantis by historians today. Its real name was Poseid.” Page 28. [See ‘ Nibiru and the Atlantean Connection – Part One’—GJ] “The Mukulian Civilization had survived many pole shifts previously, building its structures out of format gigantic blocks of stone fitted together in structures designed to last tens of thousands of years. Essays. Because the area of the Hawaiian Islands were one of the pivot points in term, the pole shifts that took place every ten thousand years or so, the citizenry of the Mukulian Empire were generally spared the optional essays on college massive destruction that typically takes place in such an event.” [So says the American Rosicrucians—GJ] “However, when open war broke out between [two factions] according to The Lemurian Fellowship , the muet format essay Empire was [finally] on essays applications the verge of collapse, and during a[nother] pole shift, the tectonic plate shifted downward, raising the South American continent and creating new land areas as the waters of the world poured into the Pacific Basin. Colonel James Churchward described it as the continental arch buckling during a pole shift.” Exhibit B) continues: “Theosophist named W. Thesis Help. Scott-Elliot , wrote a lengthy paper called The Story of Atlantis and optional applications, the Lost Lemuria [©1896] and according to… Elliot, Lemurians were between twelve and fifteen feet tall. Their faces were flat, save for a protruding muzzle, and they had no foreheads… and their eyes were set so wide apart they could see sideways as well as forward…” “In Pathways to the Gods , [©1982. Erich] Von Daniken relates a number of legends [from a tiny island in the middle of the requirements term Pacific called Nauru] that involved gods [little g] coming from the sky…One of the on college applications gods has the name Nareau, which is perhaps where the name Nauru came from. Von Daniken eventually finds the stone grave of one of the giants… The grave is muet 5.3 meters long and piled high with stones.” “According to on college The [Rosicrucian] Lemurian Fellowship and other sources, many inhabitants of the Pacific continent were in fact GIANTS, some standing twelve feet tall or more… Possibly, in the final submergence of the continent in binding essex, a pole shift, survivors of the many waves of earthquakes and tidal waves sought refuge in optional essays on college, the very peaks of mountains, many of which were volcanic.
Shortly before or after the final submergence, these survivors (who probably didn’t survive) walked on common for a the lava that was to essays on college applications become the Kiribati islands. This may have happened as recently as 24,000 years ago, if we are to believe The Lemurian Fellowship’s date for help nashville tennessee the submergence of this continent…” At this point I raise the question, whatever happened to optional essays on college the granite case depicting a detailed carving of the giant? As I’ve stressed before in my last essay, these artifacts conveniently go missing for a level the purposes of essays applications controlling our current paradigm of mainstream history. In Exhibit 13 from my paper: ‘ Nibiru and the Atlantean Connection – Part Two ,’ the reader will notice that the essays Irish Giant also has six toes and is approximately twelve feet tall. Essays On College. Just like the Polynesian Giants! The similarities are uncanny.
Coincidence? It seems unlikely. Throughout my essays, I’ve been insisting that Giants had roamed the entire globe—within and on top of Earth—from some long forgotten age. And one such distant outpost that documented and recorded the Giants of muet format Lemuria comes from Easter Island. Exhibit D) Harold Wilkins (Mysteries of Ancient South America ©1946) “…who were these strange people who left the amazing number of 550 colossal images in optional essays applications, Easter Island, of whom not even the unquiet sea whispers tales of common requirements paper old, unhappy things and battles long ago? May be, the optional on college answer is… in the book of Genesis: “There were giants on the earth in those days…” In James Churchward’s book, The Lost Continent of Mu ©1926, (Exhibit E) he includes a map (see below) showing Easter Island and Hawaii being part of a larger Pacific landmass: Another clue that lends credence to Easter Island and Hawaii being part of a larger continent comes from the thesis same Giant Stone Heads found on each island. Notice the optional essays applications amazing facial similarity between the two images shown below, especially the lips. Are they ‘stylized’ replicas of Giants that once roamed Lemuria? I say yes!
Giant Head Statue. Giant Head Statue. From Easter Island. Harold Wilkins had some interesting things to say about these colossal heads and the Giants of essay story to build Easter Island. He writes the following: Exhibit D) Harold Wilkins (Mysteries of Ancient South America) continues: “…This eerie island… Easter Island … lies 2,000 miles westwards into optional essays applications, the eye of the sunset’s fires from the South American coast… Here all round were tall cliffs on psychology the top of which ancient but very skilful architects and engineers had designed and on college applications, erected a colossal platform made of megalithic stones, laid beautifully together without the bond of nashville tennessee any cement or mortar. The imperious race who made this strange island-mausoleum were like the Egyptians of the old Pharoahs: they [the Giants] conscripted, for the work of raising these mighty stone blocks into position, slave-labour [local islanders—GJ].” “Drawings in optional essays, the rocks suggest that the [Giant] race sailed three-masted ships, and knew of four-footed birds. In some cases, [the race] have ears with enormous lobes, singularly reminding us of the Orejones, or long-eared warriors of the essay story to build a fire old Incas of Peru…” Harold T. Wilkins also provides a great description of how the Lemurian Giants reacted when a pole-shift finally destroyed their homeland. Applications. See Below: Exhibit D) continues: “One day, while the [Easter Island] slaves and essex, slave-artisans, under the eyes of optional on college applications their TASKMASTERS were putting the format essay finishing touches to a number of heads of great figures lying in a vast quarry-crater of a workshop to which the avenues lead from the cliff-platforms… a stern-faced supervisor, cracking a hide-whip, had just stepped forward to flog the back of a craftsman who had been detected scamping the optional work on the back of one of the to build a fire images, where he believed it would not be noticed.
While the crack of the optional on college applications heavy thong still resounded in the hot air of nashville a winless day, a black cloud seemed suddenly to essays on college cover the face of the sun. It spread very rapidly to the horizon. The ground heaved violently in application 2013, tremendous tremors that lasted many minutes. The whole island shook to the rim and tops of the essays on college crater. Mountainous waves of an common for a term ocean infuriated and maddened by some tremendous force swept right over essays on college, the tall cliffs and crashed on to the essays 2013 feet of the colossal images. The light of day went out. The night of total eclipse had come. A heavy black pall covered the vault of the heavens. Strange rains of blood-red water and white ash, mingled, cascaded on to the causeways and covered the dome of the great temple of ancestors… The terrified slaves in the quarry-workshop threw down their tools, heeding not the essays whips and curses of the TASKMASTERS, who, themselves, white to the very lips, began to stammer and to follow the muet essay headlong rush of the optional applications panic-stricken workers to a level coursework the safety of essays on college applications caves in the neighboring hillside.” They fled, seeking safety and harbour, as they raced, many being crushed under the weight of on short story to build mighty masonry and great carved stones, toppled over by the violent quakes. Essays On College. The quarry was abandoned, the keeper of the sacred mausoleum-temple fled with the rest, the architects, the officials, and the engineers. Thesis Binding. [Technicians literally became cavemen—GJ] May be, mephitic gases overtook them on their way to shelter in the secret caves of the cliffs on that dreadful island night; but those who managed to survive the long days and nights of cosmic cataclysm ran out on the cliffs to wait for the relieving food-ships that were never to come…
For the mighty Pacific island-continent of …Mu… had toppled from her foundations deep, deep down into the hell of the abyss, and the boundless, heaving waters of the optional essays on college applications ocean now covered a whole vast land where life, legend whispers, had been one long dream of requirements term paradisiacal bliss, peace and prosperity, until one of its races, the men of blood and brawls, had turned it into almost continual fighting…” In the passage below Wilkins describes the essays colossal statues with an for a interesting SYMBOL ENGRAVED ON THE NECKS and backs of their stone heads. “Four splendid stone causeways radiate inland from the platforms. They are magnificently paved, and lined at optional on college applications, intervals with splendidly carved statues of men. [Giants—GJ] They pass on to an open plaza of georgetown essays great extent where towers up into the sky a domed temple, many-sided and polygonal, with statues at every angle of the optional building…[One] symbol, a circle, sometimes cleft with a rod, and on some of the images themselves engraved in common for a paper, series on the necks or backs, imports that they also worshipped the sun; perhaps, an emblem of a… MYSTIC SUN: THE UNREVEALED GOD.” Who and what is this ‘unrevealed god’ and ‘mystic Sun’ mentioned by Wilkins? One answer may lie with a sun-like object dubbed the BAL STAR by James Churchward. [See Exhibit P-1; from essays applications, ‘ Nibiru and the Subterranean Connection – Part 1 ’ ]. According to ancient Tibetan Naacal tablets studied by Churchward, he suggested it was the trigger or cause of Mu’s destruction. Format Essay. See Below:
Exhibit E) James Churchward (The Lost Continent of Mu ©1926 – The complete edition reprint ©1994. “. Optional Essays. Here is an interesting extract from the Lhasa Record: When the STAR OF BAL fell on the place where now is only the sky and the sea, [appeared to fall below the Pacific Ocean horizon-GJ] the seven cities with their golden gates and transparent temples, quivered and shook like the leaves in a storm; and, behold, a flood of fire and smoke arose from the palaces. Agonies and thesis nashville, cries of the optional on college applications multitude filled the air. They sought refuge in their temples and citadels, and the wise Mu - the muet format Hieratic Ra Mu - arose and said to them: did I not predict all this? And the women and the men in their precious stones and shining garments lamented 'Mu, save us!' and Mu replied: 'You shall all die together with your servants and on college applications, your riches, and from your ashes new nations shall arise.
If they forget they are superior not because of what they put on but what they put out the same will befall them.' Flames and smoke choked the words of Mu: the land and its inhabitants were torn to pieces and swallowed up by the depths. BAL is a Maya word meaning 'Lord of the Fields.” Paralleling this, another answer may lie with a Basalt ‘Sun-Disc’ found in Australia by help tennessee Marilyn Pye . See image to the right. This Sun-Disc is purported to be a relic from Lemuria! (From Exhibit B: Lost Cities of Ancient Lemuria the Pacific. Page 114) Note what looks like a prehistoric sea creature directly below. On College Applications. To me this indicates the Sun-Disc was associated with the Pacific Ocean just as Mu’s Bal Star was.
TALES FROM THE UNDERGROUND. Exhibit G) Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas (Uriel’s Machine, ©1999) “King Solomon built his famous temple at a level, Jerusalem on a site that was already a Canaanite [Giant—GJ] sacred sanctuary, and according to the oral traditions of Freemasonry still in essays applications, use today, when workmen were sent to clear the ground, they struck a stone that seemed to application essays 2013 make a hollow sound. Upon raising this stone, they discovered A VAULT BELOW which was found to be the remains of an Enochian temple. A workman is lowered down on a rope by optional essays on college his colleagues and discovers [only] one of the two pillars on which Enoch had engraved all the secrets of civilization that existed before the flood.” The reader should know that Enoch was told by an angel named Uriel , to preserve the binding essex secrets of civilization on on college the two pillars because a global disaster was imminent. Masonic documents dating from the essay on short early 17th century, known as the 'old charges' tell how everything dear to mankind existed before the disastrous Flood and had to be reconstructed by the survivors. The Freemason’s blazing star, the Tibetan Bal Star and yes, the Lemurian Sun Disc known as Nibiru . “…The vault in which this tomb was found was illuminated by optional on college the SUN OF THE MAGI, and inscribed with magical characters. The body of the illustrious founder [Christian Rosenkreutz] was discovered in perfect preservation…”
Quote from the ‘Encyclopedia of Occultism and thesis binding, Parapsychology’ ©1978. Vol. 2; Page 788. You be the judge, although various members of the Theosophical Society say YES! The first romance I’ve provided has all the hallmarks of ‘Moria’ in Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings . Optional Essays On College. This yarn takes place in muet essay, Staffordshire, England; circa 1675 and tells the tale of a farmer who stumbles across a subterranean staircase leading deep underground to a stone chamber occupied by applications a mysterious elder reading some-sort of ancient manuscript. You can read the entire account below: “Mr. Hargreave Jennings quoting Dr. Plot in his History of Staffordshire, written in the third quarter of the seventeenth century, gives an interesting account of a supposed ROSICRUCIAN CRYPT in that county, which, however, cannot be found in the work alluded to.
A countryman was employed, at the close of a certain dull summer's day, in digging a trench in a field in a valley, round which the country rose into somber, silent woods, vocal only with the quaint cries of the infrequent magpies. Common For A Term Paper. It was some little time after the optional on college sun had sunk, and psychology, the countryman was just about giving over his labour for applications the day.” He thought now, although it was probable only the wind in some hidden recess, or creeping down some gallery, that he heard a murmur overhead, as if of the uncertain rumble of horses and of heavy wagons, or lumbering wains. Next moment, all subsided into total stillness; but the muet distant light seemed to essays on college flicker, as if in answer to psychology a level coursework the strange sound. Half a dozen times he paused and turned as if he would remount-almost flee for his life upwards, as he thought; for this might be the secret haunt of robbers, or the dreadful abode of on college evil spirits. What if, in a few moments, he should come upon 2013, some scene to affright, or alight in the midst of desperate ruffians, or be caught by murderers. He listened eagerly.
He now almost bitterly repented his descent. Still the light streamed at a distance, but still there was no sound to interpret the meaning of the light, or to display the character of essays this mysterious place, in which the countryman himself was entangled hopelessly.” The discoverer by this time stood still in muet format, fear. But at last, summoning courage, and recommending himself devoutly to God, he determined to complete his discovery. Above, he had been working in no strange place: the field he knew well, the woods were very familiar to him, and his own hamlet and his family were only a few miles distant. He now hastily, and more in essays applications, fear than through courage, noisily with his feet descended the remainder of the stairs; and the light grew brighter as he approached, until at last, at another turn, he came upon a square chamber [underground vault] built up of large hewn stones. [ Note : I will pause the story at this point to address the significance of the rose. Usually accompanied with a cross, the rose symbol is widely used within Rosicrucian circles. Andy Lloyd eloquently summarizes the importance of this symbology from his web-page: ‘The Rosy Cross.’ See below: “The symbols of the Rose and the Cross are themselves deeply suggestive of Nibiru which was often depicted in the form of a cross by the ancients, as Zecharia Sitchin describes: The Staffordshire story continues: “But what was this poor man's fright when, making another sudden turn, from muet format essay, between the jambs, and from under the large archivolt of a Gothic stone portal, light streamed out over him with inexpressible brilliancy, shining over every thing, and on college applications, lighting up the place with brilliant radiance, like an intense golden sunset.
He started back. Then his limbs shook and bent under him as he gazed with terror at the figure of a man, whose face was hidden, as he sat in a studious attitude in a stone chair, READING IN A GREAT BOOK, with his elbow resting on a table like a rectangular altar, in help, the light of a large, ancient iron lamp, suspended by a thick chain to the middle of the roof.” The hooded man now thrust out on college applications a long arm, as if in essay on short a fire, warning, and in a moment the discoverer perceived that his hand was armed with an iron baton and that he pointed it as if tremendously to forbid further approach. Now, however, the poor man, not being in a condition either to optional essays on college applications reason or to restrain himself, with a cry, and in a passion of fear, took a third fatal step; and as his foot descended on the groaning stone, which seemed to give way for a moment under him, the dreadful man, or image, raised his arm high like a machine, and with his truncheon struck a prodigious blow upon the lamp, shattering it into essay, a thousand pieces, and leaving the optional place in utter darkness.” What these were-if any passages—nobody ever found out. It was only suspected that THIS HIDDEN PLACE REFERRED IN SOME WAY TO THE ROSICRUCIANS, AND THAT THE MYSTERIOUS PEOPLE OF THAT FAMOUS ORDER HAD THERE CONCEALED SOME OF THEIR SCIENTIFIC SECRETS.
The place in Staffordshire became afterwards famed as the sepulchre of one of the brotherhood, whom, for want of essay to build a more distinct recognition or name, the people chose to call ROSICRUCIUS, in optional essays on college applications, general reference to story his order; and from the circumstances of the lamp, and its sudden extinguishment by the figure that started up, it was supposed that some ROSICRUCIAN had determined to inform posterity that he had penetrated to the secret of the making of the EVER-BURNING LAMPS OF THE ANCIENTS, though, at optional applications, the moment that he displayed his knowledge, he took effectual means that no one should reap any advantage from it.” Who was the mysterious hooded Rosicrucian described above? His identity was never revealed. Prominent Rosicrucians have been identified in the past, however, noted people such as: Dante Alighieri who wrote the ‘Divine Comedy’ including ‘Dante’s Hell,’ Robert Fludd who helped translate the Bible into English for thesis binding essex King James I and Sir Francis Bacon who wrote literature on a ‘New Atlantis’ that inspired the colonization of America. Exhibit H) Leslie A. Optional Essays On College. Shepard (Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology - Vol. 2 ©1978) “…Practically nothing was known concerning the essex Rosicrucian brotherhood before the publication of Mr. [A. E.] Waite’s work The real history of the optional essays on college Rosicrucians in 1887…the result of arduous personal research, has gathered…facts…drawn from manuscripts, in some cases discovered by himself, and from skilful analogy.
As it is the only authority on the subject worth speaking about…” In connection with C.R.C’s life story I have highlighted this Rosicrucian diagram (above right) emphasizing the thesis binding essex Sceptre above his tomb. My argument contends that this celestial red sphere represents the ‘Sun of the essays on college applications Magi’—our second sun-like planet. Exhibit H) continues: “…In 1618 Henrichus Neuhuseus published a Latin pamphlet, which stated that the Rosicrucian adepts had migrated to India, and present-day Theosophists will have it that they exist now in the table-lands of psychology Tibet. Essays. ” As mentioned earlier, it is a known fact that Rosicrucian societies still exist today so one can deduce, based on the above quotes, modern-day Magi continue to common operate from within the optional applications brotherhood. The Bible tells us that THREE MAGI were synonymous for portending Christ’s birth due to the Star of Bethlehem’s manifestation. I get the impression the application essays 2013 Magi knew exactly where to optional essays applications look for story to build a fire it in the sky when the right time arrived.
So if the Magi are interwoven into the Rosicrucian fold, one can suggest the ‘ Christ Star’ would be interwoven in optional essays on college, their symbolic imagery as well. Sure enough this is indeed the case. The highlighted picture above is a blow-up of “a certificate of membership in coursework, ‘The Societas Rosicruciana’ in Anglia founded in 1886 by a group of Freemasons.” The Rosicrucian Society of on college England’s certificate clearly shows a crown with seven stars but notice how the crown is represented as a sun directly above our own celestial sun. Is this another representation of the ‘Sun of the Magi’? I say yes! “[Master Mason]…Pike in his book Morals and Dogma intended only for requirements term paper the inner core of Masonry, made it clear that worship of the sun was an adulteration of an earlier belief. “Thousands of years ago, men worshipped the sun… Originally they looked beyond the orb (our solar system’s sun) to the invisible God… The worship of the Sun (the invisible God) became the basis of all the optional religions of antiquity…”
This is a remarkable statement because it suggests that the Masons [as well as the georgetown essays 2013 Rosicrucians] inherently knew of TWO SUNS! The Celestial Sun and the Sun God dubbed “The Grand Architect of the Universe.” Furthermore, if the optional essays applications Masonic Sun God was associated with the term “Bringer of Light” this infers a direct correlation to the “Christ Star” or the “Sun of the Magi.” See bottom left: Compare that image to the upper-right image depicting the common requirements for a term paper ‘True Sun’ of the essays on college applications Incas. The similarities are striking to say the least. Essex. (Also see Andy Lloyd ‘ The True Sun of the optional on college applications Incas .’) Exhibit K) James R. Lewis (The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects, and New Religions ©1998) “ Carl Louis Van Grasshof , a German immigrant, founded the Rosicrucian Fellowship in 1909. Van Grasshof, better known as Max Heindel, settled in Los Angeles in 1903 and began to help participate in Katherine Tingley’s Theosophical Society.
Heindel was president of the lodge in 1904 and 1905, and gained popularity as a lecturer during that time. In 1907, Heindel made a trip to essays Germany. Application. During that trip he met an essays on college entity [?] identified as an Elder Brother of the Rosicrucian Order . The Elder Brother promised to be of assistance to Heindel. Heindel then traveled to the Temple of the Rosy Cross, near the Bohemian border. There, Heindel received much of the information he later published in his book, The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception.” [Another prominent official of the Fellowship was Author Manly P. Hall—GJ] The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception is a rare and fascinating book delving deep into mystic Christianity. Although I cannot begin to understand the complex esoteric knowledge within this 610 page volume there are however some points I would like to address regarding the brotherhood’s direct first-hand knowledge of the Nibiru /Dark Star system: Exhibit K) Max Heindel (The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception ©1909) COUNT DE SAINT GERMAIN—THE ‘WONDERMAN’
In certain ways Count St. Germain’s life was similar to muet format essay that of Christian Rosencreuze. Provided below is a condensed biographical account of Germain’s ‘true life’ history. Exhibit I) Jim Marrs (Rule by essays on college applications Secrecy ©2000) “Within early Freemasonry men were called magicians-not the muet essay stage illusionists of today but men who took the name from the term MAGI, OR WISE MEN. On College. Until the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century, magic was merely another name for science. Psychology Coursework. These magicians seriously claimed to essays on college have the essay on short story ancient knowledge of metal transmutation, matter manipulation, and eternal youth. One of the most magical of these Masons was a person known as a “Wonderman,” who was thought to optional essays on college have lived for hundreds of years.”
Exhibit L) Theosophy Magazine (Vol. 27, No.1, No.28 ©November, 1938) Pages 3-9. “…Count de St. Germain, described by his friend Prince Karl von Hesse as one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived, the friend of humanity, whose heart was concerned only with the happiness of common term paper others. Intimate and essays on college, counselor of Kings and Princes, nemesis of for a term paper deceptive ministers, ROSICRUCIAN, MASON, accredited Messenger of the optional on college Masters of Wisdom - the Count de St. Germain worked in Europe for common more than a century, faithfully performing the difficult task which had been entrusted to him.” If, as many claimed, St.
Germain affirmed that he had lived in Chaldea and possessed the SECRETS OF THE EGYPTIAN SAGES, therefore he would have known about the Egyptian winged Sun-Disc. [See Andy Lloyd’s web-page ‘The Duat’—GJ] he may have spoken the truth without making any miraculous claim. There are Initiates, and optional on college, not necessarily of the highest, who are able to recall many of their past lives. This may have been St. Term Paper. Germain's way of calling attention of optional essays on college his friends to the doctrine of reincarnation. Or perhaps he knew the secret of “the Elixir of Life”…” Although Voltaire was opposed to St. Germain's fellow-Theosophist Saint-Martin, his admiration for St. Germain was unbounded. A Level Coursework. In a letter to Frederick, Voltaire expressed his opinion that the Count de St.
Germain is a man who was never born, who will never die, and who knows everything. In 1755 the Count de St. Germain accompanied General Clive to India. On his return to France Louis XV gave him a suite of apartments in the Royal Chateau of Chambord, in Touraine. Here he often entertained the King and members of the Court in the ALCHEMICAL LABORATORY which the King had provided for him. “[In 1762]… St.
Germain was called to St. Petersburg, where he played an optional important part in the revolution which placed Catherine the Great upon the throne of Russia. He left the country in the uniform of for a term a Russian general, with full credentials to which the imperial seal of optional Russia was affixed. Shortly afterward he appeared in Tunis and Leghorn while the Russian fleet was there, again in georgetown application essays 2013, Russian uniform, and on college, known under the name of Graf Saltikoff. SAINT GERMAIN’S VERY RARE MANUSCRIPT. “The word “Trinosophie” quite properly infers a triple meaning to the contents of the book, in other words that its meaning should be interpreted with the aid of three keys. From the symbolism it seems that one of these keys is ALCHEMY…; another Essenian Cabbalism; and the third Alexandrian Hermetism the mysticism of the later Egyptians.” Yes, there is indeed great mystery here. St.
Germain’s arcane (Rosicrucian) philosophy was obtained when he traveled to Syria and the Orient where he contacted Initiates of the psychology a level fraternity. It was during this timeframe, under the direction of the Anisaireh Brotherhood , St. Germain went into an altered state where he could see future events and the secrets of nature and the solar system were revealed to applications him. “1. To find things lost in the seas since the flooding of the globe. 2. To discover mines and diamonds, gold and silver within the bowels of the earth. 3. To preserve one's health and prolong one's life for a century, and that with the freshness of fifty years, and the strength of 2013 that age…” So it would seem Count De St.
Germain was in the mining business searching for copious amounts of gemstones existing deep within the Earth and according to various reports he actually located and produced them. Furthermore, he mentions the cosmic “Fire” which destroyed Sodom and Gemorrah. I maintain this destruction was a direct result of Nibiru swinging on by and symbolic clues were given in St. Germain’s rare manuscript. All this esoteric knowledge was acquired from the time of Moses. Another passage from the manuscript worth noting says: “The Holy Magic revealed to Moses discovered within an Egyptian monument and preciously preserved in on college, Asia under the EMBLEM OF A WINGED DRAGON.”
I argue the celestial dragon is a level also deeply suggestive of Nibiru . (See Andy Lloyd’s web-page ‘The Book of Revelation.’) The chief message in many discussions of the Magi is to illustrate the philosophical position of optional on college applications two primal eternal realities (good and evil) in-other-words dualism and through symbolic images dualism can shine through quite distinctively. As you can see above, Nibiru —the Sun of the Magi—is represented in psychology a level coursework, each of the applications dragon mouths. In one mouth, a benevolent star (The ‘Christ Star’ which spares planet earth—good) and in the other, a malevolent star (The “old dragon” or Satan, that can destroy planet earth’s surface with his cosmic fire—evil). In-other-words celestial dualism is thesis binding created dependant upon where Nibiru is in relation to the Earth. Keeping this thought in mind, Author R. J. Optional. Stewart writes the following: “…Merlin can interpret [prophesy and] he reveals the meaning of tennessee ‘A STAR OF GREAT MAGNITUDE AND BRILLIANCE’ that heralds a NEW AGE…and this is applications a stellar event [that will be] seen by people throughout the land…” Exhibit L) Theosophy Magazine continues: “While St. Germain was living in Vienna he spent much of his time in the ROSICRUCIAN LABORATORY on the Landstrasse, and at one time lived in the room which Leibniz occupied in 1713.
St. Germain also worked with the Fratres Lucis, and georgetown application 2013, with the Knights and optional applications, Brothers of Asia who studied Rosicrucian and Hermetic science and made the muet format “philosopher's stone” one of the optional applications objects of their research.” [From an underground chamber near Frankfurt—GJ]. “The Count de St. Essay On Short To Build. Germain is said to have died on February 27, 1784, and optional essays on college, the Church Register of muet format Eckernfrde in Danish Holstein contains the record of optional essays on college applications his death and burial. But as it happens, some of St. Germain's most important work was done after that date. This fact is brought out in the Souvenirs de Marie-Antoinette, written by one of her ladies-in-waiting, the Countess d'Adhmar. This diary was started in 1760 and ended in 1821, one year before the death of the muet Countess, and a large part of it is concerned with St. Optional Essays Applications. Germain's efforts to avert the story to build horrors of the essays applications French Revolution.” (Kleine Wiener Memorien.)
These words were spoken in 1790. Eighty-five years from that date brings us to 1875. Application 2013. What part did St. Applications. Germain play in the Theosophical Movement of last century? What part is he going to play in the present century?…”
Based on this magazine article, Christian Rosencreuz (if real) and Count St. Germain were both alchemists so its quite reasonable to stress here that the second sun-like body would be portrayed within alchemic manuscripts akin to the ‘Sun of the Magi’ being symbolized in Rosenkreuz’s ‘ Chemical Wedding .’ Below are six illustrations to support my argument: Engraving from Johann Joachim Becher, Opuscula chymica rariora, Nurnberg, 1719. Format Essay. (showing two suns) Engraving from on college applications, Splendor Solis. A Coat of Arms with foliage, has a shield bearing the image of the sun.
Above this another sun shines down. (portrayed in a wing-like manner) Engraving from Baro Urbigerus, Besondere chymische Schrifften, Hamburg, 1705. (showing two suns) Middle ages wood cut showing two suns in the sky. “Child of the Sun” Emblem from Hermaphrodite (Notice how the ‘red sphere’ is identical with the ‘Rosy Cross’ sphere from Christian Rosenkrueze’s tomb diagram—see Exhibit H) Engraving from Rosary of the Philosophers. A winged sun hovers above a sepulchre filled with water (the ‘Sun of the Magi’) These striking images make it quite clear the ‘Sun of the Magi’ is destined to reappear one day in the future and the MAGI—Count St.
Germain included—were privy to this ancient secret. Two thousand years ago, eluded to earlier, the Magi knew exactly where to look in the sky. They knew the ‘Star of georgetown application Bethlehem’ was cyclical in nature just as the Magi of optional applications today (within the muet essay Mason/Rosicrucian movements) know this and optional essays on college, are secretly anticipating its eminent return. Exhibit P) A. Psychology Coursework. P. Sinnet (Esoteric Buddism ©1885) from optional essays on college applications, Chapter VI; Kama Loca. “…there is not much mystery left now in the riddle of the essay on short a fire eighth sphere [sun of the Magi—GJ], nor as to the place in the sky where it may be sought. The conditions of applications existence there, however, are topics on which the thesis help tennessee adepts are very reserved in applications, their communications to uninitiated pupils, and concerning these I have for help tennessee the present no further information to give…”
In concluding, the late Father Malachi Martin (an ex-Jesuit Priest who no doubt rubbed shoulders with Rosicrucians in his life time) said to a well-known American radio personality, Art Bell, in an interview I personally listened to applications back in ’97 or ’98. “…the sign will be in the form of a Red Cross and everyone will see it…” To signify change and herald in a new age. Simply put, the a level ‘Rosy Cross’ of the Rosicrucians is the celestial ‘Red Cross,’ the ‘Christ Star’ and yes, the ‘Sun of the Magi’ known as Nibiru . “ God , your Father, sends the sun to shine upon optional on college applications, you. God , your Father, can also send the sun to burn you. A SECOND SUN lies out in your atmosphere [solar system], the Ball of Redemption. Common For A Paper. I repeat, My children, it is not a myth, nor a story; it is a fact.” The Virgin Mary gave this vision to the devout Catholic, Veronica Lueken on December 31, 1974.
Mountains! Why are we so fascinated with them? Since the beginning of human history people have felt compelled to explore their lofty summits and deep caverns within their broad extremities. This ageless attraction seems to optional be inherently ingrained in our human psyche, but why? One reason is that mountains are associated with the georgetown application 2013 spiritual realm and are deeply rooted in religious tradition. The revelation of ‘rapid mountain building’—a direct result from crustal slippage caused by a pole-shift. Yes, I realize geologists will tell you the modus operandi theory today is ‘Plate Tectonics,’ a very long and dull process where mountain summits increase or decrease only by one centimeter, give of take, every year.
But geologists do not realize there is another variable at play here in nature’s equation. Nibiru and the Dark Star! And its clear to me now, geologically speaking, the Earth goes through long periods of boredom only to have short periods of optional essays on college terror occur when Nibiru rolls on muet essay by. In-other-words, rapid mountain up-thrusts or down-thrusts—designed by the ‘Grand Architect of the Universe,’ GOD . “A fire goes before Him and burns up his enemies all around. His [cosmic] lightning flashes in the sky [within the upper atmosphere]. When the people see it, they tremble. The MOUNTAINS MELT LIKE WAX before the Lord.” Psalm 97 verses 3-5. So if you take this Biblical verse literally, island chains in optional essays on college, the ocean or even continents would come and go in cyclical fashion.
Call it ‘Divine Intervention,’ if-you-will. The Rosicrucian Lemurian Fellowship is thesis binding one such brotherhood that documented all this by stating the inhabitants of Lemuria knew the pole-shift was imminent and had no choice but to migrate to Mt. Shasta in on college applications, northern California just prior to their continent “melting like wax.” See below: From Exhibit B) David Hatcher Childress (Lost Cities of North Central America ©1992) “Mount Shasta has long been a source of mystery to those involved in studies of the paranormal. It has been called the North American Mecca for mystical phenomena.
Stories about Mount Shasta range from ancient Masters who live inside the mountain to frequent UFO sightings. Muet Format Essay. ” “Located on the northern extremity of the Sierra Nevada range, Mount Shasta is the cone of on college applications what scientists believe to be a dormant volcano. Format Essay. Today it extends to a height of 14,380 feet above sea level, though scientists believe that at one time the applications land in this region was actually higher and that Mount Shasta may well have been the highest mountain in thesis help, California…” “The Rosicrucians [Ancient and Mystical Order of the essays applications Rosae Crucis or AMORC] …have a tradition regarding the ancient history of California and Mount Shasta through information derived from application essays 2013, ancient manuscripts brought from China and optional essays applications, Tibet. From this source much information has been gained concerning the connection between California and the lost Lemurian Continent.” As early as 1908, an article in the Overland Monthly suggested that California was a remnant of the hypothesized lost continent of Lemuria, the on short a fire Pacific Ocean equivalent of Atlantis. This idea was popularized by H. Spencer Lewis , the founder of AMORC, and optional essays, the author of Lemuria , the lost continent of the Pacific , published in 1931 under the pseudonym Wishar Spenle Cerve. “[Spencer Lewis’ book]… discusses the emigration of Lemurians to California. According to the ancient manuscripts allegedly in his possession, before the essay on short story [pole-shift] catastrophe the on college applications mountains in the northeastern part of Lemuria (now northern California) were higher than they presently are today, and were perhaps the highest mountains in thesis tennessee, the world. This made Mount Shasta region an ideal place of refuge for those seeking to escape the optional essays applications GREAT DELUGE which occurred with the supposed sinking of the essay continent.
He says, “The fact that only a few thousands succeeded in reaching the mountains would indicate that the last great catastrophe of Lemuria [caused by optional essays Nibiru —GJ] was more or less sudden and decidedly complete in its submergence of the land.” “One of the most famous incidents of a possible discovery of Lemurian architecture involved a man named J.C. Muet Format Essay. Brown and occurred near the turn of the century. In 1904, Brown, who at essays on college applications, the time was a prospector, claimed to have made an psychology coursework intriguing discovery somewhere in essays applications, the Cascade mountain range (Mount Shasta is application 2013 located in optional essays applications, the Cascades). Brown had been hired by muet the Lord Cowdray Mining Company of optional England to prospect for gold in this area. While on his second trip to common for a term the region, Brown found a Man-made tunnel carved into a solid rock wall. Apparently, a landslide had destroyed a wall which had hidden the tunnel.” Apparently, Brown had not led them all there as a hoax for any attempted personal gain, for on college not a cent had been stolen from psychology a level, any person in the party. They theorized that Brown had been abducted, but by whom or for what reason, no one ever learned. Applications. He was never seen again.”
They refused to accept change for the items they purchased leading some to theorize that the gold was not of value to them, nor did they really need money of any kind. Garbed in an unusual costume not recognized as being either American Indian or European, these people are described as being distinctive in psychology a level coursework, features and complexion; tall, graceful, and agile, having the optional essays on college appearance of thesis binding essex being quite old and exceedingly virile.” “The Rosicrucians also report that “boats” exist which have flown out of the Shasta region high in the air over the hills of California as well as other nearby areas. They say such boats have been spotted at on college applications, sea and as far north as the Aleutian Islands. The airships were unusual in that they made absolutely no sound, giving no indication of having been powered by a motor of georgetown any kind.” Exhibit R) Rosicrucian Digest (May 1931 Issue) “Many testify to having seen the strange boat, or boats, which sail the Pacific Ocean, and then rise at its shores and optional applications, sail through the air to application essays drop again in the vicinity of Shasta. This same boat…has neither sails nor smokestacks…[and] was seen several times by the officials employed by the cable station located near VANCOUVER, and the boat has been sighted as far north as the Aleutian Islands…”
Exhibit B) continues: “The Indians have always believed that California was inhabited by a super-race whose colonies isolated themselves, preserving their strange culture intact and separate from optional on college applications, others. One location occupied by this mysterious race of “invisible people” according to nashville tennessee tradition has been Mount Shasta; one Wintun Indian, Grant Towendolly, recalls a story his father had told him in which he once heard the laughter of children coming from optional essays applications, [within] the mountain.” “Elements of the Indian legends lend credence to the belief that California and Mount Shasta may have been part of an advanced and ancient civilization and that its legacy is a race of people who at one time (and perhaps still today?) occupied the for a term paper area.” “Indians in the Shasta area [also] report the existence of [boats or] UFOs over the mountain. Essays. In 1930 shortly before his death, Chief Potentio, member of the old Cahuilla Tribe and help, 108 years old told of the silver ships that came and went from the highest point of the mountain…” “Note: There are indications that some members of certain Masonic-type 'secret government' societies, such as the ROSICRUCIAN ORDER, have attempted to establish contact with the subterranean residents of Mt. Shasta, although it is uncertain just what might have come of this. Several encounters with the optional on college 'Blondes' (both subterranean and extraterrestrial?) [have occurred in the Mt.
Shasta region] since this is their world also, and they are just as native to earth as anyone else living on this planet…” Are the tall Blonde Entities members of the GREAT WHITE BROTHERHOOD and descendants of the terrestrial Giant Race now able to go off planet? That would explain why Branton believes they are just as native to Earth as we are. Exhibit T) Eric Norman (The Underpeople ©1969) The following letter was written to the Author from a correspondent: “. at first I scoffed at such stories about mysterious tunnels and an alien civilization beneath the surface. I joined an inner earth group for the simple enjoyment of discussing outlandish ideas in a humorless, serious manner. Gradually, I became interested by the considerable volume of circumstantial evidence. I now believe the earth is absolutely honeycombed by on short story to build a fire a web of tunnels that run beneath the optional essays continents, under the oceans, and binding, these passageways link the subterranean cities of the inner world.”
There is another, smaller, but very well hidden entrance to the tunnel in the mountains near Machu Picchu, which is the on college capital city of the first and last Inca emperor. It is called 'The Lost City of the Incas' and was not discovered until 1911 by an American, Hiram Bringham . A Level. It is considered the 'Eighth Wonder of the World.” In many volcanic regions caves are created when the on college applications outer surface of lava flow congeals and muet, cools into optional, a hollowed out shell. Called lava tubes, these formations are found in and around Mount Shasta, some are a mile or more long. (According to on short story AMORC some are endless and essays, have been occupied by ancient man) But the most famous is ‘Pluto Cave.’ See the picture above. From what I have read, exploring this lava tube near Mount Shasta should not be taken lightly and a level, the depths of this cave are eternally dark. The travel-guide books will advise you not to venture in alone because of the seriousness of getting ‘lost’ within the optional on college applications cave. However, the guide-books will tell you the eerie experience of georgetown application essays 2013 advancing into a seemingly infinite blackness is optional on college applications unforgettable. Exhibit S) continues….
“…The following are some excepts from an article written by William F. Hamilton … Bill has been in Data Processing for 22 years and is now a Sr. Programmer - Analyst. He is format essay a writer, investigator and researcher. He has been involved in UFO research and investigations since 1953…He founded Nexus and Nexus News, an optional essays on college applications info center for alternative energy and alternative life-styles… He is a fire a UFO investigator with MUFON, an Associate Director of UFOCCI, and founder of UFORCES. Bill is the author of the following books:… Alien Magic ; and Cosmic Top Secret . He has written numerous articles for publications such as… 'The New Atlantean Journal,' 'California UFO,' and 'UFO Universe'. Optional Essays. The following article originally appeared in the 'New Atlantean Journal': The tube trains are propelled by muet electromagnetic impulses up to speeds of optional essays 2500 mph. One tube connects with one of their cities in the Matto Grosso jungle of Brazil. Essay To Build. (They) have developed space travel and some flying saucers come from their subterranean bases.
They grow food hydroponically under full-spectrum lights with their gardens attended by automatons. The food and resources of optional essays applications Telos are distributed in plenty to the million-and-a-half population that thrives on a no-money economy. Bonnie talks about history, of the Uighers , Naga-Mayas , and Quetzals , of which she is a descendant…” From Exhibit B) David Hatcher Childress (Lost Cities of North Central America) “The claim of a large city beneath Mount Shasta is interesting in essex, light of the fact that the Cascade Range of optional essays mountains, of which Mount Shasta is a part, is an active volcanic range. It has been predicted by many Native American Shamans, such as Sun Bear in Spokane, Washington, that the Cascade volcanos are all going to all erupt [at the same time during the next pole-shift—GJ] This could include Mount Shasta and nearby Mount Lassen… With all that magma moving up from the Earth’s core, the million people in [Mount Shasta’s] underground city might have some environmental problems. ” “It seems quite possible that some sort of ancient, high tech place might have existed at Mount Shasta, though it seems doubtful that a million people, or even any number even remotely near that figure, ever lived inside the mountain. Coursework. Generally, it is said that the few who maintain such ancient repositories as those that allegedly exist at Mount Shasta, Tibet and other places, do not make contact with the essays applications outside world or the uninitiated.” “In a strange book, A Dweller On Two Planets , originally published in 1899 (though written [by Phylos the thesis binding Tibetan ] in optional essays, 1886), there are several incidents which relate directly to the mysteries of thesis Mount Shasta. One is the use of essays vailxi by Atlanteans, a submersible, cigar shaped airship. These airships are the Atlantean equivalent of an Indian Rama empire vimana . At one point in the book, the essays 2013 author, in an Atlantean incarnation… goes from Atlantis to Rama in a vailx , and at one point stops at a “vimana port’ and monastery on top of Grand Teton in Wyoming. The ruins of this ancient structure are said to be on Grand Teton today…” “It is optional essays on college a strange book, and according to some sources, such as the Lemurian Fellowship, it is a mixture of FACT and fiction. Georgetown. Perhaps, in an effort to sort out the “esoteric truth” about Mount Shasta, the Lemurian fellowship of [northern] California can help us. Founded in 1936, the Lemurian Fellowship, under the direction of Dr.
Robert Stelle , [or ‘The Stelle Group’—[see Part One of this paper] claims to be the mundane school of the essays on college applications Lemurian Brotherhood , whose real name is the Lothian brotherhood , as Phylos claimed.” “In May 1936, The Rosicrucian Digest, a publication of AMORC and Harvey Spencer Lewis , announced that because of muet format all the attention that Shasta was attracting, the Lemurians were abandoning their site on Shasta in essays applications, favor of a more secret location. According to the digest, a delegation of them had come to Lewis’ office in San Jose where the Grand Lodge of the Rosicrucian order is located (…there are at least three Rosicrucian orders currently in the USA…) to tell him this and to ask that he not divulge their new location.” “With all of the thesis modern activity going on around Mount Shasta, it made sense, as the Rosicrucians had claimed, that the secret Masters of Mount Shasta had moved their base to the Yukon where they exist with peace and quite…” In Part Three of this paper I presented a Theosophy magazine article (Exhibit L) that posed the question; What role was Count De Saint Germain going to on college applications play in thesis binding, the 1900s? Well, it seems he turned up, strangely enough, at Mount Shasta as an “ascended Master” belonging to the Great White Brotherhood . It was at this location where he chose a mining engineer named Guy Warren Ballard as his official messenger to herald in essays, the coming of the “Golden Age,” See below: “After St. Germain’s reported death in 1784, he was made to seem physically immortal.
In the early 1930s, a man named Guy Warren Ballard [1878-1939] claimed that St. Germain had spoken to thesis him on a mountain in California. That conversation gave birth to an interesting new branch of the brotherhood…” “Against this background, Mr. Ballard’s experience on Mount Shasta takes on added significance. Mr. Ballard writes that he had hiked up the side of the mountain and paused by a spring. Essays On College. As he bent down to fill a cup with water, he felt an common term paper electrical current passing through his body from head to foot. Looking around, he saw behind him a bearded man who looked to on college applications be in essex, his 20’s or 30’s. The stranger later introduced himself as the Count of St. Germain.” “The initial meetings between Ballard and “St. Germain” took place between August and October 1930.
During the optional essays earliest of those meetings, St. Germain had Ballard drink a liquid which caused a strong physical reaction and for a term, made Ballard go “out of body.”…After imbibing this fluid on several occasions, Ballard said that he was able to go “out of body” without the drink…” “[On one occasion]…while he was in one of his “out of body” states, St. Germain, who was also “out of body,” took him to applications some rather remarkable places. One locale was a mountain in the Teton Range of Wyoming—a mountain Mr. Ballard calls the “Royal Teton.” According to Ballard, there was a sealed tunnel entrance near the top of the mountain that led to essex ELEVATORS.
The elevators took their occupants to a location two thousand feet down into an underground complex of optional on college huge halls, storage spaces, and mines…” “…Mr. Psychology A Level. Ballard claims to have visited four secret underground locations altogether: two of them while “out of optional applications body” and two by regular human means. Common Requirements For A Term. Interestingly, each location corresponded to a region in optional essays applications, which there existed earlier in history a major civilization worshiping the Custodial “gods.” The Teton location coincided with the ancient North American civilizations. A similar underground location in South America went hand-in-hand with the muet essay Incan civilization on that continent. A trip by boat and automobile resulted in a stopover at a reputed underground location on the Arabian peninsula, which matched the ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. The fourth location in the mountains above the essays city of Darjeeling, India, corresponded to the ancient Aryan civilizations of the Indian subcontinent. The underground locations were reportedly quite expansive and served a number of functions. In addition to holding electronic gadgetry, the caves were reportedly filled with enormous quantities of precious metals and gems…” “…According to story Mr. Ballard… Mankind lost… records to Brotherhood leaders who had deliberately removed and hidden the writings.
Ballard claims that he saw some of those ancient historical works inside the underground mountain complex north of Darjeeling, India. Essays Applications. He added that the records would not be released to the human race until the “ Ascended Masters ” [Count St. Germain being one of essay them—GJ] so ordered: “These records are not brought forth into the use of the outer world at the present time, because of lack of spiritual growth and understanding of the people. Optional Essays. The race has a restlessness and critical feeling, that is a very destructive activity. the Ascended Masters of the Great White brotherhood , have always foreseen such destructive impulses and have withdrawn all important records of every civilization, and preserved them, then left the less important to be destroyed by the vicious impulse of the vandals.” “In one of the large underground rooms, [within the psychology a level Royal Teton Mountain in Wyoming] Mr. Ballard claims that he saw an ALL SEEING EYE SYMBOL on essays the wall. There was a large machine, which Ballard described as: “…A DISC OF GOLD—at least twelve feet in story to build, diameter. Filling it so that the points touched the circumference—BLAZED A SEVEN POINTED STAR—composed entirely of yellow diamonds—A SOLID MASS OF BRILLIANT GOLDEN LIGHT….”
It should be noted that Ballard was labeled a fraud because of his rather strange tale and no tangible evidence of his life-experience was ever produced. Skeptics will tell you that extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof. Pity Ballard isn’t alive today to defend himself. Be that as it may, whether you believe Ballard’s story or not, I’m saying the giant gold Sun-Disc he believed he saw was not a representation of optional essays our own Sun at all, but a copy (and ancient machine) of on short story another sun-like sphere within the outer fringes of our solar system. As I have pointed out in essays, Part Three, Saint Germain knew all about the ‘Sun of the Magi’ so it would be fitting he brought Ballard to this underground locale to view it. Exhibit V) Harold T. Wilkins (Mysteries of Ancient South America ©1946) “There is requirements for a paper a tradition current in the mystic east, and, perhaps, derived from Atlanteans who quitted their great motherland before the time of the terrible cataclysm… that the central cathedral temple of old Atlantis’ capital, hill city, “Sardegon”, had a dome-shaped ceiling from which flamed a magnificent “…[MYSTIC] SUN OF BLAZING GOLD. ” “But when Pizarro’s conquistadores laid their bandits’ hands on this ancient civilization, as the Carian-Colloans had done before them in on college applications, relation to what was left of the communities of the old, white, bearded Atlanteans of… Brazil in the islands of lake Titicaca, Peru, that glorious SUN OF GOLD vanished. For four centuries its whereabouts have remained a mystery…”
This is an amazing statement by Harold Wilkins because he is implying that the giant ‘gold Sun-Disc’ is not a representation of our own Sun! Wilkins also stated that the essays 2013 term “VIRA” means GOD OF THE SUN and since we know ‘Virachocha’ means “TRUE SUN of the Incas” (stated by Andy Lloyd’s going by the same name—not our regular sun) it is reasonable to suggest the giant Gold Sun-Disc of the Incas is indeed our Sun-like planetary companion. “None of the old secrets of the land of the Incas have really perished. There are native societies of the underworld who, age by age, keep them inviolate. Their members are sometimes wandering Catholic priests who, on applications one day of the year, revert to the celebration of their real religion; the rites of the sun, that…MYSTIC SUN of pre-cataclysmic ancient world, symbolizing the unknown Divinity…” Again, this is another remarkable statement by Wilkins. Why would converted Catholic Peruvian priests still worship a pre-cataclysmic Sun today? Its because they worship the other Sun-like planet—cyclical in nature—that actually causes the muet format essay cataclysms!
So I can see now why they called it their ‘ True Sun .’ Truth is optional essays on college this particular Sun-like planet can produce significant amounts of damage to us, yes, the truth hurts. No wonder the Incas prayed to psychology coursework this “unknown divinity,” for appeasement in essays on college applications, hope of escaping the incoming wrath. “As to the changes physical again: The earth will be broken up in the western portion of America. The greater portion of Japan must go into the sea. Essays. The upper portion of Europe will be changed in the twinkling of an eye. Essays. Land will appear off the east coast of America.
There will be upheavals in the Arctic and in the Antarctic that will make for the eruption of volcanoes in the Torrid areas, and THERE WILL BE A SHIFTING OF THE POLES—so that where there have been those of a frigid or semitropical will become the more tropical, and psychology a level, moss and fern will grow. And these will begin in ’58 to ’98 [2058 to 2098?] when these will be proclaimed as the optional applications periods when HIS LIGHT [THE CHRIST STAR or the ‘SUN OF THE MAGI’—GJ] WILL BE SEEN AGAIN in the clouds.” Cayce also tells us that Atlantean lands are going to rise again out of the Atlantic Ocean. Will this be the case for Lemuria, out of the Pacific? Only time will tell. But I will say this, the ‘trigger’ for a pole-shift and subsequent Earth crust-displacement will be from the ‘Mystic Lost-Sun, the Aztecs' Fifth-Sun and thesis tennessee, yes, the optional essays on college applications mountain-maker known as Nibiru .
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Vreemd vermogen is application 2013 geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Er is optional essays applications onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of a level coursework inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Essays Applications? In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is requirements een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Dus een balans is optional on college applications een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is binding essex de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen.
Dit geeft aan in essays on college applications, hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. A Level Coursework? Het maken van een verkoopprognose is on college niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of on short story to build a fire dat voldoende is optional applications om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of verlies. De berekening is application essays 2013 simpel. Optional Essays On College? Het aantal verkochte producten per maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Muet Format? Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven.
Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. Optional On College? (21%, 6% of 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Muet Format? Dat wil in de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Essays On College? Betalen je klanten direct (contact of PIN) zoals in thesis help nashville tennessee, de detailhandel, of moet je weken op je geld wachten.
Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Optional Essays? Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Ga je direct in je eerste maand omzet maken, of is er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Muet Essay? Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen.
Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in essays, te kopen is a level coursework je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Optional Essays On College? De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Essex? De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is on college applications als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. A Level Coursework? Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is optional essays aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen.
Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Georgetown 2013? Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Optional On College Applications? Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of application agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Essays? Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Thesis? Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen.
Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Essays On College? verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Binding? kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is optional niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in requirements for a term, of je bedrijf rendabel is. Door de omzet en kosten in een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in optional on college applications, een oogopslag zien of common requirements paper je bedrijf winst of optional on college verlies maakt. A Level? In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld.
Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is on college de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Coursework? De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Optional Essays On College? Dit bepaalt of psychology je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Essays Applications? Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Psychology A Level Coursework? Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Essays Applications? Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in essay, de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Essays On College Applications? Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Georgetown? Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen.
Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of VOF.
In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Optional On College? Het salaris is help tennessee een kostenpost voor de BV. De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Optional On College? We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen?
Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of thesis er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Optional On College Applications? Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of psychology door klanten die laat betalen. On College? Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in muet format essay, de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in essays on college applications, de liquiditeitsbegroting. Thesis? Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. Optional Essays Applications? De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Zeker in format, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in essays, de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW.
In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of common requirements paper je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Essays Applications? De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is application essays 2013 de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. De cashflow is optional essays positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Georgetown Application Essays? De cashflow is negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. On College Applications? Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Term? Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in essays applications, kaart. Thesis Binding Essex? Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag.
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Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is muet format essay het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over optional applications, je onderneming. Essays? Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Optional On College Applications? Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan.
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70 useful sentences for essays applications, academic writing. Back in the late 90s, in the process of help nashville tennessee reading for optional applications, my MA dissertation, I put together a collection of hundreds of common requirements for a term sentence frames that I felt could help me with my academic writing later on. And they did. Immensely. Essays Applications! After the course was over, I stacked my sentences away, but kept wondering if I could ever put them to tennessee, good use and perhaps help other MA / PhD students. So here are 70 sentences extracted and adapted for from the original compilation, which ran for optional applications, almost 10 pages.
This list is organized around keywords. Before you start: 1. Pay close attention to the words in help nashville tennessee bold , which are often used in conjunction with the main word. 2. [ ] means #8220;insert a suitable word here#8221;, while ( ) means #8220;this word is optional.#8221; 3. Keep in mind that, within each group, some examples are slightly more formal / less frequent than others. b. There seems to be no compelling reason to essays, argue that ___. c. Coursework! As a rebuttal to this point, it could be argued that ___. d. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___. Applications! e. The underlying argument in favor of / against [X] is that ___. a. Binding! In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___. c. There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___. e. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___. a. The data gathered in the [pilot study] suggest that ___. b. The data appears to suggest that ___. c. The data yielded by this [study] provide strong / convincing evidence that ___. Optional Essays Applications! d. A closer look at the data indicates that ___. e. The data generated by [X] are reported in on short story to build [table 1]. f. The aim of applications this [section] is to common term, generalize beyond the optional on college applications data and ___. b. There has been an inconclusive debate about whether ___. c. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years]. d. (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___. Muet Essay! a. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to ___. b. Optional Essays Applications! The foregoing discussion implies that ___. c. For the sake of discussion , I would like to argue that ___. d. Requirements Paper! In this study, the question under discussion is ___. e. Optional! In this paper, the discussion centers on ___. On Short To Build! f. [X] lies at the heart of the discussion on ___. a. The available evidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___. b. On the basis of the optional essays evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___. c. There is muet overwhelming evidence for the notion that ___. d. On College Applications! Further evidence supporting / against [X] may lie in help the findings of [Y], who ___. e. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___. Optional Essays On College Applications! a. I will now summarize the ground covered in this [chapter] by ___. b. On logical grounds , there is no compelling reason to argue that ___. c. [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and argues that ___. d. On these grounds , we can argue that ___. e. [X]#8217;s views are grounded on the assumption that ___. a. This study is an attempt to address the to build issue of ___. b. In the on college applications present study, the thesis help nashville tennessee issue under scrutiny is ___. c. The issue of whether ___ is clouded by optional the fact that ___. d. To portray the issue in [X]#8217;s terms, ___. e. Given the centrality of this issue to psychology a level, [my claim], I will now ___. Optional Essays Applications! f. Essay To Build A Fire! This [chapter] is on college applications concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___. a. [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y]. b. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___. c. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___. d. The (current) literature on format essay, [X] abounds with examples of ___. a. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___. c. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___. Optional Essays Applications! d. The basic premises of [X]#8217;s theory / argument are ___. e. The arguments against [X]#8217;s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___. a.This study draws on psychology a level, research conducted by ___. Essays On College! b. Common Requirements Term! Although there has been relatively little research on / into essays on college applications [X], ___. c. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support for the assertion that ___. d. Current research appears / seems to validate the view that ___. e. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___. f. Further research in this area may include ___ and ___. g. Evidence for [X] is borne out by research that shows ___. h. There is psychology coursework insufficient research on / into ___ to draw any firm conclusions about optional essays applications, / on ___. a. The consensus view seems to be that ___. b. [X] propounds the essays 2013 view that ___. On College! c. Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view . d. Georgetown Application! There have been dissenters to the view that ___. e. The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is on college not as clear-cut as popular views might suggest. f. Essay Story To Build A Fire! The view that _____ is in optional essays applications line with [common sense]. g. I am not alone in essay on short story to build my view that ___. Essays! h. [X] puts forward the view that ___. i. [X]#8217;s views rest on the assumption that ___. If you found this list useful, check out The Only Academic Phrasebook You#8217;ll Ever Need , which contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips. E-book and paperback available on essay on short story to build, Amazon.
171 thoughts on essays applications, “70 useful sentences for academic writing” This is incredible! Many, many thanks! I#8217;ll start putting these into use immediately in my DipTESOL assignments. Higor, glad I could help. Um abraco! Thanks for letting out such a list. Seems to be of great help. Great list, Otavio! Thank you! You#8217;re welcome, Eduardo! #128578; Wonderful! It will help indeed!
Thanks very much! Be sure to check out my e-book, too, which contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips:https://goo.gl/tAvU3P. This is very helpful, I wish I had known about this fabulous choice of words during my first year of graduate study. If you feel you need more help, check this out: Thanks, Luiz! This list is gonna be so useful! You#8217;re welcome, Michele! What a marvelous list. Thanks for your generosity. Melanie, thank you! my friend i cant access this book from my country pakistan#8230; can u please tell me another source. Really nice, Luiz.
I particularly like #8216;yielded#8217;. I#8217;ll definitely try to put them to good use during my next assignment. Common Requirements Term Paper! I remember teaching you #8220;yielded#8221; back in optional on college 1875, in application essays MAC something. Maybe that#8217;s why. #128578; 1875? You#8217;ve been around awhile. Wonderful Listing Dear Brother #128578; Why were some alphabets left out ? Sure there would have been a GR8 reason ! Am converting this into essays a ppt and share it for many to more to access hope no problems brother #8230;. LOL n Laughter all the tennessee way from optional essays applications, Mumbai, INDIA. Thank you for dropping by. You can share the list with as many people as you like, of course. Please do acknowledge the source, though, ok? Maybe this will encourage more people to visit the blog.
What a wonderful list, very much needed for EAP learners (not to mention any academic writer). Essay! I#8217;ll definitely make use of it. Thanks. #128578; Tyson, thank you for your kind words. Much appreciated! This is a great source and I will definitely use it in essays on college my current literature review class. My professor provide us with your Blog. I am very glad for two reasons, your Blog is a great source, and common requirements term paper, I think you are Brazilian ? I am from Sao Paulo, and as an optional applications, International student I struggle written in English. Muito#8230; muito obrigada pelas dicas. Thank you, Dora! Yes, I am Brazilian.
Such a great work! It helps me to improve my English#8230;Keep It Up. Data is the common paper plural of datum. Therefore, it should read #8220;The data appear#8230;#8221; Thanks for stopping by. Both usages are correct. If one treats #8220;data#8221; as a singular / mass noun, a singular noun should be used. Here#8217;s what the Oxford Dictionary has to say: #8220;In Latin, data is the plural of datum and, historically and in optional applications specialized scientific fields , it is also treated as a plural in georgetown 2013 English, taking a plural verb, as in the data were collected and classified . In modern non-scientific use, however , despite the complaints of traditionalists, it is often not treated as a plural.
Instead, it is treated as a mass noun, similar to a word like information, which cannot normally have a plural and applications, which takes a singular verb. Sentences such as data was (as well as data were ) collected over a number of years are now widely accepted in standard English.#8221; So I think it ultimately depends on the stylistic constraints of the piece of writing at hand and on georgetown essays, the norms adopted by the academic institution you#8217;re writing for / on optional, behalf of. But if history is anything to go by, I think very soon #8220;datum#8221; will be as rare as, for example, #8220;agendum.#8221; What a wonderful list: thank you for sharing. I#8217;m going (with your permission) to use it with my EAP class. I have other lists (including from the psychology Manchester phrase bank) but this is a list of optional essays phrases that have been used rather than could be used. Christine, I appreciate your kind words.
Of course you can use it! If you feel that your audience would profit from any of the stuff on help nashville, this blog (aimed at teachers of optional on college English as a foreign language), please just say where the sentences were taken from, ok? Every little thing than can increase traffic helps! And you#8217;re so right about the #8220;what people do say#8221; vs. #8220;what people could say#8221; dilemma. Before I put this list together, I made a point of googling each one to check its approximate frequency. This alone sifted out at least half of my original list. Best regards from Sao Paulo, Brazil. These are invaluable, and they#8217;ll be put to immediate use in ICELT tasks. Thanks a million! Jessica, I#8217;m so glad you#8217;ll be able to use some of them. Um abraco!
Thanks a zillion for sharing, Luiz! Assessors worldwide will be amazed at how much the quality of candidates#8217; writing has improved! hehehe. Essays 2013! We sure hope so, right, Marcia? #128578; Thanks for stopping by. Thanks for putting this work together. I am preparing my readings for essays on college applications, the Dissertation and in my collection your list of phrases will be useful. Very useful Christine and thanks for sharing. Thank you, Salma. Requirements Term! What a fabulous resource for optional applications, international students as well! Thank you.
Cally, thank you! Just great! Thanks for a level, sharing it. Essays On College Applications! You#8217;re welcome, Bruno! Thanks for sharing. Muet Essay! Definitely I will use some ideas for my TEFL essay. Patricia, I#8217;m glad you found the list helpful! Courageous, generous and much appreciated. Thank you for your kind words, Chris.
Bonjour, English is not my first language and the information contained on this page helps me to construct proper essay sentences. Obrigada ! Bonjour, Denise. Optional On College Applications! As a non-native speaker myself, I know the feeling and I#8217;m glad I was able to help! thank you for this! it helps me tremendously #128578; You seriously saved my life when I was writing a paper due the thesis essex very next day. I have bookmarked it and it will be my go-to blog for future writing assignments! Thank you for your contribution. Glad I could help, Johana! Thank you for this- it is fabulous! Really helpful tips for writing good research papers also useful to students of literature. Great tips indeed. I think these tips must be shared with every student of literature as there are lot many things they have to know. Thanks a lot.
What an essays on college applications, incredible work!! I will use it with my students #128578; Thank you, Serena. Thesis Nashville! Incredible! Senor Barros, thank you for essays on college applications, sharing. I#8217;ve never seen something like this beforegood prompts for writing. Ken (ESL Teacher from Thailand) Thanks, Ken. Thesis Help! I appreciate your feedback. These sentences are Fantabulous#8230;. (Thumbs Up For You)
Completely agree. Fantastic expressions. Gonna have to study them for optional essays applications, some upcoming papers!! Luizo, it was really generous of you to have shared such a useful collection. English is my third language and was I having difficulty writing my dissertation. Hopefully your gift will help.
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Optional essays on law school applications
“Color Struck”: Intragroup and Cross-racial Color Discrimination. Pop singer Michael Jackson’s features changed and the color of his skin lightened dramatically during the final decades of his life. Jackson denied changing his skin color to improve his appearance and claimed that he suffered from vitiligo, a condition in which the immune system attacks cells that produce melanin, which determines an optional essays individual’s skin color. Thesis Help Tennessee! Jackson said he was not trying to look “White,” but observers wondered, if that were so, what was the motivation for his straightened hair and optional applications, the many operations to change the psychology coursework, shape of his nose, chin and cheekbones? In 2010, former Chicago Cubs baseball player Sammy Sosa was photographed at the Latin Grammy Awards in Las Vegas with noticeably whiter skin. Sosa originally had a very brown complexion but appeared to be nearly White in photographs.
He told reporters that a cosmetic cream *76 he used to optional on college soften his skin caused the lighter tone. Requirements Term! He said he had been using the optional essays on college applications, cream for some time and it made his face look whiter than it actually was, but claimed he was not trying to on short story to build look like Michael Jackson, nor was he suffering from any skin illness. “Color Struck” is an old saying among African-Americans that refers to individuals who believe that a lighter complexion and European features represent the epitome of on college applications, beauty and desirability. Color discrimination is often masked by a combination of subjective notions of attractiveness and unconscious stereotypes. Essay On Short Story! Michael Jackson and Sammy Sosa were probably not consciously attempting to look White; it is more likely they were simply color struck. Racism involves discrimination against individuals based on their racial category. Optional Essays On College Applications! Colorism, in thesis, contrast, involves discrimination against dark-complexioned African-Americans on the basis of essays on college applications, their color. The hierarchy employed in thesis, colorism is the same as the one that governs racism; a light complexion and essays on college, European features are considered to be more valuable and psychology a level coursework, attractive than dark skin and African features. Color distinctions among African-Americans have never been recognized in optional applications, the formal ways they were in the Caribbean and South America. However, among African-Americans, the distinctions are usually unstated but well understood. Lighter complexions and European features are more desirable than darker complexions and thesis essex, African features.
A person is essays on college applications considered light-skinned by an application of the “paper bag test,” which looks to whether the binding, person’s complexion is the color of a grocery bag or lighter. *77 Although formal racial classifications were developed in the eighteenth and essays on college, nineteenth centuries, the preference for white skin, blonde hair and European features is rooted in antiquity. Beginning with Greek sculptures of Aphrodite and Roman depictions of Venus, and into the European Renaissance, pale complexions, blue eyes, and flowing blonde hair have been the gold standard for feminine beauty. When Europeans colonized Asia, Africa, and the Americas, they imposed their standards of beauty on the indigenous groups and on the Africans they imported and muet essay, enslaved. Today, the essays applications, European norm for beauty and attractiveness is ubiquitous and constantly reinforced in movies, magazines, television programs, online and elsewhere.
Young children assimilate these conceptions at an early age, and they remain embedded in their psyches as they mature into format essay, adults. African-Americans, South Asians, Latin Americans, and other people of color have, for many generations, internalized this Eurocentric standard of attractiveness. Using hair straighteners and skin-lightening creams, they attempt to look white without consciously realizing they are doing so. The evidence indicates that in America, socioeconomic disparities resulting from colorism can be as severe as those traditionally attributed to racism. As America becomes a more multi-racial society, old fashioned “Jim Crow” racism has slowly diminished, while color bias persists. Leland Ware, Louis L. Redding Professor of Law #038; Public Policy, University of optional essays on college, Delaware. II. Color Discrimination. Discrimination on the basis of color, rather than race, has long been documented by researchers.
In The Philadelphia Negro, W.E.B. Du Bois *78 described intra-racial colorism when he commented on that city’s “Aristocracy of the common requirements for a, Negro population” in the late 1890s. Du Bois observed, “[t]hey are largely Philadelphia born, and being descended from the house servant class, contain many mulattoes.” Du Bois noted that Philadelphia’s Black elites did not interact with their less affluent counterparts in optional on college applications, ordinary assemblages or promenading places. The insular and thesis binding essex, elitist nature of the group was reflected in Du Bois’ observation that “[s]trangers secure entrance to this circle with difficulty and essays on college, only by introduction.” Decades later in the landmark study, An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal wrote: “without a doubt a Negro with light skin and other European features has in the North an advantage with white people.” In 1957, Sociologist E. Franklin Frazier made a similar observation in Black Bourgeoisie.
He wrote: “a light complexion resulting from racial mixture raised a mulatto above the level of an unmixed Negro.” Frazier explained that “[p]artly because of the differential treatment accorded to the mulattoes, but more especially because of the general degradation of the essay, Negro as a human being, the Negro of mixed ancestry thought of himself as superior to essays on college the unmixed Negro. His light complexion became his most precious possession.” Over the last two decades, a large body of scholarship examining the detrimental effects of color discrimination has been produced by scholars representing a range of academic disciplines. In general, the research shows that dark-skinned Blacks are treated differently and help tennessee, less favorably than their lighter-complexioned counterparts. Legal scholars have complained about the courts’ reluctance to acknowledge color discrimination. In Colorism: A Darker Shade of Pale, Taunya Banks explored the history of color discrimination in essays on college applications, America and georgetown essays 2013, analyzed the *79 problems it has posed in employment discrimination cases. Skin tone discrimination, she wrote, is an aspect of employment discrimination that courts have been hesitant to recognize. She found that judges are more willing to acknowledge color discrimination in cases involving ethnic Whites and Latinos, but are hesitant to do so when Black claimants are involved. Courts are skeptical of claims involving intra-racial discrimination as it does not fit the traditional paradigm of optional essays applications, Whites discriminating against Blacks. Banks concluded that courts possess the legal authority to redress claims under existing antidiscrimination laws and should be more willing to recognize claims of color discrimination when African-Americans assert them.
Other scholars have made similar observations. In Shades of Brown: the Law of Skin Color, Trina Jones examines the psychology, history of colorism in America and the discrimination against individuals based on skin color. She distinguishes intra-group colorism from cross-racial colorism and traditional discrimination: the essays on college applications, first involves lighter-skinned African-Americans and Whites disfavoring darker-skinned Blacks; the second involves Whites discriminating against all Blacks. In both cases, darker-complexioned Blacks are the victims. Jones complains that courts tend to minimize the format essay, significance of applications, this distinction using a flawed interpretation of antidiscrimination laws.
Jones argues that a more nuanced understanding of discrimination is needed to recognize color discrimination. In Title VII: What’s Hair (and Other Race Based Characteristics) Got to Do With It, D. Wendy Greene conducted a similar analysis and thesis, reached the same conclusion: color-based discrimination claims made by optional Black complainants are misunderstood and should be recognized, given that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race and color. *80 Leonard Baynes examined the “Dark-Light Paradigm” of georgetown application essays, African-American and Latino colorism. He determined that an entrenched color hierarchy among non-White ethnic groups operates to optional essays applications the detriment of dark- complexioned Blacks and Latinos. Baynes bolstered his analysis with data that showed darker-skinned Blacks and Latinos tend to have smaller incomes, lower levels of educational attainment, and less prestigious employment positions than lighter-skinned Blacks and Latinos.
Colorism has even infected the criminal justice system. Research has shown that dark-skinned Blacks receive longer prison sentences than their lighter-complexioned counterparts. An article examining racial disparities in the criminal justice system cited a study of 67,000 male felons incarcerated in Georgia for a first offense from 1995 through 2002. The data showed that dark-skinned Black defendants received longer sentences than light-skinned Blacks. In another article, the authors examined discrimination on the basis of what they called “Afrocentric” features, which they defined as darker skin color, fuller lips and format, broader noses. The authors collected and analyzed data that showed that Black defendants in Florida who had prominent African features tended to receive longer sentences than other Blacks whose racial physiognomy was less distinctive. Using photographs and other information about inmates, including the offenses for which they were convicted and their criminal records, the authors found that among African-American inmates, those with prominent African features tended *81 to essays on college receive longer sentences than others whose African features were not as prominent. The researchers concluded that Afrocentric features activated an unconscious stereotype of Blacks as dangerous criminals, which influenced the decisionmaking process and caused the imposition of longer sentences when dark-skinned defendants were convicted. The disparities are not limited to male defendants.
A recent study found that Black female offenders who are light-skinned received shorter prison sentences than darker-complexioned offenders. The authors collected data on 12,158 imprisoned Black women in North Carolina between 1995 and 2009. The study showed that women with light skin were sentenced to muet approximately 12% less prison time than their darker-skinned counterparts. The study examined factors such as prior records, conviction dates, misconduct while incarcerated, and having low body weight, as well as whether the women were convicted of homicide or robbery since these crimes carry heavier prison terms. The authors concluded that colorism demonstrates the complexity of racism in on college, our society and added that “it is no longer sufficient to muet essay understand racial discrimination solely in terms of the relative advantages of Whites compared to non-Whites. Among Blacks, characteristics associated with Whiteness appear to have a significant impact on important life outcomes.” Color discrimination affects a wide range of activities. Using a longitudinal design method that linked a sample of African-American men raised in the South to their census records, Mark Hill examined the influence of skin color on the socioeconomic attainment of African-American men. His findings showed the importance of optional, skin color in directing the socioeconomic progress of African-American men. Individuals who identified as mulatto in the study had a higher adult socioeconomic status than Blacks with dark complexions. Requirements Paper! Hill’s analysis indicated that differences in social origins were responsible for only 10 to essays on college applications 20% of the color gap in adult attainment levels.
Hill’s findings indicated *82 that color bias, rather than family background, was responsible for most of the color differences in application 2013, the socioeconomic status of African-American men. In The Skin Color Paradox and the American Racial Order, the authors used surveys to develop an on college applications empirical analysis that found: [D]ark-skinned blacks have lower levels of education, income and job status. They are less likely to own homes or to marry; and dark-skinned blacks’ prison sentences are longer. Psychology A Level! Dark-skin discrimination occurs within as well as across races. Some evidence suggests, in fact, that intra-racial disparities are as detrimental to a person’s life chances as are disparities traditionally associated with racial divisions. Applications! . . . With some exceptions, most Americans prefer lighter to darker skin aesthetically, normatively and culturally. Thesis Binding Essex! Film-makers, novelists, advertisers, modeling agencies, matchmaking websites-all demonstrate how much the power of a fair complexion, along with straight hair and Eurocentric facial features, appeals to Americans. The discussion in this section shows that a large body of theoretical and empirical research demonstrates conclusively that color bias is real and has an adverse effect on the lives of dark-complexioned African-Americans.
III. The Geography of on college, Colorism. Colorism operates on a global scale. There is psychology a level coursework a worldwide market for chemicals that lighten skin tones. Asia has the largest market for skin-whitening creams. In India and Pakistan, women are socialized to believe that a fair complexion equates to beauty and is the key to success in life, marriage, and work. During the colonial era, the idea that Indians *83 with fair skin were superior was usually unstated but well understood. The belief that a light complexion is superior to a darker one is embedded deeply within the Indian psyche, since skin color is an important consideration in marriage.
Research conducted by a matrimonial website in three northern Indian states confirmed that skin tone is the most important criteria when selecting a partner. A journalist wrote: “it is being called ‘Snow White syndrome’ in India, a market where sales of on college applications, whitening creams are far outstripping those of psychology, Coca-Cola and tea.” According to Imani Perry, this practice exemplifies the optional essays applications, perverse objectification of the female body in nashville, sexual partnering. Colorism is on college applications also evident in advertisements. For instance, a television ad for the cream Fair #038; Lovely reinforces the idea that girls seeking a prospective groom should utilize skin-lightening creams in order to become more marketable for marriage. Beyond the simple advertisement for a flawless skin, it is implied that using this cream is also necessary to advance in all relevant aspects of a level, life. But the use of lightening creams is not restricted to women. Optional On College Applications! The popularity of common requirements paper, these products is increasing among men and optional applications, the availability of products for male consumers is help highly advertised.
A commercial shown on Indian satellite channels featured Bollywood star Shahrukh Khan promoting a skin cream called Fair and essays applications, Handsome. In it, a glum, dark-skinned Indian man used the skin-lightening cream to become many shades lighter. Muet! At the end of the commercial he is shown smiling and applications, walking confidently with a lovely woman at tennessee his side. Essays On College! L’Oreal hired Bollywood actor John Abraham to pitch its Garnier for a level Men skin-whitening lotion in an effort to challenge the *84 market leader, Fair and Handsome. Optional On College! Another skin-lightening cream, Unilever’s Vaseline Healthy White Body, is currently the most advertised cosmetic brand on Indian television.
Unilever’s cream created great controversy with its Internet marketing strategy, which appeared to be racist, because it showed a distinct preference for lighter skin. Recently, further concerns have been raised regarding the dissemination of other desirable physical characteristics for young Indians. The homogeneity of color is becoming a new social expectation in order to overcome self-consciousness. Therefore, young Indians are being encouraged to start using deodorants and intimate wash products containing skin-lightening ingredients. Skin-lightening creams increased $432 million in sales in South Asia during the first nine months of muet format essay, 2008, and the industry expects to continue growing as the levels of urbanization and affordability augment their target populations by expanding the market for men in optional applications, the following decade. However, this phenomenon is not limited to South Asia. An increasing number of East Asians are using their rising incomes to muet purchase skin-lightening products. In Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan, four of every ten women use a whitening cream. Optional On College Applications! And, as is the case elsewhere, the cosmetics industry is reaping enormous profits. In Hong Kong, pale Asian models dominate the flat-screens and thesis binding essex, multimedia billboards of public transit.
They appear on the pages of glossy magazines and cinema advertisements promoting such products as Blanc Expert, White-Plus, White Light, Future White Day, Active White, and on college applications, Snow UV. Skin lightening has a long history in Asia. In ancient *85 China and Japan, a saying, “one white covers up three ugliness,” has been passed down through the generations. These attitudes are largely the same among many Asian Americans. Colorism is also pervasive in Latin America.
Unlike America’s “one-drop rule” in which any amount of African ancestry classifies an individual as Black, Latin America exhibits a more fluid classification system based on color gradations and thesis binding essex, appearance. Essays On College! Racial distinctions are based on phenotypes that focus more on physiognomy than ancestry. The flexibility in Latin America’s racial designation system is coursework limited to applications those whose lighter complexions and georgetown 2013, European phenotypes allow them to distinguish themselves from darker-complexioned Blacks, since Blackness is subjectively perceived as an offensive racial category in the social hierarchy. In Latin America, individuals are valued by essays on college applications how closely their appearances, status, and progeny approach whiteness. Mexico’s colonization illustrates how discrimination on the basis of color influenced the creation of a racialized hierarchy, which continues to essay on short affect the socioeconomic and political systems at present. Spanish colonizers imposed a stratified status system in Mexico where Whites were the elites and Native Mexicans the slaves. These groups intermingled creating a large population of mixed-race mestizos that resulted in the creation of a color hierarchy. Light-complexioned persons occupied the on college, upper rungs of the social strata. The darkest persons were relegated to format essay the lowest levels. Colorism has concerned the Mexican-American columnist Ruben Navarrette since his childhood, when he realized his skin tone was different compared with the rest of the children in a United States kindergarten.
Now, as an adult, Navarrette stresses that, a century after the Mexican Revolution, the division between urban and optional essays on college, rural Mexico continues, along with the silent wars between the wealthy and poor, and *86 the light and dark-skinned individuals. He remarked that it is psychology coursework very common to find light-colored people in television, politics and academia, but it is unlikely to optional applications find persons from this racial category working at construction sites or kitchens, where darker-colored people prevail. There is a conspicuous absence of dark-skinned Mexicans in telenovelas, commercials, and other forms of advertising, which are an inadequate representation of the country’s inhabitants. A study that examined the content of six Spanish-language telelenovelas and a drama on thesis tennessee, three Spanish-language television networks in the United States (Telemundo, Univision, and Azteca America) found that “lighter skin characters were more likely to play major roles, were more fit and optional essays on college, younger, and more likely to be upper class than their darker skin counterparts.” A promotion for Televisa’s popular program, “Destilando Amor” (Distilling Love), presents an example of how color status is portrayed. In one scene, an upscale woman with blonde hair sits at a dinner table expressing her displeasure with a family member for falling in love with a working-class woman. As the psychology coursework, fair-skinned woman speaks, a servant with dark, indigenous features stands silently in the background. Colorism can be found elsewhere in optional essays applications, Latin America. In Brazil, individuals are assigned to racial groups based on physical appearance rather than ancestry. This criterion of format, racial self-identification has resulted in ambiguous and numerous color categories.
Many of the optional on college applications, terms Brazilians use to georgetown essays describe racial mixtures are vague, and there is no consistent agreement on their meaning or to whom they should be applied. For instance, a 1976 census collected 135 popular terms, including “purple, dark chocolate, or Pele colored.” Given the focus on phenotypical characteristics, some individuals may be identified in varying racial terms at various times by different people, and some parents and full siblings in the same family may be assigned to different racial groups. One article explained: *87 Brazilian racial classification schemes defining a person based on the slightest variation of physical characteristics presumably associated with Black ancestry and/or white ancestry could either elevate or demote an individual on the racial ladder. The implementation of such a highly stratified method of optional on college applications, categorizing race evidences an extreme effort on behalf of the white minority to psychology coursework preserve their economic, social, and political dominance over masses of people of mixed and essays, unmixed African descent. Additionally, because of its relatively relaxed approach to essays manumission, which contributed to essays the rapid growth of free people of color, it was imperative for Brazil to develop a racial taxonomy based on coursework, infinite physical distinctions that simultaneously maintained its racial hierarchy and optional, recognized the country’s widespread miscegenation. The current official categories used by the Brazilian census are White (Branco), Brown (Pardo), Black (Preto), Asian/Yellow (Amarelo), and Indigenous (Indigena). Georgetown! It is estimated that the applications, first three categories account for common term paper 99% of Brazilians. In 2010, a majority (50.7%) of the population identified themselves as Afro-Brazilians, a classification that includes both Black (7.6%) and mix-raced Brazilians (43.1%). In a 2010 census, more individuals identified themselves as Black than in 2000.
Despite the Brazilian efforts to essays project a racially neutral structure through what is known as a racial democracy, scholars have shown that a racial hierarchy composed of a graduated scale of color persists. The data shows that Afro-Brazilians are more economically, socially, and essay, politically disadvantaged than their lighter-skinned counterparts. Optional Applications! According to a level coursework Seth Racusen, “all key socioeconomic variables demonstrate this wide gap between ‘Whites’ compared to ‘Browns’ and essays, ‘Blacks.”‘ Brazilian media also reinforces the social preference for Whites by portraying them as symbols of “beauty, happiness, and middle-class success.” The concept portrayed in application essays 2013, television seems consistent with the perception of reality. As indicated by Patricia de Santana Pinho, “the power of whiteness is lived by optional on college everyone in Brazil, and it is always operating either in opening or closing doors of opportunity and achievement.” Given the strong negative stereotypes against dark-colored people and, on the other hand, the thesis help tennessee, potential incentives that could be derived from affirmative action policies, individuals may have personal motivations to alter the designation of their race. How individuals are classified does not depend solely on optional applications, their physical appearance. The saying “money whitens” reminds Brazilians that the apparent wealth and status of a person, as well as the immediate social company, are important considerations for the observer who determines their race. Therefore, as individuals accumulate wealth they also gain color status. Requirements Term Paper! The ambiguity of race categories along with the deficiencies of the self-identification system makes it feasible for individuals to change their racial identities by becoming better educated or more affluent.
These attitudes can be found in essays, other Latin American countries. Thesis Essex! Tanya Hernandez examined racial attitudes in Puerto Rico and on college applications, Cuba, given the acceptance of race fluidity in the former country and the formal rejection of the georgetown application essays 2013, concept of race in the latter. She found that, despite the apparent respect for social fluidity and optional essays on college applications, flexible racial labeling, racial identity and identification are neither completely fluid nor neutral. For example, like in Mexico and Brazil, Cubans and Puerto Ricans also exercised the coursework, plasticity of race labeling in order to avoid Black designation in optional essays, social status and self-identification. Today, many Puerto Ricans of mixed ancestry (usually called “triguenos” and “morenos”) prefer to classify *89 themselves as White rather than Black on census forms.
This response, however, underestimates the long history of miscegenation and African ancestry of help tennessee, much of Puerto Rico’s population. Prejudice and discrimination against people of African descent are the principal reasons for optional essays on college applications this preference, since African ancestry is associated with slavery and extreme poverty. Puerto Ricans perceive that having lighter skin and European features increases an individual’s socioeconomic opportunities. Darker complexions and African features severely limit an individual’s economic and social mobility. According to Wendy D. Roth, medium skin tones confer upon people a certain amount of status compared to story to build those further toward the dark end of the color spectrum.
Research suggests that being discriminated against on the basis of color produces feelings of shame and embarrassment. Many Latin American Blacks harbor internalized attitudes about optional on college, color and phenotype. Georgetown Essays 2013! Skin color, nose width, lip thickness, and hair texture weigh heavily on the self-esteem of Afro-Latinos, since these are considered racial signifiers of denigrated African ancestry. The belief exists among some Latin Americans that color is on college something that can be controlled by nashville utilizing whitening creams and to optional on college applications “‘improve the race”‘ of their children. Marrying someone with a lighter complexion is referred to as adelantando la raza (improving the race) under the requirements term paper, theory of blanqueamiento. The concept of blanqueamiento refers to ethnic, cultural, and racial “whitening.” It is an ideology and a social practice that places a higher value on White culture while implicitly devaluing non- *90 White cultural norms. Blanqueamiento perpetuates a social hierarchy based on race by linking whiteness to status, wealth, power, modernity, and essays on college, development, while implicitly associating blackness with a lack of cultural refinement, ambition, and civilization. Despite the national ideologies of racial democracy, mestizaje, and racial blindness in Latin America, skin tone is thesis help nashville a major marker of status and a form of optional essays on college, symbolic capital. Light complexions and European features are highly valued; the muet format essay, darker, more African an individual appears, the lower that person is likely to be on the socioeconomic scale. IV. Colorism in America.
In America, skin color is an important signifier of beauty and social status. African-Americans’ preference for optional on college applications light complexions and European features dates back to the antebellum era when skin color determined an enslaved person’s work assignments. Dark-skinned slaves worked in the fields, while light-complexioned slaves worked in the slave owner’s home. James Stirling, a British writer who visited the American South in 1857, observed conditions on Southern plantations and wrote: In judging of the welfare of the slaves, it is necessary to distinguish the different conditions of slavery. A Level Coursework! The most important distinction, both as regards numbers and its influence on the wellbeing of the slave, is that between houseservants and farm or fieldhands. The houseservant is comparatively well off. He is frequently born and bred in the family he belongs to; and even when this is not the optional essays applications, case, the constant association of the slave and thesis help tennessee, his master, *91 and master’s family, naturally leads to such an attachment as ensures good treatment. There are not wanting instances of devoted attachment on both sides in on college, such cases. . . . The position of the fieldhands is very different; of those, especially, who labour on large plantations.
Here there are none of those humanizing influences at work which temper the rigour of the system, nor is there the same check of public opinion to binding essex control abuse. The ‘force’ is worked en masse, as a great human mechanism; or, if you will, as a drove of human cattle. The Hemingses of Monticello provides an example of how slaves with familial ties to their owners lived and worked during the antebellum period. Elizabeth Hemings was the on college applications, daughter of an African woman and a White sea captain. She had 12 children, half of them by her owner, John Wayles whose legitimate daughter, Martha Wayles Skelton, married President Thomas Jefferson in 1772. After her father’s death, Martha inherited Elizabeth Hemings and her children and muet essay, brought them to serve at Monticello. The Hemings were treated differently than other slaves at Monticello plantation. Applications! None of them worked in the fields.
The women were considered a relatively privileged caste compared to psychology a level others, and worked as house servants performing chores like sewing, mending clothes, looking after children, and baking cakes. The men served as valets, coach drivers, and butlers. Jefferson paid some of the men wages and optional applications, gratuities, and others were allowed to hire themselves out to other employers of their choice. Sally Hemings, the young daughter of Elizabeth Hemings and John Wayles, was Martha’s half-sister and muet essay, it was *92 said that the optional applications, two bore a physical resemblance. Most historians now agree that Sally Hemings became Jefferson’s mistress and bore six of his children. Lalita Tademy’s novel, Cane River, describes the intimate relationships among slave owners and requirements, female slaves that produced racially-mixed offspring. The characters are based on Tademy’s ancestors who she discovered after years of researching her family’s history. It is essays applications a narrative about four generations of essay, women born into essays on college applications, slavery along the Cane River in Louisiana.
One character, Great-grandmother Elisabeth, had a daughter, granddaughter and great-granddaughter who bore the offspring of the thesis nashville tennessee, French planters. Optional On College Applications! In many cases, the children’s paternity was widely known and acknowledged by their fathers; but, since Louisiana’s laws did not allow slaves to essays 2013 be legally entitled to any property or money, these children were not allowed to inherit anything. Prior to the Civil War, mixed-race Creoles in Louisiana had a social status that set them above enslaved persons. After the War, they were subjected to the “one-drop” rule, but they maintained family and community ties that distanced them from darker-skinned African-Americans. They were, as a Creole documentary put it, “too white to optional on college be black and too black to application essays be white.” After emancipation, the dark/light division was perpetuated by essays on college African-Americans who constructed social classes based on thesis help tennessee, skin color. Blacks created “blue vein societies,” social clubs to which individuals were admitted only if their skin tone was light enough to make their veins visible on the underside of optional essays on college applications, their arms. Color differences continued to *93 play an important role in the Black community. Mixed race individuals attempted to maintain the privileged status they had acquired during slavery.
Separate communities were established in tennessee, which access was based on skin color. Examples include Chatham and East Hyde Park in Chicago, and the Striver’s Row and Sugar Hill neighborhoods of New York. Charles Waddell Chesnutt’s 1899 short story, The Wife of optional applications, His Youth, satirized the pretensions of light-skinned African-Americans at the end of the nineteenth century. The protagonist of the coursework, story, Mr. Ryder, was the optional applications, leader of the local “Blue Vein Society” who was dating a fair-skinned female member of the organization. Ryder claimed that he was free born and the product of a respected family, as this was a requirement for Blue Vein membership. Binding Essex! He was confronted with a dilemma when a woman appeared in the community. She was an illiterate, dark-complexioned former slave who had spent years looking for her husband. Ryder initially denied knowing the woman.
Eventually, his guilty conscious forced him to admit that he had lied about his background. Ryder acknowledged his marriage and reunited with the dark-skinned woman who was “the wife of his youth.” Researchers have documented the ways in which many Black teachers in segregated schools during the pre-Brown v. Board of Education era were infected with the attitudes that preferred lighter-skinned children over darker-skinned students. Light-skinned students were selected as leads in plays and pageants, called on first in classroom discussions, and visibly favored by teachers. An example of this can be found in a recollection published by J. Saunders Redding, a writer and literary critic who was the first African-American to hold a faculty position at an Ivy League *94 university. Optional Essays! Redding was the product of an thesis help nashville influential Black family in Wilmington, Delaware. His brother, Louis L. Optional Essays! Redding, was the attorney who represented the Delaware students in the consolidated cases remembered as Brown.
In No Day of Triumph, Saunders Redding describes his experiences with colorism during his childhood. Format Essay! Wilmington’s Black population grew rapidly during and after the World War I years. A large number of Black families were moving from the rural South to work in essays, factory jobs that were available in rapidly industrializing northern communities. The recent arrivals were poorer, less educated and often darker-complexioned than Wilmington’s Black middle class. To Saunders’ mother and thesis, grandmother, the new neighbors were perceived as a threat. Redding recalled a public speaking contest in which he competed with a dark-skinned student. He was so nervous that he mumbled a few words before bursting into tears. In contrast, the dark-complexioned student’s performance was outstanding. Redding, who was lighter-complexioned and socially connected, was awarded first prize despite his dismal performance. A few years later, when Redding was in high school, the light-skinned, female principal discouraged him from maintaining a romantic relationship because the girl was poor and dark-skinned.
Wallace Thurman’s Harlem Renaissance novel, The Blacker the Berry: A Novel of Negro Life, is essays a satire in which the theme is colorism in the 1920s New York. The novel’s dark-skinned protagonist, Emma Lou Morgan, internalized biases against dark-complexioned people. She grew up in georgetown, Boise, Idaho, where she experienced discrimination by the lighter- *95 complexioned African-Americans throughout her childhood. She left Boise to essays applications attend to college in Los Angeles. From there, Emma Lou moved to Harlem where she worked as a maid and later as a teacher. Throughout the format, novel, Emma Lou is plagued by anxieties about her dark complexion.
Her obsession with color prevented her from enjoying Harlem’s excitement. In New York, Emma Lou encountered discrimination from optional essays on college Blacks and Whites. At a Harlem party, a character explained intra-racial discrimination, stating, “people have to feel superior to story a fire something,” and expounded that light-complexioned African-Americans who look down on darker-skinned African-Americans were perpetuating a hierarchy of discrimination imposed by the White majority. After some romantic disappointments with light-complexioned men, Emma Lou finally accepted her appearance. The book’s title is derived from an old saying: “the blacker the berry, the sweeter the juice.” In the optional essays on college, early decades of the twentieth century, colorism fueled conflicts among African-American leaders, including Marcus Garvey, who was the head of the Universal Negro Improvement Organization. The organization attracted at least a half-million members, and it competed for a time with the thesis essex, NAACP for the position of the premier African-American advocacy group. Applications! Many of the NAACP’s members were educated and middle class. Garvey’s group appealed to the masses. Unlike the NAACP, which fought for integration, Garvey proposed *96 migration to Africa as the answer to essay on short story to build the “Negro problem.” In 1931, Garvey, who had a very dark complexion and African features, claimed that W.E.B. Essays On College Applications! Du Bois and the NAACP practiced colorism:
It is essay on short story to build no wonder that Du Bois seeks the company of white people, because he hates black as being ugly . . . Yet this professor, who sees ugliness in optional essays on college applications, being black, essays to be a leader of the Negro people and has been trying for over fourteen years to deceive them through his connection with the requirements paper, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Now what does he mean by advancing colored people if he hates black so much? In what direction must we expect his advancement? We can conclude in no other way than that it is in the direction of losing our black identity and becoming, as nearly as possible, the lowest whites by assimilation and miscegenation. Du Bois fervently denied Garvey’s claim, but there was some truth to it.
Walter White was the head of the optional essays, NAACP from the mid-1930s until his death in 1955. Thesis Nashville Tennessee! White’s light skin, blonde hair, and applications, blue eyes did not display a hint of his African ancestry. He took advantage of muet essay, his appearance to pass for White while conducting undercover investigations of lynchings and optional essays on college, other hate crimes in the South. White’s colorism was reflected in the image of African-American women he actively promoted in Crisis, a periodical published by the NAACP. In the georgetown application essays, 1940s, Crisis was the most important magazine of optional, opinion among African-Americans. The editors used photographs of predominantly light-skinned, college-educated women in an effort to displace entrenched notions of Black women as “Jezebels” or sexual victims. Term! The editors wanted to essays on college refashion the image of georgetown application, Black women, but in doing so they promoted colorism.
During the World War II years, the light-skinned, African-American actress Lena Horne was featured on optional essays, two Crisis covers to promote a new *97 image of Black women. As one scholar explained: The magazine preferred headshots of well-dressed, light-skinned African American women who were college-educated ladies, beauty-contest winners, soldiers’ wives, or celebrated entertainers, over photographs of dark-skinned women engaged in war-production work. Jane Cooke Wright (August 1942), Barbara Gonzales (March 1944), and Katheryn M. Davenport (August 1944) represent the Crisis’s typical war era cover girl. All three women avert their eyes from the photographer; the photograph showcases their upper torsos, shoulders, and faces, highlighting their light skin and carefully coiffed hair. Alluding to the organization’s perceived elitism, some Blacks joked that the letters “NAACP” actually stood for the National Association for the Advancement of Certain People. Colorism lives on. Common Requirements Term! Today, African-American entertainers and applications, actors are far more likely to have light coloring than dark complexions. With the exception of an muet occasional dark-skinned exotic, most Black models can easily pass the “paper bag” test, and many have racially ambiguous coloring and features. African-American news anchors and reporters rarely have dark complexions. Female entertainers, in particular, tend to have light skin and hair that is dyed blonde and made longer with hair extensions.
Consider Halle Berry, Rihanna, and essays on college, Alicia Keys. In her hit song, “Creole,” Beyonce Knowles sings about her Creole heritage and being an attractive combination of “red bone” and “yellow bone” (terms that refer to light-skinned Black women). Pop singer Fantasia Barrino rose to georgetown essays fame as the 2004 winner on optional essays on college applications, the popular television show, American Idol. She was the object of a barrage *98 of negative publicity surrounding her affair with a married man and the lawsuit his wife filed against her. Barinno attempted suicide and later told reporters that the media criticism was based on her dark skin and common for a term, ethnic features. She said: “[w]hen I did [American] Idol, it seemed like everybody there was Barbied out. Slim, long hair, light eyes, light-skinned. And here I come with my dark skin, full nose, short hair and full lips-it was hard.” “Barbied out” referred to the appearance represented by the Barbie doll, one of the most successful toys of the twentieth century. Barbies are grown-up looking dolls that allow girls to reflect their personality and dreams in the roles imagined for optional essays on college them. Psychology! Their appearance is an icon of female beauty and the American dream. The classic thin figure, blonde hair, and blue eyes reflect the Eurocentric ideal, a look that a dark-skinned person with African features could never achieve.
Interestingly, when Barbies were introduced at the 1959 Toy Fair, blonde dolls outnumbered brunettes two to one. V. Essays On College Applications! Importing European Standards of Beauty. The modern definition of race did not appear until the middle of the a level coursework, eighteenth century. During that century, European publications shifted from identifying groups on the basis of on college applications, their nationality to a preoccupation with race. By the mid-nineteenth century the classification of individuals by essays race was ubiquitous. However, the current standards for beauty, which reflect and perpetuate colorism, can be traced back into applications, antiquity. A pale complexion, fine facial features, and light-colored hair became the social construct of feminine beauty during the thesis nashville tennessee, Classical period *99 of Ancient Greece (ca. 480-323 BC). For example, a female Greek portrait from the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston is described as possessing finely shaped features: large almond-shaped eyes, beautifully arching eyebrows, a full rounded mouth with a plump and on college, bow-shaped upper lip.
During this period, Greek artists made a dramatic advance in thesis essex, the execution of their craft. They learned to express the human body in a life-like and naturalistic manner, characterized by a system of proportions. Their statues were detailed, and with anatomically accurate forms. Consider the nude Aphrodite of Cnidos, by the Athenian sculptor Praxiteles, as an example. Expertly crafted presentations of the human anatomy and musculature were depicted in marble, stone, or bronze. Africans, known as Ethiopians by the ancient Greeks, were present in the Hellenic world and were considered exotic. African images of optional essays applications, athletes and muet essay, entertainers were displayed in pottery and vases by utilizing an attractive black glaze. Noticeably, they were not shown in heroic roles or as aesthetic symbols, since the Classic ideal of beauty was entirely Eurocentric. Angela Harris articulated with conciseness the perceptions of whiteness and essays, Eurocentrism that have informed both art and history: “more white is more European, and more European is more refined; less European is more primitive, and more primitive is more dark.” The Romans adopted the Greek standard of beauty.
The goddess Venus represented love and beauty and was considered the quintessence of essay to build, feminine beauty and harmony. Optional Essays On College! The famous statue, Venus de Milo, is exhibited in Paris at the Louvre. Psychology! Her naked torso has an elongated silhouette and essays on college applications, a sensual nudity that contrasts with an impassive expression. Coursework! The nose is a continuation of the forehead forming the *100 classic “Greek profile.” Along with other interpretations of Venus, this image sets the standard by essays applications which feminine beauty is measured. During the Renaissance (ca.
1300-1600), the aesthetics of the Classical period were revived. Botticelli’s Birth of Venus depicts the application, goddess emerging from the sea as a full-grown woman. Her cascading blonde hair accentuates her slender body and alabaster complexion. In another Botticelli, Venus and Mars, Venus lies opposite her lover Mars, god of war, who has fallen asleep apparently after making love to her. Her alertness, as the goddess of love, represents the triumph of love over war. Although it is believed that Simonetta Vespucci inspired the work of Boticelli, Venus was the expression of the artist’s ideal perception of beauty. During the Renaissance, realistic interpretation was avoided and positive attributes were highlighted. Venus has perfect skin, a high forehead, and a sharply defined chin. Her hair is strawberry blonde, she has delicate eyebrows, a strong nose, narrow mouth, and full lips. This idealized depiction shows the conception of perfect beauty that prevailed during the optional essays applications, Italian Renaissance.
Leonardo Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, Titian’s Venus with a Mirror and Tintoretto’s Leda and the Swan are examples of art that celebrate beauty in a level coursework, the “whiteness” of European women. Other Renaissance expressions of feminine beauty were along the same lines: Caucasian women with pale complexions and fine features. *101 With the advent of the Atlantic slave trade in the fifteenth century and the colonization of the Americas, Asia, and Africa, black skin became the personification of the essays on college, undesirable. Nashville Tennessee! By the essays applications, early nineteenth century, theories of scientific racism were developed and widely accepted. Samuel Morton, a professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, published Crania Americana in binding, 1839. In general, Morton claimed that differences in head shapes could predict a racial group’s intelligence and other personality traits. An appendix written by George Combe expanded upon the relationship between the natural talents and dispositions of nations and the development of their brains.
Based on Morton’s findings, Combe highlighted the tendency of the Caucasian race to exhibit moral and intellectual improvement, while referring to the African race situation as one unbroken scene of moral and intellectual desolation, with the exception of some tribes. Applications! Combe’s opinion about the psychology, Native American race was even more critical: the author could not justify the on college, miserable and psychology, savage conditions of optional essays on college, these individuals, despite the long-term exposure of natives to application essays 2013 European knowledge, enterprise, and energy. Morton’s theory of Polygenesis hypothesized that racial groups did not share a common origin. This provided a “scientific” basis for viewing African-descended people as a different and inferior species, thus requiring interbreeding to improve the race. A lexicon emerged that equated “blackness” with negative traits. Optional Essays On College! “Black,” “dark,” and “sinister” are considered adjectives stemming from the word “evil.” Common examples include “black hearts,” “black deeds,” and “black magic,” as well as referring to essay Satan as the “Prince of Darkness.” *102 Whites expressed what it meant to be Black by portraying negative stereotypes of on college, Blacks in entertainment and popular culture throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the late nineteenth century, White performers darkened their faces with burnt cork, painted exaggerated White mouths, donned woolly wigs, and performed minstrel shows. The common themes in these performances were jokes highlighting laziness, ignorance, and other negative traits using crude versions of the Black dialect. Characters such as Jim Crow, a na ve and clumsy slave, exemplify this stereotype.
With the advent of motion pictures in the early twentieth century, negative depictions of African-Americans moved to the screen. Essay Story A Fire! Furthermore, the negative connotation against Blacks became available to children through cartoons. Optional Applications! For instance, the common requirements for a term paper, 1941 animation, Scrub Me Mamma with a Boogie Beat, depicts the life of a Black river community called Lazytown. With the exception of some Mammies, all men and animals appear sleeping or slacking during the day. The crude scenes of laziness and abandonment are suddenly changed when a modern riverboat arrives and the beautiful White ladies from the crew bring their energy and on college, good manners to the town. This cartoon highlights the application essays 2013, cultural preferences of Whites and displays many of the negative stereotypes of Blacks described so far.
In Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks, Donald Bogle identified other stereotypes depicted in popular films. Toms were always loyal, never turning against their White masters or employers. Coons, in contrast, were irresponsible, lazy, and dishonest. The Mammy was depicted as outspoken, overweight, and cantankerous. The Black Buck was a large, fearsome, dark-skinned, and hyper-sexualized male. The *103 Tragic Mulatto was a fair-skinned female attempting to pass for optional essays applications White. She was a sympathetic character confused by common term a divided racial heritage. Essays! More recently, the “Jezebel” was depicted as seductive, promiscuous, and predatory. Racial stereotypes were a staple of nashville, films, cartoons, comic books, and novels well into the 1960s. In the 1960s, the Civil Rights movement altered the legal status of African-Americans. On College Applications! The official regime of state-sponsored discrimination was eliminated by Civil Rights legislation.
For a brief period during the Black Power era, Blacks embraced their African heritage. A rejection of Eurocentric standards of psychology a level coursework, beauty and the establishment of the politics of essays on college applications, representation were encouraged. Women were urged to essay abandon hair strengtheners and skin-lightening creams. The “Afro” hairstyle became fashionable, and African-inspired clothing communicated the optional on college applications, wearer’s racial consciousness. The prevailing sentiment was captured in James Brown’s popular song, “Say it Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud.” The Black Arts movement introduced a “Black Aesthetic” to art, music, and literature. A revolution took place, which allowed Black artists to look at their social order from their own perspective.
The 1960s were a time of protests, demonstrations, and urban riots; a *104 turning point in the way African-Americans perceived themselves. However, their hopes for a permanent transformation were too optimistic. By the late 1970s, the Black Power Movement declined. Opposition to Eurocentric standards survives today in the Black Studies Departments at Universities and in some “Afrocentric” organizations and charter schools, but it has largely disappeared from popular culture. The commercialization of negative stereotypes has re-emerged and the entertainment industry is exploiting them for thesis essex profit. Rap music is a multi-billion dollar industry. Optional Essays On College! In the application, 1990s, “gangster rap” glamorized a ghetto subculture.
This was reflected in behavior and attitudes that rejected mainstream values and glamorized dangerous and self-destructive behavior. Conspicuous consumption, ostentatious displays of jewelry, fast cars, and scantily clad women are the images that still predominate in optional essays, music videos and magazines. Complexion Obsession: A Hip Hop Documentary is a two-part documentary created by Joy Daily. Using filmed interviews of several entertainers, the documentary shows how deeply colorism is embedded in essex, the ethos of hip hop. In a contemporary representation, the “Jezebel” character is the video vixen, a prominent character in gangster rap songs. Lil’ Kim and Nicki Minaj are current manifestations of this stereotype: they employ exaggerated expressions of femininity and optional essays applications, sexuality in their performances; they present images that commodify Black female sexuality; and they are bound by an old stereotype in which Black women are predisposed to *105 sexual deviance and lewdness. Rap’s product is an extravagant image of life in requirements for a term paper, inner-city neighborhoods. Essays On College Applications! Tough ghetto youths are shown driving luxury cars and wearing oversized shirts and baggy pants while displaying a menacing visage. The “thug” image that many rappers project is merely an help nashville updated version of the “Buck” character: a large, threatening, and hyper-sexualized Black male. The old expression “I don’t want nothing black but a Cadillac” conveyed African-American males’ preference for light-skinned women.
This attitude persists in applications, hip-hop culture. According to Patricia Hill Collins, the values of individualism, personal expression, and tennessee, material well-being have prevailed in the hip-hop culture, while issues of racial failure have been overlooked. VI. Internalized Stereotypes. In the 1970 novel The Bluest Eye, the celebrated author, Toni Morrison, deconstructed Eurocentric standards of beauty. Morrison’s novel conveyed the psychic damage that some Black women suffer as a result of the construction of beauty and optional on college, desirability in a racially coded society. The story portrays the tragic lives of an thesis essex impoverished Black family in optional on college, 1940s America.
The eleven-year-old protagonist, Pecola Breedlove, believes she is help ugly because her conception of beauty is based on the Eurocentric standard. The title, The Bluest Eye, is derived from Pecola’s intense desire for blue eyes for which she prays every night. On College Applications! Pecola’s obsession and traumatic experiences eventually drive her insane. Pecola’s predicament was caused by internalized attitudes about what was considered attractive and desirable in her immediate reality. *106 Since 1939, Kenneth and Mamie Clark developed research about self-identification in young children. Thesis Essex! In the late 1940s and early 1950s, they conducted a series of studies that became known as the “doll tests.” Their studies found differences among children attending segregated schools in Washington D.C. compared to those in integrated schools in New York City. They found that Black children often preferred to play with White dolls over Black ones. On College! When asked to fill in common requirements for a, a human figure with the color of their own skin, they frequently chose a lighter shade than was accurate. The children gave the color “White” attributes such as good and pretty, but “Black” was seen bad and ugly.
The test was used to show the harm that segregation inflicted on young children, contributing to a sense of inferiority and self-hatred. Essays On College Applications! The Clarks testified as expert witnesses in several of the NAACP’s school desegregation cases and their studies were relied on by the common requirements paper, Supreme Court in essays applications, Brown v. Board of Education. Over the coursework, last two decades, a substantial body of empirical and theoretical work in optional applications, cognitive psychology has confirmed that the causes of discriminatory actions often operate at an unconscious level without the individual’s awareness of the source. Discrimination is an interaction of social cognitions about help nashville, race and behavioral outlets that bring congruence to a person’s racial preferences and optional applications, social settings. Many of these beliefs are formed during the early childhood years, and they serve as a basis for judgments about events, groups, and essay on short to build a fire, ideas during their adult years. Socialized beliefs can provoke negative sentiments when individuals make judgments about issues that activate stereotypes. *107 Overt racism has diminished considerably in the years since the Civil Rights laws were enacted, but unconscious stereotypes about color persist, and they are triggered by the ways in which the brain processes information. “Categorization” allows the brain to quickly process large amounts of optional applications, information. It operates at a level independent of conscious attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. Categorization is an essay on short to build essential cognitive activity enabling individuals to reduce the enormous diversity in the world to essays on college a manageable level. Categorization is the process of understanding something based on an individual’s knowledge of that which is similar and that which is different. It allows individuals to relate new experiences to old experiences; the unfamiliar becomes familiar.
Each object and event in the world is binding essex perceived, remembered, and utilized for predicting the optional essays on college applications, future, inferring the existence of unobservable traits or properties, and attributing the causation of events. The process is spontaneous and measured in milliseconds. According to Frances Aboud, who conducted research on prejudice in young children, categorization develops at an early age. In one of her studies with young children aged 3 to 5, volunteers were given a half-dozen positive adjectives such as “good,” “kind,” and “clean” and georgetown 2013, an equal number of negative adjectives such as “mean,” “cruel” and “bad.” They asked children to match each adjective to one of the two drawings. One drawing depicted a White person; the other showed a Black person. The *108 results showed that 70% of the children assigned nearly every positive adjective to the White faces and nearly every negative adjective to the Black faces.
A subsequent study, also conducted by Aboud, demonstrated that these attitudes were not taught by the children’s parents or teachers. Commenting on Aboud’s research, Shankar Vedantam explained that children’s racial attitudes are the products of essays on college, unspoken messages emanating from the environments in which they reside. Young children experience a world in which most people who live in nice houses are White. Common Requirements For A Paper! Most people on applications, television are White, especially the people who are shown in positions of authority, dignity, and muet, power. Most of the storybook characters they see are White, and it is the White children who perform heroic, clever, and generous things. Young children conclude that there must be an unspoken rule in society that forces Whites to marry Whites because everywhere they look White husbands are be married to White wives.
Young children who are trying rapidly to orient themselves in on college applications, their environments receive messages about race and color, not once or twice, but thousands of times. Everywhere a child looks, whether it is on television, in movies, in books, or online, their inferences are confirmed. As they grow older, these messages remain in their unconscious psyches and can be triggered by the categorization process. Unconscious stereotyping is associated with the categorization process. According to psychology coursework Quadflieg and Macrae, upon the perception of applications, a target, social categorization is expected to occur, which in turn activates stereotypical knowledge that is then used to evaluate, judge, or predict a person’s personality or behavior. Attitudes about African-Americans are internalized at an early age and retained into adulthood. This may explain why dark-skinned Black defendants get longer prison sentences than their lighter-complexioned counterparts and why most Americans prefer lighter to darker skin tones. *109 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of application essays, 1964 and other laws protect against discrimination based on color, but courts have been less receptive to claims alleging intra-racial discrimination. Legal scholars have argued that courts should be more receptive to cases alleging discrimination based on color. These are accurate conclusions and applications, important recommendations, but the color problem is much larger. Successful employment claims will not stop individuals from straightening their hair, donning blonde wigs, or wearing blue contact lenses.
Laws will not diminish the worldwide, multi-million dollar market for skin-lightening creams. Court cases will not end the preference for light-complexioned models and entertainers. Regulations will not change the images we see in television, movies, magazines, online, and elsewhere that reinforce colorism every day. In the classic jazz song What Did I Do To Be So Black and Blue, composed by Fats Waller in 1929 and thesis, interpreted by Louis Armstrong, a lonely, dark-skinned woman laments her inability to attract male attention: Cold empty bed . . Optional Essays On College Applications! . springs hurt my head. Feels like ole ned . . . Format! wished I was dead. What did I do . Optional Essays On College! . . to essays be so black and blue. Even the optional on college, mouse . . Essay On Short Story To Build A Fire! . ran from my house. They laugh at essays on college applications you . . Format Essay! . and all that you do. What did I do . . . to be so black and blue. I’m white . . Optional On College Applications! . inside . . . but, that don’t help my case.
That’s life . . . On Short To Build A Fire! can’t hide . . . Essays On College Applications! what is in my face. How would it end . . . ain’t got a friend. My only binding, sin . . . Essays On College! is in my skin. What did I do . . Common Term! . to be so black and blue. *110 Colorism is a vestige of the colonial era when European countries invaded Africa, Asia, and optional on college applications, the Americas and thesis help nashville, imposed their standards on the indigenous populations along with the Africans they imported and enslaved. Perhaps unconsciously, Michael Jackson and Sammy Sosa wanted to make themselves more physically attractive, which to optional essays on college applications them meant having a light complexion, European features, and to build, straightened hair.
Colorism is well documented in optional essays on college, academic research but largely ignored by policymakers. It is as alive today as it was a century ago. Dark-skinned African-Americans and other minorities do not have the same opportunities for advancement as those with light complexions. This form of discrimination is as injurious as invidious racism. Colorism is a combination of overt and unconscious discrimination that places a high value on light complexions and help nashville tennessee, European features while devaluing dark skin and optional on college, African phenotypes.
As America becomes a more multi-racial society, old-fashioned racism is declining, but colorism and requirements for a term, unconscious bias persist. If this trend does not change, it will mean that the applications, darkest-complexioned, most African-looking people will continue to receive the worst treatment. Keeping The Faith in Difficult Times. This website was created for those interested in essay story to build a fire, obtaining an in-depth understanding about who The Children of the Covenant are and why it was necessary to conceal their identities. We hope to facilitate your research needs by optional applications offering a selection of unbiased suggested texts and videos. Our goal is to enlighten as well as inform the world of the true identity of The Children of the Covenant by using spiritual, historical and secular resources as guides. *Note: This site does not endorse nor ascribe to ANY religious doctrines nor do we support racist, sexist or xenophobic ideologies. 2010 - . All Rights Reserved.
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When to use optional essays in college applications
chefs resume format Education and Qualifications. Professional Qualifications and Training. Work Experience/Unpaid Employment. Other Relevant Experience / Skills.
Hobbies and Interests. Gaps in Chronology. Example Functional CV. Example Targeted CV. Example Student / Graduate CV. Firstly, always remember that your CV is a sales and marketing tool. It is your advert that documents your experience and optional on college applications skills with the psychology a level coursework, all-important objective of getting an interview.
It has to: Interest the reader enough to want to know more and therefore invite you for interview. But you must not overload your CV with too much information. There are a few basic rules to follow that almost every personnel professional agrees on. Quick and easy to read. Truthful (It is our advice that you should never be tempted to lie on a CV) Your CV will continue to work as a sales and marketing tool even if you get an interview. It can direct the essays, interviewer(s) towards your achievements and skills prior to, and during the interview. It is also very likely that the a fire, interviewer will make notes on your CV during the interview and reread your CV and their notes before deciding who to appoint. If your CV suitably highlights the skills and on college experience they are looking for muet format it could help you move on to the optional essays applications, second stage or even get the job. Before writing you CV you need to decide which format will best represent you in the job market.
Each has its advantages and common requirements for a disadvantages. The Performance CV is the best option for most people, however if you are seeking to change career or find that a Performance CV is optional essays on college applications, not suitable for any other reason then you may wish to consider the Functional CV or Targeted CV. In this format emphasis is placed on employment history, including job titles, companies, responsibilities and to build achievements in a professional capacity. Are seeking employment within the same field as previous experience. Want to highlight their professional achievements such as promotions. Want the names of essays on college their employers and their duties to be clearly evidenced. It is not suitable if: You want a change in career. You have frequently changed employer or not stayed in coursework a job for a great period of time. You have been out of work for on college periods of time for story to build any reason. Your achievements are not in optional essays applications line with the career you wish to pursue now.
What to include. 3 to 6 functional headings. Select headings that are appropriate to thesis essex, the new position you are applying for You should have 2 to 5 bullet points under each heading evidencing your experience and skills. Professional Qualifications and Training. Education and Qualifications.
Hobbies and Interests. Back to CV Types Menu ^ This format picks out your responsibilities and optional achievements across your whole career. Individual employers are less important as the emphasis lies on muet format essay the skills gained in general. are planning to change career or direction. want to emphasise skills that were not utilised in their most recent jobs. have had a large number of jobs, perhaps in different fields, and wish to describe skills and experience across their career as a whole. want to include voluntary/unpaid employment. have been out of work for periods of time for any reason.
It is not suitable if: you want to highlight achievements and career growth in a particular job. you have been doing similar work and therefore have few varied skills to pick out. What to include: 3 to 6 functional headings. Select headings that are appropriate to the new position you are applying for You should have 2 to 5 bullet points under each heading evidencing your experience and essays skills. Professional Qualifications and Training. Education and Qualifications. Hobbies and Interests. Back to CV Types Menu ^ This CV highlights skills and thesis help nashville tennessee experience most suitable to a specific job target. It is appropriate for optional on college applications those trying to make a decisive career change.
Are planning to change career or direction. Want to emphasise skills that were not utilised in their most recent jobs. Have had a large number of jobs, perhaps in different fields, and muet wish to applications, describe skills and experience across their career as a whole. Want to include voluntary/unpaid employment. Have been out of essays 2013 work for periods of time for any reason. Have several different job targets and need to on college applications, create a distinctive CV for essex each one. Have several different job targets and need to create a distinctive CV for each one. You want to highlight achievements and career growth in a particular job. What to essays on college applications, include: Key Skills - select skills that are appropriate to thesis help nashville tennessee, the new position you are applying.
A targeted CV is essays on college, best kept on georgetown application one sheet of A4. This CV is optional, only suitable for essay on short to build creative careers, e.g. Applications! writing, advertising, fashion design. Student / Graduate CV. The main purpose of this CV is to highlight your academic achievements and any activities or vacation work you have been involved in that is format essay, appropriate to the job you are applying for. Have recently left education.
Are applying for essays on college their first full-time job. Wish to include vacation and part-time work. It is on short story, not suitable if: You want to focus on previous employment. You have not completed a course and therefore not attained the optional on college, qualification. What to include. Achievements - at for a term, this stage in optional on college applications your career you may not have any achievements that would suitably be included in help tennessee this section so you may wish to essays, leave it out.
Education and Qualifications - you may wish to list modules that you studied as part of your degree that are particularly relevant to the job you are applying for. Hobbies and Interests. Presentation is one of the most important things to consider when writing a CV, Your CV needs to attract the thesis binding essex, reader's attention and make information quick and easy to find. Always use a word processor. Never use a typewriter as you will look old-fashioned and out of date. Use a clear font such as Arial, stick to 10-12pt. Stick to bright white paper. Use a good quality printer such as a laser printer. Use plenty of 'white space' Keep paragraphs short.
Make you sentences short and punchy. Use appropriate headings and section breaks. Use bold for headings - lots of underlining and italics can look distracting. Use bullet points to break up the text under headings. Length of your CV. Your CV should be a maximum of 2 pages of A4. A CV will only essays applications, get about 2 minutes reading on a first trawl, you need your skills and common experience to stand out and not get lost in a lot of waffle. The employer needs just enough information to decide whether to interview you or not. Below is a list of sections that you can include in optional essays on college applications your CV.
Check against you selected format and the example CVs below to decide which are the binding essex, most appropriate for on college applications you. Education and psychology a level coursework Qualifications. Professional Qualifications and essays on college applications Training. Work Experience/Unpaid Employment. Other Relevant Experience/Skills. Hobbies and Interests. You do not have to include pictures unless specifically asked to essay, do so. Contact telephone numbers (home, work, mobile) Driving License and whether it is clean. Nationality (if you are applying abroad) It is unnecessary to put marital status and gender.
List you education and qualifications in on college applications reverse chronological order (the most recent first), including grades and dates. For example: GCE A Levels: Physics (A), Chemistry (A), Maths (A), Hertfordshire School, 1995-1997. GCSEs: Physics (A), Chemistry (A), Maths (A), Biology (B), English (B), Geography (B), French (B), History (C), Hertfordshire School, 1993-1995. It is unnecessary to put: A Level and GCSE exam boards. Minor qualifications, you can list these elsewhere. You may wish to list modules that you studied as part of your university degree if they are particularly relevant to the position you are applying for.
Concentrate on your two most recent jobs as these are the ones the employer will be most interested in. Start with you most recent position. You should include: The job title of the person you reported to. The dates of thesis binding essex you employment. The name of the company. A brief description of the service provided by the company.
Your main responsibilities, achievements, duties and skills. Remember to give examples to back up skills and optional applications experience. Choose examples that are most appropriate to the new position you are applying for. If you have any other relevant qualifications or qualifications you gained while in employment that are relevant to the new position then list these in a separate section. Membership to any professional bodies and professional ID numbers. Work related training courses. Work Experience / Unpaid Employment. This will be particularly important if you are at muet essay, the beginning of essays applications your career and don't have an extensive employment history yet. Detail skills and knowledge that you acquired. Other relevant Experience / Skills. Again this will be most important to those who have not been working for very long.
Charity work, but only if it is relevant to the position you are applying for, otherwise include this in a level the Hobbies and Interests section. Any other appropriate skills you have acquired through means other than academic work or employment. Membership of essays student committees, organising social events, involvement in the wider community, etc. You could put these under a separate Responsibilities heading if appropriate. IT skills are becoming increasingly important in almost every job and workplace so it is a good idea to list any skills that you have in a separate section: Software and operating system used (e.g. Application 2013! Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows XP etc.) Typing speed (in words per optional applications, minute, you would normally be tested for this when registering with a recruitment agency)
If it is appropriate to the job for thesis which you are applying then list your skills in any foreign languages. State whether they are written, spoken business or technical and indicate your level of fluency, for example: fluent, good working knowledge, etc. Not everyone agrees on whether hobbies and interests should be included on optional essays on college a CV. Some argue that it just uses up valuable space and the fact that you starred in format essay the Marlow Amateur Dramatics Society production of 'Evita' has very little bearing on your ability to perform well in optional essays on college the given position. On the other hand others say that your interests say a lot about your personality and how you might fit into the company. List any positions of responsibility you hold or held in a club or organisation. Explain your achievements and any relevant skills gained. There is no need to name references on your CV merely state that references are available on request. This often appears at common for a term paper, the beginning of a CV. It summarises experience, skills and ambitions. A profile is most appropriate for optional people in mid-career, however anyone can use one and thesis essex it is optional essays applications, a good way to attract the thesis help, attention of the reader and explain straightaway what it is that you are capable of and what you are looking for in a career.
Highly motivated Office Manager with five years experience in administration. Optional! Able to work on thesis binding own initiative and as part of a team. On College Applications! Proven leadership and communication skills, involving organising, managing and developing office administration team to achieve their objectives. Exceptional computer, writing and numeracy skills. Again it is not necessary to include a Key Skills section unless you feel that it is particularly appropriate.
You can use your covering letter to draw together your capabilities that are evidenced across your employment history, experience etc. Make sure that they are appropriate to binding, the position for essays which you are applying. Explain each one briefly providing practical examples. Be careful not to oversell yourself. Gaps in georgetown application essays 2013 Chronology. Remember when writing your CV that missing months (or even years) may be viewed with suspicion by a potential employer. If you have taken a career break for essays applications any reason, for thesis nashville travelling or to bring up a family for optional essays example, then remember to include it. Keeping your CV Up-to-Date. Through the course of a year, be it in thesis help nashville tennessee study, recreation or employment, you will experience a variety of optional on college applications new things and thesis acquire many new skills. It is essays applications, much easier to take a little time to update your CV every month rather than trying to remember what training you did on one day eight months ago. Preparing you CV will always be easier if you are updating and tailoring an essay on short story a fire existing CV rather than starting from essays on college scratch!
Applying for a job by email is one of the essay on short story to build a fire, fastest and most effective ways to send a CV. But there are a few things to bear in essays on college mind before you press 'Send'. In the subject line of your email clearly state that it is an application and psychology a level coursework which position you are applying for. This means that your email can be more quickly and effectively dealt with. Be careful not to adopt too personal a tone in your email. Essays! Remember that you are making a professional application and your tone should reflect that. Make sure attachments are easily accessible. Stick to muet essay, .txt or .doc (Notepad or MS Word) formats to ensure that your CV can be received and optional essays applications readable.
Your can use your email as your covering letter or attach a separate covering letter. If you choose to treat it as a covering letter remember that it should be written in the format laid out in How to psychology, Write a Covering Letter. We Provide the facility for Chef Employers and Chef Recruitment Agencies to advertise their jobs online to recruit a Chef or find a Chef online. The Chef Jobs site has : Executive chef jobs, Head chef jobs, Sous Chef jobs, Chef de Partie Jobs, Commis Chef Jobs, Pastry Chef Jobs, Development Chef Jobs, Consultant Chef Jobs, Specialist Chef Jobs - all levels of chef and Catering Jobs. The Chef Section has : Chef Forums, Chef Network, Chef Recipes, Rate Employers, Suppliers Offers and Chef Links.